NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun May 03 14:12:10 2015 +0200 (2015-05-03)
changeset 60238 52d02564242a
parent 60119 54bea620e54f
child 60138 b11401808dac
child 60258 7364d4316a56
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned message;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
     8 ------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
    13 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
    14 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
    15 
    16   context
    17   begin
    18 
    19   private definition ...
    20   private lemma ...
    21 
    22   qualified definition ...
    23   qualified lemma ...
    24 
    25   lemma ...
    26   theorem ...
    27 
    28   end
    29 
    30 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
    31 naming policy.
    32 
    33 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    34 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    35 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    36 
    37 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    38 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    39 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
    40 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    41 
    42 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    43 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    44 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    45 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    46 
    47 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    48 theory context.
    49 
    50 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    51 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    52 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    53 
    54 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
    55 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
    56 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
    57 sources.
    58 
    59 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    60 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    61 
    62 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
    63 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
    64 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
    65 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
    66 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. See also
    67 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach.thy and the included examples.
    68 
    69 
    70 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    71 
    72 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    73 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    74 
    75 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    76 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    77 in the buffer.
    78 
    79 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    80 marker, SideKick parser.
    81 
    82 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    83 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be opened
    84 in the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
    85 
    86 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
    87 Options / Text Area).
    88 
    89 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
    90 display of 'thy_deps', 'locale_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
    91 
    92 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
    93 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
    94 
    95 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
    96 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
    97 
    98 
    99 *** Document preparation ***
   100 
   101 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   102 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   103 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   104 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   105 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   106 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   107 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   108 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   111 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   112 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   113 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   114 
   115 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   116 style.
   117 
   118 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   119 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   120 
   121 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   122 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   123 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   124 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   125 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   126 
   127 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   128 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   129 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   130 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   131 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   132 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   133 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 
   136 *** Pure ***
   137 
   138 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   139 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   140 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   141 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   142 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   143 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   144 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   145 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   146 
   147 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   148 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   149 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   150 
   151 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   152 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   153 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   154 different index.
   155 
   156 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   157 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   158 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   159 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   160 
   161 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   162 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   163 token category instead.
   164 
   165 
   166 *** HOL ***
   167 
   168 * New (co)datatype package:
   169   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   170     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   171     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   172     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   173     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174   - Renamed theorems:
   175       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   176       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   177       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   178       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   179       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   180       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   181       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   182       sel_map ~> map_sel
   183       sel_set ~> set_sel
   184       sel_split ~> split_sel
   185       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   186       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   187       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   188     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   189   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   190     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   191     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   193     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   194     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   196     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   197     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   198     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   199     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   200     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   201     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202   - Renamed theories:
   203       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   204       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   205       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   206       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   207       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   208       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   209     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   211     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   212     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   213     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   214     rel_sum (using inductive).
   215     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   216     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   217     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   218     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   219 
   220 * Old datatype package:
   221   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   222     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   223     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   224     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   225     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   226   - Renamed theorems:
   227       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   228     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229   - Renamed theory:
   230       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   231     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * Nitpick:
   234   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   235     operations.
   236 
   237 * Sledgehammer:
   238   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   239     default.
   240   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   241     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   242   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   243     Removed sub-command:
   244       min
   245   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   246     dramatically improved.
   247   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   248 
   249 * Old and new SMT modules:
   250   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   251     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   252     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   253     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   254     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   255     point to it.
   256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   257   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   258     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   260     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   261   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   262     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   263 
   264 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   265 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   266 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   269 
   270 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   271 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   272 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   273 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
   276 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   282 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   283 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   284 
   285 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
   286 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287 
   288 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
   289 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
   290 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
   291 
   292 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
   293 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   294 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   295 needed.
   296 
   297 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   298 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   299 
   300 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   301 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   302 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   303 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   304 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   305 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   306 
   307 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   308 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   309 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   310 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   311 
   312 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   313 type class hierarchy:
   314   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   315   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   316   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   317   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   318 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   321   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   322   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   323 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324 
   325 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   326 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   327 
   328 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   329   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   330   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   331   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   332 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   335 and part of theory Main.
   336   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   341 
   342 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   343 Fact rename:
   344     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   346 
   347 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   348 
   349 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
   350 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   351 
   352 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   353 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   354 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   355 
   356 * Library/Multiset:
   357   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   358   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   359     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   360   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   361       <# ~> #<#
   362       <=# ~> #<=#
   363       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   364       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
   367       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
   368       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
   369     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   370   - Renamed
   371       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   372       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
   373       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
   374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   375   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   376   - Added attributes:
   377       image_mset.id [simp]
   378       image_mset_id [simp]
   379       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   380       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   381       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   382       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   383       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   384       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   385     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   388 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   389 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   390 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   391 
   392 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
   393 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
   394 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
   395 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
   396 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   397 examples.
   398 
   399 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   400   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
   401   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   402   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   403     projection
   404 
   405 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   406 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   407 
   408 
   409 *** ML ***
   410 
   411 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   412 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   413 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   414 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   415 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   416 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   417 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   418 
   419 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
   420 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
   421 
   422 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   423 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   424 
   425 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   429 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   430 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   431 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   432 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   433 nested.
   434 
   435 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
   436 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   437 
   438 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   439 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   440 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   442 
   443 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   444 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   445 Thm.term_of etc.
   446 
   447 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   448 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   449 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   450 
   451 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   452 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   453 
   454 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   455 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   456 
   457 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   458 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   459 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   460 
   461 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   462 Input.source (with formal position information).
   463 
   464 
   465 *** System ***
   466 
   467 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   468 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   469 
   470 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
   471 
   472 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   473 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   474 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   475 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   479 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   480 
   481 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   482 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   483 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   484 
   485 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   486 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
   487 
   488 
   489 
   490 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   491 ---------------------------------
   492 
   493 *** General ***
   494 
   495 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   496 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   497 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   498 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   499 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   500 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   501 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   502 some examples.
   503 
   504 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   505 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   506 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   507 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   508 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   509 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   510 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   511 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   512 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   513 
   514 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   515 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   516 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   517 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   518 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   519 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   520 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   521 proof tools.
   522 
   523 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   524 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   525 supports input via ` (backquote).
   526 
   527 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   528 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   529 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   530 
   531 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   532 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   533 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   534 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   535 
   536 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   537 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   538 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   542 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   543 
   544 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   545 not check existence within the file-system.
   546 
   547 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   548 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   549 
   550 
   551 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   552 
   553 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   554 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   555 buffer.
   556 
   557 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   558 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   559 
   560 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   561 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   562 
   563 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   564 auxiliary ML files.
   565 
   566 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   567 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   568 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   569 
   570 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   571 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   572 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   573 
   574 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   575 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   576 
   577 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   578 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   579 caret".
   580 
   581 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   582 completion popup and context-menu.
   583 
   584 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   585 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   586 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   587 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   588 
   589 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   590 to highlight text via regular expression.
   591 
   592 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   593 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   594 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   595 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   596 
   597 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   598 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   599 
   600 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   601 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   602 
   603 * Improved monitor panel.
   604 
   605 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   606 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   607 
   608 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   609 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   610 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   611 
   612 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   613 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   614 within the context.
   615 
   616 
   617 *** Pure ***
   618 
   619 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   620 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   621 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   622 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   623 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   624 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   625 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   626 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   627 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   628 
   629 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   630 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   631 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   632 renaming needs to be applied:
   633 
   634   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   635   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   636   all            ~>  Pure.all
   637   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   638   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   639 
   640 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   641 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   642 old constants:
   643 
   644 setup {*
   645   fn thy => thy
   646     |> Sign.root_path
   647     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   648     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   649     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   650     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   651 *}
   652 
   653 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   654 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   655 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   656 
   657 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   658 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   659 instantiated theorem.
   660 
   661 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   662 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   663 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   664 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   665 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   666 
   667   attribute_setup standard =
   668     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   669 
   670 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   671 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   672 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   673 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   674 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   675 
   676 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   677 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   678 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   679 
   680 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   681 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   682 
   683 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   684 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   685 
   686 
   687 *** HOL ***
   688 
   689 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   690 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   697 
   698 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   699 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   700 
   701 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   705 with the given constants.
   706 
   707 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   708 operations on records.
   709 
   710 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   711 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   716 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   717 
   718 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   719 
   720 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   721 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   722 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   723 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   724 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   725 
   726 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   727 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   730   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   731   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   732   part of theory "Main".
   733 
   734   Theory renamings:
   735     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   736     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   737     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   738     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   739     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   740     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   741     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   742     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   743     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   744     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   745     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   746     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   747     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   748     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   749     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   750     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   751     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   752     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   753     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   754     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   755     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   756     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   757 
   758   New theories:
   759     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   760     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   761     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   762     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   763     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   764 
   765   Discontinued theories:
   766     BNF/BNF.thy
   767     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   768 
   769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * New (co)datatype package:
   772   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   773   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   774     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   775   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   776     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   777   - Renamed commands:
   778       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   779       primrec_new ~> primrec
   780       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   781     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   783     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   784     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   785   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   786     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   787     using "prim(co)rec".
