NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Nov 11 17:44:21 2013 +0100 (2013-11-11)
changeset 54384 50199af40c27
parent 54378 72254819befd
parent 54295 45a5523d4a63
child 54449 f3cfe882f9af
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged, using src/HOL/Tools/Sledgehammer/sledgehammer_isar.ML and src/HOL/Tools/Sledgehammer/sledgehammer_run.ML from 347c3b0cab44;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** HOL ***
     8 
     9 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    10 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    11 
    12 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    13     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    14 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    17     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    18     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    20 
    21 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    22     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    23     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Fact name consolidation:
    27     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    28     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    29     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    30     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    31     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    32 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    33 
    34 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    35 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    36 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    37 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    38 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    39 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    40 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    41 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    44 
    45 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    46 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    47 
    48 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    49 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    50 
    51 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    52 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    53 or the brute way with
    54 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    55 
    56 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    57 
    58 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    59 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    60 
    61 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    62 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    63 
    64 
    65 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    66 -------------------------------------
    67 
    68 *** General ***
    69 
    70 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    71 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    72 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    73 
    74 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    75 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    76 
    77 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    78 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    79 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    80 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    81 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    82 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    83 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    84 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    85 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    86 syntax.
    87 
    88 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    89 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    90 
    91 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    92 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    93 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    94 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    95 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    96 
    97 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    98 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   101 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   102 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   103 
   104 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   105 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   106 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   107 
   108 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   109 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   110 
   111 
   112 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   113 
   114 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   115 Documentation panel.
   116 
   117 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   118 documentation.
   119 
   120 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   121 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   122 
   123 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   124 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   125 normal editing and checking process.
   126 
   127 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   128 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   129 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   130 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   131 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   132 
   133 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   134 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   135 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   136 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   137 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   138 
   139 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   140 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   141 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   142 
   143 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   144 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   145 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   146 to resolve conflict.
   147 
   148 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   149 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   150 
   151 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   152 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   153 such command executions while editing.
   154 
   155 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   156 document content.
   157 
   158 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   159 toplevel theorem statements.
   160 
   161 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   162 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   163 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   164 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   165 
   166 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   167 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   168 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   169 
   170 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   171 / Global Options / Appearance".
   172 
   173 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   174 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   175 
   176 
   177 *** Pure ***
   178 
   179 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   180 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   181 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   182 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   183 details.
   184 
   185 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   186 
   187 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   188 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   189 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   190 
   191 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   195 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   196 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   197 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   200 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   201 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   204 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   205 
   206 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   207 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   208 situations.
   209 
   210 
   211 *** HOL ***
   212 
   213 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   214 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   218 
   219 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   220 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   221 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   222 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   223 
   224   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   225 
   226 * Code generator:
   227   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   228     'code_instance'.
   229   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   230     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   231 
   232 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   233 examples.
   234 
   235 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   236 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   237 to distinguish both when desired.
   238 
   239 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   240 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   241 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   242 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243 
   244 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   245 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   246 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   247 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   248 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   249 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   250 
   251 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   252 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   253 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   254 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   255 
   256 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   257 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   258 
   259 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   260 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   261 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   262 
   263 * Lifting:
   264   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   265     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   266       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   267       transfer rules
   268     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   269       correspondence relation can be generated
   270     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   271       parametricity
   272     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   273   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   274   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   275     copies
   276   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   277     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   278     anonymous context)
   279   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   280     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   281   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   282     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   283   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   284     INCOMPATIBILITY
   285 
   286 * Transfer:
   287   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   288     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   289   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   290   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   291     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   292   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   293 
   294 * Reification and reflection:
   295   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   296     "Reification".
   297   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   298   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   302   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   303     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   304     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   305   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   306     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   307   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   308     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   309     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   310     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   311     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   312     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   313     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   314     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   315   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   316     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   317   - Fact renames:
   318       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   319       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   321 
   322 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   323 
   324 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   325 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   326 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   330 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   331 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   332 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   333 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   334 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   335 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   336 lemmas.
   337 
   338 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   339 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   340 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   341 
   342 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   343 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   344 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   345 
   346 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   347 top and bottom elements.
   348 
   349 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   350 
   351 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   352 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   353 
   354  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   355    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   356    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   357 
   358  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   359    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   360    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   361 
   362    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   363    arbitrary filter.
   364 
   365  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   366    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   367    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   368    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   369    on a compact set.
   370 
   371  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   372    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   373    linear_continuum_topology).
   374 
   375  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   376    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   377    on all sequences converging to x.
   378 
   379  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   380    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   381    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   382    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   383    left or right.
   384 
   385  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   386 
   387      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   388 
   389  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   390    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   391 
   392  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   393    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   394    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   395    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   396    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   397    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   398 
   399  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   400 
   401    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   402 
   403    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   404      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   405 
   406    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   407 
   408    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   409      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   410 
   411    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   412 
   413    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   414 
   415  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   416 
   417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * Nitpick:
   420   - Added option "spy"
   421   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   422 
   423 * Sledgehammer:
   424   - Renamed option:
   425       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   426     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   428   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   429   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   430 
   431 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   432 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   433 
   434 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   435   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   436   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   437     generated code.
   438   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   439   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   440   - Fact renames:
   441     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   442     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   443     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   444 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   447 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   448 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   449 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   450 
   451 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   452 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   453 
   454 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   457 
   458     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   459     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   460 
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   464 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   465 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   466 
   467 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   468 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   469 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   470 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   471 
   472 * HOL-BNF:
   473   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   474     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   475     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   476     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   477   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   478     coinduct).
   479   - Renamed keywords:
   480     data ~> datatype_new
   481     codata ~> codatatype
   482     bnf_def ~> bnf
   483   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   484     discs ~> disc
   485     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   486     map_id' ~> map_id
   487     sels ~> sel
   488     set_map' ~> set_map
   489     sets ~> set
   490 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   491 
   492 
   493 *** ML ***
   494 
   495 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   496 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   497 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   498 Examples.thy in particular.
   499 
   500 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   501 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   502 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   503 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   504 
   505 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   506 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   507 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   508 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   510 
   511 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   512 
   513     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   514     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   515 
   516 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   517 
   518 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   519 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   520 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   521 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   522 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   523 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   524 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   525 
   526 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   527 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   528 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   529 clasets separately from the context.
   530 
   531 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   532 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   533 
   534 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   535 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   536 
   537 
   538 *** System ***
   539 
   540 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   541 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   542 
   543 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   544 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   547 settings variable.
   548 
   549 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   550 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   551 always pdf.
   552 
   553 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   554 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   555 
   556 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   557 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   558 
   559 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   560 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   561 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   562 
   563 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   564 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   565 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   566 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   567 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   568 for HTML presentation of theories.
   569 
   570 
   571 
   572 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   573 -----------------------------------
   574 
   575 *** General ***
   576 
   577 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   578 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   579 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   580 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   581 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   582 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   583 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   584 
   585 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   586 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   587 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   588 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   589 
   590 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   591 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   592 
   593 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   594 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   595 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   596 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   597 dependencies properly.
   598 
   599 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   600 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   601 
   602 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   603 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   604 
   605 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   606 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   607 and "class ... context ...".
   608 
   609 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   610 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   611 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   612 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   613 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   614 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   615 
   616 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   617 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   618 
   619 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   620 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   621 
   622 
   623 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   624 
   625 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   626 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   627 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   628 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   629 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   630 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   631 
   632 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   633 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   634 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   635 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   636 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   637 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   638 
   639 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   640 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   641 browser on demand.
   642 
   643 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   644 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   645 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   646 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   647 
   648 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   649 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   650 
   651 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   652 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   653 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   654 potentially infinite message streams.
   655 
   656 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   657 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   658 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   659 schemes.
   660 
   661 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   662 symbols.
   663 
   664 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   665 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   666 
   667 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   668 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   669 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   670 
   671 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   672 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   673 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   674 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   675 
   676 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   677 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   678 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   679 
   680 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   681 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   682 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   683 Isabelle distribution.
   684 
   685 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   686 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   687 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   688 
   689 
   690 *** Pure ***
   691 
   692 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   693 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   694 
   695 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   696 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   697 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   700 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   701 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   702 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   703 with some care where this is really required.
   704 
   705 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   706 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   707 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   708 
   709   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   710 
   711 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   712 a Hasse diagram.
   713 
   714 
   715 *** HOL ***
   716 
   717 * Sledgehammer:
   718 
   719   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   720     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   721   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   722   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   723   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   724   - Renamed options:
   725       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   726       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   727       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   728       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   729 
   730 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   731 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   732 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   733 
   734 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   736 
   737 * Lifting:
   738   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   739   - quot_del attribute
   740   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   741 
   742 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   743 expressions.
   744 
   745 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   746 pointfree expressions.
   747 
   748 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   749 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   750 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   751 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   755 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   756 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   757 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   758 accordingly.
