NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Nov 21 22:13:11 2013 +0100 (2013-11-21)
changeset 54641 50169ef2cca3
parent 54639 5adc68deb322
child 54648 f38b113697a2
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
     8 
     9 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
    10 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
    11 
    12 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
    13 after edits surrounding the command location.
    14 
    15 
    16 
    17 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    18 -------------------------------------
    19 
    20 *** General ***
    21 
    22 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    23 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    24 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    27 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    28 
    29 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    30 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    31 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    32 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    33 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    34 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    35 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    36 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    37 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    38 syntax.
    39 
    40 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    41 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    44 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    45 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    46 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    47 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    48 
    49 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    51 
    52 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    53 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    54 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    55 
    56 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    57 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    58 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    59 
    60 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    61 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    62 
    63 
    64 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    65 
    66 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    67 Documentation panel.
    68 
    69 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    70 documentation.
    71 
    72 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    73 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    74 
    75 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    76 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    77 normal editing and checking process.
    78 
    79 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    80 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
    81 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
    82 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
    83 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
    84 
    85 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    86 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    87 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    88 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    89 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    90 
    91 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    92 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    93 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    94 
    95 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
    96 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
    97 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
    98 to resolve conflict.
    99 
   100 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   101 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   102 
   103 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   104 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   105 such command executions while editing.
   106 
   107 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   108 document content.
   109 
   110 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   111 toplevel theorem statements.
   112 
   113 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   114 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   115 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   116 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   117 
   118 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   119 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   120 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   121 
   122 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   123 / Global Options / Appearance".
   124 
   125 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   126 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   127 
   128 
   129 *** Pure ***
   130 
   131 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   132 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   133 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   134 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   135 details.
   136 
   137 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   138 
   139 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   140 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   141 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   142 
   143 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   145 
   146 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   147 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   148 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   149 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   152 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   153 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   154 
   155 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   156 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   157 
   158 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   159 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   160 situations.
   161 
   162 
   163 *** HOL ***
   164 
   165 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   166 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   170 
   171 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   172 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   173 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   174 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   175 
   176   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   177 
   178 * Code generator:
   179   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   180     'code_instance'.
   181   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   182     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   183 
   184 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   185 examples.
   186 
   187 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   188 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   189 to distinguish both when desired.
   190 
   191 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   192 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   193 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   194 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   197 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   198 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   199 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   200 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   201 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   204 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   205 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   206 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   207 
   208 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   209 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   210 
   211 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   212 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   213 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   214 
   215 * Lifting:
   216   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   217     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   218       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   219       transfer rules
   220     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   221       correspondence relation can be generated
   222     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   223       parametricity
   224     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   225   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   226   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   227     copies
   228   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   229     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   230     anonymous context)
   231   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   232     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   233   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   234     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   235   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   236     INCOMPATIBILITY
   237 
   238 * Transfer:
   239   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   240     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   241   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   242   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   243     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   244   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   245 
   246 * Reification and reflection:
   247   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   248     "Reification".
   249   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   250   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   254   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   255     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   256     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   257   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   258     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   259   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   260     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   261     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   262     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   263     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   264     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   265     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   266     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   267   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   268     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   269   - Fact renames:
   270       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   271       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   275 
   276 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   277 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   278 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   282 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   283 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   284 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   285 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   286 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   287 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   288 lemmas.
   289 
   290 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   291 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   292 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   293 
   294 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   295 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   296 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   297 
   298 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   299 top and bottom elements.
   300 
   301 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   302 
   303 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   304 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   305 
   306  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   307    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   308    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   309 
   310  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   311    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   312    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   313 
   314    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   315    arbitrary filter.
   316 
   317  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   318    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   319    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   320    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   321    on a compact set.
   322 
   323  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   324    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   325    linear_continuum_topology).
   326 
   327  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   328    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   329    on all sequences converging to x.
   330 
   331  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   332    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   333    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   334    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   335    left or right.
   336 
   337  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   338 
   339      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   340 
   341  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   342    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   343 
   344  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   345    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   346    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   347    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   348    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   349    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   350 
   351  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   352 
   353    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   354 
   355    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   356      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   357 
   358    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   359 
   360    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   361      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   362 
   363    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   364 
   365    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   366 
   367  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   368 
   369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   370 
   371 * Nitpick:
   372   - Added option "spy"
   373   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   374 
   375 * Sledgehammer:
   376   - Renamed option:
   377       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   378     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   380   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   381   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   382 
   383 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   384 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   385 
   386 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   387   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   388   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   389     generated code.
   390   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   391   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   392   - Fact renames:
   393     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   394     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   395     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   396 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   399 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   400 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   401 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   402 
   403 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   404 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   405 
   406 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   407 
   408 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   409 
   410     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   411     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   412 
   413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   416 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   417 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   418 
   419 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   420 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   421 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   422 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424 * HOL-BNF:
   425   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   426     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   427     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   428     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   429   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   430     coinduct).
   431   - Renamed keywords:
   432     data ~> datatype_new
   433     codata ~> codatatype
   434     bnf_def ~> bnf
   435   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   436     discs ~> disc
   437     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   438     map_id' ~> map_id
   439     sels ~> sel
   440     set_map' ~> set_map
   441     sets ~> set
   442 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 
   445 *** ML ***
   446 
   447 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   448 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   449 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   450 Examples.thy in particular.
   451 
   452 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   453 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   454 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   455 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   456 
   457 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   458 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   459 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   460 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   464 
   465     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   466     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   467 
   468 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   471 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   472 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   473 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   474 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   475 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   476 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   477 
   478 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   479 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   480 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   481 clasets separately from the context.
   482 
   483 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   484 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   485 
   486 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   487 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   488 
   489 
   490 *** System ***
   491 
   492 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   493 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   494 
   495 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   496 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   499 settings variable.
   500 
   501 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   502 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   503 always pdf.
   504 
   505 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   506 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   507 
   508 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   509 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   510 
   511 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   512 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   513 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   514 
   515 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   516 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   517 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   518 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   519 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   520 for HTML presentation of theories.
   521 
   522 
   523 
   524 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   525 -----------------------------------
   526 
   527 *** General ***
   528 
   529 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   530 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   531 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   532 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   533 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   534 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   535 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   536 
   537 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   538 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   539 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   540 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   541 
   542 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   543 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   544 
   545 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   546 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   547 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   548 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   549 dependencies properly.
   550 
   551 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   552 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   553 
   554 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   555 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   556 
   557 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   558 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   559 and "class ... context ...".
   560 
   561 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   562 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   563 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   564 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   565 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   566 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   567 
   568 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   569 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   570 
   571 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   572 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   573 
   574 
   575 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   576 
   577 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   578 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   579 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   580 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   581 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   582 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   583 
   584 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   585 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   586 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   587 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   588 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   589 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   590 
   591 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   592 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   593 browser on demand.
   594 
   595 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   596 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   597 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   598 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   599 
   600 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   601 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   602 
   603 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   604 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   605 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   606 potentially infinite message streams.
   607 
   608 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   609 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   610 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   611 schemes.
   612 
   613 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   614 symbols.
   615 
   616 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   617 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   618 
   619 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   620 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   621 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   622 
   623 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   624 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   625 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   626 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   627 
   628 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   629 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   630 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   631 
   632 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   633 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   634 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   635 Isabelle distribution.
   636 
   637 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   638 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   639 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   640 
   641 
   642 *** Pure ***
   643 
   644 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   645 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   646 
   647 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   648 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   649 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   652 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   653 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   654 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   655 with some care where this is really required.
   656 
   657 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   658 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   659 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   660 
   661   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   662 
   663 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   664 a Hasse diagram.
   665 
   666 
   667 *** HOL ***
   668 
   669 * Sledgehammer:
   670 
   671   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   672     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   673   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   674   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   675   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   676   - Renamed options:
   677       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   678       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   679       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   680       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   681 
   682 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   683 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   684 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   685 
   686 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688 
   689 * Lifting:
   690   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   691   - quot_del attribute
   692   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   693 
   694 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   695 expressions.
   696 
   697 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   698 pointfree expressions.
   699 
   700 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   701 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   702 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   703 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   707 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   708 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   709 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   710 accordingly.
   711 
   712 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   713 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   716 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   717 
   718 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   719 
   720 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   721 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   722 
   723 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   724 
   725 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   726 
   727   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   728   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   729 
   730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   731 
   732 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   733 
   734   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   735   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   736 
   737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   740 
   741   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   742     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   743     output f x converges to G.
   744 
   745   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   746     infinity (at_bot).
   747 
   748   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   749     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   750 
   751   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   752     at_top".
   753 
   754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   757 lattice type classes.
   758 
   759 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   760 
   761     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   762     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   763 
   764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   767 changes as follows.
   768 
   769   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   770 
   771       prefix ~> prefixeq
   772       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   773 
   774   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   775     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   776     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   777     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   778 
   779   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   780     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   781     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   782 
   783   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   784     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   785     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   786     Library/Prefix_Order.