   788     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   790     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   791     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   793     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   794     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   795     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Old datatype package:
   798   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   799     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   800     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   802     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   803     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   804 
   805 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   806   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   807   BNF-based datatype package.
   808 
   809   Renamed constants:
   810     Option.set ~> set_option
   811     Option.map ~> map_option
   812     option_rel ~> rel_option
   813 
   814   Renamed theorems:
   815     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   816     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   817     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   818     option.recs ~> option.rec
   819     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   820     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   821     map.simps ~> list.map
   822     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   823     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   824     the.simps ~> option.sel
   825 
   826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827 
   828 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   829     sum_map ~> map_sum
   830     map_pair ~> map_prod
   831     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   832     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   833     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   834     set_rel ~> rel_set
   835     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   836     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   837     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   838     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   839 
   840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   841 
   842 * Lifting and Transfer:
   843   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   844   - stronger reflexivity prover
   845   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   846   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   847     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   848     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   849       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   850       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   851       automatically
   852     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   853     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   854       automatically for datatypes
   855   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   856     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   857       more
   858       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   859     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   860       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   861       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   863       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   864       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865   - registration of code equations is more robust
   866     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   868     form
   869     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   871     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   872   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   873     Code_Numeral.natural
   874     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   875   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   876     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   879 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   880 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   881 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   882 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   883 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   884 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   885 
   886 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   887 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   888 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   889 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   890 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   891 
   892 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   893 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   894 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   895 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   896 
   897 * Sledgehammer:
   898   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   899   - MaSh overhaul:
   900     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   901       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   902     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   903       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   904       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   905       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   906   - New option:
   907       smt_proofs
   908   - Renamed options:
   909       isar_compress ~> compress
   910       isar_try0 ~> try0
   911 
   912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   915 
   916 * Nitpick:
   917   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   918     take infinite values.
   919   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   920     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   921   - Removed "std" option.
   922   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   923     "hide_types".
   924 
   925 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   926 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   929 
   930 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   931   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   932   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   933     SUP instead uniformly.
   934   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   935     or SUP and Sup.
   936   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   937   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   938   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   939     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   940     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   941 
   942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   943 
   944 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   945 
   946 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   947 
   948   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   949   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   950   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   951   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   952 
   953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   956 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   957 
   958 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   959 
   960     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   961     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   962     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   963     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   964     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   965     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   966     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   967     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   968     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   969     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   970     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   971     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   972     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   973     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   974     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   975     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   976     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   977     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   978     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   979     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   980     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   981     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   982     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   983     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   984     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   985     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   986     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   987     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   988     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   989     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   990     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   991     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   992     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   993     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   994     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   995     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   996     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   997     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   998     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   999     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1000     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1001     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1002     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1003     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1004     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1005     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1006     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1007     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1008     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1009     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1010     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1011     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1012     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1013     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1014     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1015     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1016     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1017     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1018     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1019 
  1020   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1021   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1022   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1023     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1024 
  1025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1028 
  1029   Fact consolidations:
  1030     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1031     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1032     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1033     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1034     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1035     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1036     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1037     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1038     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1039     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1040     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1041     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1042     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1043     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1044     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1045     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1046     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1047     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1048     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1049     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1050     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1051     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1052     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1053     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1054     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1055     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1056     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1057     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1058     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1059     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1060     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1061     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1062     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1063     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1064     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1065     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1066     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1067     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1068     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1069     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1070 
  1071 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1072 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1073 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1074 
  1075 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1076 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1077 
  1078 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1079 
  1080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1083 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1087 
  1088 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1089     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1090 
  1091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1094   consolidation:
  1095     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1096     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1097 
  1098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1101   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1102   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1103   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1104     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1105   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1106     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1107   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1108 
  1109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1112 
  1113     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1114     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1115     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1116     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1117     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1118     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1119     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1120     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1121     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1122     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1123     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1124     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1125     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1126 
  1127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128 
  1129 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1130 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1131 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1132 
  1133 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1134     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1135     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1136     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1137     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1138 
  1139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 * Fact name consolidation:
  1142     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1143     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1144     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1145     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1146     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1147 
  1148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1151 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1152 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1153 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1154 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1155 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1156 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1158 
  1159 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1160 
  1161 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1162 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1163 
  1164 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1165 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1166 
  1167 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1168 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1169 or the brute way with
  1170 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1171 
  1172 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1173 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1174 stating boundedness of sets.
  1175 
  1176 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1177 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1178 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1179 
  1180 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1181   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1182   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1183   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1184   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1185   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1186   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1187   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1188   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1189   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1190   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1191   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1192 
  1193   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1194 
  1195   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1196 
  1197     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1198     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1199     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1200     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1201     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1202 
  1203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1206   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1207 
  1208   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1209 
  1210   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1211 
  1212   - removed constant isDiff
  1213 
  1214   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1215     input syntax.
  1216 
  1217   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1218 
  1219   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1220 
  1221   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1222 
  1223   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1224 
  1225   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1226     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1227     has_vector_derivative.
  1228 
  1229   - Other renamings:
  1230     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1231     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1232     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1233     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1234     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1235     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1236     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1237 
  1238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1241 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1242 in continuous_intros.
  1243 
  1244 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1245 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1246 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1247 
  1248 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1249 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1250 especially removes
  1251 
  1252     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1253 
  1254 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1255     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1256 
  1257 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1258 
  1259   Renamings:
  1260     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1261     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1262     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1263     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1264     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1265     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1266     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1267     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1268     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1269     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1270     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1271     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1272 
  1273     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1274     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1275     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1276 
  1277   Removed theorems:
  1278     complex_zero_def
  1279     complex_add_def
  1280     complex_minus_def
  1281     complex_diff_def
  1282     complex_one_def
  1283     complex_mult_def
  1284     complex_inverse_def
  1285     complex_scaleR_def
  1286 
  1287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1290 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1291 
  1292 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1293 
  1294 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1295 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1296 
  1297 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1298 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1301 
  1302 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * HOL-Word:
  1306   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1307     of "word_arith_wis".
  1308   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1309     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1310     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1311 
  1312 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1313   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1314   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1315   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1316     (except the AFP)
  1317 
  1318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1321   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1322   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1323     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1324   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1325     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1326     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1327     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1328     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1329     intervals.
  1330   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1331     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1332     - renamed theorems:
  1333         interval ~> box
  1334         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1335         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1336         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1337         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1338         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1339         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1340         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1341         open_interval ~> open_box
  1342         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1343         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1344         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1345         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1346         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1347         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1348         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1349         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1350         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1351         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1352         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1353         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1354         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1355         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1356         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1357         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1358         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1359         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1360         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1361         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1362         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1363         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1364         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1365         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1366 
  1367     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1368         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1369         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1370         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1371         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1372         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1373         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1374         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1375         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1376         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1377         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1378         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1379         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1380         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1381         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1382         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1383         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1384         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1385 
  1386   - renamed theorems:
  1387     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1388     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1389     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1390 
  1391 * HOL-Probability:
  1392   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1393 
  1394     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1395       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1396 
  1397     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1398 
  1399   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1400     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1401 
  1402     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1403     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1404     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1405     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1406     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1407     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1408     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1409     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1410     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1411     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1412     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1413     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1414     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1415     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1416     integral_indicator          ~>
  1417          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1418     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1419     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1420     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1421 
  1422     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1423          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1424 
  1425     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1426          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1427 
  1428     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1429          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1430 
  1431     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1432          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1433          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1434 
  1435     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1436          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1437 
  1438     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1439          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1440 
  1441     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1442          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1443          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1444 
  1445     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1446          nn_integral_real_affine
  1447 
  1448     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1449          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1450 
  1451     The following theorems where removed:
  1452 
  1453     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1454     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1455     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1456     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1457     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1458     integral_cmul_indicator
  1459     integral_real
  1460 
  1461   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1462     distributed random variables.
  1463 
  1464 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1465 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1467 
  1468 
  1469 *** Scala ***
  1470 
  1471 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1472 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1473 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1474 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1475 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1476 
  1477 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1478 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1479 
  1480 
  1481 *** ML ***
  1482 
  1483 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1484 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1485 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1486 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1487 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1488 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1489 
  1490 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1491 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1492 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1493 actually belongs to it).
  1494 
  1495 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1496 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1497 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1498 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1499 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1500 of schematic variables.
  1501 
  1502 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1503 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1504 
  1505 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1506 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1507 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1508 
  1509 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1513 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1514 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1518 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1520 formal context.
  1521 
  1522 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1523 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1526 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1527 
  1528 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1529 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1530 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1531 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1532 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1533 
  1534 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1535 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1536 purposes.
  1537 
  1538 
  1539 *** System ***
  1540 
  1541 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1542 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1543 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1544 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1545 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1546 
  1547 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1548 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1549 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1550 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1551 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1552 settings variable.
  1553 
  1554 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1555 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1556 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1557 
  1558 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1559 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1560 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1561 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1562 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1563 
  1564 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1565 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1566 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1567 
  1568 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1569 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1570 
  1571 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1572 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1573 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1574 
  1575 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1576 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1577 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1578 processing is started.
