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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Mon Nov 11 17:44:21 2013 +0100 (2013-11-11) | |

changeset 54384 | 50199af40c27 |

parent 54378 | 72254819befd |

parent 54295 | 45a5523d4a63 |

child 54449 | f3cfe882f9af |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

merged, using src/HOL/Tools/Sledgehammer/sledgehammer_isar.ML and src/HOL/Tools/Sledgehammer/sledgehammer_run.ML from 347c3b0cab44;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** HOL ***

9 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.

10 INCOMPATIBILITY.

12 * Fact generalization and consolidation:

13 neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1

14 INCOMPATIBILITY.

16 * Purely algebraic definition of even. Fact generalization and consolidation:

17 nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd

18 even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero

19 INCOMPATIBILITY.

21 * Elimination of fact duplicates:

22 equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique

23 diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq

24 INCOMPATIBILITY.

26 * Fact name consolidation:

27 diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus

28 minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg

29 le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos

30 neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos

31 less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]

32 INCOMPATIBILITY.

34 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:

35 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,

36 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,

37 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,

38 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,

39 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff. These correspondingly

40 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and

41 field_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.

43 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:

45 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":

46 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.

48 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:

49 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".

51 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".

52 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;

53 or the brute way with

54 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".

56 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice

58 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by

59 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices. INCOMPATIBILITY.

61 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them

62 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.

65 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)

66 -------------------------------------

68 *** General ***

70 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header. Note that

71 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file

72 dependencies. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

74 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by

75 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

77 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>

78 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>. Superscripts are

79 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations

80 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual

81 names. Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in

82 Isabelle/HOL. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to

83 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.

84 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary

85 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier

86 syntax.

88 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to

89 "sub". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

91 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also

92 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also

93 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar. Minor

94 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access

95 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.

97 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'. Minor

98 INCOMPATIBILITY.

100 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'. Old 'pr' (with its

101 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as

102 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.

104 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output

105 and Unix command-line print spooling. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use

106 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.

108 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,

109 eliminated old "ref" manual.

112 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***

114 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or

115 Documentation panel.

117 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle

118 documentation.

120 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities

121 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).

123 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel

124 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of

125 normal editing and checking process.

127 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command

128 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold. The

129 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the

130 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or

131 COMMAND modifier is pressed.

133 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof

134 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,

135 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER". Individual theory nodes may

136 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box

137 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".

139 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the

140 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick. Refined table of Isabelle

141 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).

143 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to

144 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.

145 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts

146 to resolve conflict.

148 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,

149 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.

151 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of

152 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of

153 such command executions while editing.

155 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing

156 document content.

158 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove

159 toplevel theorem statements.

161 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size

162 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see

163 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General"). It can be bound to some

164 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).

166 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to

167 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms. Discontinued

168 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.

170 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities

171 / Global Options / Appearance".

173 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"

174 plugin, which is now enabled by default.

177 *** Pure ***

179 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.

180 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent

181 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a

182 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'. See "isar-ref" manual for

183 details.

185 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.

187 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as

188 legacy since Isabelle2009-2. INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'

189 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.

191 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.

192 INCOMPATIBILITY.

194 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued. Instead the global

195 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images

196 as required, notably HOL-Proofs. Users no longer need to change

197 Proofterm.proofs dynamically. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

199 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend

200 on Proof.context. Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is

201 now the default. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

203 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as

204 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).

206 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal

207 state (schematic variables etc.). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare

208 situations.

211 *** HOL ***

213 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on

214 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.

215 INCOMPATIBILITY.

217 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.

219 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase

220 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated

221 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute

222 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:

224 declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]

226 * Code generator:

227 - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /

228 'code_instance'.

229 - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in

230 generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.

232 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for

233 examples.

235 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code

236 equations uniformly. Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'

237 to distinguish both when desired.

239 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more

240 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,

241 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral. See the tutorial on code

242 generation for details. INCOMPATIBILITY.

244 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:

245 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former

246 code_int). Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /

247 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and

248 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in

249 ML). INCOMPATIBILITY.

251 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate

252 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable

253 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,

254 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.

256 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are

257 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".

259 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for

260 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to

261 inductive_cases. See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.

263 * Lifting:

264 - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:

265 + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in

266 the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger

267 transfer rules

268 + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric

269 correspondence relation can be generated

270 + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support

271 parametricity

272 + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified

273 - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package

274 - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type

275 copies

276 - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced

277 by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an

278 anonymous context)

279 - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in

280 Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

281 - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:

282 lifting_forget, lifting_update

283 - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.

284 INCOMPATIBILITY

286 * Transfer:

287 - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T

288 by the actual invariant in a transferred goal

289 - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules

290 - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the

291 abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute

292 - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute

294 * Reification and reflection:

295 - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure

296 "Reification".

297 - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.

298 - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.

299 INCOMPATIBILITY.

301 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:

302 - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:

303 Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

304 This is now identity on infinite sets.

305 - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with

306 Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.

307 - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and

308 semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.

309 See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.

310 Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and

311 semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image

312 and fold1 respectively. These are now gone. You may use

313 those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is

314 preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.

315 - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,

316 no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)

317 - Fact renames:

318 card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]

319 card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint

320 INCOMPATIBILITY.

322 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.

324 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class

325 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the

326 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.

327 INCOMPATIBILITY.

329 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a

330 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and

331 bottom elements. Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and

332 extended reals. Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation

333 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about

334 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from

335 Inf_... to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice

336 lemmas.

338 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of

339 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have

340 more than one element. INCOMPATIBILITY.

342 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top

343 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions. INCOMPATIBILITY:

344 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top

346 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without

347 top and bottom elements.

349 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.

351 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from

352 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.

354 - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and

355 linear_continuum_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about

356 limits and order. Instances are reals and extended reals.

358 - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:

359 "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter. "isCont"

360 is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".

362 Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an

363 arbitrary filter.

365 - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove

366 compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions

367 attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a

368 continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous

369 on a compact set.

371 - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the

372 intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on

373 linear_continuum_topology).

375 - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to

376 show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and

377 on all sequences converging to x.

379 - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved

380 theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the

381 definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV

382 which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from

383 left or right.

385 - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:

387 F within X = inf F (principal X)

389 - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an

390 abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"

392 - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,

393 continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems

394 in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as

395 tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side

396 is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as

397 intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.

399 - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:

401 + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real

403 + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about

404 topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it

406 + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces

408 + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,

409 Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits

411 + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental

413 + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces

415 - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.

417 INCOMPATIBILITY.

419 * Nitpick:

420 - Added option "spy"

421 - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors

423 * Sledgehammer:

424 - Renamed option:

425 isar_shrink ~> isar_compress

426 INCOMPATIBILITY.

427 - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"

428 - Better support for "isar_proofs"

429 - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server

431 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also

432 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).

434 * Library/Polynomial.thy:

435 - Use lifting for primitive definitions.

436 - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for

437 generated code.

438 - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.

439 - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.

440 - Fact renames:

441 poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff

442 poly_ext ~> poly_eqI

443 expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff

444 IMCOMPATIBILITY.

446 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and

447 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of

448 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case

449 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.

451 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of

452 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.

454 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness. INCOMPATIBILITY.

456 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:

458 Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products

459 Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products

461 INCOMPATIBILITY.

463 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no

464 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function

465 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.

467 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and

468 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly. Existing theories should be based on

469 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead. The latter provides

470 integration with HOL's type classes for rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

472 * HOL-BNF:

473 - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including

474 new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and

475 "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See

476 "datatypes.pdf" for details.

477 - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to

478 coinduct).

479 - Renamed keywords:

480 data ~> datatype_new

481 codata ~> codatatype

482 bnf_def ~> bnf

483 - Renamed many generated theorems, including

484 discs ~> disc

485 map_comp' ~> map_comp

486 map_id' ~> map_id

487 sels ~> sel

488 set_map' ~> set_map

489 sets ~> set

490 IMCOMPATIBILITY.

493 *** ML ***

495 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML. The ML function

496 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y

497 z. prop x y z". See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its

498 Examples.thy in particular.

500 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular

501 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical

502 stdout. See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and

503 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.

505 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of

506 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in

507 the past). Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,

508 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref. Minor

509 INCOMPATIBILITY.

511 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:

513 Skip_Proof.prove ~> Goal.prove_sorry

514 Skip_Proof.prove_global ~> Goal.prove_sorry_global

516 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

518 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of

519 historic type simpset. Old-style declarations like addsimps,

520 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type simpset

521 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using

522 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context. INCOMPATIBILITY -- port

523 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of

524 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.

526 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)

527 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,

528 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage

529 clasets separately from the context.

531 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.

532 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.

534 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but

535 presents the result as initial Proof.context.

538 *** System ***

540 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by

541 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013. INCOMPATIBILITY.

543 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former

544 administrative aliases of option -e). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

546 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND

547 settings variable.

549 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic

550 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is

551 always pdf.

553 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to

554 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.

556 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows

557 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.

559 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral

560 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer

561 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.

563 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT

564 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info. The old

565 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its

566 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.

567 The default chapter is called "Unsorted". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

568 for HTML presentation of theories.

572 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)

573 -----------------------------------

575 *** General ***

577 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is

578 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with

579 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model. ML

580 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the

581 ongoing evaluation process. Note that in batch mode --- notably

582 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all

583 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).

585 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup

586 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type

587 and sort constraints. This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that

588 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.

590 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the

591 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.

593 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the

594 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.

595 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the

596 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of

597 dependencies properly.

599 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which

600 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.

602 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced

603 remaining material in old "ref" manual.

605 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure

606 for specifications. Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."

607 and "class ... context ...".

609 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is

610 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in

611 the target context. This form of declaration is stable when exported

612 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions. It is the

613 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced

614 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.

616 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving

617 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).

619 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according

620 to name patterns (with clickable results).

623 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***

625 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise

626 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'. This

627 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the

628 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal

629 justifications. Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as

630 required to complete full proof checking eventually.

632 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the

633 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers. Activation of

634 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,

635 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content

636 is explored. ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be

637 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.

639 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text

640 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph

641 browser on demand.

643 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,

644 malformed symbols). Changing the balance of open/close quotes and

645 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations

646 that frequently occur in user interaction.

648 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large

649 files. More scalable management of formal document content.

651 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after

652 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user

653 dialog to stop or continue. This avoids swamping the front-end with

654 potentially infinite message streams.

656 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala. The

657 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala

658 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color

659 schemes.

661 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle

662 symbols.

664 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics. Note that

665 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.

667 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,

668 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text

669 selections. Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.

671 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size

672 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,

673 tooltips etc. Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often

674 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.

676 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of

677 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing. See

678 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".