   759 
   760 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   761 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   764 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767 
   768 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   769 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   770 
   771 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   772 
   773 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   774 
   775   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   776   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   777 
   778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   781 
   782   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   783   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   784 
   785 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   788 
   789   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   790     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   791     output f x converges to G.
   792 
   793   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   794     infinity (at_bot).
   795 
   796   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   797     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   798 
   799   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   800     at_top".
   801 
   802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   805 lattice type classes.
   806 
   807 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   808 
   809     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   810     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   811 
   812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   813 
   814 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   815 changes as follows.
   816 
   817   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   818 
   819       prefix ~> prefixeq
   820       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   821 
   822   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   823     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   824     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   825     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   826 
   827   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   828     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   829     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   830 
   831   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   832     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   833     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   834     Library/Prefix_Order.
   835 
   836   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   837     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   838 
   839       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   840       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   841       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   842       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   843       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   844       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   845       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   846       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   847       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   848       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   849       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   850       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   851       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   852       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   853       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   854       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   855 
   856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   859 
   860 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   861 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   862 
   863 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   864 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   865 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   866 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   867 
   868   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   869   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   870   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   871   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   872   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   873   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   874   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   875   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   876   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   877   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   878 
   879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   882 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   883 Data").
   884 
   885 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   886 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   887 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   888 code.
   889 
   890 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   891 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   892 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   896 
   897 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   898 
   899 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   900 
   901   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   902   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   903 
   904 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   905 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   906 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   907 
   908   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   909 
   910     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   911     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   912     cart_base i  removed
   913     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   914 
   915   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   916 
   917   Renamed lemmas:
   918 
   919     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   920     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   921     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   922     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   923     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   924     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   925     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   926     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   927     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   928     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   929 
   930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   931 
   932 * HOL/Probability:
   933 
   934   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   935 
   936   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   937     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   938     (borel_measurable_induct).
   939 
   940   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   941     projective family).
   942 
   943 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   944 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   945 
   946 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   947 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   948 datatypes.
   949 
   950 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   951 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   952 
   953 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   954 trees for the code generator.
   955 
   956 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   957 Lifting/Transfer.
   958 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 
   964 *** Document preparation ***
   965 
   966 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   967 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   968 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   969 
   970 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   971 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   972 
   973 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   974 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   975 document/root.tex.
   976 
   977 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   978 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 
   981 *** ML ***
   982 
   983 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   984 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   985 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   986 
   987 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   988 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   989 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   990 
   991 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   992 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   993 necessarily printing visible text.
   994 
   995 
   996 *** System ***
   997 
   998 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   999 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1000 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1001 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1002 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1003 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1004 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1005 
  1006 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1007 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1008 
  1009   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1010 
  1011 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1012 
  1013 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1014 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1015 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1016 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1017 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1018 
  1019 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1020 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1021 
  1022 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1023 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1024 
  1025 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1029 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1030 version of Isabelle.
  1031 
  1032 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1033 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1034 
  1035 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1036 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1037 for home-made settings.
  1038 
  1039 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1040 
  1041 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1042 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1043 configuration.
  1044 
  1045 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1046 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1047 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1048 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1049 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1050 
  1051 
  1052 
  1053 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1054 ------------------------------
  1055 
  1056 *** General ***
  1057 
  1058 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1059 
  1060   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1061     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1062   - markup for bound variables
  1063   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1064   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1065   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1066     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1067 
  1068 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1069 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1070 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1071 
  1072 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1073 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1074 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1075 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1076 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1077 
  1078   context
  1079     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1080     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1081   begin
  1082 
  1083   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1084 
  1085   end
  1086 
  1087   thm my_trans
  1088 
  1089 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1090 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1091 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1092 
  1093 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1094 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1095 
  1096 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1097 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1098 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1099 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1100 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1101 
  1102 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1103 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1104 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1105 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1106 indices of schematic variables.
  1107 
  1108 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1109 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1110 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1111 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1112 etc. was exploited.
  1113 
  1114 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1115 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1116 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1117 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1118 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1119 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1120 
  1121 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1122 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1123 manual.
  1124 
  1125 
  1126 *** Pure ***
  1127 
  1128 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1129 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1130 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1131 
  1132 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1133 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1134 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1135 undocumented feature.)
  1136 
  1137 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1138 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1139 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1140 
  1141   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1142 
  1143   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1144     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1145 
  1146 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1147 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1148 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1149 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1150 
  1151 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1152 
  1153     num ~> num_token
  1154     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1155     xstr ~> str_token
  1156 
  1157 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1158 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1159 position information via constraints).
  1160 
  1161 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1162 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1163 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1164 
  1165 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1166 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1167 
  1168 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1169 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1170 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1171 
  1172 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1173 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1176 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1177 
  1178   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1179 
  1180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1181 
  1182 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1183 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1186 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1187 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1188 
  1189 
  1190 *** HOL ***
  1191 
  1192 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1193 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1194 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1195 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1196 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1197 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1198 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1199 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1200 possible.
  1201 
  1202 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1203 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1204 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1205 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1206 
  1207 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1208 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1211 
  1212 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1213 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1214 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1215 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1216 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1217 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1218 
  1219   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1220     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1221 
  1222   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1223     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1224     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1225 
  1226   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1227     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1228 
  1229   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1230     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1231     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1232 
  1233   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1234     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1235 
  1236 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1237 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1238 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1239 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1240 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1241 
  1242   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1243     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1244     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1245     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1246     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1247 
  1248     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1249     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1250 
  1251   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1252     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1253     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1254     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1255     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1256     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1257     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1258     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1259 
  1260   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1261     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1262     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1263     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1264 
  1265   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1266     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1267     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1268     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1269 
  1270   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1271     from type nat to type int.
  1272 
  1273 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1274 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1275 
  1276   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1277     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1278     type.  Example syntax:
  1279 
  1280     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1281       is List.insert
  1282 
  1283     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1284     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1285     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1286     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1287     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1288     by the package.
  1289 
  1290   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1291     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1292     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1293     code generation for each constant.
  1294 
  1295   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1296     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1297     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1298     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1299     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1300 
  1301   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1302     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1303     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1304 
  1305 * Quotient package:
  1306 
  1307   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1308     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1309 
  1310   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1311     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1312 
  1313   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1314     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1315     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1318     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1321 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1322 
  1323 * Quickcheck:
  1324 
  1325   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1326     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1327     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1328     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1329     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1330 
  1331     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1332     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1333     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1334 
  1335     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1336     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1337 
  1338     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1339     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1340     show genuine counterexamples.
  1341 
  1342   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1343     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1344 
  1345     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1346     constructors of that type.
  1347 
  1348   - Support for multisets.
  1349 
  1350   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1351 
  1352   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1353     conjectures in a locale context.
  1354 
  1355 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1356 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1357 
  1358 * Sledgehammer:
  1359   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1360     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1361   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1362   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1363     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1364   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1365   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1366   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1367   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1368 
  1369 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1370 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1371 
  1372 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1373 
  1374 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1377 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1378 
  1379   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1380 
  1381 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1382 a list and a nat.
  1383 
  1384 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1385 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1386 
  1387 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1388 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1389 default.
  1390 
  1391 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1392 
  1393   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1394 
  1395 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1396 
  1397 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1398 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1399 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1400 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1401 one_case.
  1402 
  1403 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1404 the result of the fact expression.
  1405 
  1406 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1407 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1408 of some relation theorems:
  1409 
  1410   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1411   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1412   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1413   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1414   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1415   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1416 
  1417 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1418 
  1419 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1420 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1421 
  1422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1425 to match the constant's name:
  1426 
  1427   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1428   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1429   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1430   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1431   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1432   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1433   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1434   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1435   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1436   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1437   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1438   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1439   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1440   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1441   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1442   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1443   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1444   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1445   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1446   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1447   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1448   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1449   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1450   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1451 
  1452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1453 
  1454 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1455 and corresponding theorem names:
  1456 
  1457   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1458 
  1459   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1460 
  1461   - Renamed theorems:
  1462 
  1463     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1464     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1465     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1466     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1467     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1468     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1469     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1470     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1471     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1472     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1473     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1474     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1475     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1476     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1477     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1478     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1479     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1480     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1481     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1482     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1483     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1484     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1485     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1486 
  1487     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1488 
  1489     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1490 
  1491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 
  1493 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1494 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1495 
  1496   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1497   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1498   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1499   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1500   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1501   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1502   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1503   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1504   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1505   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1506   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1507   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1508   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1509   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1510   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1511   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1512   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1513   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1514   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1515   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1516   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1517 
  1518 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1519 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1520 
  1521 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1522 
  1523 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1524 
  1525   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1526   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1527   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1528   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1529   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1530   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1531   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1532   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1533   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1534   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1535   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1536   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1537   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1538   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1539   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1540   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1541   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1542   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1543 
  1544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1545 
  1546 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1547 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1548 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1549 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1550 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1551 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1552 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1554 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1555 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1556 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1557 
  1558 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1559 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1560 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1561 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1562 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1563 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1564 
  1565 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1566 through option types.