  1579 
  1580 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1581 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1582 
  1583 
  1584 
  1585 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1586 -------------------------------------
  1587 
  1588 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1589 
  1590 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1591 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1592 
  1593 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1594 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1595 
  1596 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1597 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1598 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1599 
  1600 
  1601 *** System ***
  1602 
  1603 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1604 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1605 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1606 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1607 
  1608 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1609 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1610 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1611 
  1612 
  1613 
  1614 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1615 -------------------------------------
  1616 
  1617 *** General ***
  1618 
  1619 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1620 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1621 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1624 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1625 
  1626 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1627 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1628 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1629 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1630 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1631 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1632 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1633 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1634 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1635 syntax.
  1636 
  1637 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1638 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639 
  1640 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1641 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1642 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1643 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1644 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1645 
  1646 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1648 
  1649 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1650 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1651 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1652 
  1653 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1654 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1655 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1656 
  1657 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1658 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1659 
  1660 
  1661 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1662 
  1663 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1664 Documentation panel.
  1665 
  1666 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1667 documentation.
  1668 
  1669 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1670 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1671 
  1672 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1673 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1674 normal editing and checking process.
  1675 
  1676 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1677 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1678 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1679 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1680 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1681 
  1682 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1683 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1684 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1685 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1686 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1687 
  1688 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1689 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1690 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1691 
  1692 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1693 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1694 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1695 to resolve conflict.
  1696 
  1697 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1698 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1699 
  1700 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1701 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1702 such command executions while editing.
  1703 
  1704 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1705 document content.
  1706 
  1707 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1708 toplevel theorem statements.
  1709 
  1710 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1711 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1712 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1713 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1714 
  1715 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1716 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1717 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1718 
  1719 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1720 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1721 
  1722 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1723 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1724 
  1725 
  1726 *** Pure ***
  1727 
  1728 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1729 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1730 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1731 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1732 details.
  1733 
  1734 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1735 
  1736 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1737 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1738 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1739 
  1740 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742 
  1743 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1744 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1745 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1746 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1749 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1750 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751 
  1752 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1753 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1754 
  1755 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1756 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1757 situations.
  1758 
  1759 
  1760 *** HOL ***
  1761 
  1762 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1763 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1765 
  1766 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1767 
  1768 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1769 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1770 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1771 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1772 
  1773   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1774 
  1775 * Code generator:
  1776   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1777     'code_instance'.
  1778   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1779     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1780 
  1781 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1782 examples.
  1783 
  1784 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1785 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1786 to distinguish both when desired.
  1787 
  1788 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1789 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1790 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1791 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1794 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1795 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1796 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1797 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1798 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1801 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1802 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1803 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1804 
  1805 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1806 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1807 
  1808 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1809 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1810 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1811 
  1812 * Lifting:
  1813   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1814     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1815       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1816       transfer rules
  1817     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1818       correspondence relation can be generated
  1819     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1820       parametricity
  1821     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1822   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1823   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1824     copies
  1825   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1826     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1827     anonymous context)
  1828   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1829     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1830   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1831     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1832   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1833     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1834 
  1835 * Transfer:
  1836   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1837     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1838   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1839   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1840     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1841   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1842 
  1843 * Reification and reflection:
  1844   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1845     "Reification".
  1846   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1847   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1851   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1852     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1853     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1854   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1855     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1856   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1857     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1858     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1859     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1860     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1861     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1862     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1863     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1864   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1865     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1866   - Fact renames:
  1867       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1868       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1870 
  1871 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1872 
  1873 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1874 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1875 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1879 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1880 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1881 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1882 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1883 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1884 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1885 lemmas.
  1886 
  1887 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1888 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1889 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1890 
  1891 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1892 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1893 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1894 
  1895 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1896 top and bottom elements.
  1897 
  1898 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1899 
  1900 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1901 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1902 
  1903  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1904    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1905    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1906 
  1907  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1908    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1909    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1910 
  1911    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1912    arbitrary filter.
  1913 
  1914  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1915    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1916    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1917    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1918    on a compact set.
  1919 
  1920  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1921    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1922    linear_continuum_topology).
  1923 
  1924  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1925    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1926    on all sequences converging to x.
  1927 
  1928  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1929    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1930    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1931    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1932    left or right.
  1933 
  1934  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1935 
  1936      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1937 
  1938  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1939    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1940 
  1941  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1942    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1943    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1944    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1945    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1946    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1947 
  1948  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1949 
  1950    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1951 
  1952    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1953      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1954 
  1955    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1956 
  1957    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1958      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1959 
  1960    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1961 
  1962    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1963 
  1964  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1965 
  1966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1967 
  1968 * Nitpick:
  1969   - Added option "spy".
  1970   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1971 
  1972 * Sledgehammer:
  1973   - Renamed option:
  1974       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1975     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1977   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1978   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1979 
  1980 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1981 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1982 
  1983 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1984   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1985   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1986     generated code.
  1987   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1988   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1989   - Fact renames:
  1990     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1991     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1992     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1993 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1996 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1997 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1998 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1999 
  2000 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2001 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2002 
  2003 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2004 
  2005 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2006 
  2007     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2008     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2009 
  2010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2011 
  2012 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2013 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2014 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2015 
  2016 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2017 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2018 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2019 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2020 
  2021 * HOL-BNF:
  2022   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2023     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2024     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2025     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2026   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2027     coinduct).
  2028   - Renamed keywords:
  2029     data ~> datatype_new
  2030     codata ~> codatatype
  2031     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2032   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2033     discs ~> disc
  2034     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2035     map_id' ~> map_id
  2036     sels ~> sel
  2037     set_map' ~> set_map
  2038     sets ~> set
  2039 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2040 
  2041 
  2042 *** ML ***
  2043 
  2044 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2045 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2046 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2047 Examples.thy in particular.
  2048 
  2049 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2050 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2051 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2052 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2053 
  2054 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2055 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2056 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2057 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2059 
  2060 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2061 
  2062     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2063     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2064 
  2065 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2066 
  2067 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2068 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2069 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2070 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2071 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2072 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2073 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2074 
  2075 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2076 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2077 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2078 clasets separately from the context.
  2079 
  2080 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2081 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2082 
  2083 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2084 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2085 
  2086 
  2087 *** System ***
  2088 
  2089 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2090 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2091 
  2092 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2093 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2096 settings variable.
  2097 
  2098 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2099 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2100 always pdf.
  2101 
  2102 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2103 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2104 
  2105 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2106 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2107 
  2108 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2109 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2110 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2111 
  2112 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2113 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2114 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2115 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2116 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2117 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2118 
  2119 
  2120 
  2121 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2122 -----------------------------------
  2123 
  2124 *** General ***
  2125 
  2126 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2127 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2128 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2129 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2130 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2131 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2132 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2133 
  2134 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2135 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2136 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2137 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2138 
  2139 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2140 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2141 
  2142 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2143 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2144 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2145 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2146 dependencies properly.
  2147 
  2148 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2149 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2150 
  2151 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2152 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2153 
  2154 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2155 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2156 and "class ... context ...".
  2157 
  2158 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2159 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2160 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2161 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2162 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2163 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2164 
  2165 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2166 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2167 
  2168 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2169 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2170 
  2171 
  2172 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2173 
  2174 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2175 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2176 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2177 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2178 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2179 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2180 
  2181 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2182 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2183 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2184 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2185 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2186 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2187 
  2188 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2189 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2190 browser on demand.
  2191 
  2192 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2193 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2194 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2195 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2196 
  2197 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2198 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2199 
  2200 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2201 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2202 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2203 potentially infinite message streams.
  2204 
  2205 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2206 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2207 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2208 schemes.
  2209 
  2210 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2211 symbols.
  2212 
  2213 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2214 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2215 
  2216 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2217 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2218 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2219 
  2220 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2221 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2222 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2223 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2224 
  2225 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2226 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2227 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2228 
  2229 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2230 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2231 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2232 Isabelle distribution.
  2233 
  2234 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2235 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2236 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2237 
  2238 
  2239 *** Pure ***
  2240 
  2241 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2242 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2243 
  2244 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2245 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2246 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2249 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2250 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2251 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2252 with some care where this is really required.
  2253 
  2254 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2255 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2256 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2257 
  2258   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2259 
  2260 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2261 a Hasse diagram.
  2262 
  2263 
  2264 *** HOL ***
  2265 
  2266 * Sledgehammer:
  2267 
  2268   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2269     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2270   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2271   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2272   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2273   - Renamed options:
  2274       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2275       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2276       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2277       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2278 
  2279 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2280 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2281 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2282 
  2283 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2285 
  2286 * Lifting:
  2287   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2288   - quot_del attribute
  2289   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2290 
  2291 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2292 expressions.
  2293 
  2294 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2295 pointfree expressions.
  2296 
  2297 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2298 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2299 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2300 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2304 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2305 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2306 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2307 accordingly.