680 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session

681 image. For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on

682 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the

683 Isabelle distribution.

685 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates

686 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience. This version is

687 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.

690 *** Pure ***

692 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from

693 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.

695 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted

696 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the

697 rather arbitrary current working directory. INCOMPATIBILITY.

699 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,

700 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof

701 structure instead. Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of

702 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied

703 with some care where this is really required.

705 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort

706 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a

707 given sort. Example (in HOL):

709 typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite

711 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as

712 a Hasse diagram.

715 *** HOL ***

717 * Sledgehammer:

719 - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the

720 Sledgehammer manual for details.

721 - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.

722 - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).

723 - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".

724 - Renamed options:

725 isar_proof ~> isar_proofs

726 isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink

727 max_relevant ~> max_facts

728 relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds

730 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises. It is

731 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the

732 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.

734 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type

735 INCOMPATIBILITY.

737 * Lifting:

738 - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition

739 - quot_del attribute

740 - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)

742 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree

743 expressions.

745 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into

746 pointfree expressions.

748 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly

749 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear

750 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction

751 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions". Minor

752 INCOMPATIBILITY.

754 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit

755 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued. The

756 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but

757 written just "typedef t = A". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories

758 accordingly.

760 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"

761 directly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

763 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to

764 List. INCOMPATIBILITY.

766 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp. INCOMPATIBILITY.

768 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded

769 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.

771 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".

773 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas

775 reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp

776 rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp

778 INCOMPATIBILITY.

780 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)

782 left_distrib ~> distrib_right

783 right_distrib ~> distrib_left

785 INCOMPATIBILITY.

787 * Generalized the definition of limits:

789 - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which

790 expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the

791 output f x converges to G.

793 - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative

794 infinity (at_bot).

796 - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from

797 Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.

799 - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>

800 at_top".

802 INCOMPATIBILITY.

804 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to

805 lattice type classes.

807 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed

809 constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold

810 fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm

812 INCOMPATIBILITY.

814 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related

815 changes as follows.

817 - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)

819 prefix ~> prefixeq

820 strict_prefix ~> prefix

822 - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument

823 order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped

824 old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.

825 Renamed lemmas accordingly.

827 - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on

828 lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case

829 "list_hembeq (op =)".

831 - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type

832 class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale

833 interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory

834 Library/Prefix_Order.

836 - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based

837 on "Sublist.sublisteq". Renamed lemmas accordingly:

839 le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff

840 le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono

841 le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2

842 le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD

843 le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'

844 le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq

845 le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'

846 le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many

847 le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left

848 le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many

849 le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append

850 le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length

851 le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'

852 less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop

853 less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct

854 not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length

856 INCOMPATIBILITY.

858 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.

860 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and

861 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.

863 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and

864 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced

865 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from

866 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:

868 extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty

869 extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain

870 extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range

871 extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb

872 extensional_funcset_mem ~> PiE_mem

873 extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd

874 extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE

875 extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq

876 card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE

877 finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE

879 INCOMPATIBILITY.

881 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant

882 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as

883 Data").

885 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type

886 parameter appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding

887 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated

888 code.

890 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees

891 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may

892 return a structurally different tree than before. Potential

893 INCOMPATIBILITY.

895 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.

897 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.

899 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced

901 "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"

902 "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"

904 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with

905 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by

906 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".

908 With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:

910 DIM('a) :: nat ~> card (Basis :: 'a set) (is an abbreviation)

911 a $$ i ~> inner a i (where i : Basis)

912 cart_base i removed

913 \<pi>, \<pi>' removed

915 Theorems about these constants where removed.

917 Renamed lemmas:

919 component_le_norm ~> Basis_le_norm

920 euclidean_eq ~> euclidean_eq_iff

921 differential_zero_maxmin_component ~> differential_zero_maxmin_cart

922 euclidean_simps ~> inner_simps

923 independent_basis ~> independent_Basis

924 span_basis ~> span_Basis

925 in_span_basis ~> in_span_Basis

926 norm_bound_component_le ~> norm_boound_Basis_le

927 norm_bound_component_lt ~> norm_boound_Basis_lt

928 component_le_infnorm ~> Basis_le_infnorm

930 INCOMPATIBILITY.

932 * HOL/Probability:

934 - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.

936 - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union

937 (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions

938 (borel_measurable_induct).

940 - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a

941 projective family).

943 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the

944 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").

946 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors

947 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free

948 datatypes.

950 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations

951 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.

953 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black

954 trees for the code generator.

956 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to

957 Lifting/Transfer.

958 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.

960 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter

961 INCOMPATIBILITY.

964 *** Document preparation ***

966 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since

967 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.

968 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".

970 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,

971 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.

973 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point

974 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common

975 document/root.tex.

977 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style

978 document/IsaMakefile. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

981 *** ML ***

983 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,

984 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary

985 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.

987 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error

988 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide

989 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.

991 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a

992 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not

993 necessarily printing visible text.

996 *** System ***

998 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see

999 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle

1000 build" tool and its examples. The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares

1001 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to

1002 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir". Note that this affects

1003 document preparation as well. INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /

1004 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.

1006 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the

1007 regular isabelle build tool. For example:

1009 isabelle build -s -b HOL

1011 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".

1013 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the

1014 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that

1015 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build". Note

1016 that this is inefficient! Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving

1017 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.

1019 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as

1020 required for "isabelle build", for example.

1022 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.

1023 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.

1025 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line. Minor

1026 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1028 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components

1029 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository

1030 version of Isabelle.

1032 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general

1033 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".

1035 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer

1036 picked up from some surrounding directory. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

1037 for home-made settings.

1039 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).

1041 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version

1042 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel

1043 configuration.

1045 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess

1046 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout. Minor

1047 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS

1048 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been

1049 bundled as Isabelle component.

1053 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)

1054 ------------------------------

1056 *** General ***

1058 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:

1060 - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer

1061 command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)

1062 - markup for bound variables

1063 - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)

1064 - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session

1065 - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range

1066 e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)

1068 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory

1069 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands. Allow new

1070 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.

1072 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with

1073 additional parameters and assumptions. Such unnamed contexts may be

1074 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',

1075 'instantiation' etc. Results from the local context are generalized

1076 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context. Example:

1078 context

1079 fixes x y z :: 'a

1080 assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"

1081 begin

1083 lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp

1085 end

1087 thm my_trans

1089 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of

1090 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see

1091 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy

1093 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context

1094 ... begin ... end" block as well.

1096 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a

1097 given name in the context. These may be later included in other

1098 contexts. This allows to manage context extensions casually, without

1099 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation. See

1100 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.

1102 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'

1103 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored. Thus

1104 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts

1105 becomes obsolete. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of

1106 indices of schematic variables.

1108 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)

1109 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead

1110 of the original expression. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where

1111 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations

1112 etc. was exploited.

1114 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"

1115 ("prog-prove"). It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to

1116 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed. It

1117 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order

1118 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all

1119 of the material of that old tutorial.

1121 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",

1122 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"

1123 manual.

1126 *** Pure ***

1128 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"

1129 into the user context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular

1130 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.

1132 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into

1133 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always

1134 expand it. This also works for object-logic equality. (Formerly

1135 undocumented feature.)

1137 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just

1138 like type constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where

1139 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally. For example:

1141 lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)" -- "now illegal"

1143 lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"

1144 -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"

1146 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more

1147 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is

1148 unique. (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left

1149 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)

1151 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:

1153 num ~> num_token

1154 xnum ~> xnum_token

1155 xstr ~> str_token

1157 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that in practice "num_const" or

1158 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include

1159 position information via constraints).

1161 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see

1162 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref

1163 manual. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1165 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms

1166 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.

1168 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',

1169 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.

1170 Use commands of the generic code generator instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1172 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use

1173 "code_unfold" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1175 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual

1176 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like

1178 definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"

1180 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1182 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued. Use 'type_synonym'

1183 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1185 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental

1186 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as

1187 legacy since Isabelle2011).

1190 *** HOL ***

1192 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before

1193 Isabelle2008). Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.

1194 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY. For developments keeping predicates and

1195 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has

1196 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some

1197 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".

1198 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any

1199 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as

1200 possible.

1202 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a

1203 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate

1204 and what a set. It can be helpful to carry out that step in

1205 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.

1207 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather

1208 than predicates. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1210 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set

1212 * The representation of numerals has changed. Datatype "num"

1213 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions

1214 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent

1215 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. See also

1216 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some

1217 user theories may require adaptations as follows:

1219 - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These

1220 classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.

1222 - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,

1223 and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until

1224 after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.

1226 - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"

1227 pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.

1229 - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes

1230 automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and

1231 simprocs may now apply within the proof.

1233 - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:

1234 Redefine using other integer operations.

1236 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing

1237 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient

1238 package. (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future

1239 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the

1240 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)

1242 - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,

1243 which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may

1244 relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,

1245 or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding

1246 operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:

1248 ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map

1249 (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int

1251 - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an

1252 equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are

1253 replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.

1254 Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is

1255 necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden

1256 for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z". The

1257 variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that

1258 is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).

1260 - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of

1261 various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)". The

1262 transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for

1263 non-polymorphic constants on the fly.

1265 - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a

1266 new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other

1267 constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied

1268 after unfolding the constant definitions.

1270 - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer

1271 from type nat to type int.

1273 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition

1274 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.

1276 - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in

1277 terms of a corresponding operation on a representation

1278 type. Example syntax:

1280 lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"

1281 is List.insert

1283 Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each

1284 constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,

1285 the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is

1286 presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness

1287 theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated

1288 by the package.

1290 - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes

1291 corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),

1292 lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up

1293 code generation for each constant.

1295 - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a

1296 user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem

1297 or a type_definition theorem. The package configures transfer

1298 rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the

1299 lift_definition command to work with the type.

1301 - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,

1302 Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,

1303 Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.

1305 * Quotient package:

1307 - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with

1308 rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.

1310 - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and

1311 Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.

1313 - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a

1314 respectfulness property at the point where the constant is

1315 defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.

1317 - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems

1318 accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1320 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially

1321 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.

1323 * Quickcheck:

1325 - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which

1326 allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.

1327 For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable

1328 assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that

1329 any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.

1331 These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as

1332 Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the

1333 obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".

1335 After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck

1336 continues searching for genuine ones.

1338 By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine

1339 counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only

1340 show genuine counterexamples.

1342 - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive

1343 value generators for a given type and operations.

1345 It generates values by using the operations as if they were

1346 constructors of that type.

1348 - Support for multisets.

1350 - Added "use_subtype" options.

1352 - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process

1353 conjectures in a locale context.

1355 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option

1356 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.

1358 * Sledgehammer:

1359 - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012

1360 paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".

1361 - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.