   787 
   788   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   789     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   790 
   791       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   792       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   793       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   794       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   795       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   796       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   797       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   798       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   799       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   800       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   801       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   802       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   803       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   804       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   805       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   806       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   807 
   808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809 
   810 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   811 
   812 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   813 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   814 
   815 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   816 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   817 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   818 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   819 
   820   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   821   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   822   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   823   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   824   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   825   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   826   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   827   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   828   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   829   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   830 
   831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   832 
   833 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   834 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   835 Data").
   836 
   837 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   838 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   839 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   840 code.
   841 
   842 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   843 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   844 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   848 
   849 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   850 
   851 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   852 
   853   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   854   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   855 
   856 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   857 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   858 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   859 
   860   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   861 
   862     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   863     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   864     cart_base i  removed
   865     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   866 
   867   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   868 
   869   Renamed lemmas:
   870 
   871     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   872     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   873     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   874     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   875     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   876     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   877     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   878     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   879     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   880     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   881 
   882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   883 
   884 * HOL/Probability:
   885 
   886   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   887 
   888   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   889     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   890     (borel_measurable_induct).
   891 
   892   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   893     projective family).
   894 
   895 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   896 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   897 
   898 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   899 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   900 datatypes.
   901 
   902 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   903 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   904 
   905 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   906 trees for the code generator.
   907 
   908 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   909 Lifting/Transfer.
   910 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911 
   912 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   914 
   915 
   916 *** Document preparation ***
   917 
   918 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   919 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   920 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   921 
   922 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   923 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   924 
   925 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   926 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   927 document/root.tex.
   928 
   929 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   930 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   931 
   932 
   933 *** ML ***
   934 
   935 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   936 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   937 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   938 
   939 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   940 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   941 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   942 
   943 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   944 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   945 necessarily printing visible text.
   946 
   947 
   948 *** System ***
   949 
   950 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   951 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   952 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   953 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   954 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   955 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   956 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   957 
   958 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   959 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   960 
   961   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   962 
   963 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   964 
   965 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   966 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   967 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   968 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   969 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   970 
   971 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   972 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   973 
   974 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   975 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   976 
   977 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   981 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   982 version of Isabelle.
   983 
   984 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   985 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   986 
   987 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   988 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   989 for home-made settings.
   990 
   991 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   992 
   993 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   994 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   995 configuration.
   996 
   997 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   998 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   999 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1000 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1001 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1002 
  1003 
  1004 
  1005 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1006 ------------------------------
  1007 
  1008 *** General ***
  1009 
  1010 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1011 
  1012   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1013     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1014   - markup for bound variables
  1015   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1016   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1017   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1018     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1019 
  1020 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1021 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1022 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1023 
  1024 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1025 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1026 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1027 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1028 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1029 
  1030   context
  1031     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1032     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1033   begin
  1034 
  1035   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1036 
  1037   end
  1038 
  1039   thm my_trans
  1040 
  1041 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1042 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1043 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1044 
  1045 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1046 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1047 
  1048 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1049 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1050 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1051 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1052 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1053 
  1054 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1055 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1056 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1057 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1058 indices of schematic variables.
  1059 
  1060 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1061 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1062 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1063 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1064 etc. was exploited.
  1065 
  1066 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1067 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1068 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1069 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1070 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1071 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1072 
  1073 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1074 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1075 manual.
  1076 
  1077 
  1078 *** Pure ***
  1079 
  1080 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1081 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1082 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1083 
  1084 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1085 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1086 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1087 undocumented feature.)
  1088 
  1089 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1090 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1091 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1092 
  1093   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1094 
  1095   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1096     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1097 
  1098 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1099 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1100 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1101 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1102 
  1103 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1104 
  1105     num ~> num_token
  1106     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1107     xstr ~> str_token
  1108 
  1109 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1110 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1111 position information via constraints).
  1112 
  1113 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1114 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1115 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1118 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1119 
  1120 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1121 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1122 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1125 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1128 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1129 
  1130   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1131 
  1132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1133 
  1134 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1135 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1138 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1139 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1140 
  1141 
  1142 *** HOL ***
  1143 
  1144 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1145 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1146 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1147 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1148 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1149 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1150 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1151 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1152 possible.
  1153 
  1154 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1155 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1156 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1157 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1158 
  1159 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1160 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1161 
  1162 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1163 
  1164 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1165 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1166 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1167 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1168 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1169 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1170 
  1171   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1172     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1173 
  1174   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1175     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1176     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1177 
  1178   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1179     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1180 
  1181   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1182     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1183     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1184 
  1185   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1186     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1187 
  1188 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1189 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1190 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1191 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1192 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1193 
  1194   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1195     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1196     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1197     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1198     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1199 
  1200     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1201     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1202 
  1203   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1204     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1205     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1206     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1207     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1208     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1209     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1210     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1211 
  1212   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1213     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1214     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1215     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1216 
  1217   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1218     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1219     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1220     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1221 
  1222   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1223     from type nat to type int.
  1224 
  1225 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1226 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1227 
  1228   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1229     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1230     type.  Example syntax:
  1231 
  1232     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1233       is List.insert
  1234 
  1235     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1236     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1237     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1238     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1239     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1240     by the package.
  1241 
  1242   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1243     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1244     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1245     code generation for each constant.
  1246 
  1247   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1248     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1249     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1250     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1251     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1252 
  1253   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1254     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1255     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1256 
  1257 * Quotient package:
  1258 
  1259   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1260     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1261 
  1262   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1263     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1264 
  1265   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1266     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1267     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1270     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1271 
  1272 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1273 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1274 
  1275 * Quickcheck:
  1276 
  1277   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1278     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1279     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1280     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1281     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1282 
  1283     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1284     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1285     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1286 
  1287     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1288     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1289 
  1290     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1291     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1292     show genuine counterexamples.
  1293 
  1294   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1295     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1296 
  1297     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1298     constructors of that type.
  1299 
  1300   - Support for multisets.
  1301 
  1302   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1303 
  1304   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1305     conjectures in a locale context.
  1306 
  1307 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1308 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1309 
  1310 * Sledgehammer:
  1311   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1312     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1313   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1314   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1315     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1316   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1317   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1318   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1319   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1320 
  1321 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1322 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1323 
  1324 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1325 
  1326 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1329 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1330 
  1331   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1332 
  1333 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1334 a list and a nat.
  1335 
  1336 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1337 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1338 
  1339 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1340 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1341 default.
  1342 
  1343 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1344 
  1345   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1346 
  1347 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1348 
  1349 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1350 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1351 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1352 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1353 one_case.
  1354 
  1355 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1356 the result of the fact expression.
  1357 
  1358 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1359 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1360 of some relation theorems:
  1361 
  1362   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1363   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1364   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1365   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1366   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1367   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1368 
  1369 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1370 
  1371 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1372 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1373 
  1374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1377 to match the constant's name:
  1378 
  1379   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1380   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1381   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1382   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1383   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1384   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1385   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1386   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1387   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1388   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1389   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1390   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1391   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1392   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1393   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1394   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1395   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1396   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1397   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1398   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1399   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1400   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1401   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1402   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1403 
  1404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1405 
  1406 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1407 and corresponding theorem names:
  1408 
  1409   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1410 
  1411   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1412 
  1413   - Renamed theorems:
  1414 
  1415     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1416     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1417     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1418     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1419     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1420     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1421     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1422     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1423     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1424     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1425     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1426     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1427     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1428     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1429     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1430     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1431     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1432     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1433     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1434     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1435     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1436     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1437     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1438 
  1439     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1440 
  1441     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1442 
  1443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1446 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1447 
  1448   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1449   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1450   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1451   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1452   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1453   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1454   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1455   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1456   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1457   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1458   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1459   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1460   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1461   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1462   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1463   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1464   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1465   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1466   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1467   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1468   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1469 
  1470 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1471 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1472 
  1473 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1474 
  1475 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1476 
  1477   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1478   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1479   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1480   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1481   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1482   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1483   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1484   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1485   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1486   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1487   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1488   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1489   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1490   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1491   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1492   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1493   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1494   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1495 
  1496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1499 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1500 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1501 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1502 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1503 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1504 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1505 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1506 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1507 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1508 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1509 
  1510 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1511 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1512 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1513 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1514 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1515 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1516 
  1517 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1518 through option types.
  1519 
  1520 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1521 relations.