  2308 
  2309 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2310 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2313 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316 
  2317 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2318 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2319 
  2320 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2321 
  2322 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2323 
  2324   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2325   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2326 
  2327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2328 
  2329 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2330 
  2331   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2332   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2333 
  2334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2337 
  2338   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2339     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2340     output f x converges to G.
  2341 
  2342   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2343     infinity (at_bot).
  2344 
  2345   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2346     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2347 
  2348   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2349     at_top".
  2350 
  2351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2354 lattice type classes.
  2355 
  2356 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2357 
  2358     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2359     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2360 
  2361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2364 changes as follows.
  2365 
  2366   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2367 
  2368       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2369       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2370 
  2371   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2372     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2373     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2374     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2375 
  2376   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2377     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2378     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2379 
  2380   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2381     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2382     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2383     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2384 
  2385   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2386     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2387 
  2388       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2389       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2390       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2391       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2392       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2393       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2394       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2395       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2396       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2397       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2398       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2399       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2400       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2401       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2402       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2403       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2404 
  2405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2408 
  2409 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2410 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2411 
  2412 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2413 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2414 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2415 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2416 
  2417   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2418   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2419   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2420   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2421   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2422   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2423   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2424   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2425   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2426   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2427 
  2428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2429 
  2430 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2431 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2432 Data").
  2433 
  2434 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2435 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2436 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2437 code.
  2438 
  2439 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2440 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2441 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2445 
  2446 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2447 
  2448 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2449 
  2450   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2451   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2452 
  2453 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2454 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2455 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2456 
  2457   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2458 
  2459     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2460     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2461     cart_base i  removed
  2462     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2463 
  2464   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2465 
  2466   Renamed lemmas:
  2467 
  2468     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2469     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2470     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2471     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2472     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2473     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2474     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2475     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2476     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2477     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2478 
  2479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * HOL/Probability:
  2482 
  2483   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2484 
  2485   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2486     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2487     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2488 
  2489   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2490     projective family).
  2491 
  2492 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2493 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2494 
  2495 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2496 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2497 datatypes.
  2498 
  2499 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2500 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2501 
  2502 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2503 trees for the code generator.
  2504 
  2505 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2506 Lifting/Transfer.
  2507 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512 
  2513 *** Document preparation ***
  2514 
  2515 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2516 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2517 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2518 
  2519 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2520 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2521 
  2522 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2523 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2524 document/root.tex.
  2525 
  2526 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2527 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529 
  2530 *** ML ***
  2531 
  2532 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2533 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2534 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2535 
  2536 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2537 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2538 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2539 
  2540 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2541 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2542 necessarily printing visible text.
  2543 
  2544 
  2545 *** System ***
  2546 
  2547 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2548 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2549 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2550 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2551 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2552 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2553 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2554 
  2555 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2556 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2557 
  2558   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2559 
  2560 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2561 
  2562 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2563 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2564 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2565 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2566 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2567 
  2568 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2569 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2570 
  2571 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2572 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2573 
  2574 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2578 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2579 version of Isabelle.
  2580 
  2581 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2582 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2583 
  2584 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2585 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2586 for home-made settings.
  2587 
  2588 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2589 
  2590 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2591 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2592 configuration.
  2593 
  2594 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2595 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2596 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2597 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2598 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2599 
  2600 
  2601 
  2602 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2603 ------------------------------
  2604 
  2605 *** General ***
  2606 
  2607 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2608 
  2609   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2610     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2611   - markup for bound variables
  2612   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2613   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2614   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2615     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2616 
  2617 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2618 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2619 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2620 
  2621 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2622 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2623 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2624 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2625 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2626 
  2627   context
  2628     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2629     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2630   begin
  2631 
  2632   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2633 
  2634   end
  2635 
  2636   thm my_trans
  2637 
  2638 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2639 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2640 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2641 
  2642 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2643 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2644 
  2645 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2646 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2647 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2648 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2649 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2650 
  2651 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2652 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2653 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2654 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2655 indices of schematic variables.
  2656 
  2657 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2658 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2659 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2660 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2661 etc. was exploited.
  2662 
  2663 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2664 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2665 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2666 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2667 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2668 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2669 
  2670 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2671 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2672 manual.
  2673 
  2674 
  2675 *** Pure ***
  2676 
  2677 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2678 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2679 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2680 
  2681 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2682 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2683 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2684 undocumented feature.)
  2685 
  2686 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2687 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2688 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2689 
  2690   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2691 
  2692   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2693     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2694 
  2695 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2696 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2697 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2698 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2699 
  2700 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2701 
  2702     num ~> num_token
  2703     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2704     xstr ~> str_token
  2705 
  2706 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2707 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2708 position information via constraints).
  2709 
  2710 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2711 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2712 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2715 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2716 
  2717 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2718 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2719 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2720 
  2721 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2722 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2725 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2726 
  2727   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2728 
  2729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2732 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2735 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2736 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2737 
  2738 
  2739 *** HOL ***
  2740 
  2741 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2742 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2743 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2744 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2745 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2746 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2747 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2748 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2749 possible.
  2750 
  2751 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2752 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2753 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2754 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2755 
  2756 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2757 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758 
  2759 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2760 
  2761 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2762 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2763 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2764 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2765 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2766 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2767 
  2768   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2769     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2770 
  2771   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2772     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2773     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2774 
  2775   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2776     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2777 
  2778   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2779     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2780     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2781 
  2782   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2783     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2784 
  2785 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2786 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2787 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2788 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2789 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2790 
  2791   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2792     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2793     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2794     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2795     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2796 
  2797     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2798     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2799 
  2800   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2801     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2802     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2803     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2804     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2805     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2806     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2807     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2808 
  2809   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2810     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2811     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2812     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2813 
  2814   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2815     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2816     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2817     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2818 
  2819   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2820     from type nat to type int.
  2821 
  2822 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2823 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2824 
  2825   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2826     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2827     type.  Example syntax:
  2828 
  2829     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2830       is List.insert
  2831 
  2832     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2833     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2834     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2835     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2836     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2837     by the package.
  2838 
  2839   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2840     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2841     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2842     code generation for each constant.
  2843 
  2844   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2845     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2846     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2847     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2848     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2849 
  2850   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2851     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2852     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2853 
  2854 * Quotient package:
  2855 
  2856   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2857     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2858 
  2859   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2860     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2861 
  2862   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2863     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2864     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2865 
  2866   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2867     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868 
  2869 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2870 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2871 
  2872 * Quickcheck:
  2873 
  2874   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2875     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2876     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2877     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2878     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2879 
  2880     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2881     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2882     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2883 
  2884     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2885     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2886 
  2887     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2888     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2889     show genuine counterexamples.
  2890 
  2891   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2892     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2893 
  2894     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2895     constructors of that type.
  2896 
  2897   - Support for multisets.
  2898 
  2899   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2900 
  2901   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2902     conjectures in a locale context.
  2903 
  2904 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2905 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2906 
  2907 * Sledgehammer:
  2908   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2909     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2910   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2911   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2912     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2913   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2914   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2915   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2916   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2917 
  2918 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2919 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2920 
  2921 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2922 
  2923 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2926 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2927 
  2928   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2929 
  2930 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2931 a list and a nat.
  2932 
  2933 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2934 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2935 
  2936 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2937 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2938 default.
  2939 
  2940 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2941 
  2942   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2943 
  2944 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2945 
  2946 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2947 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2948 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2949 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2950 one_case.
  2951 
  2952 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2953 the result of the fact expression.
  2954 
  2955 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2956 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2957 of some relation theorems:
  2958 
  2959   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2960   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2961   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2962   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2963   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2964   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2965 
  2966 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2967 
  2968 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2969 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2970 
  2971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972 
  2973 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2974 to match the constant's name:
  2975 
  2976   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2977   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2978   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2979   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2980   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2981   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2982   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2983   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2984   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2985   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2986   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2987   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2988   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2989   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2990   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2991   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2992   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2993   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2994   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2995   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2996   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2997   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2998   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2999   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3000 
  3001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3004 and corresponding theorem names:
  3005 
  3006   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3007 
  3008   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3009 
  3010   - Renamed theorems:
  3011 
  3012     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3013     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3014     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3015     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3016     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3017     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3018     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3019     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3020     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3021     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3022     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3023     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3024     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3025     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3026     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3027     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3028     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3029     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3030     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3031     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3032     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3033     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3034     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3035 
  3036     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3037 
  3038     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3039 
  3040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3041 
  3042 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3043 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3044 
  3045   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3046   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3047   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3048   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3049   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3050   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3051   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3052   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3053   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3054   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3055   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3056   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3057   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3058   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3059   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3060   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3061   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3062   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3063   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3064   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3065   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3066 
  3067 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3068 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3073 
  3074   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3075   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3076   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3077   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3078   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3079   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3080   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3081   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3082   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3083   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3084   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3085   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3086   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3087   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3088   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3089   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3090   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3091   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3092 
  3093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3096 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3097 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3098 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3099 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3100 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3101 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3102 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3103 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3104 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3105 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3106 
  3107 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3108 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3109 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3110 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3111 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3112 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3113 
  3114 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3115 through option types.
  3116 
  3117 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3118 relations.
