NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Jul 28 20:18:15 2012 +0200 (2012-07-28)
changeset 48586 500c6eb6c6dc
parent 48585 a82910dd2270
child 48616 be8002ee43d8
permissions -rw-r--r--
discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    19 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    20 
    21 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    22 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    23 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    27 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    28 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    29 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    30 with some care where this is really required.
    31 
    32 
    33 *** HOL ***
    34 
    35 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    36 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    37 
    38 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    39 expressions.
    40 
    41 * Quickcheck:
    42 
    43   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    44     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    45     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    46 
    47 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    48 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    49 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    50 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    51 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Sledgehammer:
    54 
    55   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    56     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    57   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    58   - Renamed options:
    59       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    60       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Document preparation ***
    64 
    65 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    66 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    67 
    68 
    69 *** System ***
    70 
    71 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
    72 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
    73 build" tool and its examples.  Eventual INCOMPATIBILITY, as isabelle
    74 usedir / make / makeall are rendered obsolete.
    75 
    76 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
    77 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
    78 
    79   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
    80 
    81 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
    82 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
    83 configuration.
    84 
    85 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
    86 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
    87 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
    88 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
    89 bundled as Isabelle component.
    90 
    91 
    92 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
    93 ------------------------------
    94 
    95 *** General ***
    96 
    97 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    98 
    99   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   100     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   101   - markup for bound variables
   102   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   103   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   104   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   105     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   106 
   107 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   108 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   109 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   110 
   111 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   112 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   113 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   114 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   115 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   116 
   117   context
   118     fixes x y z :: 'a
   119     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   120   begin
   121 
   122   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   123 
   124   end
   125 
   126   thm my_trans
   127 
   128 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   129 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   130 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   131 
   132 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   133 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   134 
   135 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   136 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   137 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   138 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   139 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   140 
   141 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   142 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   143 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   144 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   145 indices of schematic variables.
   146 
   147 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   148 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   149 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   150 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   151 etc. was exploited.
   152 
   153 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   154 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   155 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   156 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   157 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   158 of the material of that old tutorial.
   159 
   160 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   161 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   162 manual.
   163 
   164 
   165 *** Pure ***
   166 
   167 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   168 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   169 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   170 
   171 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   172 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   173 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   174 undocumented feature.)
   175 
   176 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   177 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   178 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   179 
   180   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   181 
   182   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   183     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   184 
   185 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   186 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   187 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   188 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   189 
   190 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   191 
   192     num ~> num_token
   193     xnum ~> xnum_token
   194     xstr ~> str_token
   195 
   196 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   197 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   198 position information via constraints).
   199 
   200 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   201 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   202 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   205 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   206 
   207 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   208 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   209 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   212 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   215 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   216 
   217   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   218 
   219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   222 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   225 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   226 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   227 
   228 
   229 *** HOL ***
   230 
   231 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   232 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   233 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   234 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   235 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   236 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   237 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   238 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   239 possible.
   240 
   241 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   242 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   243 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   244 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   245 
   246 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   247 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   250 
   251 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   252 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   253 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   254 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   255 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   256 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   257 
   258   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   259     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   260 
   261   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   262     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   263     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   264 
   265   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   266     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   267 
   268   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   269     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   270     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   271 
   272   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   273     Redefine using other integer operations.
   274 
   275 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   276 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   277 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   278 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   279 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   280 
   281   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   282     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   283     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   284     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   285     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   286 
   287     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   288     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   289 
   290   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   291     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   292     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   293     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   294     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   295     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   296     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   297     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   298 
   299   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   300     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   301     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   302     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   303 
   304   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   305     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   306     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   307     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   308 
   309   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   310     from type nat to type int.
   311 
   312 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   313 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   314 
   315   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   316     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   317     type.  Example syntax:
   318 
   319     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   320       is List.insert
   321 
   322     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   323     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   324     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   325     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   326     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   327     by the package.
   328 
   329   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   330     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   331     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   332     code generation for each constant.
   333 
   334   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   335     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   336     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   337     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   338     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   339 
   340   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   341     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   342     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   343 
   344 * Quotient package:
   345 
   346   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   347     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   348 
   349   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   350     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   351 
   352   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   353     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   354     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   357     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   358 
   359 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   360 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   361 
   362 * Quickcheck:
   363 
   364   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   365     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   366     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   367     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   368     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   369 
   370     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   371     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   372     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   373 
   374     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   375     continues searching for genuine ones.
   376 
   377     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   378     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   379     show genuine counterexamples.
   380 
   381   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   382     value generators for a given type and operations.
   383 
   384     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   385     constructors of that type.
   386 
   387   - Support for multisets.
   388 
   389   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   390 
   391   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   392     conjectures in a locale context.
   393 
   394 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   395 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   396 
   397 * Sledgehammer:
   398   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   399     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   400   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   401   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   402     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   403   - Sped up the minimizer.
   404   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   405   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   406   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   407 
   408 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   409 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   410 
   411 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   412 
   413 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   416 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   417 
   418   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   419 
   420 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   421 a list and a nat.
   422 
   423 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   424 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   425 
   426 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   427 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   428 default.
   429 
   430 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   431 
   432   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   433 
   434 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   435 
   436 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   437 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   438 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   439 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   440 one_case.
   441 
   442 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   443 the result of the fact expression.
   444 
   445 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   446 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   447 of some relation theorems:
   448 
   449   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   450   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   451   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   452   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   453   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   454   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   455 
   456 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   457 
   458 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   459 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   460 
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   464 to match the constant's name:
   465 
   466   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   467   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   468   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   469   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   470   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   471   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   472   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   473   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   474   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   475   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   476   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   477   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   478   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   479   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   480   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   481   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   482   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   483   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   484   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   485   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   486   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   487   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   488   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   489   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   490 
   491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492 
   493 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   494 and corresponding theorem names:
   495 
   496   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   497 
   498   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   499 
   500   - Renamed theorems:
   501 
   502     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   503     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   504     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   505     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   506     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   507     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   508     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   509     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   510     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   511     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   512     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   513     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   514     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   515     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   516     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   517     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   518     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   519     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   520     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   521     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   522     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   523     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   524     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   525 
   526     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   527 
   528     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   529 
   530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   531 
   532 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   533 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   534 
   535   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   536   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   537   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   538   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   539   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   540   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   541   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   542   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   543   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   544   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   545   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   546   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   547   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   548   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   549   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   550   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   551   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   552   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   553   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   554   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   555   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   556 
   557 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   558 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   561 
   562 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   563 
   564   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   565   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   566   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   567   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   568   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   569   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   570   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   571   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   572   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   573   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   574   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   575   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   576   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   577   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   578   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   579   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   580   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   581   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   582 
   583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   584 
   585 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   586 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   587 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   588 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   589 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   590 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   591 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   592 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   593 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   594 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   595 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   596 
   597 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   598 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   599 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   600 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   601 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   602 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   603 
   604 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   605 through option types.
   606 
   607 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   608 relations.
   609 
   610 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   611 
   612 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   613 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   614 
   615   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   616   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   617   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   618   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   619   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   620   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   621   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   622   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   623   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   624   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   625   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   626   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   627   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   628   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   629   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   630   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   631   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   632   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   633   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   634   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   635   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   636   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   637   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   638   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   639   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   640   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   641   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   642   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   643   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   644   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   645   zless_le ~> less_le
   646   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   647   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   648   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   649 
   650 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   651 
   652   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   653 
   654 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   655 
   656 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   657 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   658 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   659 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   661 
   662 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   663 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   664 
   665 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   666 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   667 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   668 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   669 follows:
   670 
   671   Operations:
   672   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   673   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   674   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   675   del -> rbt_del
   676   delete -> rbt_delete
   677   ins -> rbt_ins
   678   insert -> rbt_insert
   679   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   680   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   681   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   682   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   683   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   684   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   685   tree_less -> rbt_less
   686   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   687   union -> rbt_union
   688   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   689   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   690 
   691   Lemmas:
   692   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   693   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   694   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   695   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   696   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   697   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   698   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   699   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   700   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   701   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   702   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   703   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   704   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   705   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   706   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   707   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   708   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   709   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   710   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   711   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   712   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   713   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   714   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   715   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   716   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   717   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   718   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   719   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   720   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   721   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   722   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   723   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   724   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   725   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   726   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   727   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   728   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   729   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   730   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   731   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   732   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   733   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   734   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   735   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   736   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   737   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   738   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   739   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   740   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   741   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   742   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   743   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   744   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   745   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   746   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   747   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   748   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   749   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   750   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   751   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   752   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   753   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   754   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   755   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   756   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   757   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   758   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   759   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   760   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   761   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   762   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   763   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   764   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   765   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   766   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   767   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   768   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   769   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   770   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   771   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   772   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   773   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   774   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   775 
   776 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   777 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   778 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780   Changed Operations:
   781   float_abs -> abs
   782   float_nprt -> nprt
   783   float_pprt -> pprt
   784   pow2 -> use powr
   785   round_down -> float_round_down
   786   round_up -> float_round_up
   787   scale -> exponent
   788 
   789   Removed Operations:
   790   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   791 
   792   Renamed Lemmas:
   793   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   794   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   795   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   796   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   797   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   798   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   799   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   800   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   801   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   802   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   803   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   804   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   805   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   806   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   807   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   808   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   809   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   810   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   811   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   812   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   813   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   814   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   815   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   816   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   817   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   818   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   819   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   820   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   821   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   822   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   823   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   824   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   825   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   826   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   827   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   828   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   829 
   830   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   831   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   832   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   833   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   834   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   835   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   836   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   837   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   838   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   839   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   840 
   841 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   842 association lists with distinct keys.
