NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Feb 28 17:14:55 2013 +0100 (2013-02-28)
changeset 51315 536a5603a138
parent 51313 102a0a0718c5
child 51316 dfe469293eb4
permissions -rw-r--r--
provide common HOLogic.conj_conv and HOLogic.eq_conv;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    14 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 
    17 *** Pure ***
    18 
    19 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
    20 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
    21 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
    22 
    23 
    24 *** HOL ***
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
    27 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
    28 
    29 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
    30 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
    31 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
    32 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
    33 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
    34 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    35 
    36 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
    37 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
    38 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
    39 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    40 
    41 * Theory "RealVector" and "Limits": Introduce type class
    42 (lin)order_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about limits and
    43 order. Instances are reals and extended reals.
    44 
    45 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
    46 
    47     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
    48     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
    49 
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    51 
    52 * Sledgehammer:
    53 
    54   - Renamed option:
    55       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
    56 
    57 
    58 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
    59 -----------------------------------
    60 
    61 *** General ***
    62 
    63 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    64 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    65 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    66 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    67 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    68 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    69 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    70 
    71 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    72 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    73 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    74 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    75 
    76 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    77 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    78 
    79 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    80 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    81 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    82 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    83 dependencies properly.
    84 
    85 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    86 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    87 
    88 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    89 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    90 
    91 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
    92 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    93 and "class ... context ...".
    94 
    95 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    96 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    97 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    98 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    99 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   100 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   101 
   102 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   103 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   104 
   105 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   106 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   107 
   108 
   109 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   110 
   111 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   112 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   113 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   114 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   115 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   116 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   117 
   118 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   119 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   120 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   121 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   122 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   123 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   124 
   125 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   126 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   127 browser on demand.
   128 
   129 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   130 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   131 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   132 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   133 
   134 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   135 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   136 
   137 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   138 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   139 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   140 potentially infinite message streams.
   141 
   142 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   143 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   144 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   145 schemes.
   146 
   147 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   148 symbols.
   149 
   150 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   151 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   152 
   153 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   154 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   155 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   156 
   157 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   158 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   159 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   160 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   161 
   162 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   163 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   164 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   165 
   166 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   167 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   168 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   169 Isabelle distribution.
   170 
   171 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   172 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   173 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   174 
   175 
   176 *** Pure ***
   177 
   178 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   179 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   180 
   181 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   182 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   183 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   186 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   187 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   188 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   189 with some care where this is really required.
   190 
   191 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   192 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   193 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   194 
   195   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   196 
   197 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   198 a Hasse diagram.
   199 
   200 
   201 *** HOL ***
   202 
   203 * Sledgehammer:
   204 
   205   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   206     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   207   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   208   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   209   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   210   - Renamed options:
   211       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   212       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   213       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   214       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   215 
   216 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   217 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   218 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   219 
   220 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223 * Lifting:
   224   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   225   - quot_del attribute
   226   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   227 
   228 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   229 expressions.
   230 
   231 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   232 pointfree expressions.
   233 
   234 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   235 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   236 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   237 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   241 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   242 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   243 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   244 accordingly.
   245 
   246 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   247 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   250 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253 
   254 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   255 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   256 
   257 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   258 
   259 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   260 
   261   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   262   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   263 
   264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   265 
   266 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   267 
   268   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   269   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   270 
   271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   274 
   275   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   276     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   277     output f x converges to G.
   278 
   279   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   280     infinity (at_bot).
   281 
   282   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   283     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   284 
   285   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   286     at_top".
   287 
   288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   289 
   290 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   291 lattice type classes.
   292 
   293 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   294 
   295     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   296     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   297 
   298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   301 changes as follows.
   302 
   303   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   304 
   305       prefix ~> prefixeq
   306       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   307 
   308   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   309     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   310     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   311     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   312 
   313   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   314     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   315     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   316 
   317   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   318     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   319     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   320     Library/Prefix_Order.
   321 
   322   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   323     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   324 
   325       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   326       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   327       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   328       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   329       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   330       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   331       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   332       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   333       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   334       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   335       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   336       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   337       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   338       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   339       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   340       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   341 
   342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   343 
   344 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   345 
   346 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   347 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   348 
   349 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   350 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   351 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   352 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   353 
   354   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   355   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   356   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   357   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   358   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   359   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   360   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   361   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   362   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   363   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   364 
   365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366 
   367 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   368 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   369 Data").
   370 
   371 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   372 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   373 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   374 code.
   375 
   376 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   377 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   378 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   382 
   383 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   384 
   385 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   386 
   387   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   388   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   389 
   390 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   391 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   392 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   393 
   394   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   395 
   396     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   397     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   398     cart_base i  removed
   399     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   400 
   401   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   402 
   403   Renamed lemmas:
   404 
   405     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   406     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   407     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   408     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   409     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   410     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   411     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   412     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   413     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   414     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   415 
   416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   417 
   418 * HOL/Probability:
   419 
   420   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   421 
   422   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   423     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   424     (borel_measurable_induct).
   425 
   426   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   427     projective family).
   428 
   429 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   430 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   431 
   432 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   433 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   434 datatypes.
   435 
   436 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   437 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   438 
   439 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   440 trees for the code generator.
   441 
   442 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   443 Lifting/Transfer.
   444 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 
   450 *** Document preparation ***
   451 
   452 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   453 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   454 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   455 
   456 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   457 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   458 
   459 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   460 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   461 document/root.tex.
   462 
   463 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   464 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   465 
   466 
   467 *** ML ***
   468 
   469 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   470 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   471 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   472 
   473 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   474 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   475 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   476 
   477 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   478 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   479 necessarily printing visible text.
   480 
   481 
   482 *** System ***
   483 
   484 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   485 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   486 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   487 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   488 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   489 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   490 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   491 
   492 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   493 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   494 
   495   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   496 
   497 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   498 
   499 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   500 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   501 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   502 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   503 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   504 
   505 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   506 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   507 
   508 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   509 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   510 
   511 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   515 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   516 version of Isabelle.
   517 
   518 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   519 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   520 
   521 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   522 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   523 for home-made settings.
   524 
   525 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   526 
   527 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   528 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   529 configuration.
   530 
   531 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   532 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   533 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   534 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   535 bundled as Isabelle component.
   536 
   537 
   538 
   539 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   540 ------------------------------
   541 
   542 *** General ***
   543 
   544 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   545 
   546   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   547     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   548   - markup for bound variables
   549   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   550   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   551   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   552     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   553 
   554 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   555 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   556 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   557 
   558 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   559 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   560 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   561 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   562 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   563 
   564   context
   565     fixes x y z :: 'a
   566     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   567   begin
   568 
   569   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   570 
   571   end
   572 
   573   thm my_trans
   574 
   575 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   576 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   577 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   578 
   579 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   580 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   581 
   582 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   583 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   584 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   585 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   586 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   587 
   588 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   589 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   590 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   591 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   592 indices of schematic variables.
   593 
   594 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   595 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   596 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   597 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   598 etc. was exploited.
   599 
   600 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   601 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   602 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   603 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   604 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   605 of the material of that old tutorial.
   606 
   607 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   608 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   609 manual.
   610 
   611 
   612 *** Pure ***
   613 
   614 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   615 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   616 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   617 
   618 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   619 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   620 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   621 undocumented feature.)
   622 
   623 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   624 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   625 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   626 
   627   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   628 
   629   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   630     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   631 
   632 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   633 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   634 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   635 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   636 
   637 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   638 
   639     num ~> num_token
   640     xnum ~> xnum_token
   641     xstr ~> str_token
   642 
   643 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   644 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   645 position information via constraints).
   646 
   647 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   648 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   649 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   652 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   653 
   654 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   655 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   656 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   657 
   658 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   659 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   660 
   661 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   662 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   663 
   664   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   665 
   666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   667 
   668 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   669 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   670 
   671 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   672 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   673 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   674 
   675 
   676 *** HOL ***
   677 
   678 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   679 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   680 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   681 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   682 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   683 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   684 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   685 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   686 possible.
   687 
   688 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   689 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   690 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   691 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   692 
   693 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   694 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   695 
   696 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   697 
   698 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   699 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   700 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   701 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   702 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   703 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   704 
   705   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   706     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   707 
   708   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   709     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   710     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   711 
   712   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   713     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   714 
   715   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   716     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   717     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   718 
   719   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   720     Redefine using other integer operations.
   721 
   722 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   723 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   724 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   725 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   726 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   727 
   728   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   729     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   730     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   731     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   732     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   733 
   734     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   735     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   736 
   737   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   738     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   739     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   740     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   741     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   742     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   743     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   744     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   745 
   746   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   747     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   748     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   749     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   750 
   751   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   752     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   753     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   754     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   755 
   756   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   757     from type nat to type int.
   758 
   759 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   760 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   761 
   762   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   763     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   764     type.  Example syntax:
   765 
   766     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   767       is List.insert
   768 
   769     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   770     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   771     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   772     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   773     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   774     by the package.