  3119 
  3120 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3124 
  3125   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3126   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3127   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3128   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3129   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3130   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3131   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3132   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3133   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3134   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3135   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3136   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3137   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3138   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3139   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3140   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3141   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3142   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3143   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3144   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3145   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3146   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3147   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3148   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3149   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3150   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3151   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3152   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3153   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3154   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3155   zless_le ~> less_le
  3156   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3157   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3158   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3159 
  3160 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3161 
  3162   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3163 
  3164 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3165 
  3166 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3167 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3168 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3169 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3173 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3174 
  3175 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3176 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3177 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3178 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3179 follows:
  3180 
  3181   Operations:
  3182   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3183   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3184   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3185   del -> rbt_del
  3186   delete -> rbt_delete
  3187   ins -> rbt_ins
  3188   insert -> rbt_insert
  3189   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3190   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3191   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3192   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3193   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3194   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3195   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3196   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3197   union -> rbt_union
  3198   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3199   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3200 
  3201   Lemmas:
  3202   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3203   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3204   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3205   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3206   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3207   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3208   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3209   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3210   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3211   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3212   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3213   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3214   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3215   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3216   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3217   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3218   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3219   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3220   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3221   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3222   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3223   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3224   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3225   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3226   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3227   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3228   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3229   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3230   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3231   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3232   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3233   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3234   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3235   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3236   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3237   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3238   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3239   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3240   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3241   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3242   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3243   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3244   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3245   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3246   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3247   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3248   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3249   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3250   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3251   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3252   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3253   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3254   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3255   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3256   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3257   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3258   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3259   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3260   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3261   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3262   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3263   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3264   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3265   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3266   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3267   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3268   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3269   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3270   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3271   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3272   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3273   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3274   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3275   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3276   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3277   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3278   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3279   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3280   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3281   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3282   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3283   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3284   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3285 
  3286 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3287 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3288 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290   Changed Operations:
  3291   float_abs -> abs
  3292   float_nprt -> nprt
  3293   float_pprt -> pprt
  3294   pow2 -> use powr
  3295   round_down -> float_round_down
  3296   round_up -> float_round_up
  3297   scale -> exponent
  3298 
  3299   Removed Operations:
  3300   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3301 
  3302   Renamed Lemmas:
  3303   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3304   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3305   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3306   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3307   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3308   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3309   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3310   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3311   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3312   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3313   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3314   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3315   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3316   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3317   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3318   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3319   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3320   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3321   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3322   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3323   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3324   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3325   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3326   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3327   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3328   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3329   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3330   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3331   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3332   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3333   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3334   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3335   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3336   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3337   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3338   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3339 
  3340   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3341   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3342   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3343   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3344   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3345   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3346   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3347   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3348   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3349   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3350 
  3351 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3352 association lists with distinct keys.
  3353 
  3354 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3355 annotated commands.
  3356 
  3357 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3358 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3359 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3360 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3361 
  3362 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3363 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3364 instead.
  3365 
  3366   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3367   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3368   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3369   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3370   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3371   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3372   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3373   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3374   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3375   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3376   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3377   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3378   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3379   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3380   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3381   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3382   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3383   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3384   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3385   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3386   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3387   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3388   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3389   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3390   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3391   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3392   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3393   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3394   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3395   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3396   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3397   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3398   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3399   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3400   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3401   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3402   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3403   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3404   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3405   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3406   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3407 
  3408 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3409 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3410 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3411 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3412 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3413 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3414 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3415 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3416 
  3417 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3418 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3419 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3420 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3421 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3422 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3423 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3424 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3425 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3426 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3427 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3428 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430   Renamed constants:
  3431   measure -> emeasure
  3432   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3433   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3434   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3435   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3436 
  3437   Removed locales:
  3438   completeable_measure_space
  3439   finite_measure_space
  3440   finite_prob_space
  3441   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3442   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3443   finite_sigma_algebra
  3444   measure_space
  3445   pair_finite_prob_space
  3446   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3447   pair_finite_space
  3448   pair_sigma_algebra
  3449   product_sigma_algebra
  3450 
  3451   Removed constants:
  3452   conditional_space
  3453   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3454   image_space
  3455   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3456   pair_measure_generator
  3457   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3458   subvimage
  3459 
  3460   Replacement theorems:
  3461   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3462   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3463   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3464   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3465   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3466   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3467   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3468   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3469   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3470   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3471   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3472   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3473   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3474   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3475   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3476   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3477   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3478   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3479   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3480   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3481   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3482   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3483   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3484   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3485   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3486   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3487   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3488   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3489   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3490   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3491   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3492   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3493   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3494   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3495   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3496   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3497   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3498   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3499   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3500   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3501   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3502   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3503   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3504   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3505   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3506   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3507   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3508   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3509   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3510   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3511   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3512   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3513   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3514   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3515   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3516   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3517   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3518   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3519   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3520   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3521   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3522   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3523   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3524   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3525   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3526   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3527   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3528   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3529   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3530   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3531   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3532   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3533   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3534   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3535   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3536   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3537   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3538   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3539   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3540   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3541   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3542   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3543   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3544   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3545   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3546   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3547   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3548   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3549   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3550   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3551   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3552   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3553   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3554   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3555   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3556   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3557   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3558   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3559   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3560   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3561   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3562   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3563   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3564   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3565   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3566   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3567   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3568   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3569   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3570   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3571   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3572   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3573   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3574   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3575   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3576   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3577   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3578   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3579   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3580   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3581   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3582   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3583   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3584   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3585   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3586   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3587   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3588   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3589 
  3590 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3591 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3592 
  3593 
  3594 *** FOL ***
  3595 
  3596 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3597 
  3598 
  3599 *** ZF ***
  3600 
  3601 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3602 analysis.
  3603 
  3604 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3605 
  3606 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 
  3609 *** ML ***
  3610 
  3611 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3612 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3613 
  3614 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3615 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3616 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3617 
  3618 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3619 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3620 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3621 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3622 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3623 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3624 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3625 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3626 
  3627 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3628 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3629 
  3630 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3631 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3632 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3633 
  3634 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3635 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3638 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3639 context as well.
  3640 
  3641 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3642 
  3643   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3644   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3645   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3646   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3647   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3648   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3649   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3650   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3651   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3652   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3653   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3654   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3655 
  3656 
  3657 *** System ***
  3658 
  3659 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3660 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3661 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3662 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3663 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3664 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3665 the generic user home was intended.
  3666 
  3667 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3668 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3669 
  3670 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3671 (not just JRE).
  3672 
  3673 
  3674 
  3675 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3676 ------------------------------------
  3677 
  3678 *** General ***
  3679 
  3680 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3681 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3682 
  3683   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3684     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3685     files for checking).
  3686 
  3687   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3688     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3689     positions.
  3690 
  3691   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3692     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3693     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3694 
  3695   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3696     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3697     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3698 
  3699   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3700     cores.
  3701 
  3702   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3703     versions (garbage collection).
  3704 
  3705 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3706 including some remaining limitations.
  3707 
  3708 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3709 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3710 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3711 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3712 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3716 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3717 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3718 
  3719 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3720 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3721 usedir option -Q.
  3722 
  3723 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3724 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3725 
  3726   long_names   ~> names_long
  3727   short_names  ~> names_short
  3728   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3729 
  3730 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3731 
  3732   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3733 
  3734 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3735 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3736 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3737 
  3738 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3739 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3740 
  3741 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3742   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3743   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3744   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3745     "Classical Reasoner".
  3746 
  3747 
  3748 *** HOL ***
  3749 
  3750 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3751 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3754 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3755 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3756 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3757 class complete_linorder.
  3758 
  3759 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3760 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3761 
  3762 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3763 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3764 
  3765   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3766   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3767   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3768   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3769   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3770   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3771   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3772   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3773   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3774   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3775   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3776 
  3777 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3778 
  3779   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3780   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3781   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3782   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3783   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3784   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3785   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3786   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3787   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3788   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3789   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3790   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3791   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3792   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3793   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3794   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3795 
  3796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3802 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3803 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3804 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3807 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3808 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 
  3811 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3812 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3813 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3814 
  3815 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3816 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3817 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3820 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3821 
  3822 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3823 
  3824     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3825     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3826 
  3827 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3828 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 
  3830 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3831 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3834 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3835 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3836 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3837 
  3838   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3839   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3840   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3841   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3842   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3843   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3844   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3845 
  3846 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3847 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3850   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3851   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3852   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3853   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3854   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3855   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3856   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3857   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3858   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3859   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3860   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3861   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3862   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3863   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3864   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3865   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3866   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3867   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3868   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3869   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3870   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3871   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3872   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3873   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3874   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3875   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3876   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3877   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3878   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3879   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3880   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3881   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3882   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3883   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3884   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3885   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3886   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3887   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3888   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3889   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3890   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3891   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3892   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3893   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3894   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3895   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3896   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3897   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3898   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3899   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3900   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3901   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3902   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3903   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3904   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3905   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3906   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3907   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3908   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3909   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3910   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3911   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3912   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3913   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3914   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3915   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3916   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3917   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3918   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3919   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3920   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3921   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3922   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3923   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3924   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3925   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3926   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3927   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3928   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3929   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3930   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3931 
  3932 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3933 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3934 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3935 
  3936 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3937 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3938 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3939 
  3940 * Code generation:
  3941 
  3942   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3943     characters in the target language.