  1522 
  1523 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1526 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1527 
  1528   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1529   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1530   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1531   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1532   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1533   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1534   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1535   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1536   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1537   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1538   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1539   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1540   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1541   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1542   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1543   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1544   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1545   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1546   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1547   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1548   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1549   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1550   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1551   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1552   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1553   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1554   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1555   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1556   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1557   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1558   zless_le ~> less_le
  1559   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1560   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1561   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1562 
  1563 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1564 
  1565   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1566 
  1567 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1568 
  1569 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1570 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1571 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1572 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1576 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1577 
  1578 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1579 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1580 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1581 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1582 follows:
  1583 
  1584   Operations:
  1585   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1586   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1587   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1588   del -> rbt_del
  1589   delete -> rbt_delete
  1590   ins -> rbt_ins
  1591   insert -> rbt_insert
  1592   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1593   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1594   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1595   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1596   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1597   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1598   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1599   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1600   union -> rbt_union
  1601   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1602   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1603 
  1604   Lemmas:
  1605   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1606   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1607   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1608   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1609   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1610   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1611   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1612   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1613   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1614   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1615   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1616   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1617   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1618   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1619   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1620   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1621   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1622   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1623   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1624   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1625   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1626   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1627   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1628   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1629   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1630   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1631   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1632   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1633   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1634   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1635   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1636   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1637   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1638   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1639   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1640   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1641   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1642   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1643   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1644   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1645   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1646   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1647   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1648   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1649   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1650   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1651   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1652   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1653   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1654   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1655   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1656   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1657   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1658   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1659   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1660   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1661   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1662   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1663   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1664   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1665   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1666   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1667   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1668   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1669   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1670   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1671   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1672   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1673   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1674   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1675   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1676   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1677   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1678   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1679   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1680   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1681   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1682   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1683   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1684   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1685   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1686   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1687   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1688 
  1689 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1690 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1691 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693   Changed Operations:
  1694   float_abs -> abs
  1695   float_nprt -> nprt
  1696   float_pprt -> pprt
  1697   pow2 -> use powr
  1698   round_down -> float_round_down
  1699   round_up -> float_round_up
  1700   scale -> exponent
  1701 
  1702   Removed Operations:
  1703   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1704 
  1705   Renamed Lemmas:
  1706   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1707   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1708   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1709   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1710   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1711   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1712   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1713   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1714   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1715   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1716   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1717   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1718   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1719   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1720   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1721   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1722   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1723   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1724   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1725   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1726   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1727   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1728   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1729   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1730   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1731   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1732   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1733   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1734   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1735   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1736   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1737   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1738   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1739   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1740   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1741   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1742 
  1743   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1744   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1745   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1746   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1747   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1748   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1749   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1750   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1751   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1752   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1753 
  1754 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1755 association lists with distinct keys.
  1756 
  1757 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1758 annotated commands.
  1759 
  1760 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1761 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1762 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1763 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1766 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1767 instead.
  1768 
  1769   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1770   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1771   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1772   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1773   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1774   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1775   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1776   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1777   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1778   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1779   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1780   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1781   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1782   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1783   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1784   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1785   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1786   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1787   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1788   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1789   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1790   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1791   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1792   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1793   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1794   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1795   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1796   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1797   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1798   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1799   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1800   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1801   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1802   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1803   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1804   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1805   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1806   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1807   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1808   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1809   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1810 
  1811 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1812 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1813 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1814 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1815 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1816 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1817 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1818 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1819 
  1820 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1821 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1822 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1823 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1824 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1825 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1826 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1827 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1828 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1829 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1830 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1831 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1832 
  1833   Renamed constants:
  1834   measure -> emeasure
  1835   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1836   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1837   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1838   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1839 
  1840   Removed locales:
  1841   completeable_measure_space
  1842   finite_measure_space
  1843   finite_prob_space
  1844   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1845   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1846   finite_sigma_algebra
  1847   measure_space
  1848   pair_finite_prob_space
  1849   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1850   pair_finite_space
  1851   pair_sigma_algebra
  1852   product_sigma_algebra
  1853 
  1854   Removed constants:
  1855   conditional_space
  1856   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1857   image_space
  1858   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1859   pair_measure_generator
  1860   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1861   subvimage
  1862 
  1863   Replacement theorems:
  1864   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1865   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1866   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1867   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1868   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1869   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1870   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1871   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1872   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1873   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1874   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1875   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1876   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1877   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1878   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1879   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1880   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1881   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1882   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1883   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1884   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1885   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1886   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1887   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1888   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1889   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1890   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1891   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1892   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1893   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1894   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1895   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1896   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1897   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1898   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1899   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1900   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1901   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1902   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1903   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1904   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1905   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1906   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1907   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1908   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1909   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1910   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1911   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1912   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1913   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1914   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1915   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1916   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1917   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1918   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1919   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1920   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1921   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1922   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1923   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1924   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1925   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1926   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1927   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1928   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1929   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1930   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1931   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1932   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1933   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1934   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1935   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1936   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1937   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1938   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1939   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1940   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1941   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1942   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1943   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1944   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1945   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1946   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1947   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1948   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1949   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1950   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1951   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1952   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1953   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1954   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1955   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1956   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1957   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1958   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1959   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1960   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1961   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1962   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1963   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1964   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1965   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1966   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1967   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1968   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1969   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1970   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1971   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1972   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1973   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1974   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1975   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1976   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1977   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1978   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1979   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1980   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1981   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1982   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1983   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1984   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1985   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1986   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1987   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1988   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1989   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1990   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1991   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1992 
  1993 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1994 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1995 
  1996 
  1997 *** FOL ***
  1998 
  1999 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2000 
  2001 
  2002 *** ZF ***
  2003 
  2004 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2005 analysis.
  2006 
  2007 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2008 
  2009 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2010 
  2011 
  2012 *** ML ***
  2013 
  2014 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2015 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2016 
  2017 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2018 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2019 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2020 
  2021 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2022 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2023 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2024 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2025 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2026 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2027 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2028 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2029 
  2030 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2031 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2032 
  2033 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2034 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2035 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2036 
  2037 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2038 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2041 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2042 context as well.
  2043 
  2044 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2045 
  2046   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2047   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2048   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2049   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2050   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2051   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2052   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2053   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2054   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2055   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2056   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2057   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2058 
  2059 
  2060 *** System ***
  2061 
  2062 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2063 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2064 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2065 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2066 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2067 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2068 the generic user home was intended.
  2069 
  2070 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2071 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2072 
  2073 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2074 (not just JRE).
  2075 
  2076 
  2077 
  2078 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2079 ------------------------------------
  2080 
  2081 *** General ***
  2082 
  2083 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2084 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2085 
  2086   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2087     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2088     files for checking).
  2089 
  2090   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2091     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2092     positions.
  2093 
  2094   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2095     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2096     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2097 
  2098   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2099     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2100     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2101 
  2102   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2103     cores.
  2104 
  2105   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2106     versions (garbage collection).
  2107 
  2108 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2109 including some remaining limitations.
  2110 
  2111 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2112 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2113 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2114 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2115 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2119 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2120 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2121 
  2122 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2123 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2124 usedir option -Q.
  2125 
  2126 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2127 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2128 
  2129   long_names   ~> names_long
  2130   short_names  ~> names_short
  2131   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2132 
  2133 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2134 
  2135   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2136 
  2137 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2138 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2139 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2140 
  2141 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2142 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2143 
  2144 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2145   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2146   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2147   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2148     "Classical Reasoner".
  2149 
  2150 
  2151 *** HOL ***
  2152 
  2153 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2154 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2157 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2158 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2159 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2160 class complete_linorder.
  2161 
  2162 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2163 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2164 
  2165 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2166 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2167 
  2168   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2169   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2170   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2171   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2172   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2173   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2174   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2175   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2176   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2177   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2178   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2179 
  2180 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2181 
  2182   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2183   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2184   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2185   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2186   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2187   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2188   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2189   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2190   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2191   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2192   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2193   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2194   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2195   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2196   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2197   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2198 
  2199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2205 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2206 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2207 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2210 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2211 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2213 
  2214 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2215 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2216 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2217 
  2218 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2219 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2220 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2223 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2224 
  2225 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2226 
  2227     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2228     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2229 
  2230 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2231 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2234 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2235 
  2236 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2237 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2238 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2239 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2242   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2243   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2244   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2245   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2246   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2247   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2248 
  2249 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2250 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2253   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2254   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2255   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2256   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2257   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2258   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2259   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2260   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2261   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2262   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2263   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2264   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2265   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2266   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2267   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2268   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2269   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2270   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2271   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2272   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2273   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2274   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2275   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2276   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2277   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2278   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2279   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2280   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2281   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2282   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2283   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2284   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2285   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2286   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2287   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2288   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2289   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2290   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2291   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2292   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2293   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2294   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2295   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2296   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2297   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2298   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2299   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2300   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2301   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2302   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2303   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2304   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2305   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2306   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2307   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2308   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2309   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2310   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2311   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2312   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2313   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2314   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2315   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2316   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2317   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2318   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2319   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2320   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2321   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2322   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2323   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2324   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2325   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2326   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2327   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2328   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2329   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2330   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2331   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2332   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2333   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2334 
  2335 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2336 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2337 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2338 
  2339 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2340 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2341 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2342 
  2343 * Code generation:
  2344 
  2345   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2346     characters in the target language.
  2347 
  2348   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2349     instead.