   843 
   844 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   845 annotated commands.
   846 
   847 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   848 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   849 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   850 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851 
   852 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   853 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   854 instead.
   855 
   856   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   857   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   858   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   859   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   860   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   861   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   862   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   863   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   864   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   865   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   866   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   867   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   868   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   869   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   870   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   871   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   872   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   873   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   874   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   875   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   876   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   877   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   878   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   879   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   880   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   881   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   882   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   883   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   884   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   885   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   886   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   887   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   888   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   889   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   890   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   891   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   892   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   893   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   894   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   895   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   896   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   897 
   898 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   899 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   900 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   901 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   902 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   903 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   904 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   905 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   906 
   907 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   908 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   909 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   910 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   911 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   912 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   913 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   914 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   915 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   916 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   917 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   918 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920   Renamed constants:
   921   measure -> emeasure
   922   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   923   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   924   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   925   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   926 
   927   Removed locales:
   928   completeable_measure_space
   929   finite_measure_space
   930   finite_prob_space
   931   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   932   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   933   finite_sigma_algebra
   934   measure_space
   935   pair_finite_prob_space
   936   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   937   pair_finite_space
   938   pair_sigma_algebra
   939   product_sigma_algebra
   940 
   941   Removed constants:
   942   conditional_space
   943   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   944   image_space
   945   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   946   pair_measure_generator
   947   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   948   subvimage
   949 
   950   Replacement theorems:
   951   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   952   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   953   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   954   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   955   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   956   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   957   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   958   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   959   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   960   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   961   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   962   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   963   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   964   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   965   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   966   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   967   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   968   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   969   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   970   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   971   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   972   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   973   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   974   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   975   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   976   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   977   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   978   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   979   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   980   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   981   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   982   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   983   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   984   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   985   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   986   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   987   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   988   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   989   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   990   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   991   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   992   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   993   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   994   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   995   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
   996   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
   997   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
   998   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
   999   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1000   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1001   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1002   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1003   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1004   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1005   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1006   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1007   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1008   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1009   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1010   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1011   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1012   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1013   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1014   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1015   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1016   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1017   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1018   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1019   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1020   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1021   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1022   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1023   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1024   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1025   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1026   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1027   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1028   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1029   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1030   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1031   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1032   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1033   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1034   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1035   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1036   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1037   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1038   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1039   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1040   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1041   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1042   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1043   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1044   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1045   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1046   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1047   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1048   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1049   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1050   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1051   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1052   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1053   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1054   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1055   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1056   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1057   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1058   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1059   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1060   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1061   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1062   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1063   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1064   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1065   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1066   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1067   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1068   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1069   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1070   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1071   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1072   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1073   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1074   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1075   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1076   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1077   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1078   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1079 
  1080 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1081 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1082 
  1083 
  1084 *** FOL ***
  1085 
  1086 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1087 
  1088 
  1089 *** ZF ***
  1090 
  1091 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1092 analysis.
  1093 
  1094 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1095 
  1096 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098 
  1099 *** ML ***
  1100 
  1101 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1102 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1103 
  1104 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1105 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1106 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1107 
  1108 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1109 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1110 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1111 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1112 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1113 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1114 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1115 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1116 
  1117 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1118 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1119 
  1120 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1121 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1122 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1123 
  1124 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1125 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1128 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1129 context as well.
  1130 
  1131 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1132 
  1133   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1134   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1135   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1136   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1137   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1138   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1139   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1140   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1141   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1142   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1143   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1144   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1145 
  1146 
  1147 *** System ***
  1148 
  1149 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1150 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1151 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1152 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1153 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1154 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1155 the generic user home was intended.
  1156 
  1157 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1158 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1159 
  1160 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1161 (not just JRE).
  1162 
  1163 
  1164 
  1165 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1166 ------------------------------------
  1167 
  1168 *** General ***
  1169 
  1170 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1171 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1172 
  1173   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1174     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1175     files for checking).
  1176 
  1177   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1178     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1179     positions.
  1180 
  1181   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1182     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1183     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1184 
  1185   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1186     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1187     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1188 
  1189   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1190     cores.
  1191 
  1192   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1193     versions (garbage collection).
  1194 
  1195 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1196 including some remaining limitations.
  1197 
  1198 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1199 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1200 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1201 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1202 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1206 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1207 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1208 
  1209 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1210 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1211 usedir option -Q.
  1212 
  1213 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1214 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1215 
  1216   long_names   ~> names_long
  1217   short_names  ~> names_short
  1218   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1219 
  1220 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1221 
  1222   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1223 
  1224 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1225 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1226 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1227 
  1228 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1229 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1230 
  1231 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1232   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1233   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1234   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1235     "Classical Reasoner".
  1236 
  1237 
  1238 *** HOL ***
  1239 
  1240 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1241 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1242 
  1243 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1244 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1245 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1246 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1247 class complete_linorder.
  1248 
  1249 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1250 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1251 
  1252 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1253 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1254 
  1255   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1256   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1257   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1258   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1259   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1260   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1261   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1262   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1263   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1264   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1265   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1266 
  1267 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1268 
  1269   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1270   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1271   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1272   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1273   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1274   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1275   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1276   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1277   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1278   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1279   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1280   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1281   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1282   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1283   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1284   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1285 
  1286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1287 
  1288 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1290 
  1291 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1292 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1293 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1294 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1295 
  1296 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1297 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1298 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1300 
  1301 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1302 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1303 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1304 
  1305 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1306 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1307 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1308 
  1309 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1310 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1311 
  1312 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1313 
  1314     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1315     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1316 
  1317 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1318 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1321 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1324 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1325 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1326 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1329   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1330   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1331   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1332   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1333   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1334   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1335 
  1336 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1337 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1338 
  1339   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1340   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1341   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1342   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1343   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1344   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1345   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1346   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1347   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1348   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1349   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1350   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1351   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1352   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1353   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1354   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1355   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1356   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1357   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1358   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1359   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1360   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1361   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1362   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1363   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1364   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1365   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1366   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1367   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1368   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1369   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1370   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1371   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1372   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1373   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1374   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1375   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1376   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1377   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1378   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1379   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1380   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1381   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1382   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1383   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1384   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1385   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1386   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1387   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1388   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1389   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1390   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1391   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1392   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1393   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1394   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1395   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1396   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1397   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1398   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1399   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1400   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1401   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1402   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1403   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1404   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1405   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1406   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1407   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1408   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1409   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1410   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1411   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1412   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1413   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1414   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1415   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1416   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1417   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1418   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1419   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1420   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1421 
  1422 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1423 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1424 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1425 
  1426 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1427 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1428 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1429 
  1430 * Code generation:
  1431 
  1432   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1433     characters in the target language.
  1434 
  1435   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1436     instead.
  1437 
  1438   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1439 
  1440   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1441     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1442 
  1443       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1444 
  1445 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1448 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1449 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1450 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1451 syntax.
  1452 
  1453 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1454 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1455 
  1456 * Nitpick:
  1457   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1458   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1459   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1460     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * Sledgehammer:
  1463   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1464   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1465     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1466   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1467     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1468   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1469     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1471     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1472   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1473     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1474 
  1475 * Metis:
  1476   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1478     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1479 
  1480 * Command 'try':
  1481   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1482     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1484     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1485 
  1486 * Quickcheck:
  1487   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1488     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1489   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1490     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1491   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1492     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1493     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1494     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1495   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1496     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1497 
  1498 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1499 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1500 
  1501 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1502 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1503 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1504 
  1505 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1506 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1508 
  1509 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1510 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1513 arithmetic.
  1514 
  1515 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1516 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1517 and lattice type classes.