  3944 
  3945   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3946     instead.
  3947 
  3948   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3949 
  3950   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3951     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3952 
  3953       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3954 
  3955 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3958 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3959 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3960 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3961 syntax.
  3962 
  3963 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3964 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3965 
  3966 * Nitpick:
  3967   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3968   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3969   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3970     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * Sledgehammer:
  3973   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3974   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3975     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3976   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3977     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3978   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3979     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3981     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3982   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3983     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * Metis:
  3986   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3988     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Command 'try':
  3991   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3992     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3994     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3995 
  3996 * Quickcheck:
  3997   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3998     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3999   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4000     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4001   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4002     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4003     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4004     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4005   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4006     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4007 
  4008 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4009 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4010 
  4011 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4012 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4013 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4014 
  4015 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4016 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4020 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4023 arithmetic.
  4024 
  4025 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4026 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4027 and lattice type classes.
  4028 
  4029 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4030 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4031 
  4032 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4033 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4034 
  4035 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4036 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4037 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4040   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4041   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4042   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4043 
  4044 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4045 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4046 constants:
  4047 
  4048   type inat   ~> type enat
  4049   Fin         ~> enat
  4050   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4051   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4052   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4053 
  4054 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4055 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4058 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4059 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4060 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4061 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4062 
  4063 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4064 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4065 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4066 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4067 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4068 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4069 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4070 
  4071   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4072   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4073   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4074   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4075 
  4076 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4077 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4078 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4081   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4082   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4083   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4084   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4085   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4086   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4087   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4088   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4089   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4090   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4091   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4092   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4093   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4094   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4095   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4096   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4097   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4098   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4099   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4100   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4101   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4102   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4103   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4104   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4105   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4106   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4107   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4108   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4109   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4110   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4111   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4112   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4113   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4114   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4115   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4116   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4117   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4118   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4119   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4120   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4121   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4122   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4123   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4124   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4125   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4126   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4127   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4128   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4129   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4130   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4131 
  4132 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4133   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4134   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4135   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4136   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4137     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4142   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4143   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4144   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4145   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4146   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4147   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4148   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4149   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4150   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4151   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4152   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4153   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4154   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4155   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4156   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4157   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4158   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4159   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4160   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4161   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4162   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4163   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4164   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4165   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4166 
  4167 
  4168 *** Document preparation ***
  4169 
  4170 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4171 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4172 same.
  4173 
  4174 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4175 result.
  4176 
  4177 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4178 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4179 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4180 
  4181 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4182 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4183 
  4184 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4185 like this:
  4186 
  4187   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4188   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4189 
  4190 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4191 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4192 layouts.
  4193 
  4194 
  4195 *** ML ***
  4196 
  4197 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4198 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4199 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4200 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4201 under external program control.
  4202 
  4203 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4204 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4205 
  4206 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4207 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4208 (better known as Proof General).
  4209 
  4210 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4211 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4212 
  4213 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4214 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4215 
  4216 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4217 (including quotes etc.).
  4218 
  4219 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4220 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4221 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4222 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4223 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4224 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4225 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4226 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4227 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4228 
  4229 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4230 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4231 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4232 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4233 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4234 
  4235 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4236 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4237 
  4238 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4239 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4240 
  4241 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4242 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4243 
  4244 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4245 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4246 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4247 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4248 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4249 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4250 proper Proof.context.
  4251 
  4252 
  4253 *** System ***
  4254 
  4255 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4256 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4257 
  4258 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4259 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4260 
  4261 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4262 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4263 
  4264   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4265   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4266   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4267   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4268   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4269 
  4270 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4271 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4272 
  4273 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4274 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4275 example:
  4276 
  4277   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4278 
  4279 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4280 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4281 
  4282 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4283 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4284 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4285 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4286 
  4287 
  4288 
  4289 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4290 ----------------------------------
  4291 
  4292 *** General ***
  4293 
  4294 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4295 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4296 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4297 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4298 like this:
  4299 
  4300   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4301 
  4302 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4303 
  4304 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4305 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4306 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4307 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4308 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4309 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4310 
  4311 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4312 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4313 the following package declarations:
  4314 
  4315   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4316   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4317 
  4318 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4319 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4320 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4321 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4322 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4323 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4324 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4325 
  4326 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4327 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4328 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4329 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4330 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4331 
  4332 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4333 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4334 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4335 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336 
  4337 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4338 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4339 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4340 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4341 
  4342   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4343 
  4344   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4345   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4346   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4347   show_types                    show_types
  4348   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4349   show_consts                   show_consts
  4350   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4351 
  4352   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4353   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4354   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4355 
  4356   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4357   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4358 
  4359   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4360 
  4361   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4362   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4363   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4364   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4365   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4366 
  4367 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4368 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4369 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4370 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4371 
  4372 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4376   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4377 
  4378 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4379 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4380 float_token.
  4381 
  4382 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4383 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4385 
  4386 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4387 DejaVu Sans.
  4388 
  4389 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4390 
  4391 
  4392 *** Pure ***
  4393 
  4394 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4395 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4396 time.
  4397 
  4398 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4399 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400 
  4401 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4402 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4405 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4406 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4407 command already provided this functionality.
  4408 
  4409 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4410 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4411 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4412 without interpretations.
  4413 
  4414 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4415 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4416 
  4417 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4418 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4419 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4420 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4421 
  4422 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4423 'definition' instead.
  4424 
  4425 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4426 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4427 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4428 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4429 
  4430 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4431 constructors.
  4432 
  4433 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4434 the local file system.
  4435 
  4436 
  4437 *** HOL ***
  4438 
  4439 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4440 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4441 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4442 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4443 
  4444   declare [[coercion f]]
  4445 
  4446 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4447 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4448 
  4449   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4450 
  4451 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4452 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4453 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4454 other theories like this:
  4455 
  4456   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4457 
  4458 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4459 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4460 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4461 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4462 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4463 for examples.
  4464 
  4465 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4466 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4467 
  4468 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4469 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4470 
  4471 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4472 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4473 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4474 
  4475 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4476 functorial structure of types.
  4477 
  4478 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4479 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4480 
  4481 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4482 languages.
  4483 
  4484 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4485 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4487 
  4488 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4489 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4492 combinators any longer.
  4493 
  4494 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4495 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4496 
  4497 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4498 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4499 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4500 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4501 
  4502   record 'a foo = ...
  4503   ...
  4504   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4505 
  4506 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4507 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4511 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4512 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4513 
  4514 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4515 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4516 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4517 
  4518 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4519 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4522 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4523 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4524 independently.
  4525 
  4526 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4527 counter example search.
  4528 
  4529 * Sledgehammer:
  4530   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4531     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4532     sledgehammer").
  4533   - Renamed commands:
  4534     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4535     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4536     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4537     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4538   - Renamed options:
  4539     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4540     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4541     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4542     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4543     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4544 
  4545 * Nitpick:
  4546   - Renamed options:
  4547     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4548     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4549     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4551   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4552   - Added "whack" option.
  4553   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4554   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4555   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4556   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4557     higher cardinalities.
  4558   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4559 
  4560 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4561 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4562 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4563 
  4564     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4565 
  4566 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4567 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4568 
  4569 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4570 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4571 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4572 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4573 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4574 "smt_solver".
  4575 
  4576 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4577 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4578 
  4579 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4580 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4581 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4582 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4585   - Renamed:
  4586     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4587     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4588     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589   - Added:
  4590     smt_verbose
  4591     smt_random_seed
  4592     smt_datatypes
  4593     smt_infer_triggers
  4594     smt_monomorph_limit
  4595     cvc3_options
  4596     remote_cvc3_options
  4597     remote_z3_options
  4598     yices_options
  4599 
  4600 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4601 header.
  4602 
  4603 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4604 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4605 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4606 
  4607   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4608 
  4609 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 
  4611 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4612 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4617 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4620 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4621 
  4622 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4623 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4624 
  4625 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4626 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4627 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4633 
  4634 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4635 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4638 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4639 for congruent(2)).
  4640 
  4641 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4642 
  4643   types
  4644     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4645     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4646 
  4647   constants
  4648     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4649     True ~> HOL.True
  4650     False ~> HOL.False
  4651     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4652     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4653     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4654     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4655     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4656     The ~> HOL.The
  4657     All ~> HOL.All
  4658     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4659     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4660     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4661     If ~> HOL.If
  4662     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4663     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4664     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4665     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4666     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4667     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4668     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4669     op : ~> Set.member
  4670     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4671 
  4672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4673 
  4674 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4675 
  4676     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4677     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4678     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4679     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4680     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4681     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4682     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4683     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4684 
  4685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 * More stylized fact names:
  4688 
  4689   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4690   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4691   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4692   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4693 
  4694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4697 
  4698   constants
  4699     null ~> List.null
  4700 
  4701   facts
  4702     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4703     null_empty ~> null_def
  4704 
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4706 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4707 generation.