  1567 
  1568 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1569 relations.
  1570 
  1571 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1572 
  1573 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1574 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1575 
  1576   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1577   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1578   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1579   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1580   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1581   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1582   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1583   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1584   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1585   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1586   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1587   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1588   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1589   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1590   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1591   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1592   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1593   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1594   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1595   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1596   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1597   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1598   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1599   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1600   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1601   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1602   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1603   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1604   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1605   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1606   zless_le ~> less_le
  1607   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1608   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1609   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1610 
  1611 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1612 
  1613   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1614 
  1615 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1616 
  1617 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1618 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1619 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1620 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1624 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1625 
  1626 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1627 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1628 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1629 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1630 follows:
  1631 
  1632   Operations:
  1633   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1634   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1635   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1636   del -> rbt_del
  1637   delete -> rbt_delete
  1638   ins -> rbt_ins
  1639   insert -> rbt_insert
  1640   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1641   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1642   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1643   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1644   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1645   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1646   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1647   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1648   union -> rbt_union
  1649   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1650   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1651 
  1652   Lemmas:
  1653   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1654   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1655   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1656   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1657   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1658   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1659   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1660   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1661   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1662   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1663   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1664   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1665   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1666   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1667   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1668   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1669   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1670   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1671   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1672   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1673   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1674   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1675   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1676   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1677   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1678   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1679   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1680   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1681   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1682   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1683   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1684   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1685   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1686   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1687   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1688   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1689   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1690   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1691   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1692   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1693   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1694   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1695   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1696   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1697   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1698   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1699   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1700   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1701   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1702   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1703   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1704   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1705   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1706   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1707   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1708   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1709   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1710   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1711   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1712   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1713   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1714   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1715   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1716   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1717   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1718   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1719   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1720   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1721   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1722   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1723   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1724   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1725   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1726   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1727   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1728   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1729   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1730   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1731   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1732   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1733   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1734   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1735   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1736 
  1737 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1738 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1739 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1740 
  1741   Changed Operations:
  1742   float_abs -> abs
  1743   float_nprt -> nprt
  1744   float_pprt -> pprt
  1745   pow2 -> use powr
  1746   round_down -> float_round_down
  1747   round_up -> float_round_up
  1748   scale -> exponent
  1749 
  1750   Removed Operations:
  1751   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1752 
  1753   Renamed Lemmas:
  1754   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1755   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1756   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1757   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1758   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1759   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1760   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1761   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1762   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1763   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1764   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1765   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1766   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1767   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1768   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1769   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1770   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1771   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1772   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1773   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1774   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1775   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1776   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1777   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1778   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1779   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1780   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1781   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1782   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1783   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1784   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1785   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1786   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1787   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1788   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1789   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1790 
  1791   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1792   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1793   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1794   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1795   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1796   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1797   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1798   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1799   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1800   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1801 
  1802 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1803 association lists with distinct keys.
  1804 
  1805 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1806 annotated commands.
  1807 
  1808 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1809 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1810 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1811 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812 
  1813 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1814 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1815 instead.
  1816 
  1817   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1818   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1819   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1820   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1821   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1822   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1823   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1824   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1825   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1826   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1827   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1828   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1829   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1830   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1831   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1832   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1833   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1834   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1835   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1836   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1837   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1838   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1839   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1840   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1841   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1842   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1843   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1844   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1845   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1846   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1847   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1848   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1849   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1850   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1851   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1852   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1853   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1854   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1855   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1856   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1857   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1858 
  1859 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1860 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1861 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1862 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1863 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1864 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1865 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1866 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1867 
  1868 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1869 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1870 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1871 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1872 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1873 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1874 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1875 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1876 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1877 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1878 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1879 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881   Renamed constants:
  1882   measure -> emeasure
  1883   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1884   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1885   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1886   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1887 
  1888   Removed locales:
  1889   completeable_measure_space
  1890   finite_measure_space
  1891   finite_prob_space
  1892   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1893   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1894   finite_sigma_algebra
  1895   measure_space
  1896   pair_finite_prob_space
  1897   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1898   pair_finite_space
  1899   pair_sigma_algebra
  1900   product_sigma_algebra
  1901 
  1902   Removed constants:
  1903   conditional_space
  1904   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1905   image_space
  1906   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1907   pair_measure_generator
  1908   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1909   subvimage
  1910 
  1911   Replacement theorems:
  1912   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1913   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1914   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1915   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1916   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1917   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1918   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1919   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1920   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1921   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1922   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1923   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1924   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1925   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1926   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1927   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1928   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1929   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1930   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1931   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1932   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1933   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1934   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1935   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1936   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1937   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1938   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1939   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1940   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1941   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1942   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1943   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1944   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1945   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1946   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1947   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1948   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1949   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1950   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1951   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1952   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1953   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1954   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1955   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1956   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1957   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1958   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1959   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1960   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1961   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1962   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1963   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1964   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1965   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1966   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1967   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1968   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1969   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1970   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1971   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1972   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1973   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1974   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1975   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1976   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1977   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1978   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1979   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1980   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1981   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1982   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1983   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1984   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1985   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1986   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1987   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1988   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1989   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1990   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1991   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1992   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1993   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1994   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1995   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1996   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1997   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1998   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1999   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2000   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2001   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2002   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2003   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2004   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2005   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2006   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2007   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2008   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2009   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2010   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2011   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2012   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2013   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2014   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2015   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2016   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2017   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2018   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2019   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2020   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2021   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2022   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2023   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2024   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2025   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2026   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2027   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2028   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2029   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2030   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2031   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2032   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2033   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2034   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2035   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2036   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2037   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2038   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2039   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2040 
  2041 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2042 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2043 
  2044 
  2045 *** FOL ***
  2046 
  2047 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2048 
  2049 
  2050 *** ZF ***
  2051 
  2052 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2053 analysis.
  2054 
  2055 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2056 
  2057 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2058 
  2059 
  2060 *** ML ***
  2061 
  2062 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2063 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2064 
  2065 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2066 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2067 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2068 
  2069 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2070 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2071 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2072 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2073 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2074 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2075 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2076 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2077 
  2078 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2079 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2080 
  2081 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2082 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2083 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2084 
  2085 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2086 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2087 
  2088 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2089 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2090 context as well.
  2091 
  2092 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2093 
  2094   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2095   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2096   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2097   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2098   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2099   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2100   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2101   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2102   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2103   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2104   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2105   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2106 
  2107 
  2108 *** System ***
  2109 
  2110 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2111 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2112 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2113 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2114 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2115 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2116 the generic user home was intended.
  2117 
  2118 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2119 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2120 
  2121 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2122 (not just JRE).
  2123 
  2124 
  2125 
  2126 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2127 ------------------------------------
  2128 
  2129 *** General ***
  2130 
  2131 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2132 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2133 
  2134   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2135     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2136     files for checking).
  2137 
  2138   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2139     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2140     positions.
  2141 
  2142   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2143     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2144     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2145 
  2146   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2147     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2148     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2149 
  2150   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2151     cores.
  2152 
  2153   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2154     versions (garbage collection).
  2155 
  2156 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2157 including some remaining limitations.
  2158 
  2159 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2160 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2161 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2162 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2163 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2167 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2168 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2169 
  2170 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2171 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2172 usedir option -Q.
  2173 
  2174 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2175 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2176 
  2177   long_names   ~> names_long
  2178   short_names  ~> names_short
  2179   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2180 
  2181 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2182 
  2183   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2184 
  2185 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2186 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2187 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2188 
  2189 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2190 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2191 
  2192 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2193   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2194   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2195   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2196     "Classical Reasoner".
  2197 
  2198 
  2199 *** HOL ***
  2200 
  2201 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2202 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2205 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2206 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2207 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2208 class complete_linorder.
  2209 
  2210 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2211 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2212 
  2213 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2214 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2215 
  2216   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2217   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2218   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2219   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2220   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2221   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2222   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2223   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2224   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2225   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2226   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2227 
  2228 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2229 
  2230   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2231   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2232   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2233   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2234   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2235   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2236   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2237   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2238   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2239   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2240   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2241   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2242   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2243   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2244   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2245   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2246 
  2247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2253 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2254 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2255 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2258 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2259 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2261 
  2262 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2263 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2264 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2265 
  2266 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2267 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2268 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2269 
  2270 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2271 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2272 
  2273 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2274 
  2275     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2276     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2277 
  2278 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2279 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2282 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2285 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2286 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2287 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2290   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2291   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2292   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2293   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2294   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2295   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2296 
  2297 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2298 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2299 
  2300   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2301   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2302   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2303   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2304   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2305   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2306   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2307   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2308   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2309   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2310   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2311   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2312   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2313   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2314   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2315   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2316   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2317   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2318   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2319   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2320   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2321   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2322   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2323   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2324   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2325   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2326   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2327   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2328   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2329   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2330   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2331   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2332   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2333   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2334   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2335   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2336   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2337   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2338   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2339   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2340   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2341   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2342   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2343   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2344   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2345   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2346   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2347   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2348   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2349   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2350   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2351   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2352   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2353   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2354   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2355   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2356   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2357   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2358   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2359   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2360   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2361   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2362   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2363   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2364   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2365   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2366   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2367   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2368   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2369   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2370   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2371   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2372   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2373   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2374   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2375   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2376   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2377   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2378   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2379   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2380   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2381   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2382 
  2383 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2384 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2385 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2386 
  2387 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2388 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2389 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2390 
  2391 * Code generation:
  2392 
  2393   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2394     characters in the target language.