  1518 
  1519 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1520 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1521 
  1522 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1523 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1524 
  1525 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1526 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1527 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528 
  1529   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1530   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1531   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1532   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1533 
  1534 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1535 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1536 constants:
  1537 
  1538   type inat   ~> type enat
  1539   Fin         ~> enat
  1540   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1541   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1542   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1543 
  1544 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1545 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1548 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1549 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1550 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1551 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1552 
  1553 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1554 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1555 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1556 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1557 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1558 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1559 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1560 
  1561   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1562   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1563   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1564   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1565 
  1566 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1567 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1568 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1571   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1572   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1573   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1574   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1575   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1576   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1577   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1578   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1579   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1580   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1581   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1582   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1583   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1584   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1585   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1586   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1587   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1588   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1589   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1590   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1591   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1592   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1593   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1594   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1595   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1596   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1597   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1598   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1599   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1600   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1601   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1602   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1603   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1604   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1605   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1606   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1607   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1608   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1609   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1610   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1611   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1612   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1613   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1614   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1615   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1616   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1617   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1618   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1619   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1620   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1621 
  1622 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1623   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1624   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1625   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1626   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1627     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1630 
  1631   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1632   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1633   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1634   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1635   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1636   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1637   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1638   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1639   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1640   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1641   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1642   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1643   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1644   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1645   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1646   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1647   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1648   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1649   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1650   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1651   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1652   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1653   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1654   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1655   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1656 
  1657 
  1658 *** Document preparation ***
  1659 
  1660 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1661 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1662 same.
  1663 
  1664 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1665 result.
  1666 
  1667 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1668 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1669 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1670 
  1671 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1672 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1673 
  1674 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1675 like this:
  1676 
  1677   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1678   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1679 
  1680 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1681 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1682 layouts.
  1683 
  1684 
  1685 *** ML ***
  1686 
  1687 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1688 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1689 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1690 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1691 under external program control.
  1692 
  1693 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1694 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1695 
  1696 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1697 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1698 (better known as Proof General).
  1699 
  1700 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1701 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1702 
  1703 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1704 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1705 
  1706 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1707 (including quotes etc.).
  1708 
  1709 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1710 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1711 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1712 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1713 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1714 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1715 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1716 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1717 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1718 
  1719 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1720 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1721 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1722 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1723 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1724 
  1725 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1726 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1727 
  1728 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1729 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1730 
  1731 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1732 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1733 
  1734 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1735 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1736 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1737 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1738 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1739 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1740 proper Proof.context.
  1741 
  1742 
  1743 *** System ***
  1744 
  1745 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1746 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1747 
  1748 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1749 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1750 
  1751 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1752 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1753 
  1754   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1755   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1756   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1757   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1758   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1759 
  1760 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1761 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1764 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1765 example:
  1766 
  1767   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1768 
  1769 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1770 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1771 
  1772 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1773 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1774 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1775 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1776 
  1777 
  1778 
  1779 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1780 ----------------------------------
  1781 
  1782 *** General ***
  1783 
  1784 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1785 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1786 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1787 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1788 like this:
  1789 
  1790   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1791 
  1792 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1793 
  1794 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1795 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1796 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1797 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1798 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1799 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1800 
  1801 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1802 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1803 the following package declarations:
  1804 
  1805   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1806   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1807 
  1808 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1809 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1810 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1811 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1812 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1813 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1814 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1815 
  1816 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1817 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1818 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1819 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1820 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1821 
  1822 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1823 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1824 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1825 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1826 
  1827 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1828 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1829 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1830 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1831 
  1832   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1833 
  1834   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1835   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1836   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1837   show_types                    show_types
  1838   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1839   show_consts                   show_consts
  1840   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1841 
  1842   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1843   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1844   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1845 
  1846   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1847   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1848 
  1849   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1850 
  1851   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1852   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1853   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1854   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1855   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1856 
  1857 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1858 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1859 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1860 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1861 
  1862 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1864 
  1865   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1866   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1867 
  1868 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1869 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1870 float_token.
  1871 
  1872 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1873 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1875 
  1876 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1877 DejaVu Sans.
  1878 
  1879 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1880 
  1881 
  1882 *** Pure ***
  1883 
  1884 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1885 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1886 time.
  1887 
  1888 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1889 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1890 
  1891 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1892 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1895 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1896 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1897 command already provided this functionality.
  1898 
  1899 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1900 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1901 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1902 without interpretations.
  1903 
  1904 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1905 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1906 
  1907 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1908 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1909 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1910 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1911 
  1912 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1913 'definition' instead.
  1914 
  1915 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1916 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1917 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1918 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1919 
  1920 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1921 constructors.
  1922 
  1923 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1924 the local file system.
  1925 
  1926 
  1927 *** HOL ***
  1928 
  1929 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1930 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1931 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1932 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1933 
  1934   declare [[coercion f]]
  1935 
  1936 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1937 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1938 
  1939   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1940 
  1941 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1942 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1943 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1944 other theories like this:
  1945 
  1946   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1947 
  1948 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1949 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1950 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1951 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1952 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1953 for examples.
  1954 
  1955 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1956 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1957 
  1958 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1959 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1960 
  1961 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1962 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1963 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1964 
  1965 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1966 functorial structure of types.
  1967 
  1968 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1969 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1970 
  1971 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1972 languages.
  1973 
  1974 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1975 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1977 
  1978 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1979 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1980 
  1981 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1982 combinators any longer.
  1983 
  1984 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1985 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1986 
  1987 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1988 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1989 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1990 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1991 
  1992   record 'a foo = ...
  1993   ...
  1994   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1995 
  1996 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1997 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1999 
  2000 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2001 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2002 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2003 
  2004 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2005 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2006 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2007 
  2008 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2009 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2010 
  2011 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2012 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2013 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2014 independently.
  2015 
  2016 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2017 counter example search.
  2018 
  2019 * Sledgehammer:
  2020   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2021     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2022     sledgehammer").
  2023   - Renamed commands:
  2024     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2025     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2026     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2027     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028   - Renamed options:
  2029     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2030     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2031     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2032     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2033     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2034 
  2035 * Nitpick:
  2036   - Renamed options:
  2037     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2038     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2039     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2040   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2041   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2042   - Added "whack" option.
  2043   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2044   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2045   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2046   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2047     higher cardinalities.
  2048   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2049 
  2050 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2051 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2052 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2053 
  2054     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2055 
  2056 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2057 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2058 
  2059 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2060 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2061 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2062 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2063 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2064 "smt_solver".
  2065 
  2066 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2067 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2068 
  2069 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2070 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2071 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2072 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2073 
  2074 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2075   - Renamed:
  2076     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2077     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2078     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2079   - Added:
  2080     smt_verbose
  2081     smt_random_seed
  2082     smt_datatypes
  2083     smt_infer_triggers
  2084     smt_monomorph_limit
  2085     cvc3_options
  2086     remote_cvc3_options
  2087     remote_z3_options
  2088     yices_options
  2089 
  2090 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2091 header.
  2092 
  2093 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2094 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2095 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2096 
  2097   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2098 
  2099 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2100 
  2101 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2102 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2105 
  2106 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2107 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108 
  2109 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2110 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2111 
  2112 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2113 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2116 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2117 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2118 
  2119 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2120 
  2121 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2125 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2126 
  2127 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2128 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2129 for congruent(2)).
  2130 
  2131 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2132 
  2133   types
  2134     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2135     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2136 
  2137   constants
  2138     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2139     True ~> HOL.True
  2140     False ~> HOL.False
  2141     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2142     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2143     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2144     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2145     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2146     The ~> HOL.The
  2147     All ~> HOL.All
  2148     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2149     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2150     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2151     If ~> HOL.If
  2152     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2153     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2154     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2155     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2156     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2157     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2158     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2159     op : ~> Set.member
  2160     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2161 
  2162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2163 
  2164 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2165 
  2166     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2167     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2168     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2169     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2170     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2171     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2172     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2173     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2174 
  2175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * More stylized fact names:
  2178 
  2179   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2180   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2181   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2182   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2183 
  2184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2187 
  2188   constants
  2189     null ~> List.null
  2190 
  2191   facts
  2192     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2193     null_empty ~> null_def
  2194 
  2195 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2196 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2197 generation.
  2198 
  2199 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2200 Haskell code.
  2201 
  2202 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2203 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2204 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2207 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2210 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2211 
  2212 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2213 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2214 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2217 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2223 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2224 referred to by its qualified name.
  2225 
  2226   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2227   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2228   product ~>  Enum.product
  2229 
  2230 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2231 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2233 
  2234 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2235 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2236 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2240 sort_key.
  2241 
  2242 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244 
  2245 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2246 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2247 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2248 
  2249   types
  2250     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2251               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2252               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2253         (depends on your needs)
  2254 
  2255   constants
  2256      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2257      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2258      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2259 
  2260 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2261 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2262 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2263 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2266 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2267 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2268 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2269 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2275 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2276 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2277 
  2278 
  2279 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2280 
  2281 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2282 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2283 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2284 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2285 compatibility.
  2286 
  2287 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2288 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2289 
  2290 
  2291 *** HOLCF ***
  2292 
  2293 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2294 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2295 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2299 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2300 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2303   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2304   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2305 
  2306 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2307 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2308 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309 
  2310 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2311 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2312 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2313 domain definition now works:
  2314 
  2315   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2316 
  2317 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2318 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2319 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2320 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2321 
  2322   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2323     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2324 
  2325   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2326 
  2327 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2328 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2329 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2332 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2335 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2336 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2337 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2338 
  2339 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2340 
  2341 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2349 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2350 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2351 
  2352 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2353 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2354 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355 
  2356 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2357 still supported as an input translation.