  4708 
  4709 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4710 Haskell code.
  4711 
  4712 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4713 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4714 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4717 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4718 
  4719 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4720 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4721 
  4722 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4723 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4724 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4727 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4733 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4734 referred to by its qualified name.
  4735 
  4736   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4737   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4738   product ~>  Enum.product
  4739 
  4740 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4741 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4743 
  4744 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4745 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4746 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4750 sort_key.
  4751 
  4752 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4756 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4757 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4758 
  4759   types
  4760     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4761               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4762               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4763         (depends on your needs)
  4764 
  4765   constants
  4766      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4767      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4768      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4769 
  4770 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4771 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4772 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4773 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774 
  4775 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4776 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4777 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4778 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4779 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4785 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4786 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4787 
  4788 
  4789 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4790 
  4791 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4792 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4793 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4794 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4795 compatibility.
  4796 
  4797 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4798 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4799 
  4800 
  4801 *** HOLCF ***
  4802 
  4803 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4804 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4805 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4807 
  4808 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4809 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4810 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4813   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4814   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4815 
  4816 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4817 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4818 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4821 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4822 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4823 domain definition now works:
  4824 
  4825   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4826 
  4827 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4828 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4829 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4830 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4831 
  4832   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4833     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4834 
  4835   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4836 
  4837 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4838 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4839 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4842 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4845 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4846 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4847 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4848 
  4849 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4850 
  4851 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4859 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4860 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4861 
  4862 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4863 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4864 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4865 
  4866 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4867 still supported as an input translation.
  4868 
  4869 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4870 
  4871   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4872   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4873   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4874   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4875   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4876   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4877   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4878 
  4879 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4880 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4881 
  4882   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4883   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4884   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4885   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4886   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4887   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4888 
  4889 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4890 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4891 
  4892 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4893 
  4894   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4895   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4896   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4897   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4898 
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4902 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4905 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4908   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4909   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4910   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4911   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4912   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4913   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4914   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4915   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4916   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4917   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4918   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4919   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4920   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4921   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4922   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4923   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4924   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4925   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4926   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4927 
  4928 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4931   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4932   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4933   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4934   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4935   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4936   box_less             ~> box_below
  4937   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4938   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4939   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4940   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4941   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4942   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4943   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4944   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4945   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4946   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4947   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4948   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4949   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4950   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4951   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4952   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4953   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4954   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4955   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4956   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4957   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4958   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4959   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4960   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4961   up_less              ~> up_below
  4962   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4963   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4964   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4965   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4966   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4967   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4968   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4969   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4970   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4971   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4972   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4973   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4974   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4975 
  4976 
  4977 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4978 
  4979 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4980 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4981 
  4982 
  4983 *** ML ***
  4984 
  4985 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4986 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4987 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4988 
  4989 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4990 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4991 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4992 
  4993 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4994 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4995 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4996 
  4997 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4998 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4999 
  5000 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5001 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5002 
  5003 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5004 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5005 
  5006 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5007 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5008 
  5009 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5010 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5011 almost all situations.
  5012 
  5013 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5014 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5015 Isabelle/ML.
  5016 
  5017 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5018 meaning.
  5019 
  5020 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5021 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5022 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5023 
  5024 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5025 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5026 
  5027 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5028 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5029 
  5030 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5031 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5032 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5033 
  5034 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5035 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5036 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5037 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5038 configuration options.
  5039 
  5040 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5041 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5042 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5043 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5044 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5045 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5046 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5047 
  5048 
  5049 
  5050 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5051 ---------------------------------
  5052 
  5053 *** General ***
  5054 
  5055 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5056 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5057 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5058 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5059 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5060 their full internal name.
  5061 
  5062 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5063 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5064 Some hints on upgrading:
  5065 
  5066   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5067     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5068     which are independent of this issue.
  5069 
  5070   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5071     provides the following special forms:
  5072 
  5073       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5074       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5075       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5076 
  5077     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5078     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5079     extra variables".
  5080 
  5081     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5082     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5083     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5084     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5085     "logic".
  5086 
  5087   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5088     antiquotations:
  5089 
  5090       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5091       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5092       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5093       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5094 
  5095   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5096     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5097     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5098     antiquotations.
  5099 
  5100 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5101 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5102 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5103 diagnose syntax problems.
  5104 
  5105 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5106 
  5107 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5108 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5109 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5110 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5111 
  5112 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5113 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5114 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5115 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5118 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5119 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5120 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5121 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5122 
  5123 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5124 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5125 
  5126 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5127 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5128 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5129 
  5130   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5131 
  5132 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5133 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5134 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5135 
  5136 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5137 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5139 
  5140 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5141 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5142 
  5143 
  5144 *** Pure ***
  5145 
  5146 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5147 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5148 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5149 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5150 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5151 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5152 inspect proof terms.
  5153 
  5154 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5155 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5156 are added internally.  For example:
  5157 
  5158   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5159 
  5160 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5161 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5162 
  5163 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5166 'class' instead.
  5167 
  5168 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5169 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5171 
  5172 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5173 invariants.
  5174 
  5175 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5176 user space functionality any longer.
  5177 
  5178 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5179 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5181 
  5182 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5183 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5184 
  5185 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5186 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5187 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5188 
  5189 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5190 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5191 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5192 
  5193 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5194 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5195 
  5196 
  5197 *** HOL ***
  5198 
  5199 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5200 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5201 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5202 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5203 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5204 
  5205 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5206 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5207 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5208 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5209 
  5210   fun
  5211     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5212   where
  5213     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5214 
  5215   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5216     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5217 
  5218   quotient_definition
  5219     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5220 
  5221 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5222 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5223 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5224 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5225 
  5226 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5227 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5228 
  5229 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5230 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5231 
  5232 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5234 
  5235 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5236 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5237 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5238 
  5239 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5240 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5241 
  5242 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5244 
  5245 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5247 
  5248 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5249 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5250 
  5251 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5252 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5253 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5254 
  5255   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5256   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5257   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5258   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5259   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5260   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5261   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5262   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5263   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5264   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5265   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5266   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5267   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5268   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5269   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5270   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5271   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5272   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5273   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5274   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5275   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5276   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5277   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5278   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5279   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5280   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5281   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5282   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5283   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5284   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5285 
  5286 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5287 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5288 
  5289 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5290 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5291 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5292 
  5293 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5294 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5295 
  5296 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5297 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5300 
  5301 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5302 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5303 
  5304 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5305 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5306 
  5307 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5308 
  5309 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5310 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5311 
  5312 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5313 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5314 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5315 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5318   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5319   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5320   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5322 
  5323 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5324 lattices):
  5325 
  5326     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5327     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5328 
  5329     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5330 
  5331     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5332     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5333     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5334     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5335     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5336     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5337     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5338     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5339     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5340     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5341     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5342     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5343     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5344 
  5345     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5346     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5347     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5348     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5349     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5350     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5351     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5352     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5353     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5354     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5355     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5356     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5357     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5358     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5359     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5360     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5361     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5362     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5363 
  5364   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5365   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5366 
  5367     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5368     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5369     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5370     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5371     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5372 
  5373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5374 
  5375 * Refined field classes:
  5376   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5377     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5378     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5379   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5383   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5384   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5385   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5386     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5387   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5388     equal_neg_zero.
  5389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5392 sets to lattices:
  5393 
  5394   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5395   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5396   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5397   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5398   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5399   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5400   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5401   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5402   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5403   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5404 
  5405 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5406 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5407 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5408 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5409 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5410 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5411 
  5412 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5413 multiset order:
  5414 
  5415   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5416     <= and <;
  5417   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5418     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5419     multiset_order;
  5420   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5421     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5422     generation;
  5423   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5424     if needed.
  5425 
  5426 Renamed:
  5427 
  5428   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5429   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5430   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5431 
  5432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5433 
  5434 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5435 
  5436 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5437 
  5438 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5439 
  5440 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5441 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5442 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5443 
  5444   Constants:
  5445   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5446   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5447   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5448   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5449   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5450   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5451   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5452   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5453   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5454   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5455   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5456   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5457   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5458 
  5459   Lemmas:
  5460   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5461   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5462   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5463   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5464   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5465   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5466   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5467   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5468   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5469   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5470   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5471   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5472   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5473 
  5474 * Sledgehammer:
  5475   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5476     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5477     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5478     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5479     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5480     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5481     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5482   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5483   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5484     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5485   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5486     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5487     is still experimental.)
  5488   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5489     full-typed mode.
  5490   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5491 
  5492 * Nitpick:
  5493   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5494   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5495   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5496     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5497   - Added support for quotient types.
  5498   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5499     constructs.
  5500   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5501     "termination" proofs).
  5502   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5503   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5504   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5505   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5506     record getters.
  5507   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5508   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5509   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5510   - Added "atoms" option.
  5511   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5512     problems.