  2395 
  2396   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2397     instead.
  2398 
  2399   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2400 
  2401   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2402     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2403 
  2404       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2405 
  2406 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2409 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2410 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2411 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2412 syntax.
  2413 
  2414 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2415 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2416 
  2417 * Nitpick:
  2418   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2419   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2420   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2421     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2422 
  2423 * Sledgehammer:
  2424   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2425   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2426     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2427   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2428     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2429   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2430     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2431   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2432     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2433   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2434     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2435 
  2436 * Metis:
  2437   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2439     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440 
  2441 * Command 'try':
  2442   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2443     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2445     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2446 
  2447 * Quickcheck:
  2448   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2449     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2450   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2451     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2452   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2453     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2454     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2455     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2456   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2457     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2458 
  2459 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2460 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2461 
  2462 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2463 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2464 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2465 
  2466 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2467 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2469 
  2470 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2471 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2472 
  2473 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2474 arithmetic.
  2475 
  2476 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2477 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2478 and lattice type classes.
  2479 
  2480 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2481 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2482 
  2483 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2484 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2485 
  2486 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2487 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2488 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2489 
  2490   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2491   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2492   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2493   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2494 
  2495 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2496 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2497 constants:
  2498 
  2499   type inat   ~> type enat
  2500   Fin         ~> enat
  2501   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2502   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2503   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2504 
  2505 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2506 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2509 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2510 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2511 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2512 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2513 
  2514 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2515 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2516 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2517 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2518 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2519 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2520 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2521 
  2522   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2523   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2524   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2525   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2526 
  2527 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2528 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2529 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2532   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2533   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2534   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2535   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2536   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2537   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2538   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2539   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2540   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2541   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2542   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2543   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2544   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2545   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2546   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2547   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2548   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2549   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2550   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2551   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2552   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2553   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2554   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2555   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2556   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2557   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2558   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2559   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2560   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2561   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2562   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2563   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2564   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2565   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2566   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2567   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2568   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2569   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2570   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2571   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2572   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2573   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2574   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2575   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2576   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2577   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2578   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2579   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2580   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2581   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2582 
  2583 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2584   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2585   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2586   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2587   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2588     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2589 
  2590 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2591 
  2592   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2593   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2594   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2595   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2596   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2597   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2598   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2599   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2600   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2601   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2602   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2603   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2604   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2605   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2606   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2607   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2608   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2609   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2610   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2611   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2612   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2613   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2614   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2615   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2616   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2617 
  2618 
  2619 *** Document preparation ***
  2620 
  2621 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2622 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2623 same.
  2624 
  2625 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2626 result.
  2627 
  2628 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2629 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2630 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2631 
  2632 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2633 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2634 
  2635 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2636 like this:
  2637 
  2638   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2639   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2640 
  2641 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2642 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2643 layouts.
  2644 
  2645 
  2646 *** ML ***
  2647 
  2648 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2649 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2650 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2651 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2652 under external program control.
  2653 
  2654 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2655 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2656 
  2657 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2658 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2659 (better known as Proof General).
  2660 
  2661 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2662 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2663 
  2664 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2665 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2666 
  2667 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2668 (including quotes etc.).
  2669 
  2670 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2671 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2672 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2673 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2674 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2675 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2676 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2677 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2678 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2679 
  2680 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2681 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2682 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2683 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2684 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2685 
  2686 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2687 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2688 
  2689 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2690 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2691 
  2692 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2693 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2694 
  2695 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2696 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2697 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2698 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2699 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2700 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2701 proper Proof.context.
  2702 
  2703 
  2704 *** System ***
  2705 
  2706 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2707 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2708 
  2709 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2710 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2711 
  2712 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2713 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2714 
  2715   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2716   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2717   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2718   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2719   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2720 
  2721 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2722 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2725 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2726 example:
  2727 
  2728   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2729 
  2730 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2731 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2732 
  2733 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2734 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2735 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2736 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2737 
  2738 
  2739 
  2740 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2741 ----------------------------------
  2742 
  2743 *** General ***
  2744 
  2745 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2746 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2747 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2748 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2749 like this:
  2750 
  2751   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2752 
  2753 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2754 
  2755 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2756 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2757 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2758 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2759 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2760 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2761 
  2762 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2763 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2764 the following package declarations:
  2765 
  2766   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2767   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2768 
  2769 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2770 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2771 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2772 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2773 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2774 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2775 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2776 
  2777 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2778 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2779 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2780 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2781 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2782 
  2783 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2784 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2785 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2786 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2787 
  2788 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2789 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2790 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2791 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2792 
  2793   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2794 
  2795   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2796   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2797   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2798   show_types                    show_types
  2799   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2800   show_consts                   show_consts
  2801   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2802 
  2803   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2804   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2805   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2806 
  2807   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2808   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2809 
  2810   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2811 
  2812   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2813   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2814   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2815   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2816   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2817 
  2818 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2819 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2820 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2821 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2822 
  2823 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2827   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2828 
  2829 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2830 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2831 float_token.
  2832 
  2833 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2834 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2838 DejaVu Sans.
  2839 
  2840 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2841 
  2842 
  2843 *** Pure ***
  2844 
  2845 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2846 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2847 time.
  2848 
  2849 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2850 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851 
  2852 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2853 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2854 
  2855 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2856 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2857 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2858 command already provided this functionality.
  2859 
  2860 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2861 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2862 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2863 without interpretations.
  2864 
  2865 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2866 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2867 
  2868 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2869 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2870 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2871 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2872 
  2873 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2874 'definition' instead.
  2875 
  2876 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2877 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2878 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2879 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2880 
  2881 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2882 constructors.
  2883 
  2884 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2885 the local file system.
  2886 
  2887 
  2888 *** HOL ***
  2889 
  2890 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2891 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2892 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2893 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2894 
  2895   declare [[coercion f]]
  2896 
  2897 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2898 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2899 
  2900   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2901 
  2902 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2903 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2904 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2905 other theories like this:
  2906 
  2907   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2908 
  2909 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2910 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2911 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2912 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2913 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2914 for examples.
  2915 
  2916 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2917 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2920 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2921 
  2922 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2923 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2924 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2925 
  2926 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2927 functorial structure of types.
  2928 
  2929 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2930 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2931 
  2932 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2933 languages.
  2934 
  2935 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2936 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2938 
  2939 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2940 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2943 combinators any longer.
  2944 
  2945 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2946 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2947 
  2948 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2949 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2950 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2951 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2952 
  2953   record 'a foo = ...
  2954   ...
  2955   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2956 
  2957 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2958 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2962 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2963 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2964 
  2965 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2966 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2967 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2968 
  2969 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2970 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2973 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2974 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2975 independently.
  2976 
  2977 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2978 counter example search.
  2979 
  2980 * Sledgehammer:
  2981   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2982     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2983     sledgehammer").
  2984   - Renamed commands:
  2985     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2986     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2987     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2988     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989   - Renamed options:
  2990     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2991     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2992     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2993     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2994     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Nitpick:
  2997   - Renamed options:
  2998     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2999     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3000     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3002   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3003   - Added "whack" option.
  3004   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3005   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3006   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3007   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3008     higher cardinalities.
  3009   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3010 
  3011 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3012 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3013 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3014 
  3015     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3016 
  3017 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3018 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3019 
  3020 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3021 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3022 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3023 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3024 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3025 "smt_solver".
  3026 
  3027 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3028 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3029 
  3030 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3031 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3032 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3033 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3036   - Renamed:
  3037     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3038     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3039     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040   - Added:
  3041     smt_verbose
  3042     smt_random_seed
  3043     smt_datatypes
  3044     smt_infer_triggers
  3045     smt_monomorph_limit
  3046     cvc3_options
  3047     remote_cvc3_options
  3048     remote_z3_options
  3049     yices_options
  3050 
  3051 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3052 header.
  3053 
  3054 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3055 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3056 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3057 
  3058   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3059 
  3060 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3063 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3068 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3071 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3072 
  3073 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3074 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3077 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3078 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3086 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3089 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3090 for congruent(2)).