1362 - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and

1363 TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.

1364 - Sped up the minimizer.

1365 - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.

1366 - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").

1367 - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".

1369 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a

1370 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").

1372 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".

1374 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1376 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple

1377 case distinctions at the same time. E.g.

1379 list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]

1381 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both

1382 a list and a nat.

1384 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the

1385 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.

1387 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy. Use

1388 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the

1389 default.

1391 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with

1393 declare [[record_coden = false]] -- "default true"

1395 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.

1397 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source

1398 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.

1399 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the

1400 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of

1401 one_case.

1403 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying

1404 the result of the fact expression.

1406 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations

1407 and predicates. Added powers of predicate relations. Consolidation

1408 of some relation theorems:

1410 converse_def ~> converse_unfold

1411 rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold

1412 symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)

1413 transp_def ~> transp_trans

1414 Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold

1415 Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]

1417 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.

1419 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set

1420 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".

1422 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1424 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow

1425 to match the constant's name:

1427 rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1

1428 rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I

1429 rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I

1430 rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2

1431 rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E

1432 rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E

1433 rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E

1434 rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2

1435 rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2

1436 rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'

1437 rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2

1438 rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add

1439 rel_pow_commute ~> relpow

1440 rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:

1441 rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow

1442 rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl

1443 rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow

1444 rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow

1445 rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv

1446 rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1

1447 rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded

1448 rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow

1449 trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow

1450 single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow

1452 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1454 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition

1455 and corresponding theorem names:

1457 - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.

1459 - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.

1461 - Renamed theorems:

1463 rel_compI ~> relcompI

1464 rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair

1465 rel_compE ~> relcompE

1466 pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq

1467 rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1

1468 rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono

1469 rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma

1470 rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib

1471 rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2

1472 rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib

1473 rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2

1474 single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp

1475 rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold

1476 converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp

1477 pred_compI ~> relcomppI

1478 pred_compE ~> relcomppE

1479 pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1

1480 pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2

1481 transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq

1482 pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono

1483 pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib

1484 pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2

1485 converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp

1487 finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp

1489 set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp

1491 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1493 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.

1494 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.

1496 DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0

1497 zdiv_self ~> div_self

1498 zmod_self ~> mod_self

1499 zdiv_zero ~> div_0

1500 zmod_zero ~> mod_0

1501 zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2

1502 zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality

1503 zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial

1504 zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus

1505 zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus

1506 zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right

1507 zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right

1508 zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right

1509 zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right

1510 zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel

1511 zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq

1512 zpower_zmod ~> power_mod

1513 zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod

1514 zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd

1515 mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left

1516 mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right

1518 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use

1519 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1521 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1523 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:

1525 inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf

1526 sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup

1527 INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf

1528 SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup

1529 union_set ~> union_set_fold

1530 minus_set ~> minus_set_fold

1531 INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold

1532 SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold

1533 INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr

1534 SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr

1535 foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)

1536 foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold

1537 foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold

1538 foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl

1539 foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr

1540 fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups

1541 fold_set ~> fold_set_fold

1542 fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold

1544 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1546 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:

1547 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,

1548 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,

1549 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,

1550 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,

1551 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,

1552 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.

1553 INCOMPATIBILITY. For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"

1554 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum". Otherwise it can be

1555 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by

1556 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".

1558 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,

1559 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,

1560 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,

1561 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr. INCOMPATIBILITY. Prefer corresponding

1562 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas

1563 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.

1565 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion

1566 through option types.

1568 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on

1569 relations.

1571 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1573 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.

1574 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.

1576 zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus

1577 zminus_0 ~> minus_zero

1578 zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib

1579 zadd_commute ~> add_commute

1580 zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc

1581 zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute

1582 zadd_ac ~> add_ac

1583 zmult_ac ~> mult_ac

1584 zadd_0 ~> add_0_left

1585 zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right

1586 zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus

1587 zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left

1588 zmult_commute ~> mult_commute

1589 zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

1590 zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib

1591 zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib

1592 zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib

1593 zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib

1594 zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left

1595 zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right

1596 zle_refl ~> order_refl

1597 zle_trans ~> order_trans

1598 zle_antisym ~> order_antisym

1599 zle_linear ~> linorder_linear

1600 zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear

1601 zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono

1602 zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono

1603 zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono

1604 int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one

1605 int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one

1606 zless_le ~> less_le

1607 zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add

1608 zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff

1609 zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs

1611 * Theory Deriv: Renamed

1613 DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing

1615 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.

1617 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets

1618 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax

1619 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant

1620 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.

1621 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1623 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1624 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.

1626 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black

1627 trees is now inside a type class context. Names of affected

1628 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_. INCOMPATIBILITY for

1629 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as

1630 follows:

1632 Operations:

1633 bulkload -> rbt_bulkload

1634 del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left

1635 del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right

1636 del -> rbt_del

1637 delete -> rbt_delete

1638 ins -> rbt_ins

1639 insert -> rbt_insert

1640 insertw -> rbt_insert_with

1641 insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key

1642 map_entry -> rbt_map_entry

1643 lookup -> rbt_lookup

1644 sorted -> rbt_sorted

1645 tree_greater -> rbt_greater

1646 tree_less -> rbt_less

1647 tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol

1648 union -> rbt_union

1649 union_with -> rbt_union_with

1650 union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key

1652 Lemmas:

1653 balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted

1654 balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater

1655 balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less

1656 balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted

1657 balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater

1658 balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less

1659 balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted

1660 balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater

1661 balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less

1662 bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt

1663 combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted

1664 combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater

1665 combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less

1666 delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree

1667 delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt

1668 del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater

1669 del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less

1670 del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater

1671 del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less

1672 del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree

1673 del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2

1674 del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted

1675 del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater

1676 del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less

1677 dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch

1678 entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup

1679 finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup

1680 insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted

1681 insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt

1682 insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt

1683 insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted

1684 insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted

1685 ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted

1686 ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater

1687 ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less

1688 is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted

1689 lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance

1690 lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload

1691 lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete

1692 lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty

1693 lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree

1694 lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree

1695 lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins

1696 lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert

1697 lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw

1698 lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk

1699 lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys

1700 lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map

1701 lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry

1702 lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater

1703 lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less

1704 lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union

1705 map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of

1706 map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1

1707 map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2

1708 map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt

1709 map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted

1710 map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater

1711 map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less

1712 map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater

1713 map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less

1714 map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted

1715 paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted

1716 paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup

1717 paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater

1718 paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less

1719 sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries

1720 tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans

1721 tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit

1722 tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop

1723 tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps

1724 tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans

1725 tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans

1726 tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit

1727 tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop

1728 tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps

1729 tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans

1730 tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props

1731 union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch

1732 union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt

1733 unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt

1734 unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt

1735 unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted

1737 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as

1738 a subset of the real numbers. All operations are defined using the

1739 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1741 Changed Operations:

1742 float_abs -> abs

1743 float_nprt -> nprt

1744 float_pprt -> pprt

1745 pow2 -> use powr

1746 round_down -> float_round_down

1747 round_up -> float_round_up

1748 scale -> exponent

1750 Removed Operations:

1751 ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod

1753 Renamed Lemmas:

1754 abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs

1755 bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg

1756 bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen

1757 float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent

1758 float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl

1759 float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr

1760 float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff

1761 float_power -> real_of_float_power

1762 lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat

1763 lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat

1764 le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le

1765 le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq

1766 less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less

1767 less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq

1768 normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat

1769 normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0

1770 normfloat -> normfloat_def

1771 normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def

1772 number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral

1773 one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one

1774 plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus

1775 rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat

1776 rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat

1777 real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq

1778 real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq

1779 real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq

1780 real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq

1781 real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq

1782 real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq

1783 real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq

1784 real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq

1785 round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down

1786 round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up

1787 times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times

1788 uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus

1789 zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero

1791 Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:

1792 bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,

1793 float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,

1794 float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,

1795 float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,

1796 floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,

1797 lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,

1798 rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,

1799 real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,

1800 round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float

1802 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for

1803 association lists with distinct keys.

1805 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of

1806 annotated commands.

1808 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,

1809 simpler, and more scalable. Requires a proof bundle, which is

1810 available as an external component. Discontinued old (and mostly

1811 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1813 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to

1814 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems

1815 instead.

1817 word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi

1818 word_add_alt ~> word_add_def

1819 word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def

1820 word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def

1821 word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi

1822 word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi

1823 word_add_0 ~> add_0_left

1824 word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right

1825 word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left

1826 word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right

1827 word_add_commute ~> add_commute

1828 word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc

1829 word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute

1830 word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute

1831 word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

1832 word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute

1833 word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib

1834 word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib

1835 word_left_minus ~> left_minus

1836 word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right

1837 word_diff_self ~> diff_self

1838 word_sub_def ~> diff_minus

1839 word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus

1840 word_add_ac ~> add_ac

1841 word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac

1842 word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac

1843 word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac

1844 word_order_trans ~> order_trans

1845 word_order_refl ~> order_refl

1846 word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym

1847 word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear

1848 lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one

1849 word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq

1850 word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add

1851 word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub

1852 word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult

1853 word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg

1854 word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ

1855 word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred

1856 word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi

1857 word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi

1859 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting

1860 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,

1861 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy. Supports addition, subtraction,

1862 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric

1863 constants. Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word. Solves

1864 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first

1865 order problems amenable to blast or similar. See also examples in

1866 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.

1868 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to

1869 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a

1870 measure_space. The locales based on subset_class now have two

1871 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.

1872 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the

1873 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)

1874 measure". Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain

1875 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.