  2350 
  2351   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2352 
  2353   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2354     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2355 
  2356       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2357 
  2358 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2361 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2362 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2363 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2364 syntax.
  2365 
  2366 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2367 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2368 
  2369 * Nitpick:
  2370   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2371   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2372   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2373     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2374 
  2375 * Sledgehammer:
  2376   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2377   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2378     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2379   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2380     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2381   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2382     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2384     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2385   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2386     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2387 
  2388 * Metis:
  2389   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2391     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393 * Command 'try':
  2394   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2395     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2397     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2398 
  2399 * Quickcheck:
  2400   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2401     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2402   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2403     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2404   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2405     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2406     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2407     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2408   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2409     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2410 
  2411 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2412 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2413 
  2414 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2415 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2416 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2417 
  2418 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2419 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2421 
  2422 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2423 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2426 arithmetic.
  2427 
  2428 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2429 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2430 and lattice type classes.
  2431 
  2432 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2433 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2434 
  2435 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2436 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2437 
  2438 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2439 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2440 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2443   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2444   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2445   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2446 
  2447 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2448 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2449 constants:
  2450 
  2451   type inat   ~> type enat
  2452   Fin         ~> enat
  2453   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2454   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2455   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2456 
  2457 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2458 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2461 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2462 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2463 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2464 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2465 
  2466 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2467 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2468 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2469 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2470 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2471 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2472 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2473 
  2474   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2475   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2476   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2477   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2478 
  2479 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2480 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2481 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2482 
  2483   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2484   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2485   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2486   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2487   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2488   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2489   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2490   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2491   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2492   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2493   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2494   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2495   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2496   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2497   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2498   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2499   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2500   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2501   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2502   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2503   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2504   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2505   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2506   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2507   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2508   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2509   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2510   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2511   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2512   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2513   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2514   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2515   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2516   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2517   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2518   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2519   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2520   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2521   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2522   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2523   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2524   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2525   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2526   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2527   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2528   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2529   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2530   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2531   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2532   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2533   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2534 
  2535 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2536   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2537   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2538   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2539   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2540     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2545   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2546   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2547   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2548   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2549   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2550   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2551   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2552   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2553   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2554   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2555   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2556   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2557   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2558   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2559   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2560   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2561   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2562   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2563   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2564   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2565   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2566   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2567   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2568   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2569 
  2570 
  2571 *** Document preparation ***
  2572 
  2573 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2574 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2575 same.
  2576 
  2577 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2578 result.
  2579 
  2580 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2581 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2582 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2583 
  2584 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2585 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2586 
  2587 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2588 like this:
  2589 
  2590   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2591   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2592 
  2593 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2594 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2595 layouts.
  2596 
  2597 
  2598 *** ML ***
  2599 
  2600 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2601 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2602 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2603 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2604 under external program control.
  2605 
  2606 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2607 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2608 
  2609 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2610 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2611 (better known as Proof General).
  2612 
  2613 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2614 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2615 
  2616 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2617 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2618 
  2619 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2620 (including quotes etc.).
  2621 
  2622 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2623 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2624 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2625 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2626 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2627 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2628 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2629 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2630 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2631 
  2632 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2633 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2634 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2635 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2636 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2637 
  2638 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2639 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2640 
  2641 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2642 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2643 
  2644 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2645 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2646 
  2647 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2648 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2649 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2650 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2651 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2652 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2653 proper Proof.context.
  2654 
  2655 
  2656 *** System ***
  2657 
  2658 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2659 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2660 
  2661 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2662 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2663 
  2664 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2665 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2666 
  2667   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2668   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2669   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2670   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2671   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2672 
  2673 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2674 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2675 
  2676 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2677 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2678 example:
  2679 
  2680   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2681 
  2682 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2683 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2684 
  2685 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2686 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2687 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2688 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2689 
  2690 
  2691 
  2692 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2693 ----------------------------------
  2694 
  2695 *** General ***
  2696 
  2697 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2698 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2699 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2700 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2701 like this:
  2702 
  2703   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2704 
  2705 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2706 
  2707 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2708 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2709 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2710 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2711 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2712 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2713 
  2714 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2715 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2716 the following package declarations:
  2717 
  2718   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2719   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2720 
  2721 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2722 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2723 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2724 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2725 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2726 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2727 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2728 
  2729 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2730 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2731 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2732 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2733 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2734 
  2735 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2736 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2737 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2738 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2739 
  2740 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2741 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2742 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2743 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2744 
  2745   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2746 
  2747   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2748   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2749   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2750   show_types                    show_types
  2751   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2752   show_consts                   show_consts
  2753   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2754 
  2755   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2756   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2757   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2758 
  2759   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2760   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2761 
  2762   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2763 
  2764   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2765   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2766   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2767   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2768   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2769 
  2770 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2771 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2772 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2773 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2774 
  2775 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2779   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2780 
  2781 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2782 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2783 float_token.
  2784 
  2785 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2786 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2790 DejaVu Sans.
  2791 
  2792 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2793 
  2794 
  2795 *** Pure ***
  2796 
  2797 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2798 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2799 time.
  2800 
  2801 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2802 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2803 
  2804 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2805 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2808 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2809 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2810 command already provided this functionality.
  2811 
  2812 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2813 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2814 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2815 without interpretations.
  2816 
  2817 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2818 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2819 
  2820 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2821 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2822 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2823 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2824 
  2825 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2826 'definition' instead.
  2827 
  2828 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2829 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2830 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2831 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2832 
  2833 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2834 constructors.
  2835 
  2836 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2837 the local file system.
  2838 
  2839 
  2840 *** HOL ***
  2841 
  2842 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2843 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2844 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2845 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2846 
  2847   declare [[coercion f]]
  2848 
  2849 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2850 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2851 
  2852   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2853 
  2854 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2855 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2856 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2857 other theories like this:
  2858 
  2859   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2860 
  2861 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2862 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2863 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2864 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2865 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2866 for examples.
  2867 
  2868 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2869 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2872 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2873 
  2874 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2875 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2876 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2877 
  2878 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2879 functorial structure of types.
  2880 
  2881 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2882 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2883 
  2884 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2885 languages.
  2886 
  2887 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2888 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890 
  2891 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2892 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893 
  2894 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2895 combinators any longer.
  2896 
  2897 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2898 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2899 
  2900 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2901 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2902 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2903 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2904 
  2905   record 'a foo = ...
  2906   ...
  2907   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2908 
  2909 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2910 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2914 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2915 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2916 
  2917 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2918 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2919 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2920 
  2921 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2922 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2925 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2926 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2927 independently.
  2928 
  2929 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2930 counter example search.
  2931 
  2932 * Sledgehammer:
  2933   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2934     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2935     sledgehammer").
  2936   - Renamed commands:
  2937     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2938     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2939     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2940     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941   - Renamed options:
  2942     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2943     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2944     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2945     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2946     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Nitpick:
  2949   - Renamed options:
  2950     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2951     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2952     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2954   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2955   - Added "whack" option.
  2956   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2957   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2958   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2959   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2960     higher cardinalities.
  2961   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2962 
  2963 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2964 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2965 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2966 
  2967     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2968 
  2969 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2970 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2971 
  2972 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2973 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2974 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2975 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2976 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2977 "smt_solver".
  2978 
  2979 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2980 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2981 
  2982 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2983 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2984 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2985 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2988   - Renamed:
  2989     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2990     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2991     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992   - Added:
  2993     smt_verbose
  2994     smt_random_seed
  2995     smt_datatypes
  2996     smt_infer_triggers
  2997     smt_monomorph_limit
  2998     cvc3_options
  2999     remote_cvc3_options
  3000     remote_z3_options
  3001     yices_options
  3002 
  3003 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3004 header.
  3005 
  3006 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3007 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3008 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3009 
  3010   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3011 
  3012 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3015 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3020 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3023 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3024 
  3025 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3026 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3027 
  3028 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3029 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3030 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3038 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3039 
  3040 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3041 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3042 for congruent(2)).
  3043 
  3044 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3045 
  3046   types
  3047     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3048     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3049 
  3050   constants
  3051     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3052     True ~> HOL.True
  3053     False ~> HOL.False
  3054     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3055     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3056     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3057     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3058     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3059     The ~> HOL.The
  3060     All ~> HOL.All
  3061     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3062     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3063     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3064     If ~> HOL.If
  3065     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3066     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3067     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3068     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3069     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3070     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3071     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3072     op : ~> Set.member
  3073     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3074 
  3075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3078 
  3079     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3080     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3081     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3082     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3083     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3084     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3085     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3086     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3087 
  3088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * More stylized fact names:
  3091 
  3092   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3093   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3094   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3095   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3096 
  3097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3100 
  3101   constants
  3102     null ~> List.null
  3103 
  3104   facts
  3105     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3106     null_empty ~> null_def
  3107 
  3108 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3109 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3110 generation.
  3111 
  3112 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3113 Haskell code.