  3091 
  3092 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3093 
  3094   types
  3095     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3096     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3097 
  3098   constants
  3099     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3100     True ~> HOL.True
  3101     False ~> HOL.False
  3102     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3103     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3104     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3105     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3106     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3107     The ~> HOL.The
  3108     All ~> HOL.All
  3109     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3110     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3111     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3112     If ~> HOL.If
  3113     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3114     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3115     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3116     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3117     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3118     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3119     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3120     op : ~> Set.member
  3121     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3122 
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3126 
  3127     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3128     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3129     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3130     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3131     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3132     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3133     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3134     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3135 
  3136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3137 
  3138 * More stylized fact names:
  3139 
  3140   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3141   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3142   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3143   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3144 
  3145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3148 
  3149   constants
  3150     null ~> List.null
  3151 
  3152   facts
  3153     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3154     null_empty ~> null_def
  3155 
  3156 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3157 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3158 generation.
  3159 
  3160 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3161 Haskell code.
  3162 
  3163 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3164 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3165 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3168 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3171 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3172 
  3173 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3174 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3175 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3178 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3179 
  3180 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3184 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3185 referred to by its qualified name.
  3186 
  3187   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3188   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3189   product ~>  Enum.product
  3190 
  3191 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3192 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3196 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3197 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3201 sort_key.
  3202 
  3203 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3207 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3208 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3209 
  3210   types
  3211     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3212               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3213               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3214         (depends on your needs)
  3215 
  3216   constants
  3217      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3218      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3219      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3220 
  3221 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3222 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3223 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3224 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3227 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3228 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3229 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3230 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231 
  3232 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3236 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3237 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3238 
  3239 
  3240 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3241 
  3242 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3243 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3244 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3245 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3246 compatibility.
  3247 
  3248 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3249 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3250 
  3251 
  3252 *** HOLCF ***
  3253 
  3254 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3255 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3256 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3260 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3261 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3264   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3265   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3266 
  3267 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3268 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3269 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3272 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3273 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3274 domain definition now works:
  3275 
  3276   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3277 
  3278 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3279 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3280 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3281 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3282 
  3283   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3284     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3285 
  3286   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3287 
  3288 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3289 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3290 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3293 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3296 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3297 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3298 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3299 
  3300 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3301 
  3302 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305 
  3306 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3310 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3311 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3312 
  3313 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3314 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3315 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3318 still supported as an input translation.
  3319 
  3320 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3321 
  3322   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3323   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3324   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3325   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3326   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3327   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3328   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3329 
  3330 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3331 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3334   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3335   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3336   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3337   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3338   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3339 
  3340 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3341 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3344 
  3345   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3346   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3347   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3348   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3349 
  3350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3353 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3354 
  3355 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3356 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3359   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3360   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3361   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3362   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3363   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3364   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3365   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3366   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3367   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3368   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3369   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3370   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3371   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3372   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3373   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3374   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3375   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3376   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3377   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3378 
  3379 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3382   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3383   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3384   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3385   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3386   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3387   box_less             ~> box_below
  3388   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3389   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3390   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3391   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3392   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3393   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3394   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3395   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3396   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3397   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3398   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3399   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3400   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3401   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3402   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3403   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3404   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3405   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3406   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3407   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3408   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3409   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3410   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3411   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3412   up_less              ~> up_below
  3413   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3414   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3415   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3416   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3417   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3418   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3419   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3420   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3421   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3422   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3423   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3424   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3425   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3426 
  3427 
  3428 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3429 
  3430 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3431 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 
  3434 *** ML ***
  3435 
  3436 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3437 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3438 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3439 
  3440 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3441 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3442 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3443 
  3444 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3445 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3446 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3447 
  3448 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3449 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3450 
  3451 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3452 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3453 
  3454 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3455 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3456 
  3457 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3458 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3459 
  3460 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3461 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3462 almost all situations.
  3463 
  3464 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3465 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3466 Isabelle/ML.
  3467 
  3468 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3469 meaning.
  3470 
  3471 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3472 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3473 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3474 
  3475 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3476 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3477 
  3478 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3479 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3480 
  3481 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3482 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3483 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3484 
  3485 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3486 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3487 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3488 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3489 configuration options.
  3490 
  3491 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3492 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3493 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3494 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3495 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3496 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3497 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3498 
  3499 
  3500 
  3501 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3502 ---------------------------------
  3503 
  3504 *** General ***
  3505 
  3506 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3507 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3508 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3509 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3510 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3511 their full internal name.
  3512 
  3513 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3514 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3515 Some hints on upgrading:
  3516 
  3517   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3518     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3519     which are independent of this issue.
  3520 
  3521   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3522     provides the following special forms:
  3523 
  3524       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3525       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3526       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3527 
  3528     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3529     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3530     extra variables".
  3531 
  3532     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3533     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3534     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3535     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3536     "logic".
  3537 
  3538   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3539     antiquotations:
  3540 
  3541       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3542       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3543       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3544       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3545 
  3546   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3547     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3548     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3549     antiquotations.
  3550 
  3551 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3552 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3553 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3554 diagnose syntax problems.
  3555 
  3556 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3557 
  3558 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3559 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3560 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3561 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3562 
  3563 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3564 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3565 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3566 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3569 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3570 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3571 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3572 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3575 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3576 
  3577 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3578 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3579 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3580 
  3581   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3582 
  3583 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3584 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3585 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3586 
  3587 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3588 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3592 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3593 
  3594 
  3595 *** Pure ***
  3596 
  3597 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3598 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3599 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3600 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3601 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3602 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3603 inspect proof terms.
  3604 
  3605 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3606 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3607 are added internally.  For example:
  3608 
  3609   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3610 
  3611 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3612 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3617 'class' instead.
  3618 
  3619 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3620 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3622 
  3623 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3624 invariants.
  3625 
  3626 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3627 user space functionality any longer.
  3628 
  3629 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3630 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3634 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3635 
  3636 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3637 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3638 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3639 
  3640 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3641 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3642 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3643 
  3644 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3645 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 
  3648 *** HOL ***
  3649 
  3650 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3651 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3652 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3653 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3654 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3655 
  3656 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3657 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3658 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3659 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3660 
  3661   fun
  3662     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3663   where
  3664     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3665 
  3666   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3667     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3668 
  3669   quotient_definition
  3670     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3671 
  3672 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3673 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3674 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3675 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3676 
  3677 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3678 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3679 
  3680 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3681 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3682 
  3683 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3685 
  3686 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3687 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3688 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3689 
  3690 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3691 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3700 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3703 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3704 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3707   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3708   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3709   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3710   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3711   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3712   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3713   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3714   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3715   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3716   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3717   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3718   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3719   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3720   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3721   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3722   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3723   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3724   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3725   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3726   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3727   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3728   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3729   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3730   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3731   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3732   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3733   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3734   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3735   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3736 
  3737 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3738 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3739 
  3740 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3741 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3742 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3743 
  3744 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3745 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3746 
  3747 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3748 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3751 
  3752 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3753 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3756 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3761 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3762 
  3763 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3764 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3765 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3766 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3767 
  3768 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3769   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3770   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3771   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3775 lattices):
  3776 
  3777     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3778     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3779 
  3780     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3781 
  3782     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3783     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3784     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3785     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3786     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3787     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3788     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3789     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3790     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3791     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3792     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3793     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3794     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3795 
  3796     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3797     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3798     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3799     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3800     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3801     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3802     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3803     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3804     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3805     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3806     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3807     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3808     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3809     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3810     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3811     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3812     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3813     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3814 
  3815   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3816   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3817 
  3818     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3819     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3820     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3821     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3822     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3823 
  3824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3825 
  3826 * Refined field classes:
  3827   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3828     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3829     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3830   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3834   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3835   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3836   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3837     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3838   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3839     equal_neg_zero.
  3840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3843 sets to lattices:
  3844 
  3845   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3846   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3847   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3848   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3849   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3850   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3851   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3852   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3853   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3854   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3855 
  3856 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3857 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3858 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3859 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3860 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3861 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3864 multiset order:
  3865 
  3866   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3867     <= and <;
  3868   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3869     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3870     multiset_order;
  3871   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3872     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3873     generation;
  3874   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3875     if needed.
  3876 
  3877 Renamed:
  3878 
  3879   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3880   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3881   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3882 
  3883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3886 
  3887 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3888 
  3889 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3890 
  3891 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3892 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3893 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895   Constants:
  3896   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3897   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3898   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3899   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3900   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3901   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3902   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3903   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3904   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3905   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3906   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3907   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3908   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3909 
  3910   Lemmas:
  3911   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3912   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3913   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3914   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3915   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3916   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3917   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3918   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3919   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3920   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3921   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3922   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3923   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3924 
  3925 * Sledgehammer:
  3926   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3927     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3928     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3929     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3930     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3931     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3932     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3934   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3935     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3936   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3937     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3938     is still experimental.)
  3939   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3940     full-typed mode.
  3941   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3942 
  3943 * Nitpick:
  3944   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3945   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3946   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3947     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3948   - Added support for quotient types.
  3949   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3950     constructs.
  3951   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3952     "termination" proofs).
  3953   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3954   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3955   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3956   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3957     record getters.
  3958   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3959   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3960   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3961   - Added "atoms" option.