1876 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got

1877 their own constants distr and density. Instead of using locales to

1878 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space

1879 and point_measure is introduced. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1881 Renamed constants:

1882 measure -> emeasure

1883 finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure

1884 product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra

1885 product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb

1886 product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM

1888 Removed locales:

1889 completeable_measure_space

1890 finite_measure_space

1891 finite_prob_space

1892 finite_product_finite_prob_space

1893 finite_product_sigma_algebra

1894 finite_sigma_algebra

1895 measure_space

1896 pair_finite_prob_space

1897 pair_finite_sigma_algebra

1898 pair_finite_space

1899 pair_sigma_algebra

1900 product_sigma_algebra

1902 Removed constants:

1903 conditional_space

1904 distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate

1905 image_space

1906 joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate

1907 pair_measure_generator

1908 product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM

1909 subvimage

1911 Replacement theorems:

1912 finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite

1913 finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty

1914 finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq

1915 finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq

1916 finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably

1917 finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure

1918 finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite

1919 finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton

1920 finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg

1921 finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real

1922 finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb

1923 finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite

1924 finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty

1925 information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed

1926 information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple

1927 information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple

1928 information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple

1929 information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple

1930 information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple

1931 information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed

1932 information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed

1933 information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple

1934 information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform

1935 information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq

1936 information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0

1937 information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg

1938 information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed

1939 information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple

1940 Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost

1941 Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral

1942 measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"

1943 measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive

1944 measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null

1945 measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter

1946 measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD

1947 measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq

1948 measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq

1949 measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq

1950 measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq

1951 measure_space_density -> emeasure_density

1952 measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density

1953 measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr

1954 measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density

1955 measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr

1956 measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure

1957 measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl

1958 measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing

1959 measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably

1960 measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure

1961 measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff

1962 measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set

1963 measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0

1964 measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite

1965 measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton

1966 measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure

1967 measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert

1968 measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono

1969 measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf

1970 measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq

1971 measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure

1972 measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover

1973 measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr

1974 measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite

1975 measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive

1976 measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space

1977 measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0

1978 measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set

1979 measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density

1980 measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr

1981 measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq

1982 measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq

1983 measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably

1984 measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff

1985 measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union

1986 measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton

1987 measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive

1988 measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union

1989 measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION

1990 measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp

1991 measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr

1992 measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr

1993 measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq

1994 measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq

1995 pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1

1996 pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2

1997 pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1

1998 pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2

1999 pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff

2000 pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap

2001 pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'

2002 pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap

2003 pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1

2004 pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2

2005 pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap

2006 pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2

2007 pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt

2008 pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times

2009 prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM

2010 prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq

2011 prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1

2012 prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr

2013 prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict

2014 prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space

2015 product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all

2016 product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite

2017 product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space

2018 product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite

2019 product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite

2020 product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator

2021 product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb

2022 product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty

2023 product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton

2024 product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb

2025 product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single

2026 product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton

2027 product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb

2028 product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict

2029 product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed

2030 product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge

2031 product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton

2032 product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge

2033 sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable

2034 sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM

2035 sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of

2036 sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint

2037 sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr

2038 sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq

2039 space_product_algebra -> space_PiM

2041 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all

2042 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.

2045 *** FOL ***

2047 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).

2050 *** ZF ***

2052 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case

2053 analysis.

2055 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.

2057 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2060 *** ML ***

2062 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax

2063 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.

2065 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the

2066 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory

2067 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.

2069 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name

2070 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given. If that is Binding.empty

2071 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level

2072 fact. The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a

2073 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),

2074 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context. Potential

2075 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify

2076 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.

2078 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in

2079 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.

2081 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source

2082 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with

2083 declarations like Local_Theory.note.

2085 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

2086 ProofContext has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2088 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle

2089 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory

2090 context as well.

2092 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:

2094 addeqcongs ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong

2095 deleqcongs ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong

2096 addcongs ~> Simplifier.add_cong

2097 delcongs ~> Simplifier.del_cong

2098 setmksimps ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps

2099 setmkcong ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong

2100 setmksym ~> Simplifier.set_mksym

2101 setmkeqTrue ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue

2102 settermless ~> Simplifier.set_termless

2103 setsubgoaler ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler

2104 addsplits ~> Splitter.add_split

2105 delsplits ~> Splitter.del_split

2108 *** System ***

2110 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home

2111 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only. Likewise,

2112 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead

2113 of former $HOME. A different default for USER_HOME may be set

2114 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are

2115 evaluated. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where

2116 the generic user home was intended.

2118 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name

2119 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.

2121 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar

2122 (not just JRE).

2126 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)

2127 ------------------------------------

2129 *** General ***

2131 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as

2132 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.

2134 - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor

2135 buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save

2136 files for checking).

2138 - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic

2139 highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source

2140 positions.

2142 - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source

2143 buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML

2144 theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).

2146 - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,

2147 based on interactive editor view. (Note: jEdit folding and

2148 narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)

2150 - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few

2151 cores.

2153 - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document

2154 versions (garbage collection).

2156 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,

2157 including some remaining limitations.

2159 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

2160 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

2161 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.

2162 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the

2163 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".

2164 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2166 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

2167 digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

2168 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

2170 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

2171 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

2172 usedir option -Q.

2174 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

2175 configuration options, with more conventional names:

2177 long_names ~> names_long

2178 short_names ~> names_short

2179 unique_names ~> names_unique

2181 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

2183 declare [[names_unique = false]]

2185 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

2186 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

2187 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

2189 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case

2190 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].

2192 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:

2193 - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.

2194 - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.

2195 - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about

2196 "Classical Reasoner".

2199 *** HOL ***

2201 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than

2202 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2204 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;

2205 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong. New type classes for

2206 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders. Lemmas

2207 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in

2208 class complete_linorder.

2210 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,

2211 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.

2213 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to

2214 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):

2216 Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]

2217 Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]

2218 Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

2219 Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

2220 Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

2221 Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

2222 Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def

2223 Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def

2224 INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def

2225 UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def

2226 INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]

2228 More consistent and comprehensive names:

2230 INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def

2231 UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def

2232 INFI_def ~> INF_def

2233 SUPR_def ~> SUP_def

2234 INF_leI ~> INF_lower

2235 INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2

2236 le_INFI ~> INF_greatest

2237 le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper

2238 le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2

2239 SUP_leI ~> SUP_least

2240 INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq

2241 SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq

2242 INFI_apply ~> INF_apply

2243 SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply

2244 INTER_def ~> INTER_eq

2245 UNION_def ~> UNION_eq

2247 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2249 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.

2250 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2252 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,

2253 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,

2254 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,

2255 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2257 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,

2258 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,

2259 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp]. Minor

2260 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2262 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective

2263 constants. INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the

2264 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.

2266 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems

2267 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection

2268 UN_ball_bex_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2270 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a

2271 separate type class floor_ceiling.

2273 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:

2275 locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute

2276 locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem

2278 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need

2279 adjustment. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2281 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in

2282 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2284 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the

2285 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in

2286 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the

2287 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2289 divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib

2290 divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib

2291 divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib

2292 mult.add_right ~> right_distrib

2293 mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib

2294 mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib

2295 mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib

2297 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or

2298 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2300 real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def

2301 real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def

2302 real_less_def ~> less_le

2303 real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def

2304 real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def

2305 real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute

2306 real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

2307 real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left

2308 real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib

2309 real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one

2310 real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse

2311 INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero

2312 real_le_refl ~> order_refl

2313 real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym

2314 real_le_trans ~> order_trans

2315 real_le_linear ~> linear

2316 real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0

2317 real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono

2318 real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos

2319 real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono

2320 real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq

2321 real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff

2322 realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff

2323 real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored

2324 realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored

2325 reals_complete2 ~> complete_real

2326 real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum

2327 exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique

2328 expi_add ~> exp_add

2329 expi_zero ~> exp_zero

2330 lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong

2331 LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff

2332 LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const

2333 LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm

2334 LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add

2335 LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus

2336 LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel

2337 LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff

2338 bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

2339 bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

2340 LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult

2341 LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

2342 LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide

2343 LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power

2344 LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum

2345 LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod

2346 LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

2347 LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

2348 LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

2349 LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]

2350 LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]

2351 LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]

2352 LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex

2353 LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at

2354 LIM_const ~> tendsto_const

2355 LIM_add ~> tendsto_add

2356 LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero

2357 LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus

2358 LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff

2359 LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm

2360 LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero

2361 LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel

2362 LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

2363 LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

2364 LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero

2365 LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel

2366 LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

2367 LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose

2368 LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult

2369 LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR

2370 LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real

2371 LIM_power ~> tendsto_power

2372 LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

2373 LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn

2374 isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose

2375 bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

2376 bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero

2377 bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

2378 bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero

2379 bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero

2380 bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero

2381 LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]

2383 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was

2384 generalized. Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,

2385 comm_monoid_add}. Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.

2387 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now

2388 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus

2389 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".

2391 * Code generation:

2393 - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of

2394 characters in the target language.

2396 - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code

2397 instead.

2399 - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.

2401 - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. May be

2402 reactivated by the following theory command:

2404 setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}

2406 * Declare ext [intro] by default. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

2408 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the

2409 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come

2410 from rule induction. The latter are still called "hyps". Method

2411 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same

2412 syntax.

2414 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is

2415 still available as a legacy feature for some time.

2417 * Nitpick:

2418 - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

2419 - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

2420 - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

2421 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2423 * Sledgehammer:

2424 - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.

2425 - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,

2426 Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.

2427 - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if

2428 this can be done within reasonable time.

2429 - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.

2430 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2431 - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",

2432 "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

2433 - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full

2434 Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2436 * Metis:

2437 - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2438 - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.

2439 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2441 * Command 'try':

2442 - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and

2443 "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2444 - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also

2445 'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.

2447 * Quickcheck:

2448 - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

2449 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

2450 - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

2451 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

2452 - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables

2453 narrowing-based testing. Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler

2454 with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings

2455 environment as ISABELLE_GHC.

2456 - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator

2457 (formly in HOL/Library).

2459 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec". INCOMPATIBILITY,

2460 use 'partial_function' instead.

2462 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended

2463 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by

2464 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.

2466 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,

2467 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.

2468 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2470 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has

2471 been moved here. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2473 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated

2474 arithmetic.

2476 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the

2477 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order

2478 and lattice type classes.

2480 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof

2481 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.

2483 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets

2484 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.

2486 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories

2487 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an

2488 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2490 - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.

2491 - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.

2492 - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.

2493 - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.

2495 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to

2496 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and

2497 constants:

2499 type inat ~> type enat

2500 Fin ~> enat

2501 Infty ~> infinity (overloaded)

2502 iSuc ~> eSuc

2503 the_Fin ~> the_enat

2505 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has

2506 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2508 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now

2509 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard

2510 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of

2511 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.

2512 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".