   775 
   776   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   777     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   778     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   779     code generation for each constant.
   780 
   781   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   782     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   783     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   784     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   785     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   786 
   787   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   788     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   789     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   790 
   791 * Quotient package:
   792 
   793   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   794     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   795 
   796   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   797     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   798 
   799   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   800     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   801     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   802 
   803   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   804     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   805 
   806 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   807 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   808 
   809 * Quickcheck:
   810 
   811   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   812     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   813     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   814     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   815     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   816 
   817     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   818     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   819     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   820 
   821     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   822     continues searching for genuine ones.
   823 
   824     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   825     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   826     show genuine counterexamples.
   827 
   828   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   829     value generators for a given type and operations.
   830 
   831     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   832     constructors of that type.
   833 
   834   - Support for multisets.
   835 
   836   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   837 
   838   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   839     conjectures in a locale context.
   840 
   841 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   842 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   843 
   844 * Sledgehammer:
   845   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   846     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   847   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   848   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   849     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   850   - Sped up the minimizer.
   851   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   852   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   853   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   854 
   855 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   856 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   857 
   858 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   859 
   860 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   861 
   862 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   863 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   864 
   865   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   866 
   867 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   868 a list and a nat.
   869 
   870 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   871 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   872 
   873 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   874 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   875 default.
   876 
   877 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   878 
   879   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   880 
   881 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   882 
   883 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   884 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   885 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   886 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   887 one_case.
   888 
   889 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   890 the result of the fact expression.
   891 
   892 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   893 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   894 of some relation theorems:
   895 
   896   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   897   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   898   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   899   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   900   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   901   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   902 
   903 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   904 
   905 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   906 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   907 
   908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   909 
   910 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   911 to match the constant's name:
   912 
   913   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   914   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   915   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   916   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   917   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   918   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   919   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   920   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   921   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   922   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   923   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   924   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   925   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   926   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   927   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   928   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   929   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   930   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   931   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   932   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   933   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   934   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   935   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   936   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   937 
   938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   939 
   940 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   941 and corresponding theorem names:
   942 
   943   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   944 
   945   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   946 
   947   - Renamed theorems:
   948 
   949     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   950     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   951     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   952     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   953     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   954     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   955     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   956     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   957     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   958     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   959     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   960     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   961     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   962     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   963     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   964     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   965     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   966     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   967     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   968     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   969     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   970     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   971     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   972 
   973     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   974 
   975     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   976 
   977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   980 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   981 
   982   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   983   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   984   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   985   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   986   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   987   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   988   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   989   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   990   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   991   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   992   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   993   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   994   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   995   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   996   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   997   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   998   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   999   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1000   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1001   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1002   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1003 
  1004 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1005 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1006 
  1007 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1008 
  1009 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1010 
  1011   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1012   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1013   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1014   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1015   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1016   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1017   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1018   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1019   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1020   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1021   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1022   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1023   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1024   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1025   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1026   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1027   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1028   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1029 
  1030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1033 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1034 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1035 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1036 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1037 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1038 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1039 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1040 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1041 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1042 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1043 
  1044 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1045 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1046 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1047 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1048 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1049 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1050 
  1051 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1052 through option types.
  1053 
  1054 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1055 relations.
  1056 
  1057 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1058 
  1059 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1060 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1061 
  1062   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1063   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1064   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1065   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1066   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1067   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1068   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1069   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1070   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1071   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1072   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1073   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1074   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1075   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1076   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1077   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1078   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1079   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1080   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1081   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1082   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1083   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1084   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1085   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1086   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1087   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1088   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1089   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1090   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1091   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1092   zless_le ~> less_le
  1093   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1094   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1095   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1096 
  1097 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1098 
  1099   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1100 
  1101 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1102 
  1103 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1104 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1105 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1106 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1110 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1111 
  1112 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1113 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1114 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1115 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1116 follows:
  1117 
  1118   Operations:
  1119   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1120   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1121   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1122   del -> rbt_del
  1123   delete -> rbt_delete
  1124   ins -> rbt_ins
  1125   insert -> rbt_insert
  1126   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1127   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1128   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1129   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1130   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1131   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1132   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1133   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1134   union -> rbt_union
  1135   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1136   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1137 
  1138   Lemmas:
  1139   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1140   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1141   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1142   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1143   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1144   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1145   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1146   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1147   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1148   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1149   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1150   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1151   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1152   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1153   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1154   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1155   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1156   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1157   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1158   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1159   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1160   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1161   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1162   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1163   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1164   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1165   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1166   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1167   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1168   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1169   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1170   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1171   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1172   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1173   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1174   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1175   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1176   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1177   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1178   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1179   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1180   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1181   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1182   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1183   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1184   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1185   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1186   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1187   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1188   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1189   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1190   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1191   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1192   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1193   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1194   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1195   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1196   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1197   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1198   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1199   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1200   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1201   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1202   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1203   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1204   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1205   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1206   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1207   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1208   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1209   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1210   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1211   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1212   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1213   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1214   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1215   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1216   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1217   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1218   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1219   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1220   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1221   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1222 
  1223 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1224 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1225 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227   Changed Operations:
  1228   float_abs -> abs
  1229   float_nprt -> nprt
  1230   float_pprt -> pprt
  1231   pow2 -> use powr
  1232   round_down -> float_round_down
  1233   round_up -> float_round_up
  1234   scale -> exponent
  1235 
  1236   Removed Operations:
  1237   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1238 
  1239   Renamed Lemmas:
  1240   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1241   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1242   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1243   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1244   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1245   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1246   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1247   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1248   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1249   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1250   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1251   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1252   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1253   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1254   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1255   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1256   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1257   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1258   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1259   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1260   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1261   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1262   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1263   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1264   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1265   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1266   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1267   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1268   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1269   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1270   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1271   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1272   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1273   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1274   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1275   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1276 
  1277   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1278   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1279   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1280   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1281   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1282   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1283   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1284   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1285   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1286   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1287 
  1288 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1289 association lists with distinct keys.
  1290 
  1291 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1292 annotated commands.
  1293 
  1294 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1295 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1296 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1297 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1298 
  1299 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1300 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1301 instead.
  1302 
  1303   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1304   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1305   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1306   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1307   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1308   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1309   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1310   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1311   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1312   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1313   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1314   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1315   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1316   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1317   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1318   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1319   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1320   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1321   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1322   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1323   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1324   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1325   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1326   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1327   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1328   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1329   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1330   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1331   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1332   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1333   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1334   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1335   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1336   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1337   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1338   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1339   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1340   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1341   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1342   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1343   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1344 
  1345 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1346 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1347 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1348 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1349 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1350 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1351 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1352 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1353 
  1354 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1355 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1356 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1357 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1358 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1359 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1360 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1361 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1362 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1363 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1364 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1365 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367   Renamed constants:
  1368   measure -> emeasure
  1369   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1370   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1371   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1372   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1373 
  1374   Removed locales:
  1375   completeable_measure_space
  1376   finite_measure_space
  1377   finite_prob_space
  1378   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1379   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1380   finite_sigma_algebra
  1381   measure_space
  1382   pair_finite_prob_space
  1383   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1384   pair_finite_space
  1385   pair_sigma_algebra
  1386   product_sigma_algebra
  1387 
  1388   Removed constants:
  1389   conditional_space
  1390   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1391   image_space
  1392   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1393   pair_measure_generator
  1394   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1395   subvimage
  1396 
  1397   Replacement theorems:
  1398   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1399   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1400   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1401   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1402   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1403   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1404   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1405   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1406   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1407   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1408   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1409   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1410   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1411   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1412   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1413   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1414   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1415   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1416   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1417   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1418   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1419   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1420   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1421   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1422   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1423   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1424   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1425   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1426   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1427   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1428   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1429   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1430   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1431   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1432   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1433   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1434   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1435   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1436   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1437   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1438   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1439   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1440   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1441   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1442   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1443   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1444   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1445   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1446   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1447   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1448   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1449   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1450   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1451   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1452   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1453   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1454   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1455   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1456   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1457   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1458   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1459   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1460   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1461   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1462   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1463   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1464   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1465   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1466   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1467   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1468   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1469   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1470   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1471   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1472   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1473   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1474   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1475   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1476   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1477   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1478   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1479   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1480   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1481   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1482   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1483   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1484   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1485   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1486   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1487   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1488   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1489   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1490   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1491   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1492   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1493   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1494   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1495   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1496   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1497   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1498   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1499   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1500   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1501   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1502   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1503   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1504   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1505   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1506   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1507   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1508   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1509   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1510   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1511   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1512   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1513   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1514   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1515   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1516   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1517   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1518   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1519   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1520   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1521   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1522   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1523   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1524   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1525   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1526 
  1527 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1528 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1529 
  1530 
  1531 *** FOL ***
  1532 
  1533 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1534 
  1535 
  1536 *** ZF ***
  1537 
  1538 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1539 analysis.