  2358 
  2359 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2360 
  2361   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2362   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2363   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2364   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2365   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2366   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2367   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2368 
  2369 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2370 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2373   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2374   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2375   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2376   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2377   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2378 
  2379 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2380 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2383 
  2384   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2385   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2386   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2387   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2388 
  2389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390 
  2391 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2392 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2395 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396 
  2397   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2398   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2399   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2400   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2401   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2402   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2403   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2404   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2405   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2406   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2407   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2408   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2409   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2410   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2411   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2412   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2413   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2414   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2415   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2416   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2417 
  2418 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2419 
  2420   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2421   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2422   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2423   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2424   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2425   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2426   box_less             ~> box_below
  2427   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2428   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2429   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2430   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2431   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2432   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2433   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2434   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2435   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2436   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2437   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2438   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2439   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2440   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2441   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2442   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2443   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2444   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2445   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2446   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2447   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2448   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2449   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2450   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2451   up_less              ~> up_below
  2452   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2453   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2454   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2455   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2456   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2457   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2458   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2459   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2460   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2461   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2462   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2463   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2464   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2465 
  2466 
  2467 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2468 
  2469 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2470 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472 
  2473 *** ML ***
  2474 
  2475 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2476 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2477 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2478 
  2479 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2480 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2481 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2482 
  2483 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2484 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2485 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2486 
  2487 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2488 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2489 
  2490 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2491 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2492 
  2493 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2494 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2495 
  2496 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2497 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2498 
  2499 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2500 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2501 almost all situations.
  2502 
  2503 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2504 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2505 Isabelle/ML.
  2506 
  2507 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2508 meaning.
  2509 
  2510 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2511 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2512 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2513 
  2514 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2515 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2516 
  2517 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2518 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2519 
  2520 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2521 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2522 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2523 
  2524 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2525 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2526 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2527 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2528 configuration options.
  2529 
  2530 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2531 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2532 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2533 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2534 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2535 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2536 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2537 
  2538 
  2539 
  2540 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2541 ---------------------------------
  2542 
  2543 *** General ***
  2544 
  2545 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2546 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2547 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2548 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2549 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2550 their full internal name.
  2551 
  2552 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2553 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2554 Some hints on upgrading:
  2555 
  2556   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2557     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2558     which are independent of this issue.
  2559 
  2560   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2561     provides the following special forms:
  2562 
  2563       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2564       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2565       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2566 
  2567     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2568     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2569     extra variables".
  2570 
  2571     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2572     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2573     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2574     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2575     "logic".
  2576 
  2577   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2578     antiquotations:
  2579 
  2580       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2581       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2582       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2583       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2584 
  2585   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2586     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2587     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2588     antiquotations.
  2589 
  2590 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2591 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2592 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2593 diagnose syntax problems.
  2594 
  2595 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2596 
  2597 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2598 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2599 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2600 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2601 
  2602 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2603 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2604 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2605 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2608 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2609 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2610 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2611 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2614 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2615 
  2616 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2617 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2618 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2619 
  2620   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2621 
  2622 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2623 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2624 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2625 
  2626 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2627 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629 
  2630 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2631 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2632 
  2633 
  2634 *** Pure ***
  2635 
  2636 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2637 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2638 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2639 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2640 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2641 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2642 inspect proof terms.
  2643 
  2644 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2645 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2646 are added internally.  For example:
  2647 
  2648   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2649 
  2650 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2651 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2652 
  2653 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2656 'class' instead.
  2657 
  2658 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2659 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2663 invariants.
  2664 
  2665 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2666 user space functionality any longer.
  2667 
  2668 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2669 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2671 
  2672 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2673 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2674 
  2675 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2676 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2677 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2678 
  2679 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2680 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2681 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2682 
  2683 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2684 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2685 
  2686 
  2687 *** HOL ***
  2688 
  2689 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2690 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2691 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2692 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2693 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2694 
  2695 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2696 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2697 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2698 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2699 
  2700   fun
  2701     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2702   where
  2703     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2704 
  2705   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2706     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2707 
  2708   quotient_definition
  2709     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2710 
  2711 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2712 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2713 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2714 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2715 
  2716 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2717 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2718 
  2719 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2720 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2721 
  2722 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2726 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2727 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2728 
  2729 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2730 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2737 
  2738 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2739 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2742 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2743 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2746   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2747   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2748   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2749   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2750   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2751   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2752   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2753   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2754   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2755   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2756   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2757   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2758   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2759   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2760   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2761   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2762   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2763   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2764   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2765   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2766   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2767   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2768   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2769   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2770   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2771   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2772   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2773   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2774   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2775 
  2776 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2777 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2778 
  2779 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2780 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2781 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2782 
  2783 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2784 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2785 
  2786 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2787 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2790 
  2791 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2792 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2795 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2798 
  2799 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2800 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2801 
  2802 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2803 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2804 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2805 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2808   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2809   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2810   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2812 
  2813 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2814 lattices):
  2815 
  2816     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2817     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2818 
  2819     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2820 
  2821     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2822     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2823     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2824     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2825     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2826     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2827     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2828     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2829     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2830     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2831     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2832     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2833     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2834 
  2835     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2836     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2837     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2838     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2839     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2840     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2841     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2842     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2843     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2844     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2845     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2846     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2847     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2848     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2849     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2850     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2851     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2852     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2853 
  2854   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2855   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2856 
  2857     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2858     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2859     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2860     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2861     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2862 
  2863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864 
  2865 * Refined field classes:
  2866   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2867     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2868     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2869   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2871 
  2872 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2873   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2874   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2875   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2876     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2877   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2878     equal_neg_zero.
  2879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2882 sets to lattices:
  2883 
  2884   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2885   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2886   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2887   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2888   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2889   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2890   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2891   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2892   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2893   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2894 
  2895 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2896 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2897 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2898 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2899 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2900 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2903 multiset order:
  2904 
  2905   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2906     <= and <;
  2907   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2908     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2909     multiset_order;
  2910   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2911     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2912     generation;
  2913   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2914     if needed.
  2915 
  2916 Renamed:
  2917 
  2918   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2919   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2920   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2921 
  2922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2925 
  2926 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2927 
  2928 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2929 
  2930 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2931 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2932 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934   Constants:
  2935   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2936   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2937   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2938   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2939   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2940   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2941   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2942   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2943   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2944   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2945   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2946   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2947   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2948 
  2949   Lemmas:
  2950   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2951   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2952   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2953   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2954   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2955   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2956   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2957   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2958   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2959   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2960   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2961   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2962   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2963 
  2964 * Sledgehammer:
  2965   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2966     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2967     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2968     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2969     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2970     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2971     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2973   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2974     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2975   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2976     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2977     is still experimental.)
  2978   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2979     full-typed mode.
  2980   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2981 
  2982 * Nitpick:
  2983   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2984   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2985   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2986     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2987   - Added support for quotient types.
  2988   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2989     constructs.
  2990   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2991     "termination" proofs).
  2992   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2993   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2994   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2995   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2996     record getters.
  2997   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2998   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2999   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3000   - Added "atoms" option.
  3001   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3002     problems.
  3003   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3004     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3005     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3007     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3011   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3012   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3013   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3014   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3015   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3016   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3017   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3018   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3019   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 
  3022 *** HOLCF ***
  3023 
  3024 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3025 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3026 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3027 
  3028 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3029 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3030 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3031 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3034 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3035 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3036 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3037 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3038 
  3039 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3040 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3041 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3044 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3047   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3048 
  3049 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3050 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3053   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3054   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3055   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3056   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3057 
  3058 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3059 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3062   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3063   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3064 
  3065 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3066 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3068 
  3069 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3070 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3075 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 
  3078 *** ML ***
  3079 
  3080 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3081 
  3082     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3083     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3084 
  3085     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3086     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3087     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3088     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3089 
  3090     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3091     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3092     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3093 
  3094 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3095 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3096 
  3097 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3098 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3099 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3100 
  3101 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3102 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3103 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3104 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3105 
  3106 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3107 the context or even global references.
  3108 
  3109 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3110 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3111 
  3112 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3113 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3114 
  3115   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3116   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3117   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3118   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3119   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3120   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3121   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3122   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3123   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3124   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3125 
  3126 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3127 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3128 
  3129 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3130 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3131 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3132 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3133 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3134 
  3135 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3136 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3137 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3138 Theory_Data version.
  3139 
  3140 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3141 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3142 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3143 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3144 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3145 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3146 explicitly in rare situations.
  3147 
  3148 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3149 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3153 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3156 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3157 quite rare).
  3158 
  3159 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3160 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161 
  3162 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3163 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3164 terms.
  3165 
  3166 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3167 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3168 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3169 
  3170 
  3171 *** System ***
  3172 
  3173 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3174 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3175 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3176 
  3177 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3178 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3179 respectively.