2514 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed

2515 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants

2516 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to

2517 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have

2518 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use

2519 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have

2520 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2522 Cart_eq ~> vec_eq_iff

2523 dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le

2524 tendsto_vector ~> vec_tendstoI

2525 Cauchy_vector ~> vec_CauchyI

2527 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been

2528 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more

2529 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2531 finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice

2532 eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj

2533 eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff

2534 eventually_false ~> eventually_False

2535 setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum

2536 Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def

2537 Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident

2538 Lim_const ~> tendsto_const

2539 Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]

2540 Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus

2541 Lim_add ~> tendsto_add

2542 Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff

2543 Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR

2544 Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]

2545 Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]

2546 Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

2547 Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component

2548 Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth

2549 Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]

2550 dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left

2551 dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right

2552 continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]

2553 continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus

2554 continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff

2555 continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]

2556 continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR

2557 continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse

2558 continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse

2559 continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse

2560 continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]

2561 continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]

2562 continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]

2563 continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus

2564 continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff

2565 continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]

2566 continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]

2567 continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR

2568 continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult

2569 continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]

2570 continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]

2571 continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv

2572 uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus

2573 uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff

2574 subset_interior ~> interior_mono

2575 subset_closure ~> closure_mono

2576 closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV

2577 real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2

2578 real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3

2579 real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel

2580 real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3

2581 norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2

2583 * Session HOL-Probability:

2584 - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

2585 - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

2586 - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent

2587 - Use extended reals instead of positive extended

2588 reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2590 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2592 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

2593 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

2594 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

2595 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

2596 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

2597 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

2598 monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD

2599 monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE

2600 monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]

2601 cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]

2602 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

2603 cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app

2604 cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app

2605 cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]

2606 cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]

2607 contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]

2608 contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]

2609 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

2610 UU_I ~> bottomI

2611 lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)

2612 lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)

2613 Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)

2614 Def_inject ~> lift.inject

2615 below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff

2616 eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff

2619 *** Document preparation ***

2621 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

2622 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the

2623 same.

2625 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its

2626 result.

2628 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of

2629 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,

2630 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

2632 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>

2633 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

2635 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

2636 like this:

2638 \isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

2639 {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

2641 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators. Implicit

2642 tab-width is now defined as 1. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual

2643 layouts.

2646 *** ML ***

2648 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML

2649 representations within quoted string tokens. By encoding logical

2650 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be

2651 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text

2652 under external program control.

2654 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory

2655 data, which requires explicit setup.

2657 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official

2658 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop

2659 (better known as Proof General).

2661 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

2662 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

2664 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

2665 former start_timing/end_timing etc.

2667 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

2668 (including quotes etc.).

2670 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

2671 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

2672 type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

2673 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

2674 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

2675 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

2676 "_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

2677 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

2678 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

2680 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

2681 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

2682 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2683 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

2684 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

2686 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

2687 already available via context of "advanced" translation.

2689 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

2690 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

2692 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

2693 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

2695 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

2696 claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

2697 operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

2698 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

2699 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

2700 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

2701 proper Proof.context.

2704 *** System ***

2706 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

2707 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

2709 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

2710 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

2712 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

2713 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

2715 ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

2716 ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

2717 ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

2718 ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

2719 ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

2721 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

2722 been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2724 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static

2725 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML. For

2726 example:

2728 Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"

2730 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode

2731 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.

2733 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the

2734 Prover IDE. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have

2735 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to

2736 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.

2740 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

2741 ----------------------------------

2743 *** General ***

2745 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

2746 src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

2747 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

2748 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

2749 like this:

2751 Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

2753 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

2755 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

2756 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

2757 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

2758 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

2759 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

2760 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

2762 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

2763 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

2764 the following package declarations:

2766 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

2767 \usepackage{textcomp}

2769 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

2770 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

2771 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

2772 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

2773 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

2774 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

2775 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

2777 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

2778 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

2779 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

2780 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

2781 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

2783 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

2784 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

2785 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

2786 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

2788 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

2789 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

2790 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

2791 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

2793 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

2795 eta_contract eta_contract

2796 show_brackets show_brackets

2797 show_sorts show_sorts

2798 show_types show_types

2799 show_question_marks show_question_marks

2800 show_consts show_consts

2801 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

2803 Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

2804 Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

2805 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

2807 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

2808 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

2810 Method.rule_trace rule_trace

2812 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

2813 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

2814 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

2815 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

2816 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

2818 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

2819 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

2820 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

2821 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

2823 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

2824 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2826 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

2827 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

2829 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

2830 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

2831 float_token.

2833 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

2834 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

2835 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2837 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

2838 DejaVu Sans.

2840 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

2843 *** Pure ***

2845 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

2846 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

2847 time.

2849 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

2850 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2852 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

2853 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2855 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

2856 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

2857 entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

2858 command already provided this functionality.

2860 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

2861 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

2862 the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

2863 without interpretations.

2865 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

2866 in addition to interpretations in theories.

2868 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

2869 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

2870 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

2871 feature is still required for historical reasons.

2873 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2874 'definition' instead.

2876 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

2877 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

2878 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

2879 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

2881 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

2882 constructors.

2884 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

2885 the local file system.

2888 *** HOL ***

2890 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

2891 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

2892 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

2893 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

2895 declare [[coercion f]]

2897 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

2898 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

2900 declare [[coercion_map map]]

2902 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

2903 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

2904 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

2905 other theories like this:

2907 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

2909 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

2910 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

2911 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

2912 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

2913 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

2914 for examples.

2916 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

2917 as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2919 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

2920 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

2922 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

2923 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

2924 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

2926 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

2927 functorial structure of types.

2929 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

2930 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

2932 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

2933 languages.

2935 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

2936 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

2937 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2939 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

2940 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2942 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

2943 combinators any longer.

2945 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

2946 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

2948 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

2949 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

2950 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

2951 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

2953 record 'a foo = ...

2954 ...

2955 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

2957 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

2958 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

2959 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2961 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

2962 testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

2963 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

2965 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

2966 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

2967 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

2969 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

2970 "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2972 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

2973 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

2974 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

2975 independently.

2977 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

2978 counter example search.

2980 * Sledgehammer:

2981 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

2982 method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

2983 sledgehammer").

2984 - Renamed commands:

2985 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

2986 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

2987 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

2988 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2989 - Renamed options:

2990 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

2991 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

2992 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

2993 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

2994 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2996 * Nitpick:

2997 - Renamed options:

2998 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

2999 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

3000 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3001 - Added support for partial quotient types.

3002 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

3003 - Added "whack" option.

3004 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

3005 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

3006 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

3007 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

3008 higher cardinalities.

3009 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

3011 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

3012 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

3013 to diagnose these tools. E.g.

3015 using [[metis_trace = true]]

3017 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

3018 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

3020 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

3021 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

3022 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

3023 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

3024 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

3025 "smt_solver".

3027 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

3028 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

3030 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

3031 the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

3032 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

3033 support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

3035 * Changed SMT configuration options:

3036 - Renamed:

3037 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

3038 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

3039 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3040 - Added:

3041 smt_verbose

3042 smt_random_seed

3043 smt_datatypes

3044 smt_infer_triggers

3045 smt_monomorph_limit

3046 cvc3_options

3047 remote_cvc3_options

3048 remote_z3_options

3049 yices_options

3051 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

3052 header.

3054 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

3055 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

3056 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

3058 declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

3060 * Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3062 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

3063 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3065 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3067 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

3068 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3070 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

3071 rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

3073 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

3074 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3076 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

3077 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

3078 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3080 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3082 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

3083 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3085 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

3086 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3088 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

3089 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

3090 for congruent(2)).

3092 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

3094 types

3095 bool ~> HOL.bool

3096 nat ~> Nat.nat

3098 constants

3099 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

3100 True ~> HOL.True

3101 False ~> HOL.False

3102 op & ~> HOL.conj

3103 op | ~> HOL.disj

3104 op --> ~> HOL.implies

3105 op = ~> HOL.eq

3106 Not ~> HOL.Not

3107 The ~> HOL.The

3108 All ~> HOL.All

3109 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

3110 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

3111 Let ~> HOL.Let

3112 If ~> HOL.If

3113 Ball ~> Set.Ball

3114 Bex ~> Set.Bex

3115 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

3116 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

3117 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

3118 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

3119 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

3120 op : ~> Set.member

3121 Collect ~> Set.Collect

3123 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3125 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

3127 bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

3128 top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

3129 inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

3130 sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

3131 bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

3132 top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

3133 inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

3134 sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

3136 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3138 * More stylized fact names:

3140 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

3141 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

3142 set_ext ~> set_eqI

3143 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

3145 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3147 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

3149 constants

3150 null ~> List.null

3152 facts

3153 mem_iff ~> member_def

3154 null_empty ~> null_def

3156 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

3157 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

3158 generation.

3160 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

3161 Haskell code.

3163 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

3164 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

3165 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3167 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

3168 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3170 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

3171 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

3173 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

3174 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

3175 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3177 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

3178 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3180 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

3181 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3183 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

3184 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

3185 referred to by its qualified name.

3187 enum ~> Enum.enum

3188 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

3189 product ~> Enum.product

3191 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

3192 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

3193 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3195 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

3196 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

3197 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

3198 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3200 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

3201 sort_key.

3203 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

3204 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3206 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

3207 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

3208 instead of finite cartesian products.

3210 types

3211 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

3212 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

3213 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

3214 (depends on your needs)

3216 constants

3217 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

3218 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

3219 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

3221 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

3222 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

3223 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

3224 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3226 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

3227 numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

3228 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

3229 arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

3230 the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3232 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

3233 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3235 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

3236 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

3237 verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

3240 *** HOL-Algebra ***

3242 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

3243 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

3244 counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

3245 qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

3246 compatibility.

3248 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

3249 definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

3252 *** HOLCF ***

3254 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

3255 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

3256 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

3257 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3259 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

3260 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

3261 replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3263 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

3264 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

3265 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

3267 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

3268 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

3269 "default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3271 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

3272 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

3273 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

3274 domain definition now works:

3276 domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

3278 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

3279 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

3280 'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

3281 domain package to work with these types. For example:

3283 fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

3284 where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

3286 domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

3288 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

3289 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

3290 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3292 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

3293 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3295 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

3296 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

3297 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

3298 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

3300 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

3302 * The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3304 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3306 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

3307 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3309 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

3310 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents

3311 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".

3313 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

3314 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set

3315 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3317 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

3318 still supported as an input translation.

3320 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

3322 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

3323 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

3324 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

3325 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

3326 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

3327 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

3328 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

3330 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

3331 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3333 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

3334 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

3335 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

3336 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

3337 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

3338 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

3340 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

3341 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3343 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

3345 - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

3346 - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

3347 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

3348 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

3350 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3352 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

3353 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3355 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

3356 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3358 thelub_const ~> lub_const

3359 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

3360 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

3361 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

3362 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

3363 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

3364 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

3365 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

3366 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

3367 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

3368 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

3369 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

3370 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

3371 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

3372 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

3373 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

3374 UU_I ~> bottomI

3375 compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

3376 deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

3377 finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

3379 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3381 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

3382 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

3383 refl_less ~> below_refl

3384 trans_less ~> below_trans

3385 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

3386 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

3387 box_less ~> box_below

3388 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

3389 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

3390 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

3391 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

3392 adm_less ~> adm_below

3393 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

3394 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

3395 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

3396 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

3397 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

3398 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

3399 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

3400 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

3401 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

3402 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

3403 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

3404 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

3405 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

3406 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

3407 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

3408 injection_less ~> injection_below

3409 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

3410 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

3411 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

3412 up_less ~> up_below

3413 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

3414 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

3415 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

3416 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

3417 spair_less ~> spair_below

3418 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

3419 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

3420 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

3421 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

3422 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

3423 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

3424 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

3425 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

3428 *** FOL and ZF ***

3430 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

3431 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3434 *** ML ***

3436 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

3437 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

3438 failed assertions is included in the error output.