  1540 
  1541 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1542 
  1543 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545 
  1546 *** ML ***
  1547 
  1548 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1549 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1550 
  1551 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1552 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1553 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1554 
  1555 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1556 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1557 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1558 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1559 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1560 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1561 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1562 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1563 
  1564 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1565 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1566 
  1567 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1568 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1569 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1570 
  1571 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1572 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1575 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1576 context as well.
  1577 
  1578 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1579 
  1580   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1581   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1582   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1583   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1584   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1585   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1586   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1587   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1588   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1589   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1590   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1591   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1592 
  1593 
  1594 *** System ***
  1595 
  1596 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1597 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1598 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1599 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1600 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1601 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1602 the generic user home was intended.
  1603 
  1604 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1605 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1606 
  1607 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1608 (not just JRE).
  1609 
  1610 
  1611 
  1612 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1613 ------------------------------------
  1614 
  1615 *** General ***
  1616 
  1617 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1618 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1619 
  1620   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1621     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1622     files for checking).
  1623 
  1624   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1625     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1626     positions.
  1627 
  1628   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1629     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1630     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1631 
  1632   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1633     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1634     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1635 
  1636   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1637     cores.
  1638 
  1639   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1640     versions (garbage collection).
  1641 
  1642 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1643 including some remaining limitations.
  1644 
  1645 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1646 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1647 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1648 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1649 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1653 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1654 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1655 
  1656 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1657 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1658 usedir option -Q.
  1659 
  1660 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1661 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1662 
  1663   long_names   ~> names_long
  1664   short_names  ~> names_short
  1665   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1666 
  1667 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1668 
  1669   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1670 
  1671 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1672 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1673 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1674 
  1675 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1676 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1677 
  1678 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1679   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1680   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1681   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1682     "Classical Reasoner".
  1683 
  1684 
  1685 *** HOL ***
  1686 
  1687 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1688 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1691 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1692 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1693 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1694 class complete_linorder.
  1695 
  1696 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1697 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1698 
  1699 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1700 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1701 
  1702   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1703   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1704   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1705   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1706   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1707   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1708   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1709   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1710   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1711   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1712   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1713 
  1714 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1715 
  1716   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1717   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1718   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1719   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1720   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1721   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1722   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1723   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1724   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1725   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1726   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1727   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1728   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1729   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1730   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1731   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1732 
  1733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1734 
  1735 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1737 
  1738 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1739 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1740 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1741 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742 
  1743 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1744 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1745 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1749 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1750 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1751 
  1752 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1753 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1754 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755 
  1756 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1757 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1758 
  1759 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1760 
  1761     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1762     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1763 
  1764 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1765 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1766 
  1767 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1768 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1769 
  1770 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1771 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1772 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1773 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1776   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1777   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1778   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1779   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1780   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1781   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1782 
  1783 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1784 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1787   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1788   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1789   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1790   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1791   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1792   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1793   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1794   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1795   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1796   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1797   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1798   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1799   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1800   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1801   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1802   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1803   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1804   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1805   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1806   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1807   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1808   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1809   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1810   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1811   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1812   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1813   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1814   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1815   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1816   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1817   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1818   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1819   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1820   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1821   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1822   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1823   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1824   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1825   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1826   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1827   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1828   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1829   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1830   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1831   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1832   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1833   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1834   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1835   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1836   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1837   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1838   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1839   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1840   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1841   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1842   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1843   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1844   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1845   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1846   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1847   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1848   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1849   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1850   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1851   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1852   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1853   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1854   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1855   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1856   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1857   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1858   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1859   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1860   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1861   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1862   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1863   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1864   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1865   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1866   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1867   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1868 
  1869 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1870 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1871 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1872 
  1873 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1874 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1875 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1876 
  1877 * Code generation:
  1878 
  1879   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1880     characters in the target language.
  1881 
  1882   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1883     instead.
  1884 
  1885   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1886 
  1887   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1888     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1889 
  1890       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1891 
  1892 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1895 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1896 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1897 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1898 syntax.
  1899 
  1900 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1901 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1902 
  1903 * Nitpick:
  1904   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1905   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1906   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1907     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1908 
  1909 * Sledgehammer:
  1910   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1911   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1912     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1913   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1914     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1915   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1916     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1918     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1919   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1920     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1921 
  1922 * Metis:
  1923   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1924   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1925     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927 * Command 'try':
  1928   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1929     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1930   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1931     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1932 
  1933 * Quickcheck:
  1934   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1935     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1936   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1937     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1938   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1939     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1940     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1941     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1942   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1943     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1944 
  1945 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1946 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1947 
  1948 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1949 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1950 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1951 
  1952 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1953 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1955 
  1956 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1957 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1958 
  1959 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1960 arithmetic.
  1961 
  1962 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1963 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1964 and lattice type classes.
  1965 
  1966 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1967 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1968 
  1969 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1970 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1971 
  1972 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1973 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1974 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975 
  1976   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1977   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1978   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1979   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1980 
  1981 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1982 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1983 constants:
  1984 
  1985   type inat   ~> type enat
  1986   Fin         ~> enat
  1987   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1988   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1989   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1990 
  1991 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1992 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1995 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1996 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1997 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1998 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1999 
  2000 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2001 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2002 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2003 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2004 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2005 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2006 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2007 
  2008   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2009   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2010   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2011   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2012 
  2013 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2014 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2015 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2016 
  2017   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2018   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2019   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2020   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2021   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2022   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2023   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2024   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2025   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2026   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2027   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2028   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2029   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2030   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2031   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2032   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2033   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2034   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2035   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2036   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2037   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2038   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2039   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2040   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2041   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2042   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2043   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2044   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2045   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2046   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2047   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2048   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2049   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2050   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2051   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2052   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2053   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2054   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2055   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2056   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2057   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2058   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2059   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2060   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2061   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2062   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2063   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2064   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2065   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2066   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2067   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2068 
  2069 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2070   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2071   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2072   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2073   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2074     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2079   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2080   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2081   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2082   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2083   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2084   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2085   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2086   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2087   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2088   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2089   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2090   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2091   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2092   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2093   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2094   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2095   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2096   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2097   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2098   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2099   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2100   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2101   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2102   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2103 
  2104 
  2105 *** Document preparation ***
  2106 
  2107 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2108 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2109 same.
  2110 
  2111 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2112 result.
  2113 
  2114 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2115 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2116 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2117 
  2118 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2119 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2120 
  2121 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2122 like this:
  2123 
  2124   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2125   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2126 
  2127 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2128 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2129 layouts.
  2130 
  2131 
  2132 *** ML ***
  2133 
  2134 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2135 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2136 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2137 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2138 under external program control.
  2139 
  2140 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2141 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2142 
  2143 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2144 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2145 (better known as Proof General).
  2146 
  2147 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2148 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2149 
  2150 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2151 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2152 
  2153 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2154 (including quotes etc.).
  2155 
  2156 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2157 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2158 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2159 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2160 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2161 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2162 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2163 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2164 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2165 
  2166 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2167 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2168 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2169 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2170 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2171 
  2172 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2173 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2174 
  2175 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2176 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2177 
  2178 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2179 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2180 
  2181 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2182 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2183 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2184 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2185 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2186 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2187 proper Proof.context.
  2188 
  2189 
  2190 *** System ***
  2191 
  2192 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2193 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2194 
  2195 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2196 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2197 
  2198 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2199 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2200 
  2201   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2202   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2203   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2204   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2205   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2206 
  2207 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2208 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2209 
  2210 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2211 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2212 example:
  2213 
  2214   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2215 
  2216 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2217 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2218 
  2219 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2220 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2221 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2222 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2223 
  2224 
  2225 
  2226 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2227 ----------------------------------
  2228 
  2229 *** General ***
  2230 
  2231 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2232 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2233 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2234 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2235 like this:
  2236 
  2237   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2238 
  2239 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2240 
  2241 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2242 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2243 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2244 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2245 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2246 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2247 
  2248 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2249 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2250 the following package declarations:
  2251 
  2252   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2253   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2254 
  2255 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2256 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2257 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2258 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2259 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2260 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2261 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2262 
  2263 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2264 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2265 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2266 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2267 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2268 
  2269 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2270 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2271 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2272 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2273 
  2274 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2275 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2276 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2277 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2278 
  2279   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2280 
  2281   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2282   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2283   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2284   show_types                    show_types
  2285   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2286   show_consts                   show_consts
  2287   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2288 
  2289   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2290   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2291   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2292 
  2293   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2294   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2295 
  2296   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2297 
  2298   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2299   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2300   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2301   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2302   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2303 
  2304 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2305 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2306 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2307 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2308 
  2309 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2313   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2314 
  2315 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2316 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2317 float_token.
  2318 
  2319 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2320 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2322 
  2323 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2324 DejaVu Sans.
  2325 
  2326 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2327 
  2328 
  2329 *** Pure ***
  2330 
  2331 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2332 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2333 time.
  2334 
  2335 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2336 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2339 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2340 
  2341 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2342 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2343 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2344 command already provided this functionality.