  3180 
  3181 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3182 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3183 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3184 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3185 
  3186   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3187 
  3188 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3189 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3190 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3191 component.
  3192 
  3193 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3194 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3195 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3196 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3197 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3198 the user for manual installation.
  3199 
  3200 
  3201 
  3202 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3203 -------------------------------------
  3204 
  3205 *** General ***
  3206 
  3207 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3208 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3209 
  3210 
  3211 *** Pure ***
  3212 
  3213 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3214 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3215 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3216 
  3217 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3218 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3219 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3220 
  3221 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3222 interpretation.
  3223 
  3224 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3225 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 
  3227 
  3228 *** Document preparation ***
  3229 
  3230 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3231 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3232 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3233 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3234 
  3235 
  3236 *** HOL ***
  3237 
  3238 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3239 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3240 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3241 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3242 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3243 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3244 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3245 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3246 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3247 
  3248 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3249 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3250 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3251 
  3252 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3253 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3254 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3255 
  3256 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3257 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3258 
  3259 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3260 
  3261 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3262 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3263 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3264 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3265 
  3266 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3267 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3268 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3269 "mirabelle" utility.
  3270 
  3271 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3272 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3273 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3274 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3275 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3276 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3277 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3278 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3279 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3280 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3281 
  3282 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3283 procedure only.
  3284 
  3285 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3286 
  3287 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3288 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3289 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3290 that fail later.
  3291 
  3292 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3293 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3294 
  3295 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3296 the same method as the approximation method.
  3297 
  3298 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3299 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3300 series expansion.
  3301 
  3302 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3303 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3304 
  3305 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3306 reals.
  3307 
  3308 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3309 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3310 
  3311 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3312 fixpoint theorem.
  3313 
  3314 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3315   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3316     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3317   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3318     accordingly
  3319   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3320     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3321   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3322     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3323 
  3324 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3325 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3326 lattice.
  3327 
  3328 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3329 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3330 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3331 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3332 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3333 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335 
  3336 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3337   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3338     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3339   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3340     le_inf_iff
  3341   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3342     sup_aci)
  3343   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3344   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3345   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3346     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3347     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3348     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3349     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3350     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3351     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3352     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3353     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3354     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3355     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3356   - authentic syntax for
  3357     Set.Pow
  3358     Set.image
  3359   - mere abbreviations:
  3360     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3361     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3362     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3363     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3364     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3365     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3366     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3367     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3368   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3369 
  3370 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3371 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3372 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3373 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3374 
  3375 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3376 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3377 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3380 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3383 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3384 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3385 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3388 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3389 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3390 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3391 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3392 
  3393 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3394 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3398 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3401 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3402 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3403 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3404 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3405 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3406 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3410     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3411     code_post       replaces    code post
  3412     etc.
  3413   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * Renamed methods:
  3416     sizechange -> size_change
  3417     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3418   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3421 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3422 
  3423 * Renamed theorems:
  3424     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3425     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3426     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3427     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3428     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3429   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 
  3438 *** HOLCF ***
  3439 
  3440 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3441 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3442 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3443 
  3444 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3445 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3446 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3447 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3448 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3449 
  3450 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3451 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3452 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3453 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3454 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3455 
  3456 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3457 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3458 constructor are pre-configured.
  3459 
  3460 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3461 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3462 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3463 
  3464 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3465 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3466 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3467 as well.)
  3468 
  3469 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3470 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3471 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3472 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3473 examples.
  3474 
  3475 
  3476 *** ML ***
  3477 
  3478 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3479 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3480 
  3481 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3482 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3483 position, logical grouping etc.
  3484 
  3485 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3486 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3487 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3488 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3489 
  3490 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3491 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3492 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3493 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3494 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3495 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3496 
  3497 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3498 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3499 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3500 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3501 experiments with references.
  3502 
  3503 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3504 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3505 
  3506 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3507 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3508 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3509 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3510 
  3511 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3512 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3513 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3514 
  3515 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3516 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3517 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3525 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3526 
  3527 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3528 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3529 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3530 
  3531 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3532 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3533 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3536 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3537 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3541 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3542 instead of global theory.
  3543 
  3544 
  3545 *** System ***
  3546 
  3547 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3548 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3549 usedir option -q.
  3550 
  3551 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3552 also the system manual.
  3553 
  3554 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3555 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3556 
  3557 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3558 this is always enabled.
  3559 
  3560 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3561 
  3562 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3563 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3564 currently supported on Linux only.
  3565 
  3566 
  3567 
  3568 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3569 --------------------------------
  3570 
  3571 *** General ***
  3572 
  3573 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3574 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3575 
  3576   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3577     "isatool."
  3578 
  3579   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3580     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3581 
  3582   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3583     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3584 
  3585 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3586 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3587 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3588 
  3589 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3590 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3591 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3592 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3593 via "isabelle emacs".
  3594 
  3595 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3596 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3597 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3598 
  3599 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3600 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3601 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3602 
  3603 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3604 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3605 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3606 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3607 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3608 
  3609 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3610 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3611 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3612 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3613 
  3614 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3615 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3616 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3617 
  3618 
  3619 *** Pure ***
  3620 
  3621 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3622 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3623 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3624 
  3625 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3626 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3627 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3628 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3629 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3630 
  3631 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3632 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3633 useful in locale declarations.
  3634 
  3635 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3636 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3637 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3638 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3639 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3640 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3641 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3642 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3643 no longer generated.
  3644 
  3645 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3646 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3647 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3648 
  3649 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3650 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3651 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3652 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3653 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3654 
  3655 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3657 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3658 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3659 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3660 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3661 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3662 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3663 
  3664 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3665 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3666 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3667 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3668 
  3669 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3670 
  3671 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3672 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3673 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3674 
  3675 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3676 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3679 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3680 in HOL, write
  3681 
  3682     class foo = ...
  3683 
  3684 instead of
  3685 
  3686     class foo = type + ...
  3687 
  3688 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3689 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3692 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3693 
  3694 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3695 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3696 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3697 
  3698 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3699 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3700 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3701 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3702 directly in regular applications.
  3703 
  3704 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3705 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3706 
  3707 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3708 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3709 
  3710 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3711 theory context.
  3712 
  3713 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3714 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3717 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3718 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3719 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3720 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3721 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3722 
  3723   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3724 
  3725 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3726 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3727 normalization.
  3728 
  3729 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3730 addressing etc.
  3731 
  3732 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3733 
  3734   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3735   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3736 
  3737 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3738 
  3739   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3740      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3741      parts of the code generator framework).
  3742 
  3743   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3744      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3745      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3746 
  3747 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3750 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3753 patterns, e.g.
  3754 
  3755     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3756 
  3757 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3758 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3759 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3760 hyphen:
  3761 
  3762     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3763 
  3764 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3765 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3766 
  3767 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3768 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3769 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3770 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3771 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3772 higher-order unification.
  3773 
  3774 
  3775 *** Document preparation ***
  3776 
  3777 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3778 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3779 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3780 
  3781 
  3782 *** HOL ***
  3783 
  3784 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3785 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3786 
  3787 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3788 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3789 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3790 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3791 Main, as before.
  3792 
  3793 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3794 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3795 
  3796 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3797 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3798 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3799 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3800 
  3801 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3802 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3803 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3804 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3805 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3806 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3807 
  3808 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3809 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3810 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3811 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3812 
  3813 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3814 menu.
  3815 
  3816 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3817 (contains the empty clause).
  3818 
  3819 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3820 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3821 
  3822 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3823 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3824 
  3825 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3826 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3827 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3830 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3831 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3832 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3833 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3834 
  3835 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3836 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3837 
  3838 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3839 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3840 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3841 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3842 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3843 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3844 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3845 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3846 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3847 
  3848 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3849 
  3850 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3851 
  3852 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3853 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3856 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3857 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3858 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3859 
  3860 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3861 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3862 
  3863     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3864     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3865     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3866     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3867     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3868     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3869     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3870     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3871 
  3872 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3873 theory Set.
  3874 
  3875 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3876 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3877 
  3878 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3879 
  3880 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3881 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3882 
  3883 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3884 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3885 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3886 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3887 allowed. For examples see
  3888 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3889 
  3890 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3891 
  3892 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3896 structure:
  3897 
  3898     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3899     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3900     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3901     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3902     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3903     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3904     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3905     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3906     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3907     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3908     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3909     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3910     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3911     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3912     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3913     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3914     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3915     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3916     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3917     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3918     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3919     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3920     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3921     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3922     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3923     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3924     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3925     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3926     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3927     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3928     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3929     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3930     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3931 
  3932     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3933     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3934     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3935     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3936     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3937     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3938     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3939     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3940     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3941     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3942 
  3943     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3944     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3945     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3946     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3947     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3948     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3949 
  3950 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3951 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3952 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3953 
  3954 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3955 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3956 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3957 
  3958 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3959 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3962 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3963 
  3964 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3965 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3966 proofs, e.g.