3440 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

3441 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

3442 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

3444 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

3445 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

3446 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

3448 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

3449 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

3451 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

3452 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

3454 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

3455 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

3457 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

3458 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

3460 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

3461 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

3462 almost all situations.

3464 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

3465 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

3466 Isabelle/ML.

3468 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

3469 meaning.

3471 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

3472 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

3473 rarely-used global-only stuff.

3475 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

3476 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

3478 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

3479 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

3481 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

3482 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

3483 @{thms} for most purposes.

3485 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

3486 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

3487 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

3488 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

3489 configuration options.

3491 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

3492 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

3493 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

3494 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

3495 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

3496 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

3497 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

3501 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

3502 ---------------------------------

3504 *** General ***

3506 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

3507 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

3508 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

3509 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

3510 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

3511 their full internal name.

3513 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

3514 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

3515 Some hints on upgrading:

3517 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

3518 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

3519 which are independent of this issue.

3521 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

3522 provides the following special forms:

3524 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

3525 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

3526 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

3528 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

3529 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

3530 extra variables".

3532 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

3533 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

3534 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

3535 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

3536 "logic".

3538 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

3539 antiquotations:

3541 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

3542 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

3543 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

3544 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

3546 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

3547 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

3548 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

3549 antiquotations.

3551 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

3552 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

3553 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

3554 diagnose syntax problems.

3556 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

3558 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

3559 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

3560 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

3561 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

3563 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

3564 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

3565 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

3566 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

3568 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

3569 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

3570 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

3571 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

3572 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

3574 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

3575 discontinued (old legacy feature).

3577 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

3578 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

3579 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

3581 using [[trace_simp = true]]

3583 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

3584 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

3585 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

3587 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

3588 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

3589 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3591 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

3592 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

3595 *** Pure ***

3597 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

3598 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

3599 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

3600 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

3601 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

3602 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

3603 inspect proof terms.

3605 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

3606 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

3607 are added internally. For example:

3609 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

3611 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

3612 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3614 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3616 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3617 'class' instead.

3619 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

3620 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

3621 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3623 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

3624 invariants.

3626 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

3627 user space functionality any longer.

3629 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

3630 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

3631 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3633 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

3634 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

3636 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

3637 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

3638 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

3640 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

3641 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

3642 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

3644 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

3645 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

3648 *** HOL ***

3650 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

3651 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

3652 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

3653 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

3654 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

3656 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

3657 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

3658 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

3659 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

3661 fun

3662 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

3663 where

3664 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

3666 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

3667 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

3669 quotient_definition

3670 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

3672 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

3673 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

3674 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

3675 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

3677 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

3678 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

3680 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

3681 separate HOL-SMT session.

3683 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

3684 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3686 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

3687 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

3688 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

3690 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

3691 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3693 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

3694 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3696 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

3697 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3699 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

3700 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3702 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

3703 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

3704 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3706 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

3707 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

3708 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

3709 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

3710 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

3711 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

3712 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

3713 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

3714 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

3715 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

3716 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

3717 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

3718 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

3719 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

3720 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

3721 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

3722 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

3723 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

3724 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

3725 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

3726 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

3727 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

3728 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

3729 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

3730 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

3731 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

3732 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

3733 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

3734 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

3735 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

3737 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

3738 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

3740 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

3741 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

3742 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

3744 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

3745 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

3747 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

3748 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3750 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

3752 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

3753 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3755 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

3756 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3758 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3760 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

3761 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

3763 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

3764 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

3765 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

3766 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3768 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

3769 - less_eq, less: Orderings

3770 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

3771 - inverse, divide: Rings

3772 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3774 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

3775 lattices):

3777 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

3778 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

3780 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

3782 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

3783 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

3784 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

3785 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

3786 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

3787 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

3788 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

3789 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

3790 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

3791 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

3792 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

3793 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

3794 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

3796 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

3797 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

3798 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

3799 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

3800 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

3801 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

3802 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

3803 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

3804 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

3805 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

3806 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

3807 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

3808 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

3809 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

3810 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

3811 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

3812 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

3813 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

3815 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

3816 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

3818 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

3819 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

3820 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

3821 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

3822 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

3824 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3826 * Refined field classes:

3827 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

3828 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

3829 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

3830 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

3831 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3833 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

3834 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

3835 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

3836 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

3837 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

3838 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

3839 equal_neg_zero.

3840 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3842 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

3843 sets to lattices:

3845 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

3846 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

3847 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

3848 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

3849 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

3850 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

3851 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

3852 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

3853 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

3854 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

3856 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

3857 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

3858 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

3859 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

3860 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

3861 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3863 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

3864 multiset order:

3866 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

3867 <= and <;

3868 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

3869 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

3870 multiset_order;

3871 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

3872 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

3873 generation;

3874 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

3875 if needed.

3877 Renamed:

3879 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

3880 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

3881 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

3883 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3885 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

3887 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

3889 * Theory List: added transpose.

3891 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

3892 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

3893 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3895 Constants:

3896 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

3897 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

3898 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

3899 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

3900 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

3901 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

3902 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

3903 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

3904 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

3905 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

3906 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

3907 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

3908 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

3910 Lemmas:

3911 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

3912 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

3913 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

3914 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

3915 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

3916 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

3917 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

3918 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

3919 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

3920 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

3921 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

3922 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

3923 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

3925 * Sledgehammer:

3926 - Renamed ATP commands:

3927 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

3928 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

3929 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

3930 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

3931 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

3932 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3933 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

3934 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

3935 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

3936 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

3937 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

3938 is still experimental.)

3939 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

3940 full-typed mode.

3941 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

3943 * Nitpick:

3944 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

3945 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

3946 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

3947 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

3948 - Added support for quotient types.

3949 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

3950 constructs.

3951 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

3952 "termination" proofs).

3953 - Added support for term postprocessors.

3954 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

3955 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

3956 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

3957 record getters.

3958 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

3959 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

3960 - Improved precision of set constructs.

3961 - Added "atoms" option.

3962 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

3963 problems.

3964 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

3965 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

3966 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3967 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

3968 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3969 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3971 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

3972 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

3973 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

3974 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

3975 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

3976 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

3977 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

3978 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

3979 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

3980 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3983 *** HOLCF ***

3985 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

3986 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

3987 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

3989 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

3990 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

3991 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

3992 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

3994 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

3995 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

3996 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

3997 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

3998 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4000 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

4001 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

4002 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

4004 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

4005 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

4007 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

4008 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

4010 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

4011 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

4013 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

4014 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

4015 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

4016 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

4017 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

4019 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

4020 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

4022 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

4023 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

4024 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

4026 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

4027 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

4028 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4030 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

4031 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

4033 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

4035 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

4036 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

4039 *** ML ***

4041 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

4043 @{class NAME} -- type class

4044 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

4046 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

4047 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

4048 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

4049 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

4051 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

4052 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

4053 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

4055 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

4056 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

4058 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

4059 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

4060 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

4062 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

4063 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

4064 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

4065 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

4067 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

4068 the context or even global references.

4070 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

4071 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

4073 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

4074 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

4076 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

4077 OuterLex ~> Token

4078 OuterParse ~> Parse

4079 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

4080 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

4081 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

4082 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

4083 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

4084 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

4085 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

4087 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

4088 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

4090 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

4091 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

4092 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

4093 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

4094 pass the proper local context through the code!

4096 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

4097 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

4098 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

4099 Theory_Data version.

4101 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

4102 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

4103 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

4104 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

4105 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

4106 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

4107 explicitly in rare situations.

4109 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

4110 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

4111 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4113 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

4114 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

4116 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

4117 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

4118 quite rare).

4120 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

4121 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

4123 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

4124 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

4125 terms.

4127 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

4128 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

4129 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

4132 *** System ***

4134 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

4135 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

4136 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

4138 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

4139 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

4140 respectively.

4142 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

4143 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

4144 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

4145 prefers 64 bit if available:

4147 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

4149 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

4150 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

4151 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

4152 component.

4154 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

4155 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

4156 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

4157 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

4158 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

4159 the user for manual installation.

4163 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

4164 -------------------------------------

4166 *** General ***

4168 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

4169 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

4172 *** Pure ***

4174 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

4175 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

4176 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

4178 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

4179 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

4180 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

4182 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

4183 interpretation.

4185 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

4186 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4189 *** Document preparation ***

4191 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

4192 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

4193 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

4194 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

4197 *** HOL ***

4199 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

4200 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

4201 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

4202 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

4203 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

4204 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

4205 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

4206 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

4207 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

4209 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

4210 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

4211 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

4213 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

4214 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

4215 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

4217 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

4218 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

4220 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

4222 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

4223 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

4224 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

4225 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

4227 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

4228 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

4229 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

4230 "mirabelle" utility.

4232 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

4233 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

4234 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

4235 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

4236 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

4237 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

4238 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

4239 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

4240 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

4241 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

4243 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

4244 procedure only.

4246 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

4248 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

4249 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

4250 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

4251 that fail later.

4253 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

4254 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

4256 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

4257 the same method as the approximation method.

4259 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

4260 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

4261 series expansion.

4263 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

4264 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

4266 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

4267 reals.

4269 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

4270 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

4272 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

4273 fixpoint theorem.

4275 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

4276 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

4277 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

4278 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

4279 accordingly

4280 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

4281 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

4282 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

4283 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

4285 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

4286 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

4287 lattice.

4289 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

4290 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

4291 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

4292 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

4293 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

4294 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

4295 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4297 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

4298 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

4299 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

4300 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

4301 le_inf_iff

4302 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

4303 sup_aci)

4304 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

4305 - new class "boolean_algebra"

4306 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

4307 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

4308 renamed and with authentic syntax:

4309 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

4310 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

4311 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

4312 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

4313 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

4314 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

4315 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

4316 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

4317 - authentic syntax for

4318 Set.Pow

4319 Set.image

4320 - mere abbreviations:

4321 Set.empty (for bot)

4322 Set.UNIV (for top)

4323 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

4324 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

4325 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

4326 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

4327 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

4328 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

4329 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

4331 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

4332 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

4333 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

4334 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

4336 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

4337 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

4338 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4340 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

4341 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4343 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

4344 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

4345 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

4346 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4348 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

4349 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

4350 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

4351 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

4352 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

4354 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

4355 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

4356 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4358 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

4359 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4361 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

4362 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

4363 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

4364 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

4365 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

4366 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

4367 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

4368 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4370 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

4371 code_unfold replaces code unfold

4372 code_post replaces code post

4373 etc.