  2345 
  2346 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2347 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2348 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2349 without interpretations.
  2350 
  2351 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2352 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2353 
  2354 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2355 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2356 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2357 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2358 
  2359 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2360 'definition' instead.
  2361 
  2362 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2363 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2364 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2365 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2366 
  2367 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2368 constructors.
  2369 
  2370 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2371 the local file system.
  2372 
  2373 
  2374 *** HOL ***
  2375 
  2376 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2377 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2378 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2379 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2380 
  2381   declare [[coercion f]]
  2382 
  2383 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2384 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2385 
  2386   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2387 
  2388 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2389 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2390 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2391 other theories like this:
  2392 
  2393   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2394 
  2395 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2396 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2397 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2398 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2399 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2400 for examples.
  2401 
  2402 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2403 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2406 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2407 
  2408 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2409 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2410 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2411 
  2412 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2413 functorial structure of types.
  2414 
  2415 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2416 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2417 
  2418 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2419 languages.
  2420 
  2421 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2422 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2426 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2429 combinators any longer.
  2430 
  2431 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2432 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2433 
  2434 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2435 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2436 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2437 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2438 
  2439   record 'a foo = ...
  2440   ...
  2441   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2442 
  2443 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2444 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2446 
  2447 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2448 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2449 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2450 
  2451 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2452 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2453 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2454 
  2455 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2456 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2459 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2460 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2461 independently.
  2462 
  2463 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2464 counter example search.
  2465 
  2466 * Sledgehammer:
  2467   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2468     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2469     sledgehammer").
  2470   - Renamed commands:
  2471     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2472     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2473     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2474     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475   - Renamed options:
  2476     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2477     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2478     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2479     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2480     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2481 
  2482 * Nitpick:
  2483   - Renamed options:
  2484     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2485     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2486     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2488   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2489   - Added "whack" option.
  2490   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2491   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2492   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2493   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2494     higher cardinalities.
  2495   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2496 
  2497 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2498 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2499 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2500 
  2501     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2502 
  2503 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2504 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2505 
  2506 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2507 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2508 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2509 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2510 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2511 "smt_solver".
  2512 
  2513 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2514 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2515 
  2516 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2517 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2518 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2519 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2522   - Renamed:
  2523     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2524     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2525     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2526   - Added:
  2527     smt_verbose
  2528     smt_random_seed
  2529     smt_datatypes
  2530     smt_infer_triggers
  2531     smt_monomorph_limit
  2532     cvc3_options
  2533     remote_cvc3_options
  2534     remote_z3_options
  2535     yices_options
  2536 
  2537 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2538 header.
  2539 
  2540 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2541 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2542 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2543 
  2544   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2545 
  2546 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547 
  2548 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2549 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552 
  2553 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2554 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2557 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2558 
  2559 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2560 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2561 
  2562 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2563 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2564 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2567 
  2568 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2572 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2575 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2576 for congruent(2)).
  2577 
  2578 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2579 
  2580   types
  2581     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2582     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2583 
  2584   constants
  2585     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2586     True ~> HOL.True
  2587     False ~> HOL.False
  2588     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2589     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2590     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2591     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2592     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2593     The ~> HOL.The
  2594     All ~> HOL.All
  2595     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2596     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2597     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2598     If ~> HOL.If
  2599     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2600     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2601     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2602     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2603     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2604     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2605     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2606     op : ~> Set.member
  2607     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2608 
  2609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2612 
  2613     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2614     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2615     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2616     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2617     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2618     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2619     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2620     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2621 
  2622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * More stylized fact names:
  2625 
  2626   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2627   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2628   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2629   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2630 
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2634 
  2635   constants
  2636     null ~> List.null
  2637 
  2638   facts
  2639     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2640     null_empty ~> null_def
  2641 
  2642 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2643 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2644 generation.
  2645 
  2646 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2647 Haskell code.
  2648 
  2649 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2650 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2651 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2652 
  2653 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2654 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2657 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2658 
  2659 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2660 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2661 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2662 
  2663 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2664 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2670 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2671 referred to by its qualified name.
  2672 
  2673   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2674   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2675   product ~>  Enum.product
  2676 
  2677 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2678 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2682 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2683 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2685 
  2686 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2687 sort_key.
  2688 
  2689 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2693 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2694 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2695 
  2696   types
  2697     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2698               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2699               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2700         (depends on your needs)
  2701 
  2702   constants
  2703      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2704      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2705      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2706 
  2707 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2708 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2709 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2710 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2713 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2714 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2715 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2716 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2720 
  2721 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2722 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2723 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2724 
  2725 
  2726 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2727 
  2728 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2729 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2730 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2731 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2732 compatibility.
  2733 
  2734 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2735 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2736 
  2737 
  2738 *** HOLCF ***
  2739 
  2740 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2741 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2742 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2746 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2747 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2750   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2751   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2752 
  2753 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2754 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2755 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2758 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2759 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2760 domain definition now works:
  2761 
  2762   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2763 
  2764 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2765 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2766 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2767 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2768 
  2769   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2770     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2771 
  2772   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2773 
  2774 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2775 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2776 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2779 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2782 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2783 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2784 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2785 
  2786 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2787 
  2788 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2789 
  2790 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2796 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2797 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2798 
  2799 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2800 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2801 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2802 
  2803 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2804 still supported as an input translation.
  2805 
  2806 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2807 
  2808   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2809   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2810   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2811   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2812   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2813   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2814   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2815 
  2816 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2817 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2820   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2821   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2822   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2823   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2824   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2825 
  2826 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2827 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2830 
  2831   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2832   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2833   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2834   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2835 
  2836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2839 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2842 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2845   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2846   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2847   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2848   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2849   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2850   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2851   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2852   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2853   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2854   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2855   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2856   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2857   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2858   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2859   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2860   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2861   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2862   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2863   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2864 
  2865 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2866 
  2867   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2868   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2869   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2870   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2871   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2872   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2873   box_less             ~> box_below
  2874   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2875   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2876   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2877   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2878   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2879   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2880   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2881   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2882   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2883   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2884   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2885   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2886   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2887   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2888   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2889   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2890   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2891   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2892   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2893   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2894   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2895   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2896   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2897   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2898   up_less              ~> up_below
  2899   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2900   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2901   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2902   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2903   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2904   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2905   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2906   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2907   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2908   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2909   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2910   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2911   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2912 
  2913 
  2914 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2915 
  2916 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2917 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919 
  2920 *** ML ***
  2921 
  2922 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2923 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2924 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2925 
  2926 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2927 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2928 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2929 
  2930 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2931 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2932 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2933 
  2934 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2935 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2936 
  2937 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2938 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2939 
  2940 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2941 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2942 
  2943 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2944 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2945 
  2946 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2947 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2948 almost all situations.
  2949 
  2950 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2951 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2952 Isabelle/ML.
  2953 
  2954 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2955 meaning.
  2956 
  2957 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2958 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2959 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2960 
  2961 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2962 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2963 
  2964 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2965 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2966 
  2967 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2968 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2969 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2970 
  2971 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2972 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2973 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2974 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2975 configuration options.
  2976 
  2977 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2978 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2979 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2980 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2981 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2982 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2983 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2984 
  2985 
  2986 
  2987 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2988 ---------------------------------
  2989 
  2990 *** General ***
  2991 
  2992 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2993 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2994 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2995 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2996 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2997 their full internal name.
  2998 
  2999 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3000 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3001 Some hints on upgrading:
  3002 
  3003   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3004     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3005     which are independent of this issue.
  3006 
  3007   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3008     provides the following special forms:
  3009 
  3010       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3011       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3012       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3013 
  3014     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3015     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3016     extra variables".
  3017 
  3018     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3019     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3020     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3021     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3022     "logic".
  3023 
  3024   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3025     antiquotations:
  3026 
  3027       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3028       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3029       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3030       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3031 
  3032   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3033     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3034     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3035     antiquotations.
  3036 
  3037 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3038 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3039 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3040 diagnose syntax problems.
  3041 
  3042 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3043 
  3044 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3045 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3046 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3047 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3048 
  3049 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3050 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3051 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3052 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3055 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3056 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3057 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3058 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3061 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3062 
  3063 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3064 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3065 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3066 
  3067   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3068 
  3069 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3070 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3071 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3072 
  3073 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3074 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3078 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3079 
  3080 
  3081 *** Pure ***
  3082 
  3083 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3084 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3085 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3086 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3087 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3088 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3089 inspect proof terms.
  3090 
  3091 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3092 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3093 are added internally.  For example:
  3094 
  3095   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3096 
  3097 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3098 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3103 'class' instead.
  3104 
  3105 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3106 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3110 invariants.
  3111 
  3112 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3113 user space functionality any longer.