  3967 
  3968   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3969 
  3970 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3971 
  3972 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3973 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3974 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3977 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3979 
  3980 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3981 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3982 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3986 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3987 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3988 preorder_class.*.
  3989 
  3990 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3991 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3992 
  3993 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3994 
  3995   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3996 
  3997 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3998 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3999 fold_image.
  4000 
  4001 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4002 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4003 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4004 the former will disappear at some point.
  4005 
  4006 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4007 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4008 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4009 
  4010 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4011 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4012 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4013 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4014 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4015 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4016 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4017 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4018 
  4019 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4020 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4021 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4022 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4023 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4024 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4025 
  4026     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4027     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4028     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4029     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4030     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4031     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4032     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4033 
  4034 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4035 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4036 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4037 
  4038 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4039 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4040 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4041 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4042 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4043 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4044 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4045 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4046 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4047 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4048 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4049 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4050 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4051 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4052 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4053 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4054 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4055 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4056 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4057 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4058 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4059 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4060 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4061 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4062 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4063 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4064 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4065 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4066 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4067 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4068 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4069 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4070 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4071 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4072 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4073 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4074 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4075 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4076 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4077 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4078 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4079 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4080 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4081 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4082 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4083 
  4084 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085 
  4086 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4087 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4088 
  4089 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4090 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4091 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4092 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4093 
  4094 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4095 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4096 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4097 theory RealVector.
  4098 
  4099 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4100 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4101 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4102 and inner products are included.
  4103 
  4104 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4105 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4106 supported.
  4107 
  4108 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4109 first diagonalization argument.
  4110 
  4111 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4112 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4113 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4114 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4115 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4116 
  4117     hide (open) const gcd
  4118     abbreviation gcd where
  4119       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4120     notation (output)
  4121       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4122 
  4123 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4124 
  4125 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4126 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4127 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4130 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4131 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4132 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4133 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4134 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4135 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4136 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4137 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4138 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4139 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4140 cases.
  4141 
  4142 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4143 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4144 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4145 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4146 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4147 
  4148     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4149     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4150     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4151     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4152     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4153 
  4154 
  4155 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4156 
  4157 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4158 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4159 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4160 
  4161 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4162 
  4163 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4164 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4165 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4166 
  4167 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4168 
  4169 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4170 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4171 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4172 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4173 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4174 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4175 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4176 
  4177 
  4178 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4179 
  4180 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4181 
  4182 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4183 theory targets.
  4184 
  4185 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4186 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4187 'inductive' etc.
  4188 
  4189 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4190 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4191 
  4192 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4193 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4194 
  4195 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4196 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4197 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4198 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4199 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4200 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4201 the algorithm W:
  4202 
  4203  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4204  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4205          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4206 
  4207 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4208 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4209 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4210 
  4211 
  4212 *** HOLCF ***
  4213 
  4214 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4215 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4216 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4217 
  4218 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4219 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4220 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4221 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4222 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4225 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4226 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227 
  4228 
  4229 *** ZF ***
  4230 
  4231 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4232 
  4233 
  4234 *** ML ***
  4235 
  4236 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4237 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4238 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4239 5.2.1!
  4240 
  4241 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4242 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4243 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4244 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4245 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4246 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4247 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4248 
  4249 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4250 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4251 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4252 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4253 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4254 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4255 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4256 
  4257 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4258 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4259 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4260 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4261 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4262 
  4263 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4264 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4265 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4266 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4267 Method.add_method.
  4268 
  4269 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4270 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4271 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4272 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4273 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4274 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4275 
  4276 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4277 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4278 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4279 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4280 examples.
  4281 
  4282 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4283 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4284 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4285 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4286 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4287 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4288 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4289 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4290 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4291 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4292 
  4293 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4294 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4295 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4296 
  4297 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4298 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4299 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4300 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4301 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4302 resort for legacy applications.
  4303 
  4304 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4305 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4306 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4307 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4308 explicit runtime argument.
  4309 
  4310 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4311 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4312 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4313 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4314 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4317 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4318 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4319 theory state.
  4320 
  4321 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4322 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4323 
  4324   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4325   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4326   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4327   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4328   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4329   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4330   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4331   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4332   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4333   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4334 
  4335 
  4336 *** System ***
  4337 
  4338 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4339 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4340 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4341 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4342 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4343 
  4344 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4345 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4346 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4347 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4348 
  4349 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4350 
  4351 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4352 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4353 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4354 prover operations.
  4355 
  4356 
  4357 
  4358 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4359 -------------------------------
  4360 
  4361 *** General ***
  4362 
  4363 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4364 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4365 
  4366 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4367 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4368 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4369 provides a proper context already.
  4370 
  4371 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4372 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4373 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4374 
  4375 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4376 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4377 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4378 swap theory imports.
  4379 
  4380 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4381 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4382 
  4383 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4384 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4385 white space without escapes.
  4386 
  4387 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4388 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4389 "foo_bar".
  4390 
  4391 
  4392 *** Pure ***
  4393 
  4394 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4395 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4396 
  4397 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4398 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4399 
  4400 (1) unused_thms
  4401      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4402 
  4403 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4404      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4405      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4406 
  4407 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4408      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4409      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4410      their ancestors.
  4411 
  4412 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4413 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4414 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4415 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4416 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4417 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4418 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4419 
  4420 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4421 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4422 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4423 
  4424 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4425 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4426 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4427 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4428 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4429 
  4430 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4431 
  4432 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4433 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4434 update of theories within ML code.
  4435 
  4436 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4437 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4438 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4439 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4440 
  4441 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4442 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4443 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4447 
  4448 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4449 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4450 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4451 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4452 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4453 
  4454 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4455 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4456 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4457 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4458 situations.
  4459 
  4460 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4461 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4462 proof text.
  4463 
  4464 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4465 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4466 
  4467 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4468 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4469 predicates.
  4470 
  4471 
  4472 *** Document preparation ***
  4473 
  4474 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4475 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4476 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4477 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4478 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4479 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4480 
  4481 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4482 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4483 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4484 
  4485 
  4486 *** HOL ***
  4487 
  4488 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4489 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4490 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4491 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4492 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4493 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4494 
  4495 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4496 with multithreading.
  4497 
  4498 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4499 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4500 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4501 
  4502 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4503 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4504 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4505 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4506 
  4507 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4508 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4509 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4510 and makes them available separately.  See
  4511 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4512 
  4513 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4514 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4515 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4516 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4517 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4518 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4519 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4520 the declared rules.
  4521 
  4522 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4523 
  4524   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4525 
  4526 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4527 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4528 
  4529 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4530 
  4531   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4532 
  4533   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4534     definitions on => and bool.
  4535 
  4536   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4537     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4538     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4539 
  4540       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4541       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4542       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4543       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4544       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4545       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4546       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4547       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4548 
  4549   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4550     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4551     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4552 
  4553   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4554     The proof pattern
  4555 
  4556       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4557       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4558 
  4559     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4560     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4561 
  4562       have "EX S. P S"
  4563       proof
  4564         show "P S" <...>
  4565       qed
  4566 
  4567   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4568     The proof pattern
  4569 
  4570       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4571       also have "S = T" <...>
  4572       finally have "P T" .
  4573 
  4574     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4575     must be replaced by something like
  4576 
  4577       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4578       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4579       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4580 
  4581   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4582     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4583 
  4584       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4585 
  4586     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4587     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4588     type of the form
  4589 
  4590       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4591 
  4592     rather than
  4593 
  4594       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4595 
  4596 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4597 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4598 
  4599 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4602 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4604 
  4605 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4606 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4607 
  4608 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4609 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 
  4611 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4612 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4613 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4616 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4617 
  4618   less_trans
  4619   less_linear
  4620   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4621   le_less_trans
  4622   less_le_trans
  4623   less_not_sym
  4624   less_asym
  4625 
  4626 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4627 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4628 and different variable names.
  4629 
  4630 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4631 
  4632 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4633 finite maps.
  4634 
  4635 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4636 
  4637 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4638 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4639 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4640 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4641 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4642 accordingly.
  4643 
  4644 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4645 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4646 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4647 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4648 
  4649 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4650 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4651 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4652 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4653 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4657 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4660 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4661 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4662 
  4663 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4667 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4668 
  4669 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4670 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4671 
  4672 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4673 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4674 
  4675 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4676 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4680 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4683 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4684 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4685 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4686 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4687 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4690 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4691 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4692 
  4693 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4694 
  4695 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4696 
  4697 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4698 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4699 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4700 
  4701 
  4702 *** ZF ***
  4703 
  4704 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4705 same session:
  4706 
  4707   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4708   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4709   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4710   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4711   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4712   List      -> List_ZF
  4713   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4714 
  4715 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4716 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4717 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4718 
  4719 
  4720 *** ML ***
  4721 
  4722 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4723 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4724 
  4725 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4726 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4727 
  4728 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4729 
  4730 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4731 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4732 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4733 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4734 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4735 
  4736 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4737 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4738 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4739 
  4740 
  4741 *** System ***
  4742 
  4743 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4744 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4745 
  4746 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4747 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4748 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4749 
  4750 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4751 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4752 
  4753 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4754 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4755 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4756 
  4757 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4758 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4759 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4760 
  4761 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4762 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4763 
  4764 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4765 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4766 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4767 script.