  3962   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3963     problems.
  3964   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3965     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3966     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3968     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3972   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3973   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3974   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3975   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3976   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3977   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3978   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3979   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3980   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 
  3983 *** HOLCF ***
  3984 
  3985 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3986 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3987 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3988 
  3989 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3990 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3991 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3992 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3995 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3996 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3997 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3998 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4001 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4002 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4005 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4008   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4009 
  4010 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4011 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4014   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4015   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4016   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4017   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4018 
  4019 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4020 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4023   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4024   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4025 
  4026 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4027 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4031 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4036 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4037 
  4038 
  4039 *** ML ***
  4040 
  4041 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4042 
  4043     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4044     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4045 
  4046     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4047     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4048     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4049     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4050 
  4051     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4052     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4053     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4054 
  4055 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4056 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4057 
  4058 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4059 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4060 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4061 
  4062 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4063 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4064 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4065 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4066 
  4067 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4068 the context or even global references.
  4069 
  4070 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4071 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4072 
  4073 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4074 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4075 
  4076   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4077   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4078   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4079   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4080   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4081   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4082   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4083   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4084   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4085   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4086 
  4087 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4088 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4089 
  4090 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4091 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4092 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4093 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4094 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4095 
  4096 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4097 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4098 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4099 Theory_Data version.
  4100 
  4101 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4102 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4103 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4104 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4105 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4106 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4107 explicitly in rare situations.
  4108 
  4109 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4110 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4112 
  4113 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4114 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4115 
  4116 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4117 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4118 quite rare).
  4119 
  4120 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4121 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4124 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4125 terms.
  4126 
  4127 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4128 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4129 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4130 
  4131 
  4132 *** System ***
  4133 
  4134 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4135 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4136 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4137 
  4138 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4139 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4140 respectively.
  4141 
  4142 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4143 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4144 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4145 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4146 
  4147   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4148 
  4149 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4150 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4151 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4152 component.
  4153 
  4154 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4155 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4156 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4157 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4158 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4159 the user for manual installation.
  4160 
  4161 
  4162 
  4163 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4164 -------------------------------------
  4165 
  4166 *** General ***
  4167 
  4168 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4169 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4170 
  4171 
  4172 *** Pure ***
  4173 
  4174 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4175 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4176 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4177 
  4178 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4179 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4180 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4181 
  4182 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4183 interpretation.
  4184 
  4185 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4186 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 
  4189 *** Document preparation ***
  4190 
  4191 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4192 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4193 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4194 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4195 
  4196 
  4197 *** HOL ***
  4198 
  4199 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4200 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4201 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4202 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4203 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4204 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4205 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4206 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4207 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4208 
  4209 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4210 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4211 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4212 
  4213 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4214 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4215 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4216 
  4217 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4218 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4219 
  4220 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4221 
  4222 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4223 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4224 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4225 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4226 
  4227 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4228 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4229 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4230 "mirabelle" utility.
  4231 
  4232 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4233 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4234 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4235 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4236 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4237 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4238 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4239 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4240 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4241 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4242 
  4243 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4244 procedure only.
  4245 
  4246 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4247 
  4248 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4249 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4250 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4251 that fail later.
  4252 
  4253 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4254 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4255 
  4256 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4257 the same method as the approximation method.
  4258 
  4259 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4260 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4261 series expansion.
  4262 
  4263 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4264 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4265 
  4266 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4267 reals.
  4268 
  4269 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4270 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4271 
  4272 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4273 fixpoint theorem.
  4274 
  4275 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4276   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4277     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4278   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4279     accordingly
  4280   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4281     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4282   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4283     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4284 
  4285 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4286 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4287 lattice.
  4288 
  4289 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4290 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4291 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4292 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4293 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4294 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4296 
  4297 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4298   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4299     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4300   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4301     le_inf_iff
  4302   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4303     sup_aci)
  4304   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4305   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4306   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4307     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4308     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4309     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4310     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4311     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4312     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4313     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4314     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4315     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4316     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4317   - authentic syntax for
  4318     Set.Pow
  4319     Set.image
  4320   - mere abbreviations:
  4321     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4322     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4323     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4324     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4325     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4326     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4327     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4328     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4329   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4330 
  4331 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4332 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4333 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4334 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4335 
  4336 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4337 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4338 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4339 
  4340 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4341 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4342 
  4343 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4344 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4345 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4346 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4349 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4350 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4351 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4352 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4353 
  4354 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4355 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4359 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4360 
  4361 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4362 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4363 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4364 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4365 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4366 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4367 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4371     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4372     code_post       replaces    code post
  4373     etc.
  4374   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375 
  4376 * Renamed methods:
  4377     sizechange -> size_change
  4378     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4379   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4382 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4383 
  4384 * Renamed theorems:
  4385     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4386     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4387     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4388     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4389     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4390   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4391 
  4392 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4397 
  4398 
  4399 *** HOLCF ***
  4400 
  4401 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4402 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4403 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4404 
  4405 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4406 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4407 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4408 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4409 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4410 
  4411 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4412 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4413 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4414 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4415 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4416 
  4417 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4418 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4419 constructor are pre-configured.
  4420 
  4421 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4422 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4423 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4424 
  4425 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4426 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4427 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4428 as well.)
  4429 
  4430 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4431 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4432 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4433 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4434 examples.
  4435 
  4436 
  4437 *** ML ***
  4438 
  4439 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4440 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4441 
  4442 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4443 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4444 position, logical grouping etc.
  4445 
  4446 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4447 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4448 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4449 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4450 
  4451 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4452 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4453 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4454 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4455 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4456 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4457 
  4458 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4459 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4460 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4461 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4462 experiments with references.
  4463 
  4464 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4465 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4466 
  4467 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4468 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4469 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4470 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4471 
  4472 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4473 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4474 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4475 
  4476 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4477 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4478 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4481 
  4482 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4486 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4487 
  4488 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4489 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4490 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4491 
  4492 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4493 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4494 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4495 
  4496 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4497 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4498 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4500 
  4501 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4502 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4503 instead of global theory.
  4504 
  4505 
  4506 *** System ***
  4507 
  4508 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4509 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4510 usedir option -q.
  4511 
  4512 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4513 also the system manual.
  4514 
  4515 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4516 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4517 
  4518 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4519 this is always enabled.
  4520 
  4521 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4522 
  4523 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4524 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4525 currently supported on Linux only.
  4526 
  4527 
  4528 
  4529 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4530 --------------------------------
  4531 
  4532 *** General ***
  4533 
  4534 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4535 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4536 
  4537   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4538     "isatool."
  4539 
  4540   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4541     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4542 
  4543   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4544     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4545 
  4546 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4547 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4548 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4549 
  4550 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4551 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4552 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4553 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4554 via "isabelle emacs".
  4555 
  4556 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4557 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4558 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4559 
  4560 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4561 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4562 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4563 
  4564 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4565 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4566 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4567 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4568 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4569 
  4570 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4571 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4572 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4573 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4574 
  4575 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4576 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4577 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4578 
  4579 
  4580 *** Pure ***
  4581 
  4582 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4583 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4584 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4585 
  4586 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4587 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4588 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4589 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4590 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4591 
  4592 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4593 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4594 useful in locale declarations.
  4595 
  4596 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4597 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4598 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4599 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4600 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4601 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4602 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4603 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4604 no longer generated.
  4605 
  4606 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4607 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4608 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4609 
  4610 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4611 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4612 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4613 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4614 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4615 
  4616 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4617 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4618 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4619 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4620 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4621 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4622 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4623 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4624 
  4625 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4626 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4627 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4628 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4629 
  4630 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631 
  4632 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4633 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4634 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4635 
  4636 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4637 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4638 
  4639 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4640 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4641 in HOL, write
  4642 
  4643     class foo = ...
  4644 
  4645 instead of
  4646 
  4647     class foo = type + ...
  4648 
  4649 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4650 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4653 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4654 
  4655 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4656 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4657 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4658 
  4659 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4660 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4661 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4662 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4663 directly in regular applications.
  4664 
  4665 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4666 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4667 
  4668 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4669 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4670 
  4671 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4672 theory context.
  4673 
  4674 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4675 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4678 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4679 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4680 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4681 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4682 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4683 
  4684   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4685 
  4686 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4687 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4688 normalization.
  4689 
  4690 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4691 addressing etc.
  4692 
  4693 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4694 
  4695   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4696   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4697 
  4698 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4699 
  4700   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4701      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4702      parts of the code generator framework).
  4703 
  4704   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4705      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4706      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4707 
  4708 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4711 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4714 patterns, e.g.
  4715 
  4716     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4717 
  4718 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4719 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4720 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4721 hyphen:
  4722 
  4723     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4724 
  4725 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4726 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4727 
  4728 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4729 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4730 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4731 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4732 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4733 higher-order unification.
  4734 
  4735 
  4736 *** Document preparation ***
  4737 
  4738 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4739 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4740 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4741 
  4742 
  4743 *** HOL ***
  4744 
  4745 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4746 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4747 
  4748 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4749 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4750 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4751 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4752 Main, as before.