4374 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4376 * Renamed methods:

4377 sizechange -> size_change

4378 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

4379 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4381 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

4382 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

4384 * Renamed theorems:

4385 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

4386 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

4387 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

4388 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

4389 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

4390 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4392 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

4393 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4395 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

4396 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4399 *** HOLCF ***

4401 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

4402 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

4403 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

4405 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

4406 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

4407 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

4408 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

4409 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

4411 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

4412 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

4413 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

4414 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

4415 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

4417 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

4418 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

4419 constructor are pre-configured.

4421 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

4422 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

4423 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

4425 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

4426 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

4427 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

4428 as well.)

4430 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

4431 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

4432 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

4433 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

4434 examples.

4437 *** ML ***

4439 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

4440 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

4442 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

4443 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

4444 position, logical grouping etc.

4446 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

4447 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

4448 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

4449 copy operation) is still available for some time.

4451 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

4452 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

4453 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

4454 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

4455 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

4456 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

4458 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

4459 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

4460 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

4461 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

4462 experiments with references.

4464 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

4465 parallel tactical reasoning.

4467 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

4468 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

4469 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

4470 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

4472 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

4473 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

4474 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

4476 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

4477 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

4478 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

4480 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4482 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

4483 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4485 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

4486 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

4488 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

4489 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

4490 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

4492 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

4493 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

4494 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4496 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

4497 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

4498 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

4499 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4501 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

4502 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

4503 instead of global theory.

4506 *** System ***

4508 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

4509 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

4510 usedir option -q.

4512 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

4513 also the system manual.

4515 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

4516 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

4518 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

4519 this is always enabled.

4521 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

4523 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

4524 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

4525 currently supported on Linux only.

4529 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

4530 --------------------------------

4532 *** General ***

4534 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

4535 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

4537 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

4538 "isatool."

4540 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

4541 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

4543 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

4544 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

4546 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

4547 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

4548 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

4550 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

4551 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

4552 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

4553 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

4554 via "isabelle emacs".

4556 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

4557 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

4558 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

4560 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

4561 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

4562 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

4564 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

4565 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

4566 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

4567 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

4568 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

4570 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

4571 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

4572 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

4573 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

4575 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

4576 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

4577 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

4580 *** Pure ***

4582 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

4583 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

4584 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

4586 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

4587 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

4588 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

4589 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

4590 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

4592 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

4593 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

4594 useful in locale declarations.

4596 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

4597 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

4598 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

4599 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

4600 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

4601 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

4602 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

4603 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

4604 no longer generated.

4606 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

4607 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

4608 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

4610 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

4611 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

4612 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

4613 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

4614 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

4616 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

4617 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

4618 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

4619 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

4620 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

4621 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

4622 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

4623 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

4625 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

4626 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

4627 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

4628 the parameters (context element "constrains").

4630 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4632 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

4633 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

4634 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

4636 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

4637 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4639 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

4640 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

4641 in HOL, write

4643 class foo = ...

4645 instead of

4647 class foo = type + ...

4649 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

4650 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4652 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

4653 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

4655 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

4656 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

4657 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

4659 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

4660 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

4661 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

4662 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

4663 directly in regular applications.

4665 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

4666 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

4668 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

4669 interface with 'setup' command instead.

4671 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

4672 theory context.

4674 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

4675 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4677 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

4678 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

4679 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

4680 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

4681 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

4682 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

4684 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

4686 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

4687 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

4688 normalization.

4690 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

4691 addressing etc.

4693 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

4695 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

4696 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

4698 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4700 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

4701 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

4702 parts of the code generator framework).

4704 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

4705 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

4706 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

4708 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4710 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

4711 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4713 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

4714 patterns, e.g.

4716 find_consts "_ => bool"

4718 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

4719 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

4720 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

4721 hyphen:

4723 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

4725 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

4726 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

4728 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

4729 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

4730 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

4731 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

4732 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

4733 higher-order unification.

4736 *** Document preparation ***

4738 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

4739 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

4740 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

4743 *** HOL ***

4745 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

4746 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

4748 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

4749 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

4750 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

4751 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

4752 Main, as before.

4754 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

4755 experimentation due to shorter build times.

4757 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

4758 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

4759 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

4760 new entry point Hypercomplex.

4762 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

4763 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

4764 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

4765 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

4766 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

4767 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

4769 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

4770 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

4771 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

4772 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

4774 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

4775 menu.

4777 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

4778 (contains the empty clause).

4780 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

4781 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

4783 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

4784 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

4786 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

4787 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

4788 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4790 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

4791 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

4792 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

4793 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

4794 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

4796 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

4797 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

4799 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

4800 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

4801 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

4802 are now presented as a list of individual projections

4803 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

4804 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

4805 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

4806 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

4807 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

4809 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

4811 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

4813 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

4814 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

4816 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

4817 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

4818 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

4819 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

4821 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

4822 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

4824 op Int ~> Set.Int

4825 op Un ~> Set.Un

4826 INTER ~> Set.INTER

4827 UNION ~> Set.UNION

4828 Inter ~> Set.Inter

4829 Union ~> Set.Union

4830 {} ~> Set.empty

4831 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

4833 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

4834 theory Set.

4836 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

4837 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

4839 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

4841 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

4842 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

4844 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

4845 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

4846 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

4847 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

4848 allowed. For examples see

4849 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

4851 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

4853 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

4854 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4856 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

4857 structure:

4859 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

4860 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

4861 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

4862 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

4863 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

4864 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

4865 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

4866 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

4867 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

4868 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

4869 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

4870 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

4871 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

4872 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

4873 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

4874 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

4875 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

4876 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

4877 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

4878 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

4879 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

4880 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

4881 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

4882 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

4883 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

4884 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

4885 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

4886 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

4887 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

4888 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

4889 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

4890 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

4891 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

4893 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

4894 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

4895 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

4896 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

4897 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

4898 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

4899 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

4900 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

4901 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

4902 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

4904 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

4905 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

4906 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

4907 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

4908 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

4909 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

4911 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

4912 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

4913 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

4915 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

4916 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

4917 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

4919 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

4920 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4922 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

4923 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

4925 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

4926 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

4927 proofs, e.g.

4929 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

4931 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

4933 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

4934 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

4935 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4937 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

4938 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

4939 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4941 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

4942 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

4943 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

4944 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4946 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

4947 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

4948 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

4949 preorder_class.*.

4951 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

4952 "diag" to "Id_on".

4954 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

4956 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

4958 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

4959 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

4960 fold_image.

4962 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

4963 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

4964 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

4965 the former will disappear at some point.

4967 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

4968 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

4969 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

4971 rat_power_0 -> power_0

4972 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

4973 realpow_0 -> power_0

4974 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

4975 complexpow_0 -> power_0

4976 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

4977 power_poly_0 -> power_0

4978 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

4980 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

4981 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

4982 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

4983 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

4984 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

4985 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

4987 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

4988 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

4989 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

4990 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

4991 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

4992 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

4993 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

4995 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

4996 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

4997 rename old lemmas as follows:

4999 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

5000 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

5001 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

5002 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

5003 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

5004 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

5005 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

5006 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

5007 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

5008 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

5009 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

5010 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

5011 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

5012 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

5013 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

5014 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

5015 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

5016 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

5017 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

5018 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

5019 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

5020 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

5021 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

5022 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

5023 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

5024 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

5025 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

5026 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

5027 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

5028 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

5029 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

5030 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

5031 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

5032 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

5033 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

5034 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

5035 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

5036 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

5037 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

5038 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

5039 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

5040 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

5041 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

5042 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

5043 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

5045 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5047 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

5048 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

5050 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

5051 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

5052 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

5053 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

5055 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

5056 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

5057 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

5058 theory RealVector.

5060 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

5061 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

5062 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

5063 and inner products are included.

5065 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

5066 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

5067 supported.

5069 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

5070 first diagonalization argument.

5072 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

5073 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

5074 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

5075 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

5076 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

5078 hide (open) const gcd

5079 abbreviation gcd where

5080 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

5081 notation (output)

5082 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

5084 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

5086 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

5087 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

5088 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5090 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

5091 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

5092 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

5093 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

5094 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

5095 instrumentalizing code generation. See

5096 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

5097 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

5098 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

5099 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

5100 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

5101 cases.

5103 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

5104 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

5105 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

5106 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

5107 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

5109 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

5110 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

5111 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

5112 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

5113 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

5116 *** HOL-Algebra ***

5118 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

5119 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

5120 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

5122 * New theory of factorial domains.

5124 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

5125 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

5126 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

5128 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

5130 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

5131 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

5132 least_carrier ~> least_closed

5133 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

5134 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

5135 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

5136 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

5139 *** HOL-Nominal ***

5141 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

5143 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

5144 theory targets.

5146 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

5147 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

5148 'inductive' etc.

5150 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

5151 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

5153 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

5154 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

5156 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

5157 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

5158 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

5159 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

5160 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

5161 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

5162 the algorithm W:

5164 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

5165 -----------------------------------------------------------------

5166 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

5168 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

5169 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

5170 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

5173 *** HOLCF ***

5175 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

5176 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

5177 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

5179 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

5180 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

5181 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

5182 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

5183 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

5185 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

5186 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

5187 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5190 *** ZF ***

5192 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

5195 *** ML ***

5197 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

5198 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

5199 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

5200 5.2.1!

5202 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

5203 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

5204 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

5205 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

5206 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

5207 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

5208 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

5210 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

5211 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

5212 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

5213 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

5214 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

5215 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

5216 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

5218 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

5219 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

5220 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

5221 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

5222 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

5224 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

5225 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

5226 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

5227 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

5228 Method.add_method.

5230 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

5231 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

5232 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

5233 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

5234 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

5235 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

5237 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

5238 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

5239 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

5240 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

5241 examples.

5243 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

5244 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

5245 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

5246 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

5247 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

5248 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

5249 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

5250 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

5251 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

5252 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

5254 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

5255 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

5256 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

5258 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

5259 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

5260 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

5261 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

5262 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

5263 resort for legacy applications.

5265 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

5266 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

5267 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

5268 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

5269 explicit runtime argument.

5271 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

5272 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

5273 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

5274 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

5275 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5277 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

5278 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

5279 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

5280 theory state.

5282 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

5283 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

5285 @{binding name} - basic name binding

5286 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

5287 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

5288 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

5289 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

5290 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

5291 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

5292 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

5293 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

5294 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

5297 *** System ***

5299 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

5300 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

5301 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

5302 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

5303 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

5305 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

5306 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

5307 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

5308 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

5310 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

5312 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

5313 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

5314 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

5315 prover operations.