  4768 
  4769 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4770 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4771 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4772 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4773 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4774 
  4775 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4776 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4777 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4778 
  4779 
  4780 
  4781 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4782 -----------------------------------
  4783 
  4784 *** General ***
  4785 
  4786 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4787 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4788 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4789 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4790 
  4791 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4792 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4793 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4796 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4797 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4798 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4801 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4802 quotes.
  4803 
  4804 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4805 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4806 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4807 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4808 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4809 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4810 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4811 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4812 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4813 
  4814 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4815 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4816 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4817 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4818 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4819 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4820 
  4821 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4822 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4823 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4824 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4825 
  4826 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4827 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4828 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4829 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4830 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4831 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4832 
  4833 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4834 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4835 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4836 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4837 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4838 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4839 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4840 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4841 
  4842 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4843 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4844 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4845 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4846 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4847 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4848 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4849 
  4850 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4851 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4852 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4853 
  4854 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4855 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4856 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4857 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4858 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4859 limit is imposed.
  4860 
  4861 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4862 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4863 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4864 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4865 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4866 and scalability.
  4867 
  4868 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4869 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4870 
  4871 
  4872 *** Document preparation ***
  4873 
  4874 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4875 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4876 current context.
  4877 
  4878 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4879 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4880 
  4881 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4882 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4883 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4884 
  4885 
  4886 *** Pure ***
  4887 
  4888 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4889 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4890 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4891 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4892 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4893 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4894 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4895 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4896 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4897 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4898 
  4899 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4900 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4901 sketch:
  4902 
  4903     internal compilation:
  4904         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4905     writing SML code to a file:
  4906         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4907     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4908         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4909     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4910         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4911 
  4912     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4913         method ``eval''
  4914 
  4915 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4916 
  4917 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4918 
  4919     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4920     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4921     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4922     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4923 
  4924 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4925 
  4926     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4927       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4928 
  4929     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4930       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4931 
  4932     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4933       {(target)}+
  4934         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4935 
  4936     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4937       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4938         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4939 
  4940 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4941 
  4942 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4943 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4944 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4945 codegen".
  4946 
  4947 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4948 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4949 annotations).
  4950 
  4951 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4952 syntax.
  4953 
  4954 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4955 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4956 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4957 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4958 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4959 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4960 
  4961 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4962 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4963 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4964 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4965 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4966 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4967 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4968 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4969 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4970 equations, see section "definitions".
  4971 
  4972 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4973 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4974 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4975 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4976 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4977 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4978 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4979 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4980 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4981 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4982 
  4983 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4984 configuration options:
  4985 
  4986   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4987   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4988   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4989   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4990   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4991   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4992   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4993   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4994   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4995 
  4996 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4997 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4998 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4999 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5000 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5001 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5002 order.
  5003 
  5004 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5005 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5006 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5007 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5008 context encountered later on.
  5009 
  5010 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5011 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5012 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5013 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5014 
  5015 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5016 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5017 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5018 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5019 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5020 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5021 
  5022 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5023 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5024 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5025 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5026 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5027 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5028 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5029 more permissive.
  5030 
  5031 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5032 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5033 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5034 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5035 maintainability of proof texts.
  5036 
  5037 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5038 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5039 
  5040   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5041   then guess x and y by clarify
  5042 
  5043 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5044 proof tools being involved here.
  5045 
  5046 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5047 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5048 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5049 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5050 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5051 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5052 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5053 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5054 
  5055 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5056 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5057 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5058 
  5059   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5060   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5061   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5062   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5063 
  5064 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5065 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5066 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5067 
  5068 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5069 both named and unnamed ones.
  5070 
  5071 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5072 
  5073   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5074 
  5075 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5076 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5077 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5078 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5079 
  5080 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5081 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5082 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5083 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5084 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5085 
  5086 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5087 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5088 
  5089 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5090 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5091 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5092 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5093 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5094 originally first one.
  5095 
  5096 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5097 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5098 expected.
  5099 
  5100 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5101 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5102 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5103 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5104 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5105 
  5106   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5107     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5108     obtains x where "P x"
  5109 
  5110   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5111     assumes "A & B"
  5112     obtains A and B
  5113 
  5114   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5115     assumes "A | B"
  5116     obtains
  5117       A
  5118     | B
  5119 
  5120 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5121 explicitly:
  5122 
  5123   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5124     obtains "~ thesis"
  5125 
  5126   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5127     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5128 
  5129 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5130 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5131 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5132 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5133 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5134 case_names).
  5135 
  5136 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5137 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5138 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5139 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5140 
  5141 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5142 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5143 top-level lemma.
  5144 
  5145 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5146 introduction rule (default "that").
  5147 
  5148 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5149 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5150 to occur.
  5151 
  5152 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5153 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5154 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5155 representations independently of name spaces.
  5156 
  5157 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5158 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5159 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5160 
  5161 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5162 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5163 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5164 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5165 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5166 current context.
  5167 
  5168 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5169 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5170 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5171 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5172 
  5173   axiomatization
  5174     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5175     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5176 
  5177   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5178   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5179 
  5180   abbreviation
  5181     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5182     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5183 
  5184 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5185 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5186 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5187 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5188 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5189 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5190 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5191 
  5192 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5193 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5194 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5195 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5196 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5197 
  5198 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5199 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5200 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5201 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5202 
  5203 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5204 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5205 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5206 
  5207   definition "K x _ = x"
  5208 
  5209   inductive conj for A B
  5210   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5211 
  5212 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5213 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5214 abbreviations on output.
  5215 
  5216 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5217 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5218 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5219 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5220 
  5221 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5222 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5223 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5224 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5225 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5226 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5227 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5228 
  5229 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5230 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5231 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5232 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5233 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5234 
  5235 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5236 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5237 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5238 
  5239 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5240 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5241 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5242 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5243 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5244 
  5245   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5246     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5247 
  5248 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5249 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5250 partial_order.
  5251 
  5252 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5253 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5254 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5255 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5256 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5257 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5258 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5259 examples.
  5260 
  5261 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5262 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5263 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5264 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5265 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5266 
  5267 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5268 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5269 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5270 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5271 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5272 
  5273   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5274   (induct set: foo bar)
  5275   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5276   (induct type: foo bar)
  5277 
  5278 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5279 new format.
  5280 
  5281 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5282 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5283 
  5284 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5285 considered a legacy feature.
  5286 
  5287 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5288 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5289 
  5290 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5291 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5292 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5293 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5294   
  5295 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5296 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5297 manipulating the claset.
  5298 
  5299 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5300 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5301 least one premise.
  5302 
  5303 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5304 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5305 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5306 rule steps.
  5307 
  5308 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5309 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5310 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5311 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5312 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5313 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5314 
  5315 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5316 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5317 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5318 
  5319 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5320 the graph browser tool.
  5321 
  5322 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5323 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5324 
  5325 
  5326 *** HOL ***
  5327 
  5328 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5329 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5330 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5331 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5332 multi-threading.
  5333   
  5334 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5335 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5336 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5337 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5338 work with multi-threading.
  5339 
  5340 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5341 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5342 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5343 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5344 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5345 
  5346 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5347 
  5348 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5349 equality.
  5350 
  5351 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5352 the new 'class' package:
  5353 
  5354     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5355     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5356     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5357     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5358     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5359     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5360     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5361     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5362     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5363     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5364     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5365     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5366     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5367     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5368     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5369     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5370     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5371     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5372     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5373     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5374 
  5375 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5376 
  5377 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5378 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5379 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5380 names.
  5381 
  5382 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5383 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5384 
  5385 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5386 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5387 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5388 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5389 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5390 
  5391 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5392 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5393 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5394 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5395 
  5396 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5397 
  5398 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5399 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5400 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5401 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5403 
  5404 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5405 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5408 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5409 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5410 
  5411 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5412 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5413 
  5414 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5415 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5416 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5417 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5418 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5419 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5420 in the current context.