  4753 
  4754 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4755 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4756 
  4757 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4758 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4759 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4760 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4761 
  4762 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4763 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4764 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4765 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4766 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4767 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4768 
  4769 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4770 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4771 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4772 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4773 
  4774 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4775 menu.
  4776 
  4777 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4778 (contains the empty clause).
  4779 
  4780 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4781 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4782 
  4783 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4784 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4785 
  4786 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4787 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4788 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4791 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4792 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4793 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4794 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4795 
  4796 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4797 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4798 
  4799 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4800 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4801 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4802 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4803 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4804 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4805 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4806 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4807 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4808 
  4809 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4810 
  4811 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4812 
  4813 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4814 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4815 
  4816 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4817 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4818 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4819 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4820 
  4821 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4822 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4823 
  4824     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4825     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4826     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4827     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4828     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4829     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4830     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4831     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4832 
  4833 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4834 theory Set.
  4835 
  4836 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4837 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4838 
  4839 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4840 
  4841 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4842 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4843 
  4844 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4845 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4846 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4847 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4848 allowed. For examples see
  4849 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4850 
  4851 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4852 
  4853 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4857 structure:
  4858 
  4859     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4860     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4861     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4862     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4863     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4864     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4865     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4866     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4867     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4868     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4869     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4870     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4871     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4872     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4873     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4874     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4875     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4876     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4877     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4878     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4879     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4880     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4881     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4882     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4883     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4884     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4885     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4886     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4887     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4888     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4889     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4890     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4891     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4892 
  4893     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4894     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4895     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4896     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4897     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4898     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4899     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4900     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4901     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4902     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4903 
  4904     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4905     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4906     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4907     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4908     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4909     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4910 
  4911 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4912 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4913 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4914 
  4915 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4916 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4917 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4918 
  4919 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4920 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4921 
  4922 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4923 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4924 
  4925 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4926 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4927 proofs, e.g.
  4928 
  4929   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4930 
  4931 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4932 
  4933 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4934 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4935 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4936 
  4937 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4938 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4942 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4943 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4947 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4948 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4949 preorder_class.*.
  4950 
  4951 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4952 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4953 
  4954 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4955 
  4956   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4957 
  4958 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4959 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4960 fold_image.
  4961 
  4962 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4963 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4964 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4965 the former will disappear at some point.
  4966 
  4967 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4968 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4969 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4970 
  4971 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4972 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4973 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4974 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4975 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4976 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4977 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4978 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4979 
  4980 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4981 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4982 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4983 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4984 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4985 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4986 
  4987     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4988     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4989     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4990     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4991     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4992     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4993     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4994 
  4995 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4996 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4997 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4998 
  4999 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5000 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5001 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5002 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5003 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5004 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5005 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5006 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5007 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5008 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5009 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5010 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5011 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5012 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5013 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5014 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5015 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5016 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5017 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5018 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5019 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5020 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5021 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5022 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5023 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5024 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5025 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5026 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5027 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5028 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5029 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5030 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5031 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5032 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5033 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5034 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5035 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5036 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5037 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5038 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5039 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5040 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5041 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5042 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5043 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5044 
  5045 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5048 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5049 
  5050 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5051 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5052 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5053 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5054 
  5055 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5056 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5057 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5058 theory RealVector.
  5059 
  5060 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5061 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5062 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5063 and inner products are included.
  5064 
  5065 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5066 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5067 supported.
  5068 
  5069 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5070 first diagonalization argument.
  5071 
  5072 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5073 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5074 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5075 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5076 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5077 
  5078     hide (open) const gcd
  5079     abbreviation gcd where
  5080       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5081     notation (output)
  5082       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5083 
  5084 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5085 
  5086 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5087 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5088 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5089 
  5090 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5091 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5092 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5093 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5094 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5095 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5096 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5097 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5098 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5099 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5100 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5101 cases.
  5102 
  5103 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5104 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5105 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5106 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5107 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5108 
  5109     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5110     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5111     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5112     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5113     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5114 
  5115 
  5116 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5117 
  5118 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5119 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5120 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5121 
  5122 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5123 
  5124 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5125 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5126 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5127 
  5128 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5129 
  5130 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5131 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5132 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5133 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5134 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5135 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5136 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5137 
  5138 
  5139 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5140 
  5141 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5142 
  5143 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5144 theory targets.
  5145 
  5146 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5147 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5148 'inductive' etc.
  5149 
  5150 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5151 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5152 
  5153 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5154 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5155 
  5156 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5157 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5158 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5159 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5160 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5161 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5162 the algorithm W:
  5163 
  5164  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5165  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5166          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5167 
  5168 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5169 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5170 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5171 
  5172 
  5173 *** HOLCF ***
  5174 
  5175 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5176 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5177 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5178 
  5179 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5180 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5181 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5182 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5183 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5186 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5187 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 
  5190 *** ZF ***
  5191 
  5192 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5193 
  5194 
  5195 *** ML ***
  5196 
  5197 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5198 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5199 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5200 5.2.1!
  5201 
  5202 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5203 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5204 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5205 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5206 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5207 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5208 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5209 
  5210 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5211 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5212 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5213 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5214 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5215 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5216 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5217 
  5218 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5219 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5220 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5221 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5222 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5223 
  5224 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5225 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5226 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5227 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5228 Method.add_method.
  5229 
  5230 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5231 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5232 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5233 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5234 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5235 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5236 
  5237 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5238 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5239 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5240 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5241 examples.
  5242 
  5243 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5244 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5245 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5246 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5247 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5248 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5249 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5250 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5251 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5252 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5253 
  5254 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5255 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5256 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5257 
  5258 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5259 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5260 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5261 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5262 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5263 resort for legacy applications.
  5264 
  5265 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5266 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5267 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5268 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5269 explicit runtime argument.
  5270 
  5271 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5272 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5273 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5274 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5275 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5276 
  5277 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5278 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5279 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5280 theory state.
  5281 
  5282 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5283 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5284 
  5285   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5286   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5287   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5288   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5289   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5290   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5291   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5292   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5293   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5294   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5295 
  5296 
  5297 *** System ***
  5298 
  5299 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5300 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5301 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5302 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5303 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5304 
  5305 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5306 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5307 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5308 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5309 
  5310 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5311 
  5312 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5313 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5314 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5315 prover operations.
  5316 
  5317 
  5318 
  5319 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5320 -------------------------------
  5321 
  5322 *** General ***
  5323 
  5324 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5325 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5326 
  5327 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5328 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5329 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5330 provides a proper context already.
  5331 
  5332 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5333 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5334 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5335 
  5336 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5337 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5338 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5339 swap theory imports.
  5340 
  5341 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5342 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5343 
  5344 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5345 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5346 white space without escapes.
  5347 
  5348 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5349 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5350 "foo_bar".
  5351 
  5352 
  5353 *** Pure ***
  5354 
  5355 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5356 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5357 
  5358 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5359 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5360 
  5361 (1) unused_thms
  5362      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5363 
  5364 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5365      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5366      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5367 
  5368 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5369      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5370      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5371      their ancestors.
  5372 
  5373 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5374 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5375 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5376 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5377 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5378 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5379 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5380 
  5381 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5382 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5383 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5384 
  5385 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5386 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5387 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5388 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5389 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5390 
  5391 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5392 
  5393 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5394 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5395 update of theories within ML code.
  5396 
  5397 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5398 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5399 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5400 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5401 
  5402 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5403 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5404 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5408 
  5409 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5410 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5411 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5412 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5413 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5414 
  5415 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5416 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5417 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5418 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5419 situations.
  5420 
  5421 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5422 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5423 proof text.
  5424 
  5425 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5426 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5427 
  5428 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5429 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5430 predicates.
  5431 
  5432 
  5433 *** Document preparation ***
  5434 
  5435 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5436 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5437 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5438 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5439 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5440 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5441 
  5442 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5443 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5444 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5445 
  5446 
  5447 *** HOL ***
  5448 
  5449 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5450 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5451 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5452 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5453 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5454 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5455 
  5456 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5457 with multithreading.
  5458 
  5459 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5460 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5461 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5462 
  5463 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5464 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5465 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5466 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5467 
  5468 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5469 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5470 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5471 and makes them available separately.  See
  5472 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5473 
  5474 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5475 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5476 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5477 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5478 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5479 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5480 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5481 the declared rules.
  5482 
  5483 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5484 
  5485   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5486 
  5487 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5488 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5489 
  5490 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5491 
  5492   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5493 
  5494   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5495     definitions on => and bool.
  5496 
  5497   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5498     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5499     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5500 
  5501       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5502       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5503       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5504       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5505       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5506       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5507       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5508       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5509 
  5510   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5511     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5512     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5513 
  5514   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5515     The proof pattern
  5516 
  5517       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5518       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5519 
  5520     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5521     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5522 
  5523       have "EX S. P S"
  5524       proof
  5525         show "P S" <...>
  5526       qed
  5527 
  5528   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5529     The proof pattern
  5530 
  5531       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5532       also have "S = T" <...>
  5533       finally have "P T" .