5319 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

5320 -------------------------------

5322 *** General ***

5324 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

5325 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

5327 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

5328 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

5329 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

5330 provides a proper context already.

5332 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

5333 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

5334 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

5336 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

5337 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

5338 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

5339 swap theory imports.

5341 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

5342 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

5344 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

5345 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

5346 white space without escapes.

5348 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

5349 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

5350 "foo_bar".

5353 *** Pure ***

5355 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

5356 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

5358 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

5359 There are three ways of invoking it:

5361 (1) unused_thms

5362 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

5364 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

5365 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

5366 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

5368 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

5369 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

5370 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

5371 their ancestors.

5373 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

5374 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

5375 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

5376 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

5377 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

5378 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

5379 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

5381 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

5382 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

5383 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

5385 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

5386 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

5387 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

5388 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

5389 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

5391 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

5393 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

5394 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

5395 update of theories within ML code.

5397 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

5398 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

5399 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

5400 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

5402 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

5403 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

5404 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

5405 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5407 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

5409 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

5410 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

5411 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

5412 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

5413 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

5415 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

5416 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

5417 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

5418 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

5419 situations.

5421 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

5422 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

5423 proof text.

5425 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

5426 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

5428 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

5429 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

5430 predicates.

5433 *** Document preparation ***

5435 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

5436 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

5437 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

5438 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

5439 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

5440 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

5442 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

5443 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

5444 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

5447 *** HOL ***

5449 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

5450 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

5451 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

5452 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

5453 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

5454 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

5456 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

5457 with multithreading.

5459 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

5460 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

5461 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

5463 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

5464 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

5465 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

5466 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5468 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

5469 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

5470 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

5471 and makes them available separately. See

5472 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

5474 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

5475 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

5476 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

5477 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

5478 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

5479 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

5480 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

5481 the declared rules.

5483 This setup also deals with rules like

5485 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

5487 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

5488 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

5490 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

5492 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

5494 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

5495 definitions on => and bool.

5497 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

5498 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

5499 the following theorems have been renamed:

5501 subset_def -> subset_eq

5502 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

5503 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

5504 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

5505 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

5506 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

5507 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

5508 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

5510 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

5511 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

5512 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

5514 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

5515 The proof pattern

5517 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

5518 then have "EX S. P S" ..

5520 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

5521 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

5523 have "EX S. P S"

5524 proof

5525 show "P S" <...>

5526 qed

5528 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

5529 The proof pattern

5531 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

5532 also have "S = T" <...>

5533 finally have "P T" .

5535 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

5536 must be replaced by something like

5538 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

5539 moreover have "S = T" <...>

5540 ultimately have "P T" by simp

5542 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

5543 Code performing pattern matching on types via

5545 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

5547 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

5548 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

5549 type of the form

5551 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

5553 rather than

5555 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

5557 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

5558 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

5560 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5562 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

5563 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

5564 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5566 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

5567 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

5569 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

5570 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

5572 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

5573 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

5574 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5576 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

5577 the same name in theory Orderings:

5579 less_trans

5580 less_linear

5581 le_imp_less_or_eq

5582 le_less_trans

5583 less_le_trans

5584 less_not_sym

5585 less_asym

5587 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

5588 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

5589 and different variable names.

5591 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

5593 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

5594 finite maps.

5596 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

5598 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

5599 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

5600 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

5601 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

5602 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

5603 accordingly.

5605 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

5606 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

5607 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

5608 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

5610 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

5611 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

5612 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

5613 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

5614 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

5615 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5617 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

5618 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

5620 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

5621 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

5622 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

5624 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

5625 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5627 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

5628 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

5630 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

5631 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5633 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

5634 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5636 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

5637 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

5638 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5640 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

5641 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5643 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

5644 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

5645 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

5646 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

5647 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

5648 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5650 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

5651 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

5652 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

5654 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

5656 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

5658 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

5659 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

5660 well-orders on sets and on types.

5663 *** ZF ***

5665 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

5666 same session:

5668 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

5669 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

5670 Int -> Int_ZF

5671 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

5672 Nat -> Nat_ZF

5673 List -> List_ZF

5674 Main -> Main_ZF

5676 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

5677 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

5678 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

5681 *** ML ***

5683 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

5684 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

5686 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

5687 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

5689 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

5691 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

5692 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

5693 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

5694 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

5695 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5697 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

5698 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

5699 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

5702 *** System ***

5704 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

5705 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

5707 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

5708 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

5709 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

5711 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

5712 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

5714 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

5715 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

5716 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

5718 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

5719 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

5720 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

5722 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

5723 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

5725 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

5726 way of changing the user's settings is via

5727 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

5728 script.

5730 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

5731 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

5732 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

5733 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

5734 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

5736 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

5737 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

5738 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

5742 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

5743 -----------------------------------

5745 *** General ***

5747 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

5748 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

5749 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

5750 legacy features will disappear eventually.

5752 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

5753 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

5754 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5756 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

5757 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

5758 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

5759 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5761 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

5762 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

5763 quotes.

5765 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

5766 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

5767 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

5768 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

5769 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

5770 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

5771 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

5772 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

5773 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

5775 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

5776 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

5777 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

5778 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

5779 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

5780 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

5782 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

5783 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

5784 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

5785 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

5787 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

5788 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

5789 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

5790 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

5791 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

5792 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

5794 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

5795 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

5796 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

5797 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

5798 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

5799 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

5800 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

5801 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

5803 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

5804 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

5805 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

5806 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

5807 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

5808 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

5809 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

5811 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

5812 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

5813 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

5815 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

5816 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

5817 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

5818 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

5819 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

5820 limit is imposed.

5822 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

5823 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

5824 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

5825 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

5826 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

5827 and scalability.

5829 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

5830 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

5833 *** Document preparation ***

5835 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

5836 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

5837 current context.

5839 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

5840 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

5842 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

5843 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

5844 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

5847 *** Pure ***

5849 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

5850 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

5851 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

5852 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

5853 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

5854 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

5855 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

5856 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

5857 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

5858 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

5860 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

5861 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

5862 sketch:

5864 internal compilation:

5865 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

5866 writing SML code to a file:

5867 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

5868 writing OCaml code to a file:

5869 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

5870 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

5871 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

5873 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

5874 method ``eval''

5876 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

5878 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

5880 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

5881 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

5882 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

5883 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

5885 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

5887 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

5888 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

5890 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

5891 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

5893 code_instance <and-list of instances>

5894 {(target)}+

5895 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

5897 code_class <and_list of classes>

5898 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

5899 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

5901 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

5903 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

5904 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

5905 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

5906 codegen".

5908 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

5909 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

5910 annotations).

5912 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

5913 syntax.

5915 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

5916 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

5917 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

5918 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

5919 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

5920 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

5922 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

5923 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

5924 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

5925 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

5926 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

5927 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

5928 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

5929 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

5930 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

5931 equations, see section "definitions".

5933 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

5934 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

5935 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

5936 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

5937 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

5938 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

5939 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

5940 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

5941 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

5942 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

5944 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

5945 configuration options:

5947 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

5948 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

5949 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

5950 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

5951 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

5952 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

5953 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

5954 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

5955 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

5957 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

5958 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

5959 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

5960 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

5961 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

5962 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

5963 order.

5965 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

5966 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

5967 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

5968 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

5969 context encountered later on.

5971 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

5972 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

5973 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

5974 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

5976 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

5977 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

5978 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

5979 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

5980 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

5981 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

5983 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

5984 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

5985 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

5986 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

5987 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

5988 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

5989 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

5990 more permissive.

5992 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

5993 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

5994 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

5995 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

5996 maintainability of proof texts.

5998 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

5999 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

6001 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

6002 then guess x and y by clarify

6004 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

6005 proof tools being involved here.

6007 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

6008 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

6009 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

6010 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

6011 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

6012 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

6013 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

6014 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

6016 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

6017 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

6018 certain special cases of literal facts:

6020 have "A" by fact == note `A`

6021 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

6022 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

6023 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

6025 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

6026 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

6027 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

6029 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

6030 both named and unnamed ones.

6032 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

6034 def x == "t" and y == "u"

6036 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

6037 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

6038 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

6039 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

6041 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

6042 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

6043 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

6044 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

6045 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

6047 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

6048 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

6050 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

6051 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

6052 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

6053 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

6054 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

6055 originally first one.

6057 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

6058 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

6059 expected.

6061 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

6062 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

6063 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

6064 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

6065 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

6067 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

6068 assumes "EX x. P x"

6069 obtains x where "P x"

6071 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

6072 assumes "A & B"

6073 obtains A and B

6075 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

6076 assumes "A | B"

6077 obtains

6078 A

6079 | B

6081 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

6082 explicitly:

6084 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

6085 obtains "~ thesis"

6087 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

6088 obtains "thesis ==> something"

6090 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

6091 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

6092 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

6093 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

6094 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

6095 case_names).

6097 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

6098 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

6099 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

6100 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

6102 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

6103 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

6104 top-level lemma.

6106 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

6107 introduction rule (default "that").

6109 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

6110 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

6111 to occur.

6113 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

6114 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

6115 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

6116 representations independently of name spaces.

6118 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

6119 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

6120 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

6122 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

6123 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

6124 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

6125 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

6126 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

6127 current context.

6129 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

6130 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

6131 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

6132 isar-ref manual. Examples:

6134 axiomatization

6135 eq (infix "===" 50) where

6136 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

6138 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

6139 definition g where "g x = f x x"

6141 abbreviation

6142 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

6143 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

6145 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

6146 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

6147 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

6148 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

6149 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

6150 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

6151 entities from a monomorphic theory.

6153 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

6154 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

6155 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

6156 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

6157 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

6159 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

6160 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

6161 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

6162 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

6164 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

6165 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

6166 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

6168 definition "K x _ = x"

6170 inductive conj for A B

6171 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

6173 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

6174 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

6175 abbreviations on output.

6177 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

6178 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

6179 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

6180 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

6182 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

6183 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

6184 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

6185 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

6186 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

6187 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

6188 `unfold_locales'; see below.

6190 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

6191 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

6192 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

6193 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

6194 unfold predicates to assumptions.

6196 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

6197 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

6198 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

6200 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

6201 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

6202 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

6203 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

6204 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

6206 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

6207 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

6209 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

6210 definition specification element in the context of locale

6211 partial_order.

6213 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

6214 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

6215 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

6216 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

6217 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

6218 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

6219 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

6220 examples.

6222 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

6223 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

6224 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

6225 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

6226 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

6228 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

6229 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

6230 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

6231 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

6232 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

6234 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

6235 (induct set: foo bar)

6236 (induct pred: foo bar)

6237 (induct type: foo bar)

6239 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

6240 new format.

6242 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

6243 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

6245 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

6246 considered a legacy feature.

6248 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

6249 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

6251 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

6252 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

6253 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The