  3114 
  3115 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3116 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3117 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3120 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3123 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3124 
  3125 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3126 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3127 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3130 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3134 
  3135 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3136 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3137 referred to by its qualified name.
  3138 
  3139   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3140   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3141   product ~>  Enum.product
  3142 
  3143 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3144 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3148 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3149 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3153 sort_key.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3159 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3160 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3161 
  3162   types
  3163     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3164               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3165               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3166         (depends on your needs)
  3167 
  3168   constants
  3169      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3170      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3171      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3172 
  3173 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3174 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3175 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3176 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3177 
  3178 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3179 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3180 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3181 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3182 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3188 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3189 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3190 
  3191 
  3192 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3193 
  3194 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3195 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3196 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3197 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3198 compatibility.
  3199 
  3200 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3201 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3202 
  3203 
  3204 *** HOLCF ***
  3205 
  3206 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3207 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3208 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3212 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3213 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3214 
  3215   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3216   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3217   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3218 
  3219 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3220 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3221 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3222 
  3223 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3224 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3225 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3226 domain definition now works:
  3227 
  3228   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3229 
  3230 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3231 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3232 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3233 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3234 
  3235   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3236     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3237 
  3238   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3239 
  3240 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3241 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3242 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3245 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3248 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3249 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3250 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3251 
  3252 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3253 
  3254 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3262 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3263 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3264 
  3265 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3266 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3267 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3270 still supported as an input translation.
  3271 
  3272 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3273 
  3274   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3275   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3276   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3277   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3278   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3279   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3280   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3281 
  3282 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3283 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3286   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3287   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3288   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3289   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3290   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3291 
  3292 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3293 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3296 
  3297   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3298   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3299   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3300   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3301 
  3302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3305 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3308 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3311   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3312   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3313   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3314   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3315   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3316   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3317   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3318   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3319   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3320   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3321   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3322   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3323   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3324   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3325   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3326   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3327   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3328   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3329   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3330 
  3331 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3334   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3335   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3336   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3337   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3338   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3339   box_less             ~> box_below
  3340   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3341   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3342   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3343   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3344   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3345   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3346   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3347   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3348   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3349   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3350   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3351   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3352   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3353   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3354   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3355   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3356   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3357   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3358   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3359   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3360   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3361   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3362   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3363   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3364   up_less              ~> up_below
  3365   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3366   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3367   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3368   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3369   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3370   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3371   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3372   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3373   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3374   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3375   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3376   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3377   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3378 
  3379 
  3380 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3381 
  3382 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3383 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 
  3386 *** ML ***
  3387 
  3388 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3389 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3390 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3391 
  3392 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3393 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3394 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3395 
  3396 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3397 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3398 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3399 
  3400 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3401 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3402 
  3403 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3404 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3405 
  3406 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3407 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3408 
  3409 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3410 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3411 
  3412 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3413 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3414 almost all situations.
  3415 
  3416 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3417 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3418 Isabelle/ML.
  3419 
  3420 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3421 meaning.
  3422 
  3423 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3424 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3425 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3426 
  3427 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3428 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3429 
  3430 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3431 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3432 
  3433 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3434 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3435 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3436 
  3437 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3438 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3439 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3440 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3441 configuration options.
  3442 
  3443 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3444 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3445 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3446 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3447 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3448 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3449 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3450 
  3451 
  3452 
  3453 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3454 ---------------------------------
  3455 
  3456 *** General ***
  3457 
  3458 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3459 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3460 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3461 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3462 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3463 their full internal name.
  3464 
  3465 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3466 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3467 Some hints on upgrading:
  3468 
  3469   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3470     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3471     which are independent of this issue.
  3472 
  3473   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3474     provides the following special forms:
  3475 
  3476       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3477       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3478       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3479 
  3480     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3481     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3482     extra variables".
  3483 
  3484     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3485     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3486     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3487     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3488     "logic".
  3489 
  3490   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3491     antiquotations:
  3492 
  3493       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3494       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3495       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3496       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3497 
  3498   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3499     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3500     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3501     antiquotations.
  3502 
  3503 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3504 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3505 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3506 diagnose syntax problems.
  3507 
  3508 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3509 
  3510 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3511 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3512 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3513 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3514 
  3515 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3516 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3517 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3518 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3521 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3522 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3523 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3524 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3527 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3528 
  3529 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3530 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3531 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3532 
  3533   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3534 
  3535 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3536 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3537 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3538 
  3539 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3540 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3544 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3545 
  3546 
  3547 *** Pure ***
  3548 
  3549 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3550 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3551 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3552 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3553 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3554 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3555 inspect proof terms.
  3556 
  3557 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3558 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3559 are added internally.  For example:
  3560 
  3561   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3562 
  3563 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3564 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3569 'class' instead.
  3570 
  3571 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3572 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3576 invariants.
  3577 
  3578 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3579 user space functionality any longer.
  3580 
  3581 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3582 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3586 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3587 
  3588 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3589 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3590 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3591 
  3592 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3593 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3594 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3595 
  3596 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3597 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 
  3600 *** HOL ***
  3601 
  3602 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3603 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3604 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3605 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3606 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3607 
  3608 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3609 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3610 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3611 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3612 
  3613   fun
  3614     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3615   where
  3616     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3617 
  3618   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3619     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3620 
  3621   quotient_definition
  3622     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3623 
  3624 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3625 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3626 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3627 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3628 
  3629 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3630 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3631 
  3632 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3633 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3634 
  3635 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3639 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3640 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3641 
  3642 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3643 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3647 
  3648 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3652 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3655 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3656 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3659   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3660   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3661   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3662   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3663   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3664   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3665   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3666   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3667   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3668   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3669   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3670   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3671   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3672   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3673   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3674   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3675   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3676   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3677   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3678   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3679   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3680   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3681   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3682   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3683   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3684   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3685   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3686   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3687   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3688 
  3689 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3690 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3691 
  3692 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3693 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3694 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3695 
  3696 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3697 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3698 
  3699 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3700 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3703 
  3704 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3705 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3708 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709 
  3710 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3713 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3714 
  3715 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3716 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3717 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3718 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3721   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3722   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3723   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3727 lattices):
  3728 
  3729     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3730     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3731 
  3732     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3733 
  3734     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3735     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3736     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3737     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3738     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3739     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3740     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3741     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3742     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3743     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3744     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3745     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3746     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3747 
  3748     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3749     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3750     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3751     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3752     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3753     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3754     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3755     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3756     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3757     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3758     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3759     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3760     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3761     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3762     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3763     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3764     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3765     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3766 
  3767   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3768   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3769 
  3770     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3771     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3772     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3773     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3774     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3775 
  3776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3777 
  3778 * Refined field classes:
  3779   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3780     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3781     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3782   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3786   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3787   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3788   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3789     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3790   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3791     equal_neg_zero.
  3792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3795 sets to lattices:
  3796 
  3797   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3798   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3799   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3800   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3801   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3802   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3803   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3804   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3805   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3806   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3807 
  3808 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3809 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3810 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3811 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3812 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3813 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3814 
  3815 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3816 multiset order:
  3817 
  3818   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3819     <= and <;
  3820   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3821     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3822     multiset_order;
  3823   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3824     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3825     generation;
  3826   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3827     if needed.
  3828 
  3829 Renamed:
  3830 
  3831   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3832   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3833   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3834 
  3835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3838 
  3839 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3840 
  3841 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3842 
  3843 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3844 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3845 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847   Constants:
  3848   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3849   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3850   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3851   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3852   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3853   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3854   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3855   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3856   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3857   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3858   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3859   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3860   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3861 
  3862   Lemmas:
  3863   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3864   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3865   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3866   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3867   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3868   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3869   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3870   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3871   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3872   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3873   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3874   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3875   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3876 
  3877 * Sledgehammer:
  3878   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3879     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3880     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3881     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3882     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3883     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3884     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3886   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3887     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3888   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3889     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3890     is still experimental.)
  3891   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3892     full-typed mode.
  3893   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3894 
  3895 * Nitpick:
  3896   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3897   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3898   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3899     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3900   - Added support for quotient types.
  3901   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3902     constructs.
  3903   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3904     "termination" proofs).
  3905   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3906   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3907   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3908   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3909     record getters.
  3910   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3911   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3912   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3913   - Added "atoms" option.
  3914   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3915     problems.
  3916   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3917     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3918     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3920     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3924   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3925   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3926   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3927   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3928   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3929   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3930   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3931   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3932   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934 
  3935 *** HOLCF ***
  3936 
  3937 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3938 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3939 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3942 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3943 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3944 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3947 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3948 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3949 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3950 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3953 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3954 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3957 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3960   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3961 
  3962 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3963 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3966   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3967   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3968   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3969   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3970 
  3971 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3972 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3975   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3976   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3977 
  3978 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3979 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3983 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3988 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 
  3991 *** ML ***
  3992 
  3993 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3994 
  3995     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3996     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3997 
  3998     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3999     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4000     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4001     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4002 
  4003     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4004     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4005     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4006 
  4007 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4008 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4009 
  4010 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4011 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4012 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4013 
  4014 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4015 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4016 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4017 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4018 
  4019 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4020 the context or even global references.