  3114 
  3115 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3116 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3120 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3121 
  3122 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3123 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3124 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3125 
  3126 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3127 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3128 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3129 
  3130 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3131 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 
  3134 *** HOL ***
  3135 
  3136 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3137 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3138 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3139 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3140 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3141 
  3142 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3143 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3144 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3145 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3146 
  3147   fun
  3148     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3149   where
  3150     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3151 
  3152   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3153     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3154 
  3155   quotient_definition
  3156     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3157 
  3158 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3159 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3160 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3161 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3162 
  3163 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3164 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3165 
  3166 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3167 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3168 
  3169 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3173 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3174 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3175 
  3176 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3177 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3186 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3187 
  3188 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3189 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3190 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3193   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3194   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3195   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3196   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3197   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3198   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3199   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3200   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3201   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3202   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3203   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3204   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3205   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3206   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3207   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3208   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3209   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3210   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3211   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3212   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3213   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3214   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3215   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3216   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3217   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3218   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3219   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3220   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3221   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3222 
  3223 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3224 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3225 
  3226 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3227 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3228 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3229 
  3230 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3231 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3232 
  3233 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3234 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3235 
  3236 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3237 
  3238 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3239 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3242 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3247 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3248 
  3249 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3250 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3251 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3252 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3255   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3256   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3257   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3261 lattices):
  3262 
  3263     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3264     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3265 
  3266     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3267 
  3268     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3269     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3270     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3271     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3272     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3273     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3274     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3275     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3276     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3277     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3278     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3279     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3280     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3281 
  3282     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3283     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3284     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3285     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3286     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3287     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3288     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3289     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3290     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3291     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3292     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3293     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3294     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3295     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3296     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3297     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3298     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3299     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3300 
  3301   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3302   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3303 
  3304     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3305     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3306     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3307     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3308     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3309 
  3310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 * Refined field classes:
  3313   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3314     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3315     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3316   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3320   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3321   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3322   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3323     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3324   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3325     equal_neg_zero.
  3326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3329 sets to lattices:
  3330 
  3331   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3332   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3333   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3334   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3335   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3336   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3337   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3338   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3339   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3340   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3341 
  3342 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3343 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3344 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3345 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3346 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3347 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3350 multiset order:
  3351 
  3352   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3353     <= and <;
  3354   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3355     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3356     multiset_order;
  3357   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3358     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3359     generation;
  3360   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3361     if needed.
  3362 
  3363 Renamed:
  3364 
  3365   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3366   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3367   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3368 
  3369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3372 
  3373 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3374 
  3375 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3376 
  3377 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3378 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3379 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381   Constants:
  3382   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3383   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3384   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3385   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3386   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3387   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3388   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3389   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3390   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3391   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3392   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3393   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3394   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3395 
  3396   Lemmas:
  3397   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3398   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3399   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3400   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3401   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3402   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3403   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3404   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3405   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3406   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3407   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3408   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3409   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3410 
  3411 * Sledgehammer:
  3412   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3413     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3414     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3415     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3416     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3417     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3418     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3420   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3421     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3422   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3423     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3424     is still experimental.)
  3425   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3426     full-typed mode.
  3427   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3428 
  3429 * Nitpick:
  3430   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3431   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3432   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3433     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3434   - Added support for quotient types.
  3435   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3436     constructs.
  3437   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3438     "termination" proofs).
  3439   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3440   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3441   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3442   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3443     record getters.
  3444   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3445   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3446   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3447   - Added "atoms" option.
  3448   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3449     problems.
  3450   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3451     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3452     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3454     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3458   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3459   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3460   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3461   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3462   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3463   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3464   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3465   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3466   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 
  3469 *** HOLCF ***
  3470 
  3471 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3472 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3473 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474 
  3475 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3476 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3477 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3478 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3481 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3482 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3483 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3484 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485 
  3486 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3487 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3488 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3491 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3494   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3495 
  3496 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3497 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3500   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3501   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3502   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3503   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3504 
  3505 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3506 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3507 
  3508   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3509   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3510   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3511 
  3512 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3513 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3517 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3522 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 
  3525 *** ML ***
  3526 
  3527 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3528 
  3529     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3530     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3531 
  3532     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3533     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3534     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3535     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3536 
  3537     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3538     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3539     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3540 
  3541 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3542 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3543 
  3544 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3545 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3546 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3547 
  3548 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3549 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3550 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3551 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3552 
  3553 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3554 the context or even global references.
  3555 
  3556 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3557 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3558 
  3559 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3560 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3561 
  3562   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3563   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3564   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3565   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3566   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3567   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3568   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3569   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3570   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3571   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3572 
  3573 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3574 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3575 
  3576 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3577 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3578 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3579 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3580 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3581 
  3582 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3583 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3584 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3585 Theory_Data version.
  3586 
  3587 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3588 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3589 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3590 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3591 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3592 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3593 explicitly in rare situations.
  3594 
  3595 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3596 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3600 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3603 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3604 quite rare).
  3605 
  3606 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3607 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3610 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3611 terms.
  3612 
  3613 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3614 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3615 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3616 
  3617 
  3618 *** System ***
  3619 
  3620 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3621 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3622 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3623 
  3624 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3625 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3626 respectively.
  3627 
  3628 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3629 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3630 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3631 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3632 
  3633   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3634 
  3635 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3636 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3637 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3638 component.
  3639 
  3640 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3641 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3642 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3643 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3644 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3645 the user for manual installation.
  3646 
  3647 
  3648 
  3649 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3650 -------------------------------------
  3651 
  3652 *** General ***
  3653 
  3654 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3655 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3656 
  3657 
  3658 *** Pure ***
  3659 
  3660 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3661 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3662 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3663 
  3664 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3665 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3666 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3667 
  3668 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3669 interpretation.
  3670 
  3671 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3672 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 
  3675 *** Document preparation ***
  3676 
  3677 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3678 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3679 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3680 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3681 
  3682 
  3683 *** HOL ***
  3684 
  3685 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3686 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3687 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3688 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3689 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3690 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3691 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3692 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3693 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3694 
  3695 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3696 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3697 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3698 
  3699 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3700 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3701 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3702 
  3703 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3704 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3705 
  3706 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3707 
  3708 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3709 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3710 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3711 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3712 
  3713 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3714 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3715 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3716 "mirabelle" utility.
  3717 
  3718 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3719 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3720 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3721 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3722 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3723 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3724 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3725 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3726 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3727 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3728 
  3729 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3730 procedure only.
  3731 
  3732 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3733 
  3734 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3735 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3736 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3737 that fail later.
  3738 
  3739 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3740 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3741 
  3742 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3743 the same method as the approximation method.
  3744 
  3745 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3746 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3747 series expansion.
  3748 
  3749 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3750 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3751 
  3752 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3753 reals.
  3754 
  3755 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3756 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3757 
  3758 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3759 fixpoint theorem.
  3760 
  3761 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3762   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3763     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3764   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3765     accordingly
  3766   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3767     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3768   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3769     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3770 
  3771 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3772 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3773 lattice.
  3774 
  3775 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3776 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3777 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3778 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3779 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3780 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3784   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3785     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3786   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3787     le_inf_iff
  3788   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3789     sup_aci)
  3790   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3791   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3792   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3793     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3794     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3795     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3796     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3797     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3798     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3799     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3800     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3801     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3802     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3803   - authentic syntax for
  3804     Set.Pow
  3805     Set.image
  3806   - mere abbreviations:
  3807     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3808     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3809     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3810     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3811     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3812     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3813     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3814     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3815   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3816 
  3817 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3818 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3819 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3820 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3821 
  3822 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3823 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3824 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3825 
  3826 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3827 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3830 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3831 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3832 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3835 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3836 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3837 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3838 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3839 
  3840 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3841 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3845 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3848 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3849 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3850 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3851 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3852 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3853 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3857     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3858     code_post       replaces    code post
  3859     etc.
  3860   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3861 
  3862 * Renamed methods:
  3863     sizechange -> size_change
  3864     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3865   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3868 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3869 
  3870 * Renamed theorems:
  3871     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3872     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3873     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3874     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3875     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3876   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 
  3885 *** HOLCF ***
  3886 
  3887 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3888 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3889 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3890 
  3891 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3892 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3893 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3894 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3895 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3896 
  3897 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3898 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3899 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3900 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3901 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3902 
  3903 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3904 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3905 constructor are pre-configured.
  3906 
  3907 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3908 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3909 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3910 
  3911 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3912 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3913 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3914 as well.)
  3915 
  3916 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3917 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3918 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3919 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3920 examples.
  3921 
  3922 
  3923 *** ML ***
  3924 
  3925 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3926 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3927 
  3928 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3929 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3930 position, logical grouping etc.
  3931 
  3932 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3933 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3934 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3935 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3936 
  3937 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3938 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3939 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3940 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3941 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3942 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3943 
  3944 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3945 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3946 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3947 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3948 experiments with references.
  3949 
  3950 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3951 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3952 
  3953 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3954 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3955 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3956 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3957 
  3958 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3959 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3960 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3961 
  3962 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3963 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3964 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3965 
  3966 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3972 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3973 
  3974 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3975 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3976 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3977 
  3978 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3979 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3980 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3983 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3984 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3988 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3989 instead of global theory.