  5534 
  5535     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5536     must be replaced by something like
  5537 
  5538       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5539       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5540       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5541 
  5542   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5543     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5544 
  5545       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5546 
  5547     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5548     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5549     type of the form
  5550 
  5551       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5552 
  5553     rather than
  5554 
  5555       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5556 
  5557 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5558 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5559 
  5560 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5561 
  5562 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5563 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5567 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5568 
  5569 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5570 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5571 
  5572 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5573 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5574 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5575 
  5576 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5577 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5578 
  5579   less_trans
  5580   less_linear
  5581   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5582   le_less_trans
  5583   less_le_trans
  5584   less_not_sym
  5585   less_asym
  5586 
  5587 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5588 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5589 and different variable names.
  5590 
  5591 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5592 
  5593 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5594 finite maps.
  5595 
  5596 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5597 
  5598 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5599 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5600 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5601 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5602 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5603 accordingly.
  5604 
  5605 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5606 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5607 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5608 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5609 
  5610 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5611 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5612 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5613 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5614 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5616 
  5617 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5618 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5619 
  5620 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5621 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5622 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5623 
  5624 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5626 
  5627 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5628 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5629 
  5630 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5631 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 
  5633 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5634 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5635 
  5636 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5637 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5639 
  5640 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5641 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5642 
  5643 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5644 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5645 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5646 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5647 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5648 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5649 
  5650 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5651 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5652 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5653 
  5654 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5655 
  5656 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5657 
  5658 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5659 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5660 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5661 
  5662 
  5663 *** ZF ***
  5664 
  5665 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5666 same session:
  5667 
  5668   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5669   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5670   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5671   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5672   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5673   List      -> List_ZF
  5674   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5675 
  5676 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5677 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5678 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5679 
  5680 
  5681 *** ML ***
  5682 
  5683 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5684 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5685 
  5686 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5687 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5688 
  5689 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5690 
  5691 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5692 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5693 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5694 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5695 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5696 
  5697 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5698 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5699 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5700 
  5701 
  5702 *** System ***
  5703 
  5704 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5705 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5706 
  5707 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5708 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5709 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5710 
  5711 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5712 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5713 
  5714 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5715 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5716 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5717 
  5718 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5719 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5720 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5721 
  5722 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5723 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5724 
  5725 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5726 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5727 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5728 script.
  5729 
  5730 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5731 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5732 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5733 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5734 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5735 
  5736 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5737 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5738 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5739 
  5740 
  5741 
  5742 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5743 -----------------------------------
  5744 
  5745 *** General ***
  5746 
  5747 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5748 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5749 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5750 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5751 
  5752 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5753 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5754 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5755 
  5756 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5757 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5758 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5759 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5760 
  5761 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5762 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5763 quotes.
  5764 
  5765 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5766 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5767 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5768 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5769 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5770 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5771 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5772 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5773 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5774 
  5775 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5776 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5777 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5778 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5779 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5780 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5781 
  5782 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5783 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5784 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5785 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5786 
  5787 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5788 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5789 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5790 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5791 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5792 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5793 
  5794 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5795 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5796 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5797 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5798 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5799 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5800 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5801 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5802 
  5803 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5804 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5805 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5806 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5807 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5808 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5809 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5810 
  5811 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5812 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5813 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5814 
  5815 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5816 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5817 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5818 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5819 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5820 limit is imposed.
  5821 
  5822 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5823 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5824 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5825 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5826 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5827 and scalability.
  5828 
  5829 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5830 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5831 
  5832 
  5833 *** Document preparation ***
  5834 
  5835 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5836 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5837 current context.
  5838 
  5839 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5840 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5841 
  5842 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5843 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5844 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5845 
  5846 
  5847 *** Pure ***
  5848 
  5849 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5850 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5851 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5852 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5853 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5854 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5855 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5856 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5857 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5858 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5859 
  5860 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5861 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5862 sketch:
  5863 
  5864     internal compilation:
  5865         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5866     writing SML code to a file:
  5867         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5868     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5869         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5870     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5871         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5872 
  5873     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5874         method ``eval''
  5875 
  5876 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5877 
  5878 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5879 
  5880     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5881     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5882     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5883     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5884 
  5885 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5886 
  5887     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5888       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5889 
  5890     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5891       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5892 
  5893     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5894       {(target)}+
  5895         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5896 
  5897     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5898       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5899         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5900 
  5901 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5902 
  5903 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5904 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5905 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5906 codegen".
  5907 
  5908 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5909 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5910 annotations).
  5911 
  5912 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5913 syntax.
  5914 
  5915 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5916 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5917 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5918 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5919 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5920 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5921 
  5922 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5923 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5924 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5925 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5926 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5927 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5928 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5929 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5930 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5931 equations, see section "definitions".
  5932 
  5933 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5934 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5935 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5936 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5937 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5938 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5939 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5940 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5941 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5942 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5943 
  5944 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5945 configuration options:
  5946 
  5947   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5948   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5949   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5950   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5951   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5952   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5953   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5954   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5955   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5956 
  5957 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5958 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5959 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5960 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5961 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5962 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5963 order.
  5964 
  5965 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5966 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5967 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5968 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5969 context encountered later on.
  5970 
  5971 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5972 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5973 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5974 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5975 
  5976 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5977 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5978 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5979 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5980 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5981 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5982 
  5983 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5984 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5985 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5986 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5987 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5988 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5989 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5990 more permissive.
  5991 
  5992 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5993 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5994 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5995 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5996 maintainability of proof texts.
  5997 
  5998 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5999 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6000 
  6001   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6002   then guess x and y by clarify
  6003 
  6004 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6005 proof tools being involved here.
  6006 
  6007 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6008 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6009 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6010 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6011 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6012 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6013 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6014 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6015 
  6016 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6017 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6018 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6019 
  6020   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6021   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6022   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6023   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6024 
  6025 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6026 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6027 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6028 
  6029 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6030 both named and unnamed ones.
  6031 
  6032 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6033 
  6034   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6035 
  6036 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6037 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6038 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6039 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6040 
  6041 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6042 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6043 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6044 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6045 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6046 
  6047 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6048 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6049 
  6050 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6051 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6052 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6053 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6054 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6055 originally first one.
  6056 
  6057 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6058 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6059 expected.
  6060 
  6061 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6062 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6063 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6064 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6065 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6066 
  6067   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6068     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6069     obtains x where "P x"
  6070 
  6071   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6072     assumes "A & B"
  6073     obtains A and B
  6074 
  6075   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6076     assumes "A | B"
  6077     obtains
  6078       A
  6079     | B
  6080 
  6081 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6082 explicitly:
  6083 
  6084   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6085     obtains "~ thesis"
  6086 
  6087   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6088     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6089 
  6090 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6091 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6092 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6093 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6094 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6095 case_names).
  6096 
  6097 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6098 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6099 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6100 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6101 
  6102 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6103 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6104 top-level lemma.
  6105 
  6106 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6107 introduction rule (default "that").
  6108 
  6109 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6110 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6111 to occur.
  6112 
  6113 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6114 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6115 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6116 representations independently of name spaces.
  6117 
  6118 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6119 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6120 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6121 
  6122 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6123 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6124 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6125 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6126 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6127 current context.
  6128 
  6129 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6130 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6131 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6132 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6133 
  6134   axiomatization
  6135     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6136     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6137 
  6138   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6139   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6140 
  6141   abbreviation
  6142     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6143     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6144 
  6145 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6146 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6147 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6148 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6149 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6150 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6151 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6152 
  6153 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6154 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6155 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6156 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6157 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6158 
  6159 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6160 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6161 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6162 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6163 
  6164 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6165 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6166 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6167 
  6168   definition "K x _ = x"
  6169 
  6170   inductive conj for A B
  6171   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6172 
  6173 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6174 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6175 abbreviations on output.
  6176 
  6177 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6178 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6179 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6180 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6181 
  6182 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6183 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6184 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6185 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6186 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6187 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6188 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6189 
  6190 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6191 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6192 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6193 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6194 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6195 
  6196 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6197 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6198 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6199 
  6200 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6201 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6202 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6203 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6204 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6205 
  6206   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6207     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6208 
  6209 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6210 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6211 partial_order.
  6212 
  6213 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6214 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6215 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6216 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6217 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6218 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6219 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6220 examples.
  6221 
  6222 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6223 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6224 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6225 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6226 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6227 
  6228 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6229 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6230 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6231 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6232 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6233 
  6234   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6235   (induct set: foo bar)
  6236   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6237   (induct type: foo bar)
  6238 
  6239 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6240 new format.
  6241 
  6242 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6243 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6244 
  6245 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6246 considered a legacy feature.
  6247 
  6248 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6249 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6250 
  6251 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6252 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6253 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The