  5421 
  5422 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5423 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5425 
  5426 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5427 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5428 
  5429 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5430 
  5431     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5432     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5433 
  5434     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5435       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5436     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5437     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5438 
  5439     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5440     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5441 
  5442   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5443 
  5444     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5445     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5446     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5447     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5448     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5449     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5450     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5451     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5452     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5453     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5454     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5455     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5456     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5457     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5458     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5459     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5460     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5461     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5462     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5463     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5464     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5465     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5466     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5467     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5468     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5469     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5470     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5471     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5472     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5473     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5474     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5475     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5476     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5477     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5478     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5479 
  5480     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5481     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5482     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5483     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5484     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5485     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5486     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5487     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5488     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5489     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5490     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5491     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5492     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5493     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5494     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5495     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5496     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5497 
  5498     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5499     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5500     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5501     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5502     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5503     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5504     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5505     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5506     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5507     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5508     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5509     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5510     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5511     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5512     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5513     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5514     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5515     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5516     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5517     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5518     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5519     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5520     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5521     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5522     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5523     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5524     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5525     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5526 
  5527     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5528     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5529     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5530     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5531     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5532     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5533 
  5534     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5535     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5536     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5537     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5538 
  5539     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5540     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5541 
  5542     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5543     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5544 
  5545 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5546 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5547 
  5548 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5549 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5550 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5551 "*.size".
  5552 
  5553 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5555 
  5556 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5557 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5558 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5559 
  5560 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5561 
  5562 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5563 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5564 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5565 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5566 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5567 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5568 numerals on all operations.
  5569 
  5570 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5571 
  5572 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5573 
  5574 * Code generator library theories:
  5575   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5576     languages.
  5577   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5578     languages.
  5579   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5580     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5581   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5582   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5583     denominator).
  5584   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5585     representable by rational numbers.
  5586   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5587     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5588     includes Code_Integer.
  5589   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5590     target-language built-in integers.
  5591   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5592     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5593 
  5594 * New package for inductive predicates
  5595 
  5596   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5597 
  5598     inductive
  5599       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5600       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5601     where
  5602       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5603     | ...
  5604 
  5605   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5606 
  5607     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5608 
  5609     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5610     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5611 
  5612     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5613     intros
  5614       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5615       ...
  5616 
  5617   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5618   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5619 
  5620     inductive_set
  5621       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5622       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5623     where
  5624       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5625     | ...
  5626 
  5627   or
  5628 
  5629     inductive_set
  5630       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5631       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5632       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5633     where
  5634       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5635     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5636     | ...
  5637 
  5638   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5639 
  5640   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5641   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5642 
  5643   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5644 
  5645   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5646     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5647     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5648     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5649     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5650 
  5651   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5652     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5653     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5654     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5655     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5656     statements of the form
  5657 
  5658       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5659 
  5660     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5661     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5662 
  5663       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5664 
  5665   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5666 
  5667       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5668         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5669         ==> ... ==> P
  5670 
  5671     for predicates and
  5672 
  5673       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5674         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5675         ==> ... ==> P
  5676 
  5677     for sets rather than
  5678 
  5679       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5680         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5681         ==> ... ==> P
  5682 
  5683     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5684     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5685     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5686 
  5687   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5688     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5689     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5690 
  5691 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5692 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5693 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5694 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5695 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5696 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5697 
  5698 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5699 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5700 
  5701 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5702 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5703 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5704 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5705 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5706 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5707 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5708 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5709 variable.
  5710 
  5711 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5712 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5713 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5714 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5715   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5716   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5717 
  5718 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5719 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5720 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5721 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5722 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5723 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5724 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5725 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5726 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5727 
  5728 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5729 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5730 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5731 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5732 rat, etc.
  5733 
  5734 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5735 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5736 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5737 
  5738 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5739 
  5740 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5741 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5742 
  5743 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5744 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5745 
  5746 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5747 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5748 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5749 
  5750 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5751 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5753 
  5754 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5755 
  5756 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5757 
  5758 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5759 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5760 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5761 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5762 
  5763 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5764 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5765 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5766 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5767 
  5768 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5769 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5770 algebraic operations.
  5771 
  5772 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5774 
  5775 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5779 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5780 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5781 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5782 adapted.
  5783  
  5784 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5785 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5786 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5787 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5788 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5789 
  5790 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5791 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5792 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5793 
  5794 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5795 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5796 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5797 
  5798 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5799 
  5800 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5801 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5802 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5803   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5804       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5805   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5806   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5807   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5808 
  5809 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5810 
  5811 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5812 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5813 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5814 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5815 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5816 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5817 
  5818 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5819 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5820 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5821 
  5822 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5823 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5824 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5826 
  5827 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5828 
  5829 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5830 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5831 
  5832 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5833 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5834 
  5835 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5836 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5837 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5838 
  5839 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5840 True/False.
  5841 
  5842 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5843 
  5844 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5845 
  5846 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5847 ``rule'' method.
  5848 
  5849 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5850 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5851 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5852 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5853 
  5854 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5855 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5856 
  5857 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5858 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5859 
  5860 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5861 Library.
  5862 
  5863 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5864 
  5865 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5866 as greatest fixed-point.
  5867 
  5868 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5869 association lists.
  5870 
  5871 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5872 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5873 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5874 
  5875 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5876 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5877 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5878 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5879 behavior.
  5880 
  5881 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5882 
  5883 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5884 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5885 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5886 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5887 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5888 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5889 
  5890 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5891 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5892 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5893 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5894 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5895 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5896 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5897 
  5898 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5899 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5900 
  5901 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5902 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5903 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5904 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5905 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5906 
  5907 
  5908 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5909 
  5910 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5911 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5912 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5913 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5917 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5918 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5919 
  5920 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5921 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5922 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5923 
  5924 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5925 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5926 
  5927 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5928 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5929 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5933   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5934   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5935   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5936   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5937   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5938   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5939   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5940   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5941   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5942   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5943   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5944   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5945   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5946   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5947 
  5948 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5949 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5950 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5951 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5952 
  5953   approx        <-- capprox
  5954   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5955   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5956   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5957   monad         <-- cmonad
  5958   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5959   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5960   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5961   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5962 
  5963 
  5964 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5965 
  5966 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5967 
  5968 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5970 
  5971 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5972 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5973 
  5974 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5975 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5976 of algebraic structures.
  5977 
  5978 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5979 
  5980 
  5981 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5982 
  5983 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5984 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5985 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5986 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5987 
  5988 
  5989 *** ML ***
  5990 
  5991 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5992 (even on SML/NJ).
  5993 
  5994 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5995 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5996 compile-time.  For example:
  5997 
  5998 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5999 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6000 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6001 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6002 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6003 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6004 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6005 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6006 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6007 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6008 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6009 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6010 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6011 ML {* @{context} *}
  6012 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6013 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6014 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6015 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6016 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6017 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6018 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6019 
  6020 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6021 
  6022 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6023 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6024 
  6025 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6026 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6027 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6028 
  6029 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6030 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6031 
  6032 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6033 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6034 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6035 
  6036 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6037 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6038 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6039 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6040 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6041 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6042 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6043 declarations and definitions.
  6044 
  6045 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6046 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6047 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6048 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6049 
  6050 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6051 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6052 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6053 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6054 
  6055 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6056 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6057 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6058 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6059 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6060 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6061 
  6062 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6063 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6064 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6065 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6066 attributes, methods, etc.
  6067 
  6068 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6069 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6070 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6071 fold_map combinators.
  6072 
  6073 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6074 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6075 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6076 derivation.
  6077 
  6078 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6079 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6080 achieve the old behaviour.
  6081 
  6082 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6083 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6084 statements.
  6085 
  6086 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6087 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6088 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6089 
  6090 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6091 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6092 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6093 
  6094   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6095   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6096   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6097 
  6098 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6099 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6100 
  6101 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6102 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6103 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6104 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6105 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6106 
  6107 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6108 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6109 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6110 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6111 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6112 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6113 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6114 in a locale context).
  6115 
  6116 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6117 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6118 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6119 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6120 
  6121 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6122 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6123 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6124 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6125 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6126 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6127 
  6128 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6129 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6130 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6131 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6132 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6133 
  6134   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6135 
  6136 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6137 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6138 this:
  6139 
  6140   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6141 
  6142 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6143 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6144 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6145 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6146 
  6147 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6148 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6149 
  6150 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6151 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6152 
  6153 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6154 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6155 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6156 batch mode.
  6157 
  6158 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6159 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6160 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6161 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6162 
  6163 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6164 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6165 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6166 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6167 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6168 
  6169 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6170 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6171 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6172 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6173 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6174 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6175 
  6176 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6177 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6178 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6180 
  6181 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6182 "Trueprop" etc.
  6183 
  6184 
  6185 *** System ***
  6186 
  6187 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6188 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6189 Isabelle installations.
  6190 
  6191 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6192 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6193 code.
  6194 
  6195 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6196 
  6197 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6198 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6199 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6200 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6201 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6202 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6203 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6204 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6205 Implementation manual.
  6206 
  6207 
  6208 
  6209 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6210 ----------------------------------
  6211 
  6212 *** General ***
  6213 
  6214 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6215 
  6216   theory <name>
  6217   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6218   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6219   begin
  6220 
  6221 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6222 
  6223   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6224 
  6225 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6226 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6227 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6228 
  6229 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6230 relative and absolute paths.
  6231 
  6232 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6233 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6234 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6235 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6236 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  6237 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  6238 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  6239 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  6240 'ProofGeneral -> Find T