  4021 
  4022 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4023 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4024 
  4025 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4026 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4027 
  4028   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4029   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4030   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4031   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4032   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4033   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4034   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4035   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4036   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4037   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4038 
  4039 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4040 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4041 
  4042 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4043 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4044 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4045 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4046 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4047 
  4048 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4049 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4050 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4051 Theory_Data version.
  4052 
  4053 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4054 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4055 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4056 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4057 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4058 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4059 explicitly in rare situations.
  4060 
  4061 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4062 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4066 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4067 
  4068 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4069 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4070 quite rare).
  4071 
  4072 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4073 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4076 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4077 terms.
  4078 
  4079 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4080 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4081 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4082 
  4083 
  4084 *** System ***
  4085 
  4086 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4087 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4088 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4089 
  4090 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4091 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4092 respectively.
  4093 
  4094 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4095 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4096 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4097 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4098 
  4099   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4100 
  4101 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4102 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4103 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4104 component.
  4105 
  4106 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4107 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4108 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4109 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4110 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4111 the user for manual installation.
  4112 
  4113 
  4114 
  4115 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4116 -------------------------------------
  4117 
  4118 *** General ***
  4119 
  4120 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4121 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4122 
  4123 
  4124 *** Pure ***
  4125 
  4126 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4127 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4128 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4129 
  4130 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4131 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4132 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4133 
  4134 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4135 interpretation.
  4136 
  4137 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4138 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 
  4141 *** Document preparation ***
  4142 
  4143 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4144 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4145 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4146 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4147 
  4148 
  4149 *** HOL ***
  4150 
  4151 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4152 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4153 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4154 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4155 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4156 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4157 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4158 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4159 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4160 
  4161 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4162 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4163 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4164 
  4165 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4166 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4167 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4168 
  4169 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4170 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4171 
  4172 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4173 
  4174 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4175 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4176 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4177 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4178 
  4179 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4180 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4181 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4182 "mirabelle" utility.
  4183 
  4184 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4185 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4186 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4187 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4188 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4189 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4190 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4191 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4192 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4193 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4194 
  4195 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4196 procedure only.
  4197 
  4198 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4199 
  4200 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4201 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4202 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4203 that fail later.
  4204 
  4205 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4206 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4207 
  4208 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4209 the same method as the approximation method.
  4210 
  4211 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4212 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4213 series expansion.
  4214 
  4215 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4216 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4217 
  4218 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4219 reals.
  4220 
  4221 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4222 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4223 
  4224 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4225 fixpoint theorem.
  4226 
  4227 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4228   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4229     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4230   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4231     accordingly
  4232   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4233     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4234   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4235     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4236 
  4237 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4238 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4239 lattice.
  4240 
  4241 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4242 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4243 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4244 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4245 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4246 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4250   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4251     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4252   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4253     le_inf_iff
  4254   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4255     sup_aci)
  4256   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4257   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4258   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4259     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4260     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4261     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4262     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4263     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4264     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4265     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4266     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4267     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4268     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4269   - authentic syntax for
  4270     Set.Pow
  4271     Set.image
  4272   - mere abbreviations:
  4273     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4274     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4275     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4276     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4277     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4278     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4279     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4280     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4281   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4282 
  4283 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4284 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4285 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4286 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4287 
  4288 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4289 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4290 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4291 
  4292 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4293 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4296 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4297 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4298 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4299 
  4300 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4301 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4302 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4303 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4304 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4305 
  4306 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4307 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4311 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4314 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4315 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4316 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4317 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4318 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4319 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4323     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4324     code_post       replaces    code post
  4325     etc.
  4326   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328 * Renamed methods:
  4329     sizechange -> size_change
  4330     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4331   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4334 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4335 
  4336 * Renamed theorems:
  4337     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4338     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4339     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4340     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4341     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4342   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4349 
  4350 
  4351 *** HOLCF ***
  4352 
  4353 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4354 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4355 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4356 
  4357 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4358 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4359 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4360 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4361 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4362 
  4363 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4364 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4365 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4366 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4367 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4368 
  4369 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4370 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4371 constructor are pre-configured.
  4372 
  4373 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4374 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4375 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4376 
  4377 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4378 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4379 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4380 as well.)
  4381 
  4382 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4383 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4384 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4385 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4386 examples.
  4387 
  4388 
  4389 *** ML ***
  4390 
  4391 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4392 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4393 
  4394 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4395 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4396 position, logical grouping etc.
  4397 
  4398 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4399 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4400 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4401 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4402 
  4403 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4404 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4405 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4406 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4407 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4408 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4409 
  4410 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4411 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4412 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4413 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4414 experiments with references.
  4415 
  4416 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4417 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4418 
  4419 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4420 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4421 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4422 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4423 
  4424 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4425 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4426 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4427 
  4428 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4429 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4430 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431 
  4432 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4433 
  4434 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4438 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4439 
  4440 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4441 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4442 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4443 
  4444 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4445 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4446 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4449 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4450 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4454 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4455 instead of global theory.
  4456 
  4457 
  4458 *** System ***
  4459 
  4460 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4461 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4462 usedir option -q.
  4463 
  4464 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4465 also the system manual.
  4466 
  4467 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4468 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4469 
  4470 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4471 this is always enabled.
  4472 
  4473 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4474 
  4475 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4476 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4477 currently supported on Linux only.
  4478 
  4479 
  4480 
  4481 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4482 --------------------------------
  4483 
  4484 *** General ***
  4485 
  4486 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4487 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4488 
  4489   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4490     "isatool."
  4491 
  4492   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4493     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4494 
  4495   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4496     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4497 
  4498 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4499 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4500 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4501 
  4502 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4503 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4504 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4505 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4506 via "isabelle emacs".
  4507 
  4508 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4509 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4510 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4511 
  4512 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4513 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4514 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4515 
  4516 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4517 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4518 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4519 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4520 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4521 
  4522 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4523 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4524 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4525 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4526 
  4527 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4528 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4529 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4530 
  4531 
  4532 *** Pure ***
  4533 
  4534 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4535 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4536 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4537 
  4538 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4539 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4540 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4541 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4542 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4543 
  4544 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4545 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4546 useful in locale declarations.
  4547 
  4548 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4549 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4550 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4551 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4552 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4553 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4554 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4555 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4556 no longer generated.
  4557 
  4558 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4559 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4560 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4561 
  4562 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4563 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4564 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4565 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4566 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4567 
  4568 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4570 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4571 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4572 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4573 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4574 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4575 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4576 
  4577 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4578 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4579 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4580 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4581 
  4582 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4585 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4586 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4587 
  4588 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4589 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4592 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4593 in HOL, write
  4594 
  4595     class foo = ...
  4596 
  4597 instead of
  4598 
  4599     class foo = type + ...
  4600 
  4601 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4602 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4603 
  4604 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4605 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4606 
  4607 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4608 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4609 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4610 
  4611 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4612 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4613 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4614 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4615 directly in regular applications.
  4616 
  4617 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4618 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4619 
  4620 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4621 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4622 
  4623 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4624 theory context.
  4625 
  4626 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4627 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4630 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4631 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4632 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4633 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4634 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4635 
  4636   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4637 
  4638 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4639 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4640 normalization.
  4641 
  4642 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4643 addressing etc.
  4644 
  4645 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4646 
  4647   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4648   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4649 
  4650 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4651 
  4652   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4653      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4654      parts of the code generator framework).
  4655 
  4656   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4657      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4658      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4659 
  4660 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4663 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4666 patterns, e.g.
  4667 
  4668     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4669 
  4670 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4671 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4672 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4673 hyphen:
  4674 
  4675     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4676 
  4677 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4678 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4679 
  4680 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4681 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4682 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4683 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4684 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4685 higher-order unification.
  4686 
  4687 
  4688 *** Document preparation ***
  4689 
  4690 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4691 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4692 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4693 
  4694 
  4695 *** HOL ***
  4696 
  4697 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4698 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4699 
  4700 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4701 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4702 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4703 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4704 Main, as before.
  4705 
  4706 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4707 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4708 
  4709 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4710 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4711 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4712 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4713 
  4714 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4715 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4716 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4717 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4718 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4719 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4720 
  4721 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4722 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4723 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4724 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4725 
  4726 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4727 menu.
  4728 
  4729 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4730 (contains the empty clause).
  4731 
  4732 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4733 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4734 
  4735 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4736 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4737 
  4738 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4739 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4740 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741 
  4742 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4743 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4744 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4745 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4746 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4747 
  4748 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4749 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4750 
  4751 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4752 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4753 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4754 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4755 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4756 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4757 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4758 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4759 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4760 
  4761 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4762 
  4763 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4764 
  4765 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4766 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4769 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4770 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4771 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4772 
  4773 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4774 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4775 
  4776     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4777     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4778     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4779     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4780     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4781     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4782     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4783     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4784 
  4785 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4786 theory Set.