  3990 
  3991 
  3992 *** System ***
  3993 
  3994 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3995 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3996 usedir option -q.
  3997 
  3998 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3999 also the system manual.
  4000 
  4001 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4002 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4003 
  4004 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4005 this is always enabled.
  4006 
  4007 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4008 
  4009 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4010 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4011 currently supported on Linux only.
  4012 
  4013 
  4014 
  4015 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4016 --------------------------------
  4017 
  4018 *** General ***
  4019 
  4020 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4021 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4022 
  4023   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4024     "isatool."
  4025 
  4026   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4027     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4028 
  4029   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4030     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4031 
  4032 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4033 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4034 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4035 
  4036 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4037 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4038 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4039 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4040 via "isabelle emacs".
  4041 
  4042 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4043 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4044 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4045 
  4046 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4047 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4048 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4049 
  4050 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4051 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4052 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4053 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4054 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4055 
  4056 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4057 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4058 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4059 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4060 
  4061 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4062 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4063 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4064 
  4065 
  4066 *** Pure ***
  4067 
  4068 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4069 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4070 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4071 
  4072 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4073 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4074 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4075 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4076 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4077 
  4078 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4079 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4080 useful in locale declarations.
  4081 
  4082 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4083 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4084 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4085 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4086 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4087 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4088 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4089 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4090 no longer generated.
  4091 
  4092 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4093 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4094 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4095 
  4096 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4097 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4098 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4099 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4100 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4101 
  4102 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4103 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4104 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4105 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4106 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4107 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4108 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4109 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4110 
  4111 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4112 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4113 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4114 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4115 
  4116 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4119 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4120 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4121 
  4122 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4123 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4126 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4127 in HOL, write
  4128 
  4129     class foo = ...
  4130 
  4131 instead of
  4132 
  4133     class foo = type + ...
  4134 
  4135 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4136 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4137 
  4138 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4139 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4140 
  4141 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4142 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4143 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4144 
  4145 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4146 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4147 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4148 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4149 directly in regular applications.
  4150 
  4151 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4152 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4153 
  4154 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4155 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4156 
  4157 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4158 theory context.
  4159 
  4160 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4161 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4164 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4165 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4166 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4167 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4168 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4169 
  4170   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4171 
  4172 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4173 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4174 normalization.
  4175 
  4176 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4177 addressing etc.
  4178 
  4179 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4180 
  4181   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4182   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4183 
  4184 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4185 
  4186   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4187      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4188      parts of the code generator framework).
  4189 
  4190   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4191      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4192      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4193 
  4194 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4197 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4200 patterns, e.g.
  4201 
  4202     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4203 
  4204 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4205 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4206 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4207 hyphen:
  4208 
  4209     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4210 
  4211 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4212 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4213 
  4214 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4215 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4216 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4217 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4218 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4219 higher-order unification.
  4220 
  4221 
  4222 *** Document preparation ***
  4223 
  4224 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4225 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4226 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4227 
  4228 
  4229 *** HOL ***
  4230 
  4231 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4232 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4233 
  4234 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4235 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4236 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4237 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4238 Main, as before.
  4239 
  4240 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4241 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4242 
  4243 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4244 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4245 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4246 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4247 
  4248 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4249 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4250 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4251 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4252 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4253 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4254 
  4255 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4256 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4257 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4258 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4259 
  4260 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4261 menu.
  4262 
  4263 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4264 (contains the empty clause).
  4265 
  4266 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4267 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4268 
  4269 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4270 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4271 
  4272 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4273 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4274 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4275 
  4276 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4277 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4278 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4279 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4280 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4281 
  4282 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4283 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4284 
  4285 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4286 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4287 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4288 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4289 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4290 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4291 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4292 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4293 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4294 
  4295 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4296 
  4297 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4298 
  4299 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4300 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4303 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4304 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4305 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4306 
  4307 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4308 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4309 
  4310     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4311     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4312     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4313     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4314     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4315     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4316     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4317     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4318 
  4319 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4320 theory Set.
  4321 
  4322 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4323 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4324 
  4325 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4326 
  4327 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4328 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4329 
  4330 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4331 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4332 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4333 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4334 allowed. For examples see
  4335 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4336 
  4337 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4338 
  4339 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341 
  4342 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4343 structure:
  4344 
  4345     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4346     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4347     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4348     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4349     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4350     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4351     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4352     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4353     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4354     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4355     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4356     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4357     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4358     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4359     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4360     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4361     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4362     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4363     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4364     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4365     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4366     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4367     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4368     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4369     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4370     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4371     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4372     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4373     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4374     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4375     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4376     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4377     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4378 
  4379     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4380     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4381     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4382     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4383     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4384     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4385     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4386     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4387     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4388     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4389 
  4390     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4391     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4392     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4393     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4394     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4395     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4396 
  4397 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4398 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4399 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4400 
  4401 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4402 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4403 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4404 
  4405 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4406 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4409 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4410 
  4411 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4412 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4413 proofs, e.g.
  4414 
  4415   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4416 
  4417 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4418 
  4419 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4420 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4421 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4422 
  4423 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4424 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4428 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4429 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431 
  4432 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4433 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4434 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4435 preorder_class.*.
  4436 
  4437 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4438 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4439 
  4440 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4441 
  4442   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4443 
  4444 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4445 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4446 fold_image.
  4447 
  4448 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4449 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4450 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4451 the former will disappear at some point.
  4452 
  4453 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4454 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4455 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4456 
  4457 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4458 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4459 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4460 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4461 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4462 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4463 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4464 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4465 
  4466 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4467 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4468 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4469 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4470 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4471 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4472 
  4473     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4474     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4475     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4476     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4477     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4478     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4479     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4480 
  4481 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4482 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4483 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4484 
  4485 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4486 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4487 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4488 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4489 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4490 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4491 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4492 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4493 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4494 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4495 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4496 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4497 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4498 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4499 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4500 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4501 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4502 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4503 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4504 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4505 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4506 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4507 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4508 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4509 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4510 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4511 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4512 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4513 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4514 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4515 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4516 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4517 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4518 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4519 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4520 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4521 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4522 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4523 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4524 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4525 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4526 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4527 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4528 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4529 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4530 
  4531 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4532 
  4533 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4534 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4535 
  4536 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4537 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4538 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4539 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4540 
  4541 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4542 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4543 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4544 theory RealVector.
  4545 
  4546 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4547 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4548 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4549 and inner products are included.
  4550 
  4551 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4552 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4553 supported.
  4554 
  4555 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4556 first diagonalization argument.
  4557 
  4558 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4559 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4560 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4561 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4562 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4563 
  4564     hide (open) const gcd
  4565     abbreviation gcd where
  4566       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4567     notation (output)
  4568       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4569 
  4570 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4571 
  4572 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4573 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4574 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4577 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4578 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4579 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4580 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4581 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4582 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4583 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4584 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4585 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4586 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4587 cases.
  4588 
  4589 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4590 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4591 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4592 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4593 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4594 
  4595     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4596     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4597     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4598     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4599     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4600 
  4601 
  4602 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4603 
  4604 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4605 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4606 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4607 
  4608 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4609 
  4610 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4611 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4612 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4613 
  4614 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4615 
  4616 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4617 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4618 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4619 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4620 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4621 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4622 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4623 
  4624 
  4625 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4626 
  4627 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4628 
  4629 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4630 theory targets.
  4631 
  4632 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4633 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4634 'inductive' etc.
  4635 
  4636 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4637 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4638 
  4639 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4640 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4641 
  4642 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4643 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4644 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4645 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4646 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4647 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4648 the algorithm W:
  4649 
  4650  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4651  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4652          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4653 
  4654 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4655 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4656 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4657 
  4658 
  4659 *** HOLCF ***
  4660 
  4661 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4662 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4663 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4664 
  4665 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4666 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4667 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4668 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4669 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4672 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4673 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4674 
  4675 
  4676 *** ZF ***
  4677 
  4678 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4679 
  4680 
  4681 *** ML ***
  4682 
  4683 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4684 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4685 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4686 5.2.1!
  4687 
  4688 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4689 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4690 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4691 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4692 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4693 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4694 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4695 
  4696 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4697 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4698 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4699 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4700 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4701 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4702 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4703 
  4704 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4705 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4706 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4707 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4708 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4709 
  4710 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4711 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4712 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4713 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4714 Method.add_method.
  4715 
  4716 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4717 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4718 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4719 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4720 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4721 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4722 
  4723 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4724 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4725 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4726 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4727 examples.
  4728 
  4729 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4730 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4731 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4732 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4733 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4734 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4735 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4736 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4737 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4738 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4739 
  4740 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4741 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4742 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4743 
  4744 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4745 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4746 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4747 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4748 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4749 resort for legacy applications.
  4750 
  4751 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4752 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4753 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4754 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4755 explicit runtime argument.