  5513   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5514     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5515     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5516   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5517     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5518   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5519 
  5520 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5521   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5522   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5523   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5524   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5525   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5526   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5527   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5528   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5529   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5530 
  5531 
  5532 *** HOLCF ***
  5533 
  5534 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5535 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5536 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5539 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5540 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5541 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5542 
  5543 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5544 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5545 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5546 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5547 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548 
  5549 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5550 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5551 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5552 
  5553 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5554 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5555 
  5556   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5557   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5558 
  5559 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5560 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5561 
  5562   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5563   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5564   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5565   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5566   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5567 
  5568 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5569 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5570 
  5571   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5572   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5573   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5574 
  5575 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5576 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5578 
  5579 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5580 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5585 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5586 
  5587 
  5588 *** ML ***
  5589 
  5590 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5591 
  5592     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5593     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5594 
  5595     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5596     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5597     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5598     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5599 
  5600     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5601     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5602     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5603 
  5604 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5605 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5606 
  5607 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5608 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5609 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5610 
  5611 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5612 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5613 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5614 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5615 
  5616 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5617 the context or even global references.
  5618 
  5619 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5620 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5621 
  5622 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5623 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5624 
  5625   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5626   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5627   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5628   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5629   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5630   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5631   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5632   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5633   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5634   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5635 
  5636 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5637 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5638 
  5639 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5640 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5641 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5642 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5643 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5644 
  5645 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5646 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5647 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5648 Theory_Data version.
  5649 
  5650 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5651 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5652 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5653 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5654 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5655 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5656 explicitly in rare situations.
  5657 
  5658 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5659 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5661 
  5662 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5663 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5666 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5667 quite rare).
  5668 
  5669 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5670 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5671 
  5672 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5673 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5674 terms.
  5675 
  5676 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5677 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5678 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5679 
  5680 
  5681 *** System ***
  5682 
  5683 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5684 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5685 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5686 
  5687 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5688 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5689 respectively.
  5690 
  5691 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5692 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5693 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5694 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5695 
  5696   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5697 
  5698 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5699 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5700 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5701 component.
  5702 
  5703 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5704 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5705 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5706 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5707 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5708 the user for manual installation.
  5709 
  5710 
  5711 
  5712 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5713 -------------------------------------
  5714 
  5715 *** General ***
  5716 
  5717 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5718 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5719 
  5720 
  5721 *** Pure ***
  5722 
  5723 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5724 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5725 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5726 
  5727 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5728 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5729 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5730 
  5731 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5732 interpretation.
  5733 
  5734 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5735 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5736 
  5737 
  5738 *** Document preparation ***
  5739 
  5740 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5741 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5742 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5743 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5744 
  5745 
  5746 *** HOL ***
  5747 
  5748 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5749 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5750 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5751 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5752 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5753 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5754 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5755 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5756 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5757 
  5758 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5759 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5760 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5761 
  5762 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5763 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5764 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5765 
  5766 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5767 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5768 
  5769 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5770 
  5771 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5772 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5773 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5774 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5775 
  5776 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5777 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5778 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5779 "mirabelle" utility.
  5780 
  5781 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5782 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5783 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5784 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5785 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5786 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5787 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5788 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5789 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5790 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5791 
  5792 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5793 procedure only.
  5794 
  5795 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5796 
  5797 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5798 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5799 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5800 that fail later.
  5801 
  5802 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5803 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5804 
  5805 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5806 the same method as the approximation method.
  5807 
  5808 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5809 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5810 series expansion.
  5811 
  5812 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5813 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5814 
  5815 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5816 reals.
  5817 
  5818 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5819 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5820 
  5821 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5822 fixpoint theorem.
  5823 
  5824 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5825   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5826     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5827   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5828     accordingly
  5829   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5830     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5831   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5832     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5833 
  5834 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5835 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5836 lattice.
  5837 
  5838 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5839 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5840 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5841 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5842 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5843 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5845 
  5846 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5847   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5848     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5849   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5850     le_inf_iff
  5851   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5852     sup_aci)
  5853   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5854   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5855   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5856     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5857     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5858     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5859     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5860     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5861     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5862     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5863     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5864     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5865     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5866   - authentic syntax for
  5867     Set.Pow
  5868     Set.image
  5869   - mere abbreviations:
  5870     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5871     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5872     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5873     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5874     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5875     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5876     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5877     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5878   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5879 
  5880 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5881 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5882 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5883 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5884 
  5885 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5886 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5887 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5888 
  5889 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5890 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5891 
  5892 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5893 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5894 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5895 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5896 
  5897 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5898 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5899 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5900 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5901 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5902 
  5903 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5904 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5906 
  5907 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5908 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5909 
  5910 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5911 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5912 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5913 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5914 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5915 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5916 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5918 
  5919 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5920     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5921     code_post       replaces    code post
  5922     etc.
  5923   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5924 
  5925 * Renamed methods:
  5926     sizechange -> size_change
  5927     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5928   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5929 
  5930 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5931 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5932 
  5933 * Renamed theorems:
  5934     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5935     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5936     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5937     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5938     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5939   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5943 
  5944 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5946 
  5947 
  5948 *** HOLCF ***
  5949 
  5950 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5951 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5952 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5953 
  5954 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5955 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5956 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5957 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5958 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5959 
  5960 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5961 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5962 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5963 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5964 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5965 
  5966 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5967 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5968 constructor are pre-configured.
  5969 
  5970 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5971 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5972 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5973 
  5974 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5975 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5976 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5977 as well.)
  5978 
  5979 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5980 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5981 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5982 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5983 examples.
  5984 
  5985 
  5986 *** ML ***
  5987 
  5988 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5989 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5990 
  5991 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5992 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5993 position, logical grouping etc.
  5994 
  5995 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5996 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5997 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5998 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5999 
  6000 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  6001 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  6002 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  6003 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  6004 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  6005 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  6006 
  6007 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  6008 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  6009 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  6010 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  6011 experiments with references.
  6012 
  6013 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  6014 parallel tactical reasoning.
  6015 
  6016 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  6017 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  6018 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  6019 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  6020 
  6021 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  6022 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  6023 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  6024 
  6025 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  6026 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  6027 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6028 
  6029 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6030 
  6031 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  6032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6033 
  6034 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6035 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6036 
  6037 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6038 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6039 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6040 
  6041 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6042 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6043 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6044 
  6045 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6046 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6047 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6049 
  6050 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6051 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6052 instead of global theory.
  6053 
  6054 
  6055 *** System ***
  6056 
  6057 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6058 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6059 usedir option -q.
  6060 
  6061 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6062 also the system manual.
  6063 
  6064 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6065 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6066 
  6067 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6068 this is always enabled.
  6069 
  6070 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6071 
  6072 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6073 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6074 currently supported on Linux only.
  6075 
  6076 
  6077 
  6078 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6079 --------------------------------
  6080 
  6081 *** General ***
  6082 
  6083 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6084 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6085 
  6086   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6087     "isatool."
  6088 
  6089   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6090     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6091 
  6092   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6093     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6094 
  6095 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6096 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6097 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6098 
  6099 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6100 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6101 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6102 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6103 via "isabelle emacs".
  6104 
  6105 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6106 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6107 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6108 
  6109 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6110 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6111 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6112 
  6113 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6114 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6115 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6116 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6117 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6118 
  6119 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6120 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6121 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6122 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6123 
  6124 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6125 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6126 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6127 
  6128 
  6129 *** Pure ***
  6130 
  6131 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6132 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6133 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6134 
  6135 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6136 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6137 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6138 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6139 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6140 
  6141 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6142 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6143 useful in locale declarations.
  6144 
  6145 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6146 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6147 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6148 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6149 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6150 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6151 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6152 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6153 no longer generated.
  6154 
  6155 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6156 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6157 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6158 
  6159 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6160 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6161 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6162 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6163 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6164 
  6165 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6166 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6167 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6168 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6169 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6170 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6171 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6172 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6173 
  6174 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6175 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6176 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6177 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6178 
  6179 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6180 
  6181 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6182 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6183 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6184 
  6185 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6186 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6187 
  6188 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6189 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6190 in HOL, write
  6191 
  6192     class foo = ...
  6193 
  6194 instead of
  6195 
  6196     class foo = type + ...
  6197 
  6198 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6199 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6200 
  6201 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6202 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6203 
  6204 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6205 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6206 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6207 
  6208 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6209 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6210 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6211 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6212 directly in regular applications.
  6213 
  6214 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6215 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6216 
  6217 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6218 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6219 
  6220 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6221 theory context.
  6222 
  6223 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6224 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6225 
  6226 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6227 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6228 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6229 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6230 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6231 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6232 
  6233   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6234 
  6235 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6236 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6237 normalization.
  6238 
  6239 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  6240 addressing etc.
  6241 
  6242 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  6243 
  6244   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  6245   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  6246 
  6247 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6248 
  6249   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  6250      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  6251      parts of the code generator framework).
  6252 
  6253   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  6254      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  6255      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  6256 
  6257 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6258 
  6259 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  6260 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6261 
  6262 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  6263 patterns, e.g.
  6264 
  6265     find_consts "_ => bool"
  6266 
  6267 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  6268 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  6269 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a