  4787 
  4788 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4789 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4790 
  4791 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4792 
  4793 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4794 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4795 
  4796 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4797 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4798 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4799 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4800 allowed. For examples see
  4801 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4802 
  4803 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4804 
  4805 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4807 
  4808 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4809 structure:
  4810 
  4811     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4812     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4813     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4814     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4815     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4816     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4817     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4818     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4819     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4820     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4821     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4822     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4823     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4824     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4825     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4826     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4827     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4828     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4829     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4830     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4831     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4832     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4833     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4834     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4835     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4836     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4837     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4838     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4839     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4840     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4841     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4842     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4843     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4844 
  4845     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4846     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4847     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4848     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4849     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4850     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4851     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4852     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4853     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4854     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4855 
  4856     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4857     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4858     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4859     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4860     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4861     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4862 
  4863 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4864 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4865 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4866 
  4867 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4868 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4869 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4870 
  4871 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4872 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4873 
  4874 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4875 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4876 
  4877 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4878 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4879 proofs, e.g.
  4880 
  4881   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4882 
  4883 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4884 
  4885 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4886 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4887 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4890 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4892 
  4893 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4894 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4895 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4897 
  4898 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4900 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4901 preorder_class.*.
  4902 
  4903 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4904 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4905 
  4906 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4907 
  4908   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4909 
  4910 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4911 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4912 fold_image.
  4913 
  4914 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4915 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4916 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4917 the former will disappear at some point.
  4918 
  4919 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4920 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4921 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4922 
  4923 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4924 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4925 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4926 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4927 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4928 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4929 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4930 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4931 
  4932 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4933 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4934 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4935 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4936 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4937 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4938 
  4939     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4940     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4941     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4942     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4943     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4944     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4945     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4946 
  4947 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4948 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4949 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4950 
  4951 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4952 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4953 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4954 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4955 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4956 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4957 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4958 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4959 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4960 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4961 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4962 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4963 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4964 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4965 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4966 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4967 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4968 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4969 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4970 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4971 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4972 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4973 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4974 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4975 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4976 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4977 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4978 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4979 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4980 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4981 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4982 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4983 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4984 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4985 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4986 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4987 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4988 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4989 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4990 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4991 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4992 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4993 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4994 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4995 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4996 
  4997 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4998 
  4999 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5000 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5001 
  5002 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5003 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5004 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5005 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5006 
  5007 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5008 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5009 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5010 theory RealVector.
  5011 
  5012 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5013 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5014 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5015 and inner products are included.
  5016 
  5017 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5018 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5019 supported.
  5020 
  5021 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5022 first diagonalization argument.
  5023 
  5024 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5025 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5026 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5027 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5028 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5029 
  5030     hide (open) const gcd
  5031     abbreviation gcd where
  5032       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5033     notation (output)
  5034       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5035 
  5036 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5037 
  5038 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5039 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5040 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5041 
  5042 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5043 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5044 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5045 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5046 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5047 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5048 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5049 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5050 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5051 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5052 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5053 cases.
  5054 
  5055 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5056 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5057 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5058 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5059 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5060 
  5061     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5062     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5063     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5064     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5065     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5066 
  5067 
  5068 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5069 
  5070 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5071 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5072 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5073 
  5074 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5075 
  5076 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5077 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5078 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5079 
  5080 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5081 
  5082 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5083 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5084 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5085 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5086 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5087 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5088 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5089 
  5090 
  5091 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5092 
  5093 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5094 
  5095 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5096 theory targets.
  5097 
  5098 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5099 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5100 'inductive' etc.
  5101 
  5102 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5103 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5104 
  5105 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5106 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5107 
  5108 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5109 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5110 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5111 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5112 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5113 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5114 the algorithm W:
  5115 
  5116  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5117  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5118          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5119 
  5120 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5121 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5122 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5123 
  5124 
  5125 *** HOLCF ***
  5126 
  5127 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5128 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5129 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5130 
  5131 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5132 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5133 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5134 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5135 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5138 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5139 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5140 
  5141 
  5142 *** ZF ***
  5143 
  5144 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5145 
  5146 
  5147 *** ML ***
  5148 
  5149 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5150 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5151 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5152 5.2.1!
  5153 
  5154 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5155 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5156 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5157 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5158 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5159 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5160 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5161 
  5162 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5163 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5164 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5165 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5166 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5167 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5168 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5169 
  5170 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5171 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5172 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5173 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5174 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5175 
  5176 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5177 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5178 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5179 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5180 Method.add_method.
  5181 
  5182 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5183 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5184 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5185 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5186 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5187 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5188 
  5189 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5190 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5191 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5192 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5193 examples.
  5194 
  5195 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5196 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5197 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5198 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5199 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5200 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5201 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5202 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5203 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5204 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5205 
  5206 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5207 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5208 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5209 
  5210 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5211 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5212 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5213 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5214 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5215 resort for legacy applications.
  5216 
  5217 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5218 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5219 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5220 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5221 explicit runtime argument.
  5222 
  5223 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5224 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5225 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5226 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5227 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5228 
  5229 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5230 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5231 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5232 theory state.
  5233 
  5234 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5235 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5236 
  5237   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5238   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5239   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5240   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5241   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5242   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5243   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5244   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5245   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5246   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5247 
  5248 
  5249 *** System ***
  5250 
  5251 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5252 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5253 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5254 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5255 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5256 
  5257 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5258 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5259 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5260 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5261 
  5262 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5263 
  5264 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5265 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5266 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5267 prover operations.
  5268 
  5269 
  5270 
  5271 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5272 -------------------------------
  5273 
  5274 *** General ***
  5275 
  5276 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5277 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5278 
  5279 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5280 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5281 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5282 provides a proper context already.
  5283 
  5284 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5285 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5286 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5287 
  5288 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5289 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5290 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5291 swap theory imports.
  5292 
  5293 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5294 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5295 
  5296 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5297 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5298 white space without escapes.
  5299 
  5300 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5301 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5302 "foo_bar".
  5303 
  5304 
  5305 *** Pure ***
  5306 
  5307 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5308 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5309 
  5310 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5311 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5312 
  5313 (1) unused_thms
  5314      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5315 
  5316 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5317      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5318      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5319 
  5320 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5321      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5322      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5323      their ancestors.
  5324 
  5325 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5326 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5327 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5328 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5329 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5330 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5331 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5332 
  5333 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5334 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5335 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5336 
  5337 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5338 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5339 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5340 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5341 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5342 
  5343 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5344 
  5345 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5346 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5347 update of theories within ML code.
  5348 
  5349 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5350 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5351 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5352 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5353 
  5354 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5355 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5356 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5358 
  5359 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5360 
  5361 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5362 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5363 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5364 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5365 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5366 
  5367 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5368 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5369 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5370 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5371 situations.
  5372 
  5373 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5374 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5375 proof text.
  5376 
  5377 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5378 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5379 
  5380 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5381 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5382 predicates.
  5383 
  5384 
  5385 *** Document preparation ***
  5386 
  5387 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5388 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5389 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5390 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5391 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5392 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5393 
  5394 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5395 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5396 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5397 
  5398 
  5399 *** HOL ***
  5400 
  5401 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5402 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5403 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5404 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5405 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5406 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5407 
  5408 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5409 with multithreading.
  5410 
  5411 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5412 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5413 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5414 
  5415 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5416 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5417 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5418 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5419 
  5420 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5421 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5422 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5423 and makes them available separately.  See
  5424 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5425 
  5426 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5427 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5428 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5429 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5430 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5431 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5432 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5433 the declared rules.
  5434 
  5435 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5436 
  5437   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5438 
  5439 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5440 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5441 
  5442 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5443 
  5444   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5445 
  5446   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5447     definitions on => and bool.
  5448 
  5449   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5450     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5451     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5452 
  5453       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5454       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5455       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5456       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5457       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5458       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5459       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5460       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5461 
  5462   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5463     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5464     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5465 
  5466   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5467     The proof pattern
  5468 
  5469       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5470       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5471 
  5472     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5473     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5474 
  5475       have "EX S. P S"
  5476       proof
  5477         show "P S" <...>
  5478       qed
  5479 
  5480   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5481     The proof pattern
  5482 
  5483       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5484       also have "S = T" <...>
  5485       finally have "P T" .
  5486 
  5487     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5488     must be replaced by something like
  5489 
  5490       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5491       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5492       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5493 
  5494   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5495     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5496 
  5497       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5498 
  5499     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5500     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5501     type of the form
  5502 
  5503       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5504 
  5505     rather than
  5506 
  5507       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5508 
  5509 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5510 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5511 
  5512 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5513 
  5514 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5515 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5517 
  5518 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5519 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5520 
  5521 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5522 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5523 
  5524 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5525 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5526 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5527 
  5528 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5529 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5530 
  5531   less_trans
  5532   less_linear
  5533   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5534   le_less_trans
  5535   less_le_trans
  5536   less_not_sym
  5537   less_asym
  5538 
  5539 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5540 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5541 and different variable names.