  4756 
  4757 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4758 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4759 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4760 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4761 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4762 
  4763 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4764 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4765 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4766 theory state.
  4767 
  4768 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4769 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4770 
  4771   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4772   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4773   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4774   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4775   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4776   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4777   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4778   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4779   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4780   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4781 
  4782 
  4783 *** System ***
  4784 
  4785 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4786 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4787 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4788 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4789 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4790 
  4791 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4792 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4793 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4794 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4795 
  4796 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4797 
  4798 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4799 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4800 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4801 prover operations.
  4802 
  4803 
  4804 
  4805 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4806 -------------------------------
  4807 
  4808 *** General ***
  4809 
  4810 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4811 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4812 
  4813 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4814 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4815 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4816 provides a proper context already.
  4817 
  4818 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4819 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4820 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4821 
  4822 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4823 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4824 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4825 swap theory imports.
  4826 
  4827 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4828 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4829 
  4830 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4831 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4832 white space without escapes.
  4833 
  4834 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4835 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4836 "foo_bar".
  4837 
  4838 
  4839 *** Pure ***
  4840 
  4841 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4842 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4843 
  4844 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4845 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4846 
  4847 (1) unused_thms
  4848      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4849 
  4850 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4851      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4852      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4853 
  4854 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4855      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4856      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4857      their ancestors.
  4858 
  4859 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4860 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4861 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4862 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4863 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4864 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4865 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4866 
  4867 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4868 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4869 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4870 
  4871 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4872 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4873 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4874 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4875 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4876 
  4877 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4878 
  4879 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4880 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4881 update of theories within ML code.
  4882 
  4883 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4884 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4885 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4886 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4887 
  4888 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4889 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4890 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4892 
  4893 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4894 
  4895 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4896 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4897 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4898 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4899 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4900 
  4901 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4902 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4903 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4904 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4905 situations.
  4906 
  4907 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4908 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4909 proof text.
  4910 
  4911 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4912 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4913 
  4914 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4915 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4916 predicates.
  4917 
  4918 
  4919 *** Document preparation ***
  4920 
  4921 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4922 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4923 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4924 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4925 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4926 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4927 
  4928 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4929 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4930 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4931 
  4932 
  4933 *** HOL ***
  4934 
  4935 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4936 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4937 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4938 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4939 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4940 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4941 
  4942 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4943 with multithreading.
  4944 
  4945 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4946 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4947 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4948 
  4949 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4950 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4951 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4952 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4955 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4956 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4957 and makes them available separately.  See
  4958 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4959 
  4960 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4961 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4962 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4963 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4964 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4965 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4966 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4967 the declared rules.
  4968 
  4969 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4970 
  4971   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4972 
  4973 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4974 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4975 
  4976 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4977 
  4978   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4979 
  4980   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4981     definitions on => and bool.
  4982 
  4983   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4984     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4985     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4986 
  4987       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4988       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4989       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4990       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4991       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4992       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4993       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4994       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4995 
  4996   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4997     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4998     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4999 
  5000   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5001     The proof pattern
  5002 
  5003       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5004       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5005 
  5006     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5007     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5008 
  5009       have "EX S. P S"
  5010       proof
  5011         show "P S" <...>
  5012       qed
  5013 
  5014   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5015     The proof pattern
  5016 
  5017       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5018       also have "S = T" <...>
  5019       finally have "P T" .
  5020 
  5021     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5022     must be replaced by something like
  5023 
  5024       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5025       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5026       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5027 
  5028   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5029     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5030 
  5031       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5032 
  5033     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5034     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5035     type of the form
  5036 
  5037       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5038 
  5039     rather than
  5040 
  5041       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5042 
  5043 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5044 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5045 
  5046 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5049 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5051 
  5052 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5053 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5054 
  5055 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5056 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5059 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5060 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5063 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5064 
  5065   less_trans
  5066   less_linear
  5067   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5068   le_less_trans
  5069   less_le_trans
  5070   less_not_sym
  5071   less_asym
  5072 
  5073 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5074 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5075 and different variable names.
  5076 
  5077 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5078 
  5079 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5080 finite maps.
  5081 
  5082 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5083 
  5084 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5085 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5086 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5087 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5088 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5089 accordingly.
  5090 
  5091 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5092 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5093 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5094 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5095 
  5096 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5097 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5098 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5099 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5100 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5102 
  5103 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5104 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5105 
  5106 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5107 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5108 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5109 
  5110 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5114 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5115 
  5116 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5117 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5118 
  5119 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5120 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5121 
  5122 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5123 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5127 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5128 
  5129 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5130 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5131 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5132 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5133 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5134 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5135 
  5136 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5137 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5138 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5139 
  5140 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5141 
  5142 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5143 
  5144 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5145 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5146 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5147 
  5148 
  5149 *** ZF ***
  5150 
  5151 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5152 same session:
  5153 
  5154   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5155   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5156   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5157   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5158   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5159   List      -> List_ZF
  5160   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5161 
  5162 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5163 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5164 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5165 
  5166 
  5167 *** ML ***
  5168 
  5169 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5170 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5171 
  5172 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5173 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5174 
  5175 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5176 
  5177 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5178 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5179 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5180 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5181 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5182 
  5183 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5184 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5185 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5186 
  5187 
  5188 *** System ***
  5189 
  5190 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5191 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5192 
  5193 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5194 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5195 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5196 
  5197 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5198 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5199 
  5200 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5201 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5202 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5203 
  5204 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5205 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5206 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5207 
  5208 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5209 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5210 
  5211 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5212 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5213 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5214 script.
  5215 
  5216 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5217 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5218 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5219 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5220 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5221 
  5222 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5223 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5224 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5225 
  5226 
  5227 
  5228 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5229 -----------------------------------
  5230 
  5231 *** General ***
  5232 
  5233 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5234 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5235 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5236 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5237 
  5238 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5239 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5240 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5241 
  5242 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5243 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5244 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5245 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5246 
  5247 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5248 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5249 quotes.
  5250 
  5251 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5252 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5253 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5254 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5255 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5256 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5257 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5258 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5259 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5260 
  5261 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5262 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5263 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5264 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5265 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5266 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5267 
  5268 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5269 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5270 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5271 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5272 
  5273 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5274 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5275 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5276 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5277 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5278 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5279 
  5280 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5281 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5282 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5283 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5284 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5285 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5286 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5287 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5288 
  5289 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5290 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5291 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5292 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5293 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5294 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5295 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5296 
  5297 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5298 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5299 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5300 
  5301 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5302 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5303 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5304 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5305 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5306 limit is imposed.
  5307 
  5308 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5309 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5310 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5311 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5312 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5313 and scalability.
  5314 
  5315 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5316 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5317 
  5318 
  5319 *** Document preparation ***
  5320 
  5321 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5322 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5323 current context.
  5324 
  5325 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5326 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5327 
  5328 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5329 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5330 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5331 
  5332 
  5333 *** Pure ***
  5334 
  5335 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5336 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5337 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5338 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5339 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5340 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5341 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5342 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5343 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5344 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5345 
  5346 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5347 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5348 sketch:
  5349 
  5350     internal compilation:
  5351         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5352     writing SML code to a file:
  5353         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5354     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5355         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5356     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5357         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5358 
  5359     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5360         method ``eval''
  5361 
  5362 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5363 
  5364 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5365 
  5366     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5367     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5368     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5369     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5370 
  5371 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5372 
  5373     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5374       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5375 
  5376     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5377       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5378 
  5379     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5380       {(target)}+
  5381         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5382 
  5383     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5384       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5385         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5386 
  5387 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5388 
  5389 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5390 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5391 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5392 codegen".
  5393 
  5394 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5395 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5396 annotations).
  5397 
  5398 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5399 syntax.
  5400 
  5401 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5402 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5403 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5404 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5405 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5406 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5407 
  5408 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5409 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5410 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5411 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5412 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5413 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5414 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5415 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5416 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5417 equations, see section "definitions".
  5418 
  5419 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5420 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5421 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5422 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5423 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5424 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5425 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5426 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5427 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5428 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5429 
  5430 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5431 configuration options:
  5432 
  5433   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5434   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5435   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5436   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5437   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5438   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5439   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5440   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5441   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5442 
  5443 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5444 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5445 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5446 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5447 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5448 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5449 order.
  5450 
  5451 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5452 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5453 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5454 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5455 context encountered later on.
  5456 
  5457 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5458 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5459 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5460 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5461 
  5462 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5463 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5464 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5465 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5466 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5467 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5468 
  5469 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5470 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5471 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5472 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5473 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5474 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5475 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5476 more permissive.
  5477 
  5478 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5479 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5480 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5481 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5482 maintainability of proof texts.
  5483 
  5484 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5485 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5486 
  5487   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5488   then guess x and y by clarify
  5489 
  5490 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5491 proof tools being involved here.
  5492 
  5493 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5494 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5495 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5496 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5497 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5498 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5499 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5500 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5501 
  5502 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5503 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5504 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5505 
  5506   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5507   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5508   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5509   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5510 
  5511 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5512 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5513 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5514 
  5515 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5516 both named and unnamed ones.