  5542 
  5543 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5544 
  5545 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5546 finite maps.
  5547 
  5548 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5549 
  5550 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5551 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5552 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5553 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5554 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5555 accordingly.
  5556 
  5557 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5558 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5559 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5560 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5561 
  5562 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5563 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5564 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5565 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5566 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5568 
  5569 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5570 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5571 
  5572 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5573 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5574 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5575 
  5576 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5578 
  5579 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5580 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5581 
  5582 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5583 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5586 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5587 
  5588 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5589 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5593 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5594 
  5595 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5596 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5597 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5598 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5599 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5600 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5601 
  5602 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5603 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5604 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5605 
  5606 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5607 
  5608 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5609 
  5610 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5611 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5612 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5613 
  5614 
  5615 *** ZF ***
  5616 
  5617 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5618 same session:
  5619 
  5620   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5621   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5622   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5623   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5624   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5625   List      -> List_ZF
  5626   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5627 
  5628 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5629 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5630 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5631 
  5632 
  5633 *** ML ***
  5634 
  5635 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5636 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5637 
  5638 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5639 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5640 
  5641 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5642 
  5643 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5644 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5645 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5646 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5647 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5648 
  5649 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5650 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5651 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5652 
  5653 
  5654 *** System ***
  5655 
  5656 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5657 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5658 
  5659 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5660 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5661 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5662 
  5663 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5664 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5665 
  5666 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5667 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5668 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5669 
  5670 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5671 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5672 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5673 
  5674 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5675 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5676 
  5677 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5678 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5679 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5680 script.
  5681 
  5682 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5683 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5684 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5685 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5686 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5687 
  5688 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5689 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5690 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5691 
  5692 
  5693 
  5694 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5695 -----------------------------------
  5696 
  5697 *** General ***
  5698 
  5699 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5700 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5701 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5702 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5703 
  5704 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5705 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5706 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5707 
  5708 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5709 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5710 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5711 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5712 
  5713 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5714 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5715 quotes.
  5716 
  5717 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5718 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5719 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5720 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5721 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5722 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5723 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5724 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5725 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5726 
  5727 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5728 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5729 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5730 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5731 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5732 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5733 
  5734 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5735 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5736 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5737 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5738 
  5739 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5740 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5741 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5742 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5743 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5744 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5745 
  5746 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5747 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5748 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5749 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5750 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5751 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5752 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5753 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5754 
  5755 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5756 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5757 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5758 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5759 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5760 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5761 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5762 
  5763 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5764 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5765 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5766 
  5767 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5768 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5769 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5770 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5771 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5772 limit is imposed.
  5773 
  5774 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5775 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5776 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5777 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5778 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5779 and scalability.
  5780 
  5781 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5782 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5783 
  5784 
  5785 *** Document preparation ***
  5786 
  5787 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5788 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5789 current context.
  5790 
  5791 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5792 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5793 
  5794 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5795 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5796 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5797 
  5798 
  5799 *** Pure ***
  5800 
  5801 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5802 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5803 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5804 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5805 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5806 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5807 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5808 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5809 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5810 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5811 
  5812 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5813 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5814 sketch:
  5815 
  5816     internal compilation:
  5817         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5818     writing SML code to a file:
  5819         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5820     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5821         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5822     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5823         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5824 
  5825     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5826         method ``eval''
  5827 
  5828 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5829 
  5830 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5831 
  5832     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5833     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5834     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5835     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5836 
  5837 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5838 
  5839     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5840       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5841 
  5842     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5843       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5844 
  5845     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5846       {(target)}+
  5847         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5848 
  5849     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5850       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5851         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5852 
  5853 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5854 
  5855 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5856 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5857 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5858 codegen".
  5859 
  5860 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5861 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5862 annotations).
  5863 
  5864 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5865 syntax.
  5866 
  5867 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5868 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5869 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5870 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5871 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5872 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5873 
  5874 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5875 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5876 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5877 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5878 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5879 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5880 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5881 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5882 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5883 equations, see section "definitions".
  5884 
  5885 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5886 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5887 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5888 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5889 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5890 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5891 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5892 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5893 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5894 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5895 
  5896 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5897 configuration options:
  5898 
  5899   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5900   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5901   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5902   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5903   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5904   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5905   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5906   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5907   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5908 
  5909 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5910 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5911 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5912 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5913 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5914 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5915 order.
  5916 
  5917 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5918 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5919 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5920 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5921 context encountered later on.
  5922 
  5923 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5924 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5925 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5926 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5927 
  5928 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5929 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5930 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5931 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5932 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5933 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5934 
  5935 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5936 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5937 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5938 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5939 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5940 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5941 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5942 more permissive.
  5943 
  5944 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5945 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5946 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5947 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5948 maintainability of proof texts.
  5949 
  5950 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5951 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5952 
  5953   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5954   then guess x and y by clarify
  5955 
  5956 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5957 proof tools being involved here.
  5958 
  5959 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5960 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5961 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5962 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5963 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5964 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5965 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5966 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5967 
  5968 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5969 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5970 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5971 
  5972   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5973   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5974   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5975   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5976 
  5977 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5978 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5979 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5980 
  5981 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5982 both named and unnamed ones.
  5983 
  5984 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5985 
  5986   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5987 
  5988 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5989 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5990 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5991 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5992 
  5993 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5994 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5995 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5996 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5997 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5998 
  5999 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6000 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6001 
  6002 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6003 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6004 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6005 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6006 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6007 originally first one.
  6008 
  6009 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6010 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6011 expected.
  6012 
  6013 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6014 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6015 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6016 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6017 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6018 
  6019   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6020     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6021     obtains x where "P x"
  6022 
  6023   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6024     assumes "A & B"
  6025     obtains A and B
  6026 
  6027   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6028     assumes "A | B"
  6029     obtains
  6030       A
  6031     | B
  6032 
  6033 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6034 explicitly:
  6035 
  6036   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6037     obtains "~ thesis"
  6038 
  6039   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6040     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6041 
  6042 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6043 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6044 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6045 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6046 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6047 case_names).
  6048 
  6049 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6050 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6051 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6052 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6053 
  6054 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6055 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6056 top-level lemma.
  6057 
  6058 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6059 introduction rule (default "that").
  6060 
  6061 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6062 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6063 to occur.
  6064 
  6065 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6066 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6067 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6068 representations independently of name spaces.
  6069 
  6070 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6071 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6072 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6073 
  6074 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6075 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6076 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6077 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6078 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6079 current context.
  6080 
  6081 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6082 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6083 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6084 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6085 
  6086   axiomatization
  6087     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6088     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6089 
  6090   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6091   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6092 
  6093   abbreviation
  6094     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6095     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6096 
  6097 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6098 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6099 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6100 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6101 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6102 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6103 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6104 
  6105 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6106 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6107 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6108 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6109 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6110 
  6111 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6112 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6113 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6114 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6115 
  6116 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6117 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6118 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6119 
  6120   definition "K x _ = x"
  6121 
  6122   inductive conj for A B
  6123   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6124 
  6125 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6126 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6127 abbreviations on output.
  6128 
  6129 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6130 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6131 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6132 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6133 
  6134 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6135 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6136 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6137 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6138 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6139 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6140 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6141 
  6142 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6143 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6144 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6145 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6146 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6147 
  6148 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6149 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6150 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6151 
  6152 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6153 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6154 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6155 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6156 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6157 
  6158   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6159     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6160 
  6161 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6162 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6163 partial_order.
  6164 
  6165 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6166 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6167 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6168 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6169 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6170 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6171 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6172 examples.
  6173 
  6174 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6175 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6176 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6177 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6178 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6179 
  6180 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6181 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6182 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6183 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6184 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6185 
  6186   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6187   (induct set: foo bar)
  6188   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6189   (induct type: foo bar)
  6190 
  6191 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6192 new format.
  6193 
  6194 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6195 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6196 
  6197 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6198 considered a legacy feature.
  6199 
  6200 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6201 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6204 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6205 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6206 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6207   
  6208 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6209 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6210 manipulating the claset.
  6211 
  6212 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6213 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6214 least one premise.
  6215 
  6216 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6217 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6218 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6219 rule steps.
  6220 
  6221 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6222 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6223 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6224 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6225 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6226 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6227 
  6228 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6229 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6230 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6231 
  6232 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6233 the graph browser tool.
  6234 
  6235 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6236 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6237 
  6238 
  6239 *** HOL ***
  6240 
  6241 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6242 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6243 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6244 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6245 multi-threading.
  6246   
  6247 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6248 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6249 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6250 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6251 work with multi-threading.
  6252 
  6253 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6254 pote