  5517 
  5518 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5519 
  5520   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5521 
  5522 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5523 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5524 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5525 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5526 
  5527 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5528 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5529 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5530 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5531 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5532 
  5533 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5534 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5535 
  5536 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5537 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5538 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5539 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5540 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5541 originally first one.
  5542 
  5543 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5544 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5545 expected.
  5546 
  5547 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5548 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5549 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5550 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5551 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5552 
  5553   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5554     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5555     obtains x where "P x"
  5556 
  5557   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5558     assumes "A & B"
  5559     obtains A and B
  5560 
  5561   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5562     assumes "A | B"
  5563     obtains
  5564       A
  5565     | B
  5566 
  5567 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5568 explicitly:
  5569 
  5570   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5571     obtains "~ thesis"
  5572 
  5573   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5574     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5575 
  5576 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5577 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5578 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5579 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5580 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5581 case_names).
  5582 
  5583 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5584 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5585 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5586 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5587 
  5588 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5589 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5590 top-level lemma.
  5591 
  5592 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5593 introduction rule (default "that").
  5594 
  5595 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5596 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5597 to occur.
  5598 
  5599 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5600 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5601 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5602 representations independently of name spaces.
  5603 
  5604 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5605 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5606 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5607 
  5608 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5609 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5610 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5611 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5612 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5613 current context.
  5614 
  5615 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5616 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5617 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5618 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5619 
  5620   axiomatization
  5621     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5622     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5623 
  5624   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5625   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5626 
  5627   abbreviation
  5628     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5629     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5630 
  5631 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5632 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5633 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5634 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5635 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5636 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5637 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5638 
  5639 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5640 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5641 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5642 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5643 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5644 
  5645 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5646 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5647 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5648 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5649 
  5650 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5651 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5652 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5653 
  5654   definition "K x _ = x"
  5655 
  5656   inductive conj for A B
  5657   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5658 
  5659 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5660 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5661 abbreviations on output.
  5662 
  5663 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5664 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5665 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5666 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5667 
  5668 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5669 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5670 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5671 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5672 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5673 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5674 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5675 
  5676 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5677 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5678 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5679 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5680 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5681 
  5682 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5683 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5684 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5685 
  5686 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5687 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5688 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5689 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5690 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5691 
  5692   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5693     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5694 
  5695 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5696 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5697 partial_order.
  5698 
  5699 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5700 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5701 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5702 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5703 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5704 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5705 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5706 examples.
  5707 
  5708 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5709 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5710 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5711 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5712 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5713 
  5714 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5715 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5716 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5717 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5718 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5719 
  5720   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5721   (induct set: foo bar)
  5722   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5723   (induct type: foo bar)
  5724 
  5725 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5726 new format.
  5727 
  5728 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5729 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5730 
  5731 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5732 considered a legacy feature.
  5733 
  5734 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5735 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5736 
  5737 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5738 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5739 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5740 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5741   
  5742 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5743 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5744 manipulating the claset.
  5745 
  5746 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5747 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5748 least one premise.
  5749 
  5750 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5751 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5752 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5753 rule steps.
  5754 
  5755 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5756 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5757 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5758 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5759 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5760 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5761 
  5762 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5763 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5764 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5765 
  5766 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5767 the graph browser tool.
  5768 
  5769 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5770 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5771 
  5772 
  5773 *** HOL ***
  5774 
  5775 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5776 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5777 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5778 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5779 multi-threading.
  5780   
  5781 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5782 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5783 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5784 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5785 work with multi-threading.
  5786 
  5787 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5788 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5789 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5790 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5791 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5792 
  5793 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5794 
  5795 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5796 equality.
  5797 
  5798 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5799 the new 'class' package:
  5800 
  5801     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5802     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5803     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5804     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5805     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5806     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5807     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5808     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5809     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5810     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5811     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5812     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5813     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5814     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5815     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5816     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5817     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5818     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5819     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5820     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5821 
  5822 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5823 
  5824 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5825 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5826 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5827 names.
  5828 
  5829 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5830 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5831 
  5832 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5833 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5834 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5835 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5836 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5837 
  5838 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5839 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5840 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5841 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5842 
  5843 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5844 
  5845 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5846 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5847 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5848 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5850 
  5851 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5852 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5853 
  5854 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5855 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5856 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5857 
  5858 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5859 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5860 
  5861 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5862 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5863 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5864 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5865 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5866 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5867 in the current context.
  5868 
  5869 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5870 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5872 
  5873 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5874 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5875 
  5876 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5877 
  5878     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5879     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5880 
  5881     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5882       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5883     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5884     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5885 
  5886     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5887     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5888 
  5889   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5890 
  5891     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5892     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5893     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5894     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5895     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5896     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5897     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5898     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5899     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5900     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5901     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5902     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5903     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5904     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5905     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5906     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5907     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5908     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5909     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5910     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5911     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5912     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5913     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5914     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5915     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5916     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5917     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5918     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5919     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5920     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5921     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5922     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5923     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5924     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5925     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5926 
  5927     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5928     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5929     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5930     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5931     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5932     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5933     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5934     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5935     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5936     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5937     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5938     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5939     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5940     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5941     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5942     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5943     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5944 
  5945     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5946     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5947     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5948     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5949     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5950     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5951     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5952     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5953     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5954     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5955     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5956     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5957     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5958     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5959     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5960     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5961     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5962     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5963     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5964     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5965     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5966     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5967     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5968     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5969     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5970     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5971     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5972     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5973 
  5974     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5975     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5976     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5977     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5978     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5979     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5980 
  5981     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5982     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5983     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5984     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5985 
  5986     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5987     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5988 
  5989     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5990     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5991 
  5992 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5993 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5994 
  5995 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5996 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5997 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5998 "*.size".
  5999 
  6000 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  6001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6002 
  6003 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  6004 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  6005 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6006 
  6007 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6008 
  6009 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  6010 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  6011 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  6012 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  6013 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  6014 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  6015 numerals on all operations.
  6016 
  6017 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  6018 
  6019 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  6020 
  6021 * Code generator library theories:
  6022   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  6023     languages.
  6024   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  6025     languages.
  6026   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  6027     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  6028   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  6029   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  6030     denominator).
  6031   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  6032     representable by rational numbers.
  6033   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  6034     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  6035     includes Code_Integer.
  6036   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  6037     target-language built-in integers.
  6038   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  6039     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  6040 
  6041 * New package for inductive predicates
  6042 
  6043   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6044 
  6045     inductive
  6046       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6047       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6048     where
  6049       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6050     | ...
  6051 
  6052   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6053 
  6054     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6055 
  6056     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6057     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6058 
  6059     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6060     intros
  6061       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6062       ...
  6063 
  6064   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6065   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6066 
  6067     inductive_set
  6068       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6069       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6070     where
  6071       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6072     | ...
  6073 
  6074   or
  6075 
  6076     inductive_set
  6077       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6078       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6079       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6080     where
  6081       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6082     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6083     | ...
  6084 
  6085   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6086 
  6087   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6088   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6089 
  6090   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6091 
  6092   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6093     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6094     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6095     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6096     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6097 
  6098   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6099     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6100     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6101     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6102     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6103     statements of the form
  6104 
  6105       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6106 
  6107     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6108     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6109 
  6110       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6111 
  6112   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6113 
  6114       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6115         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6116         ==> ... ==> P
  6117 
  6118     for predicates and
  6119 
  6120       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6121         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6122         ==> ... ==> P
  6123 
  6124     for sets rather than
  6125 
  6126       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6127         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6128         ==> ... ==> P
  6129 
  6130     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6131     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6132     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6133 
  6134   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6135     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6136     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6137 
  6138 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6139 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6140 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6141 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6142 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6143 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6144 
  6145 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6146 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6147 
  6148 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6149 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6150 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6151 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6152 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6153 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6154 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6155 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6156 variable.
  6157 
  6158 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6159 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6160 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6161 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6162   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6163   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6164 
  6165 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6166 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6167 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6168 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6169 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6170 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6171 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6172 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6173 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6174 
  6175 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6176 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6177 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6178 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6179 rat, etc.
  6180 
  6181 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6182 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6183 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6184 
  6185 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6186 
  6187 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6188 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6189 
  6190 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6191 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6192 
  6193 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6194 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6195 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6196 
  6197 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6198 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6200 
  6201 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6202 
  6203 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6204 
  6205 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6206 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6207 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6208 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6209 
  6210 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6211 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6212 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6213 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6214 
  6215 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6216 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6217 algebraic operations.
  6218 
  6219 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6221 
  6222 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6224 
  6225 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6226 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6227 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6228 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6229 adapted.
  6230  
  6231 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6232 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6233 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6234 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6235 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6236 
  6237 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6238 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6239 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6240 
  6241 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6242 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6243 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6244 
  6245 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6246 
  6247 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy