NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Apr 26 22:57:51 2014 +0200 (2014-04-26)
changeset 56762 539fe017905a
parent 56738 13b0fc4ece42
parent 56761 951c6a9ac3d7
child 56787 81dc6fffdf30
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    93     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    94     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    95 
    96   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
    97     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    98 
    99 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   100 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   101 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   102 
   103 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   104 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   105 
   106 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   107 auxiliary ML files.
   108 
   109 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   110 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   111 
   112 * Find panel: support for 'find_consts' in addition to
   113 'find_theorems'.
   114 
   115 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   116 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   117 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   118 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   119 
   120 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   121 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   122 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   123 
   124 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   125 
   126 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   127 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   128 
   129 
   130 *** Pure ***
   131 
   132 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   133 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   134 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   135 renaming needs to be applied:
   136 
   137   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   138   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   139   all            ~>  Pure.all
   140   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   141   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   142 
   143 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   144 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   145 old constants:
   146 
   147 setup {*
   148   fn thy => thy
   149     |> Sign.root_path
   150     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   151     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   152     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   153     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   154 *}
   155 
   156 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   157 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   158 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   159 
   160 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   161 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   162 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   163 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   164 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   165 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   166 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   167 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   168 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   169 
   170 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   171 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   172 instantiated theorem.
   173 
   174 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   175 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   176 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   177 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   178 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   179 
   180   attribute_setup standard =
   181     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   182 
   183 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   184 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   185 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   186 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   187 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   188 
   189 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   190 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   191 differently).
   192 
   193 
   194 *** HOL ***
   195 
   196 * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   200 with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalized and replace
   201 former INT_cong, SUP_cong.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   204 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   207 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   213   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   214   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   215   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   216   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   217   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   220   can now deal with conjunctions.
   221   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   222   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   223   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   224 
   225 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   226 
   227 * HOL-Word:
   228   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   229   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   230   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   231   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   232   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   233 
   234 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   238 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   241 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   244 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   247   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   248   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   249   Theory renamings:
   250     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   251     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   252     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   253     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   254     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   255     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   256     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   257     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   258     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   259     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   260     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   261     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   262     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   263     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   264     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   265     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   266     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   267     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   268     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   269     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   270     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   271     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   272   New theories:
   273     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   274     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   275     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   276     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   277     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   278   Discontinued theories:
   279     BNF/BNF.thy
   280     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   281   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   282 
   283 * New (co)datatype package:
   284   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   285   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   286     required by "fun".
   287   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   288     with Transfer.
   289   * Renamed commands:
   290       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   291       primrec_new ~> primrec
   292       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   293     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   294   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   295     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   296     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   298     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   299     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Old datatype package:
   302   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   303     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   304     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   306     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   307     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   310   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   311   datatype package.
   312   Renamed constants:
   313     Option.set ~> set_option
   314     Option.map ~> map_option
   315     option_rel ~> rel_option
   316     list_size ~> size_list
   317     option_size ~> size_option
   318   Renamed theorems:
   319     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   320     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   321     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   322     option.recs ~> option.rec
   323     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   324     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   325     map.simps ~> list.map
   326     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   327     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   328     the.simps ~> option.sel
   329   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   332     sum_map ~> map_sum
   333     map_pair ~> map_prod
   334     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   335     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   336     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   337     set_rel ~> rel_set
   338     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   339     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   340     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   341     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   342 
   343 * New theory:
   344     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   345 
   346 * Theory reorganizations:
   347   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   348 
   349 * SMT module:
   350   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   351     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   352     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   353     elsewhere.
   354 
   355 * Sledgehammer:
   356   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   357   - New option:
   358       smt_proofs
   359   - Renamed options:
   360       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   361       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   362     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * Metis:
   365   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   366     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   369 
   370 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   373 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   374 
   375 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   376 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   377 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   378 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   379 
   380 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   384 with the given constants.
   385 
   386 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   387 
   388 Fact consolidations:
   389     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   390     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   391     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   392     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   393     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   394     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   395     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   396     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   397     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   398     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   399     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   400     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   401     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   402     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   403     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   404     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   405     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   406     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   407     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   408     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   409     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   410     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   411     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   412     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   413     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   414     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   415     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   416     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   417     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   418     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   419     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   420     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   421     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   422     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   423     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   424     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   425     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   426     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   427     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   428     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   429 
   430 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   431 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   432 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   433 
   434 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   435 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   436 
   437 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   438 
   439 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   440 
   441 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   448 operations on records.
   449 
   450 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   454     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   458     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   459     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   461 
   462 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   463   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   464   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   465   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   466     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   467   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   468     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   469   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   470 INCOMPATBILITY.
   471 
   472 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   473     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   474     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   475     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   476     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * Fact name consolidation:
   480     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   481     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   482     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   483     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   484     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   488 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   489 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   490 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   491 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   492 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   493 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   494 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   495 
   496 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   497 
   498 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   499 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   500 
   501 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   502 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   503 
   504 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   505 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   506 or the brute way with
   507 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   508 
   509 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   510 
   511 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   512 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   515 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   516 
   517 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   518 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   519 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   520 INCOMPATIBILITY
   521 
   522 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   523   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   524   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   525   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   526   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   527   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   528   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   529   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   530   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   531   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   532   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   533   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   534 
   535   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   536 
   537   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   538     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   539     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   540     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   541     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   543 
   544 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   545   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   546 
   547   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   548 
   549   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   550 
   551   - removed constant isDiff
   552 
   553   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   554     syntax.
   555 
   556   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   557 
   558   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   559 
   560   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   561 
   562   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   563 
   564   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   565     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   566 
   567   - Other renamings:
   568     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   569     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   570     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   571     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   572     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   573     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   574     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   576 
   577 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   578   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   579 
   580 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   581 
   582 * Nitpick:
   583   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   584     infinite values.
   585   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   586     "Rep_Integ".
   587   - Removed "std" option.
   588   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   589     "hide_types".
   590 
   591 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   592   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   593   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   594     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   595     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   596     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   597     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   598     intervals.
   599 
   600   - renamed theorems:
   601     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   602     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   603     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   604 
   605 
   606 *** Scala ***
   607 
   608 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   609 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   610 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   611 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   612 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 
   615 *** ML ***
   616 
   617 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   618 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   621 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   622 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   628 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   629 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   633 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   634 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   635 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   636 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   637 of schematic variables.
   638 
   639 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   640 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   641 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   642 formal context.
   643 
   644 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   645 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   646 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   647 actually belongs to it).
   648 
   649 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   650 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   651 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   652 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   653 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   654 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   655 
   656 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   657 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   658 
   659 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   660 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   661 
   662 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   663 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   664 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   665 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   666 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   667 
   668 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   669 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   670 purposes.
   671 
   672 
   673 *** System ***
   674 
   675 * Session ROOT specifications support explicit 'document_files' for
   676 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   677 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   678 processing is started.
   679 
   680 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   681 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   682 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   683 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   684 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   685 
   686 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   687 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   688 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   689 
   690 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   691 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   692 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   693 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   694 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   695 settings variable yet.
   696 
   697 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   698 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   699 
   700 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   701 -------------------------------------
   702 
   703 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   704 
   705 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   706 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   707 
   708 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   709 after edits surrounding the command location.
   710 
   711 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   712 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   713 e.g. out-of-memory).
   714 
   715 
   716 *** System ***
   717 
   718 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   719 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   720 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   721 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   722 
   723 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   724 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   725 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   726 
   727 
   728 
   729 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   730 -------------------------------------
   731 
   732 *** General ***
   733 
   734 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   735 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   736 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   737 
   738 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   739 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   740 
   741 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   742 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   743 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   744 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   745 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   746 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   747 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   748 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   749 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   750 syntax.
   751 
   752 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   753 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   756 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   757 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   758 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   759 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   760 
   761 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   763 
   764 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   765 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   766 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   767 
   768 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   769 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   770 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   771 
   772 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   773 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   774 
   775 
   776 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   777 
   778 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   779 Documentation panel.
   780 
   781 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   782 documentation.
   783 
   784 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   785 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   786 
   787 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   788 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   789 normal editing and checking process.
   790 
   791 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   792 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   793 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   794 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   795 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   796 
   797 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   798 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   799 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   800 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   801 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   802 
   803 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   804 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   805 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   806 
   807 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   808 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   809 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   810 to resolve conflict.
   811 
   812 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   813 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   814 
   815 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   816 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   817 such command executions while editing.
   818 
   819 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   820 document content.
   821 
   822 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   823 toplevel theorem statements.
   824 
   825 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   826 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   827 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   828 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   829 
   830 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   831 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   832 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   833 
   834 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   835 / Global Options / Appearance".
   836 
   837 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   838 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   839 
   840 
   841 *** Pure ***
   842 
   843 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   844 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   845 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   846 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   847 details.
   848 
   849 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   850 
   851 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   852 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   853 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   854 
   855 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   859 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   860 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   861 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   864 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   865 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   868 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   869 
   870 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   871 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   872 situations.
   873 
   874 
   875 *** HOL ***
   876 
   877 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   878 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   882 
   883 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   884 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   885 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   886 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   887 
   888   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   889 
   890 * Code generator:
   891   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   892     'code_instance'.
   893   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   894     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   895 
   896 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   897 examples.
   898 
   899 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   900 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   901 to distinguish both when desired.
   902 
   903 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   904 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   905 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   906 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   907 
   908 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   909 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   910 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   911 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   912 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   913 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   914 
   915 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   916 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   917 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   918 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   919 
   920 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   921 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   922 
   923 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   924 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   925 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   926 
   927 * Lifting:
   928   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   929     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   930       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   931       transfer rules
   932     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   933       correspondence relation can be generated
   934     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   935       parametricity
   936     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   937   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   938   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   939     copies
   940   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   941     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   942     anonymous context)
   943   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   944     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   945   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   946     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   947   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   948     INCOMPATIBILITY
   949 
   950 * Transfer:
   951   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   952     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   953   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   954   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   955     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   956   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   957 
   958 * Reification and reflection:
   959   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   960     "Reification".
   961   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   962   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   964 
   965 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   966   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   967     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   968     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   969   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   970     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   971   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   972     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   973     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   974     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   975     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   976     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   977     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   978     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   979   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   980     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   981   - Fact renames:
   982       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   983       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985 
   986 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   987 
   988 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   989 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   990 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   994 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   995 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   996 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   997 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   998 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   999 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1000 lemmas.
  1001 
  1002 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1003 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1004 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1005 
  1006 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1007 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1008 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1009 
  1010 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1011 top and bottom elements.
  1012 
  1013 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1014 
  1015 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1016 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1017 
  1018  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1019    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1020    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1021 
  1022  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1023    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1024    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1025 
  1026    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1027    arbitrary filter.
  1028 
  1029  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1030    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1031    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1032    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1033    on a compact set.
  1034 
  1035  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1036    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1037    linear_continuum_topology).
  1038 
  1039  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1040    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1041    on all sequences converging to x.
  1042 
  1043  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1044    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1045    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1046    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1047    left or right.
  1048 
  1049  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1050 
  1051      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1052 
  1053  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1054    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1055 
  1056  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1057    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1058    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1059    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1060    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1061    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1062 
  1063  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1064 
  1065    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1066 
  1067    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1068      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1069 
  1070    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1071 
  1072    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1073      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1074 
  1075    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1076 
  1077    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1078 
  1079  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1080 
  1081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 * Nitpick:
  1084   - Added option "spy".
  1085   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1086 
  1087 * Sledgehammer:
  1088   - Renamed option:
  1089       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1090     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1091   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1092   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1093   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1094 
  1095 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1096 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1097 
  1098 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1099   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1100   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1101     generated code.
  1102   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1103   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1104   - Fact renames:
  1105     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1106     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1107     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1108 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1109 
  1110 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1111 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1112 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1113 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1114 
  1115 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1116 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1117 
  1118 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1121 
  1122     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1123     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1124 
  1125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1128 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1129 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1130 
  1131 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1132 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1133 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1134 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * HOL-BNF:
  1137   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1138     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1139     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1140     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1141   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1142     coinduct).
  1143   - Renamed keywords:
  1144     data ~> datatype_new
  1145     codata ~> codatatype
  1146     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1147   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1148     discs ~> disc
  1149     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1150     map_id' ~> map_id
  1151     sels ~> sel
  1152     set_map' ~> set_map
  1153     sets ~> set
  1154 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155 
  1156 
  1157 *** ML ***
  1158 
  1159 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1160 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1161 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1162 Examples.thy in particular.
  1163 
  1164 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1165 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1166 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1167 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1168 
  1169 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1170 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1171 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1172 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1176 
  1177     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1178     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1179 
  1180 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1181 
  1182 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1183 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1184 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1185 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1186 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1187 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1188 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1189 
  1190 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1191 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1192 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1193 clasets separately from the context.
  1194 
  1195 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1196 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1197 
  1198 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1199 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1200 
  1201 
  1202 *** System ***
  1203 
  1204 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1205 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1206 
  1207 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1208 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1211 settings variable.
  1212 
  1213 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1214 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1215 always pdf.
  1216 
  1217 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1218 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1219 
  1220 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1221 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1222 
  1223 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1224 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1225 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1226 
  1227 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1228 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1229 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1230 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1231 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1232 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1233 
  1234 
  1235 
  1236 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1237 -----------------------------------
  1238 
  1239 *** General ***
  1240 
  1241 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1242 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1243 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1244 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1245 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1246 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1247 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1248 
  1249 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1250 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1251 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1252 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1253 
  1254 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1255 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1256 
  1257 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1258 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1259 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1260 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1261 dependencies properly.
  1262 
  1263 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1264 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1265 
  1266 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1267 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1268 
  1269 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1270 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1271 and "class ... context ...".
  1272 
  1273 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1274 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1275 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1276 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1277 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1278 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1279 
  1280 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1281 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1282 
  1283 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1284 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1285 
  1286 
  1287 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1288 
  1289 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1290 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1291 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1292 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1293 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1294 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1295 
  1296 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1297 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1298 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1299 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1300 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1301 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1302 
  1303 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1304 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1305 browser on demand.
  1306 
  1307 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1308 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1309 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1310 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1311 
  1312 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1313 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1314 
  1315 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1316 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1317 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1318 potentially infinite message streams.
  1319 
  1320 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1321 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1322 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1323 schemes.
  1324 
  1325 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1326 symbols.
  1327 
  1328 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1329 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1330 
  1331 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1332 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1333 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1334 
  1335 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1336 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1337 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1338 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1339 
  1340 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1341 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1342 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1343 
  1344 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1345 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1346 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1347 Isabelle distribution.
  1348 
  1349 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1350 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1351 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1352 
  1353 
  1354 *** Pure ***
  1355 
  1356 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1357 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1358 
  1359 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1360 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1361 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1364 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1365 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1366 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1367 with some care where this is really required.
  1368 
  1369 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1370 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1371 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1372 
  1373   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1374 
  1375 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1376 a Hasse diagram.
  1377 
  1378 
  1379 *** HOL ***
  1380 
  1381 * Sledgehammer:
  1382 
  1383   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1384     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1385   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1386   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1387   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1388   - Renamed options:
  1389       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1390       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1391       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1392       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1393 
  1394 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1395 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1396 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1397 
  1398 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1400 
  1401 * Lifting:
  1402   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1403   - quot_del attribute
  1404   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1405 
  1406 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1407 expressions.
  1408 
  1409 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1410 pointfree expressions.
  1411 
  1412 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1413 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1414 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1415 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1417 
  1418 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1419 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1420 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1421 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1422 accordingly.
  1423 
  1424 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1425 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1426 
  1427 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1428 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1431 
  1432 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1433 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1434 
  1435 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1436 
  1437 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1438 
  1439   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1440   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1441 
  1442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1445 
  1446   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1447   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1448 
  1449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1452 
  1453   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1454     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1455     output f x converges to G.
  1456 
  1457   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1458     infinity (at_bot).
  1459 
  1460   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1461     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1462 
  1463   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1464     at_top".
  1465 
  1466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1467 
  1468 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1469 lattice type classes.
  1470 
  1471 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1472 
  1473     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1474     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1475 
  1476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1479 changes as follows.
  1480 
  1481   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1482 
  1483       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1484       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1485 
  1486   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1487     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1488     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1489     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1490 
  1491   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1492     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1493     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1494 
  1495   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1496     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1497     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1498     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1499 
  1500   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1501     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1502 
  1503       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1504       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1505       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1506       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1507       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1508       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1509       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1510       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1511       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1512       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1513       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1514       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1515       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1516       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1517       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1518       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1519 
  1520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521 
  1522 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1523 
  1524 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1525 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1526 
  1527 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1528 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1529 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1530 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1531 
  1532   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1533   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1534   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1535   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1536   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1537   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1538   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1539   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1540   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1541   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1542 
  1543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1546 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1547 Data").
  1548 
  1549 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1550 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1551 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1552 code.
  1553 
  1554 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1555 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1556 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1560 
  1561 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1562 
  1563 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1564 
  1565   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1566   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1567 
  1568 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1569 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1570 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1571 
  1572   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1573 
  1574     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1575     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1576     cart_base i  removed
  1577     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1578 
  1579   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1580 
  1581   Renamed lemmas:
  1582 
  1583     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1584     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1585     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1586     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1587     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1588     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1589     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1590     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1591     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1592     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1593 
  1594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * HOL/Probability:
  1597 
  1598   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1599 
  1600   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1601     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1602     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1603 
  1604   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1605     projective family).
  1606 
  1607 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1608 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1609 
  1610 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1611 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1612 datatypes.
  1613 
  1614 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1615 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1616 
  1617 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1618 trees for the code generator.
  1619 
  1620 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1621 Lifting/Transfer.
  1622 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 
  1628 *** Document preparation ***
  1629 
  1630 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1631 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1632 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1633 
  1634 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1635 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1636 
  1637 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1638 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1639 document/root.tex.
  1640 
  1641 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1642 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643 
  1644 
  1645 *** ML ***
  1646 
  1647 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1648 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1649 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1650 
  1651 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1652 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1653 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1654 
  1655 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1656 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1657 necessarily printing visible text.
  1658 
  1659 
  1660 *** System ***
  1661 
  1662 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1663 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1664 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1665 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1666 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1667 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1668 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1669 
  1670 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1671 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1672 
  1673   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1674 
  1675 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1676 
  1677 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1678 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1679 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1680 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1681 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1682 
  1683 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1684 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1685 
  1686 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1687 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1688 
  1689 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1693 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1694 version of Isabelle.
  1695 
  1696 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1697 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1698 
  1699 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1700 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1701 for home-made settings.
  1702 
  1703 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1704 
  1705 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1706 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1707 configuration.
  1708 
  1709 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1710 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1711 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1712 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1713 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1714 
  1715 
  1716 
  1717 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1718 ------------------------------
  1719 
  1720 *** General ***
  1721 
  1722 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1723 
  1724   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1725     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1726   - markup for bound variables
  1727   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1728   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1729   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1730     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1731 
  1732 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1733 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1734 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1735 
  1736 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1737 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1738 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1739 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1740 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1741 
  1742   context
  1743     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1744     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1745   begin
  1746 
  1747   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1748 
  1749   end
  1750 
  1751   thm my_trans
  1752 
  1753 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1754 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1755 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1756 
  1757 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1758 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1759 
  1760 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1761 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1762 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1763 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1764 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1765 
  1766 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1767 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1768 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1769 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1770 indices of schematic variables.
  1771 
  1772 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1773 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1774 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1775 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1776 etc. was exploited.
  1777 
  1778 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1779 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1780 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1781 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1782 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1783 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1784 
  1785 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1786 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1787 manual.
  1788 
  1789 
  1790 *** Pure ***
  1791 
  1792 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1793 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1794 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1795 
  1796 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1797 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1798 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1799 undocumented feature.)
  1800 
  1801 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1802 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1803 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1804 
  1805   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1806 
  1807   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1808     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1809 
  1810 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1811 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1812 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1813 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1814 
  1815 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1816 
  1817     num ~> num_token
  1818     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1819     xstr ~> str_token
  1820 
  1821 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1822 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1823 position information via constraints).
  1824 
  1825 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1826 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1827 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828 
  1829 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1830 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1831 
  1832 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1833 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1834 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1835 
  1836 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1837 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1840 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1841 
  1842   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1843 
  1844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1845 
  1846 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1847 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1850 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1851 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1852 
  1853 
  1854 *** HOL ***
  1855 
  1856 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1857 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1858 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1859 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1860 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1861 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1862 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1863 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1864 possible.
  1865 
  1866 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1867 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1868 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1869 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1870 
  1871 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1872 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1875 
  1876 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1877 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1878 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1879 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1880 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1881 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1882 
  1883   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1884     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1885 
  1886   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1887     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1888     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1889 
  1890   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1891     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1892 
  1893   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1894     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1895     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1896 
  1897   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1898     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1899 
  1900 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1901 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1902 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1903 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1904 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1905 
  1906   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1907     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1908     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1909     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1910     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1911 
  1912     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1913     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1914 
  1915   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1916     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1917     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1918     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1919     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1920     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1921     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1922     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1923 
  1924   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1925     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1926     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1927     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1928 
  1929   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1930     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1931     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1932     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1933 
  1934   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1935     from type nat to type int.
  1936 
  1937 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1938 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1939 
  1940   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1941     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1942     type.  Example syntax:
  1943 
  1944     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1945       is List.insert
  1946 
  1947     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1948     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1949     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1950     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1951     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1952     by the package.
  1953 
  1954   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1955     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1956     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1957     code generation for each constant.
  1958 
  1959   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1960     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1961     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1962     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1963     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1964 
  1965   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1966     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1967     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1968 
  1969 * Quotient package:
  1970 
  1971   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1972     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1973 
  1974   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1975     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1976 
  1977   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1978     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1979     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1980 
  1981   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1982     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1985 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1986 
  1987 * Quickcheck:
  1988 
  1989   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1990     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1991     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1992     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1993     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1994 
  1995     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1996     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1997     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1998 
  1999     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2000     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2001 
  2002     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2003     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2004     show genuine counterexamples.
  2005 
  2006   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2007     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2008 
  2009     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2010     constructors of that type.
  2011 
  2012   - Support for multisets.
  2013 
  2014   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2015 
  2016   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2017     conjectures in a locale context.
  2018 
  2019 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2020 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2021 
  2022 * Sledgehammer:
  2023   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2024     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2025   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2026   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2027     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2028   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2029   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2030   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2031   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2032 
  2033 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2034 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2035 
  2036 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2037 
  2038 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2041 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2042 
  2043   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2044 
  2045 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2046 a list and a nat.
  2047 
  2048 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2049 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2050 
  2051 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2052 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2053 default.
  2054 
  2055 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2056 
  2057   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2058 
  2059 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2060 
  2061 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2062 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2063 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2064 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2065 one_case.
  2066 
  2067 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2068 the result of the fact expression.
  2069 
  2070 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2071 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2072 of some relation theorems:
  2073 
  2074   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2075   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2076   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2077   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2078   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2079   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2080 
  2081 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2082 
  2083 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2084 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2085 
  2086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2087 
  2088 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2089 to match the constant's name:
  2090 
  2091   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2092   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2093   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2094   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2095   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2096   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2097   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2098   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2099   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2100   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2101   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2102   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2103   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2104   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2105   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2106   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2107   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2108   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2109   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2110   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2111   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2112   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2113   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2114   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2115 
  2116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2119 and corresponding theorem names:
  2120 
  2121   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2122 
  2123   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2124 
  2125   - Renamed theorems:
  2126 
  2127     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2128     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2129     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2130     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2131     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2132     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2133     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2134     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2135     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2136     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2137     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2138     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2139     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2140     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2141     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2142     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2143     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2144     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2145     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2146     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2147     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2148     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2149     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2150 
  2151     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2152 
  2153     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2154 
  2155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2156 
  2157 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2158 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2159 
  2160   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2161   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2162   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2163   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2164   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2165   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2166   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2167   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2168   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2169   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2170   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2171   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2172   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2173   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2174   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2175   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2176   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2177   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2178   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2179   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2180   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2181 
  2182 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2183 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2184 
  2185 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2188 
  2189   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2190   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2191   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2192   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2193   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2194   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2195   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2196   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2197   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2198   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2199   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2200   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2201   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2202   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2203   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2204   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2205   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2206   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2207 
  2208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2209 
  2210 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2211 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2212 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2213 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2214 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2215 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2216 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2217 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2218 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2219 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2220 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2221 
  2222 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2223 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2224 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2225 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2226 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2227 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2228 
  2229 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2230 through option types.
  2231 
  2232 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2233 relations.
  2234 
  2235 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2238 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2239 
  2240   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2241   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2242   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2243   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2244   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2245   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2246   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2247   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2248   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2249   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2250   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2251   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2252   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2253   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2254   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2255   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2256   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2257   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2258   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2259   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2260   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2261   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2262   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2263   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2264   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2265   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2266   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2267   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2268   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2269   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2270   zless_le ~> less_le
  2271   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2272   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2273   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2274 
  2275 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2276 
  2277   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2278 
  2279 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2280 
  2281 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2282 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2283 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2284 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2288 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2289 
  2290 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2291 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2292 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2293 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2294 follows:
  2295 
  2296   Operations:
  2297   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2298   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2299   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2300   del -> rbt_del
  2301   delete -> rbt_delete
  2302   ins -> rbt_ins
  2303   insert -> rbt_insert
  2304   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2305   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2306   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2307   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2308   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2309   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2310   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2311   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2312   union -> rbt_union
  2313   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2314   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2315 
  2316   Lemmas:
  2317   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2318   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2319   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2320   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2321   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2322   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2323   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2324   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2325   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2326   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2327   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2328   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2329   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2330   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2331   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2332   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2333   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2334   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2335   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2336   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2337   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2338   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2339   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2340   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2341   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2342   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2343   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2344   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2345   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2346   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2347   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2348   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2349   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2350   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2351   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2352   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2353   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2354   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2355   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2356   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2357   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2358   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2359   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2360   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2361   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2362   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2363   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2364   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2365   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2366   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2367   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2368   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2369   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2370   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2371   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2372   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2373   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2374   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2375   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2376   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2377   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2378   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2379   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2380   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2381   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2382   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2383   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2384   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2385   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2386   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2387   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2388   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2389   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2390   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2391   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2392   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2393   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2394   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2395   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2396   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2397   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2398   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2399   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2400 
  2401 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2402 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2403 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405   Changed Operations:
  2406   float_abs -> abs
  2407   float_nprt -> nprt
  2408   float_pprt -> pprt
  2409   pow2 -> use powr
  2410   round_down -> float_round_down
  2411   round_up -> float_round_up
  2412   scale -> exponent
  2413 
  2414   Removed Operations:
  2415   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2416 
  2417   Renamed Lemmas:
  2418   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2419   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2420   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2421   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2422   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2423   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2424   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2425   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2426   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2427   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2428   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2429   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2430   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2431   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2432   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2433   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2434   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2435   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2436   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2437   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2438   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2439   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2440   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2441   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2442   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2443   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2444   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2445   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2446   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2447   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2448   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2449   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2450   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2451   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2452   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2453   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2454 
  2455   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2456   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2457   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2458   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2459   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2460   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2461   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2462   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2463   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2464   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2465 
  2466 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2467 association lists with distinct keys.
  2468 
  2469 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2470 annotated commands.
  2471 
  2472 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2473 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2474 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2475 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2476 
  2477 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2478 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2479 instead.
  2480 
  2481   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2482   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2483   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2484   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2485   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2486   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2487   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2488   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2489   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2490   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2491   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2492   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2493   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2494   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2495   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2496   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2497   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2498   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2499   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2500   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2501   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2502   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2503   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2504   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2505   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2506   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2507   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2508   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2509   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2510   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2511   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2512   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2513   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2514   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2515   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2516   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2517   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2518   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2519   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2520   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2521   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2522 
  2523 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2524 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2525 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2526 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2527 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2528 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2529 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2530 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2531 
  2532 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2533 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2534 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2535 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2536 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2537 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2538 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2539 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2540 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2541 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2542 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2543 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2544 
  2545   Renamed constants:
  2546   measure -> emeasure
  2547   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2548   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2549   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2550   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2551 
  2552   Removed locales:
  2553   completeable_measure_space
  2554   finite_measure_space
  2555   finite_prob_space
  2556   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2557   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2558   finite_sigma_algebra
  2559   measure_space
  2560   pair_finite_prob_space
  2561   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2562   pair_finite_space
  2563   pair_sigma_algebra
  2564   product_sigma_algebra
  2565 
  2566   Removed constants:
  2567   conditional_space
  2568   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2569   image_space
  2570   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2571   pair_measure_generator
  2572   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2573   subvimage
  2574 
  2575   Replacement theorems:
  2576   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2577   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2578   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2579   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2580   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2581   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2582   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2583   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2584   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2585   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2586   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2587   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2588   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2589   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2590   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2591   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2592   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2593   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2594   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2595   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2596   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2597   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2598   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2599   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2600   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2601   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2602   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2603   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2604   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2605   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2606   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2607   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2608   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2609   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2610   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2611   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2612   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2613   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2614   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2615   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2616   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2617   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2618   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2619   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2620   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2621   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2622   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2623   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2624   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2625   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2626   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2627   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2628   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2629   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2630   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2631   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2632   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2633   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2634   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2635   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2636   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2637   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2638   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2639   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2640   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2641   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2642   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2643   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2644   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2645   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2646   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2647   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2648   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2649   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2650   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2651   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2652   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2653   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2654   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2655   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2656   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2657   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2658   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2659   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2660   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2661   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2662   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2663   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2664   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2665   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2666   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2667   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2668   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2669   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2670   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2671   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2672   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2673   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2674   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2675   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2676   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2677   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2678   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2679   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2680   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2681   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2682   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2683   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2684   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2685   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2686   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2687   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2688   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2689   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2690   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2691   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2692   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2693   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2694   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2695   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2696   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2697   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2698   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2699   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2700   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2701   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2702   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2703   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2704 
  2705 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2706 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2707 
  2708 
  2709 *** FOL ***
  2710 
  2711 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2712 
  2713 
  2714 *** ZF ***
  2715 
  2716 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2717 analysis.
  2718 
  2719 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2720 
  2721 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 
  2724 *** ML ***
  2725 
  2726 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2727 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2728 
  2729 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2730 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2731 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2732 
  2733 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2734 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2735 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2736 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2737 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2738 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2739 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2740 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2741 
  2742 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2743 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2744 
  2745 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2746 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2747 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2748 
  2749 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2750 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2753 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2754 context as well.
  2755 
  2756 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2757 
  2758   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2759   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2760   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2761   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2762   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2763   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2764   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2765   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2766   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2767   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2768   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2769   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2770 
  2771 
  2772 *** System ***
  2773 
  2774 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2775 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2776 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2777 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2778 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2779 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2780 the generic user home was intended.
  2781 
  2782 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2783 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2784 
  2785 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2786 (not just JRE).
  2787 
  2788 
  2789 
  2790 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2791 ------------------------------------
  2792 
  2793 *** General ***
  2794 
  2795 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2796 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2797 
  2798   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2799     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2800     files for checking).
  2801 
  2802   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2803     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2804     positions.
  2805 
  2806   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2807     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2808     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2809 
  2810   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2811     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2812     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2813 
  2814   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2815     cores.
  2816 
  2817   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2818     versions (garbage collection).
  2819 
  2820 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2821 including some remaining limitations.
  2822 
  2823 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2824 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2825 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2826 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2827 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2831 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2832 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2833 
  2834 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2835 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2836 usedir option -Q.
  2837 
  2838 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2839 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2840 
  2841   long_names   ~> names_long
  2842   short_names  ~> names_short
  2843   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2844 
  2845 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2846 
  2847   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2848 
  2849 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2850 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2851 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2852 
  2853 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2854 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2855 
  2856 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2857   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2858   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2859   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2860     "Classical Reasoner".
  2861 
  2862 
  2863 *** HOL ***
  2864 
  2865 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2866 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867 
  2868 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2869 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2870 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2871 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2872 class complete_linorder.
  2873 
  2874 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2875 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2876 
  2877 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2878 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2879 
  2880   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2881   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2882   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2883   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2884   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2885   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2886   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2887   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2888   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2889   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2890   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2891 
  2892 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2893 
  2894   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2895   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2896   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2897   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2898   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2899   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2900   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2901   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2902   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2903   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2904   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2905   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2906   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2907   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2908   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2909   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2910 
  2911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2917 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2918 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2919 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2922 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2923 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2925 
  2926 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2927 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2928 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2929 
  2930 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2931 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2932 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2935 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2936 
  2937 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2938 
  2939     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2940     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2941 
  2942 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2943 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2946 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2949 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2950 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2951 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952 
  2953   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2954   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2955   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2956   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2957   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2958   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2959   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2960 
  2961 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2962 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2965   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2966   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2967   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2968   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2969   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2970   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2971   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2972   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2973   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2974   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2975   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2976   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2977   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2978   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2979   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2980   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2981   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2982   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2983   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2984   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2985   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2986   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2987   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2988   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2989   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2990   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2991   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2992   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2993   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2994   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2995   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2996   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2997   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2998   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2999   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3000   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3001   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3002   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3003   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3004   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3005   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3006   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3007   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3008   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3009   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3010   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3011   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3012   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3013   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3014   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3015   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3016   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3017   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3018   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3019   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3020   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3021   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3022   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3023   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3024   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3025   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3026   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3027   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3028   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3029   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3030   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3031   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3032   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3033   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3034   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3035   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3036   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3037   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3038   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3039   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3040   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3041   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3042   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3043   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3044   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3045   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3046 
  3047 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3048 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3049 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3050 
  3051 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3052 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3053 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3054 
  3055 * Code generation:
  3056 
  3057   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3058     characters in the target language.
  3059 
  3060   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3061     instead.
  3062 
  3063   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3064 
  3065   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3066     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3067 
  3068       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3069 
  3070 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3073 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3074 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3075 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3076 syntax.
  3077 
  3078 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3079 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3080 
  3081 * Nitpick:
  3082   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3083   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3084   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3085     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * Sledgehammer:
  3088   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3089   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3090     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3091   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3092     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3093   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3094     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3096     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3097   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3098     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Metis:
  3101   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3103     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Command 'try':
  3106   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3107     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3109     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3110 
  3111 * Quickcheck:
  3112   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3113     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3114   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3115     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3116   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3117     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3118     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3119     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3120   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3121     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3122 
  3123 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3124 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3125 
  3126 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3127 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3128 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3129 
  3130 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3131 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133 
  3134 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3135 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3138 arithmetic.
  3139 
  3140 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3141 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3142 and lattice type classes.
  3143 
  3144 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3145 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3146 
  3147 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3148 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3149 
  3150 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3151 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3152 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3155   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3156   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3157   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3158 
  3159 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3160 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3161 constants:
  3162 
  3163   type inat   ~> type enat
  3164   Fin         ~> enat
  3165   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3166   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3167   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3168 
  3169 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3170 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3173 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3174 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3175 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3176 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3177 
  3178 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3179 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3180 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3181 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3182 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3183 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3184 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3185 
  3186   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3187   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3188   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3189   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3190 
  3191 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3192 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3193 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3196   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3197   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3198   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3199   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3200   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3201   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3202   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3203   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3204   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3205   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3206   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3207   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3208   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3209   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3210   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3211   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3212   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3213   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3214   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3215   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3216   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3217   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3218   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3219   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3220   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3221   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3222   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3223   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3224   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3225   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3226   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3227   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3228   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3229   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3230   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3231   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3232   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3233   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3234   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3235   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3236   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3237   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3238   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3239   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3240   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3241   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3242   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3243   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3244   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3245   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3246 
  3247 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3248   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3249   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3250   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3251   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3252     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3257   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3258   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3259   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3260   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3261   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3262   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3263   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3264   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3265   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3266   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3267   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3268   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3269   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3270   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3271   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3272   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3273   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3274   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3275   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3276   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3277   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3278   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3279   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3280   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3281 
  3282 
  3283 *** Document preparation ***
  3284 
  3285 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3286 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3287 same.
  3288 
  3289 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3290 result.
  3291 
  3292 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3293 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3294 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3295 
  3296 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3297 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3298 
  3299 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3300 like this:
  3301 
  3302   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3303   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3304 
  3305 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3306 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3307 layouts.
  3308 
  3309 
  3310 *** ML ***
  3311 
  3312 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3313 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3314 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3315 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3316 under external program control.
  3317 
  3318 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3319 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3320 
  3321 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3322 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3323 (better known as Proof General).
  3324 
  3325 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3326 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3327 
  3328 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3329 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3330 
  3331 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3332 (including quotes etc.).
  3333 
  3334 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3335 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3336 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3337 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3338 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3339 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3340 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3341 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3342 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3343 
  3344 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3345 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3346 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3347 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3348 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3349 
  3350 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3351 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3352 
  3353 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3354 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3355 
  3356 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3357 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3358 
  3359 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3360 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3361 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3362 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3363 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3364 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3365 proper Proof.context.
  3366 
  3367 
  3368 *** System ***
  3369 
  3370 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3371 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3372 
  3373 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3374 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3375 
  3376 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3377 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3378 
  3379   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3380   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3381   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3382   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3383   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3384 
  3385 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3386 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3387 
  3388 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3389 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3390 example:
  3391 
  3392   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3393 
  3394 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3395 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3396 
  3397 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3398 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3399 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3400 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3401 
  3402 
  3403 
  3404 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3405 ----------------------------------
  3406 
  3407 *** General ***
  3408 
  3409 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3410 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3411 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3412 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3413 like this:
  3414 
  3415   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3416 
  3417 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3418 
  3419 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3420 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3421 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3422 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3423 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3424 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3425 
  3426 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3427 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3428 the following package declarations:
  3429 
  3430   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3431   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3432 
  3433 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3434 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3435 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3436 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3437 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3438 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3439 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3440 
  3441 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3442 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3443 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3444 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3445 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3446 
  3447 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3448 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3449 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3450 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3451 
  3452 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3453 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3454 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3455 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3456 
  3457   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3458 
  3459   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3460   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3461   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3462   show_types                    show_types
  3463   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3464   show_consts                   show_consts
  3465   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3466 
  3467   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3468   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3469   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3470 
  3471   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3472   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3473 
  3474   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3475 
  3476   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3477   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3478   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3479   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3480   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3481 
  3482 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3483 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3484 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3485 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3486 
  3487 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3491   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3492 
  3493 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3494 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3495 float_token.
  3496 
  3497 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3498 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3502 DejaVu Sans.
  3503 
  3504 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3505 
  3506 
  3507 *** Pure ***
  3508 
  3509 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3510 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3511 time.
  3512 
  3513 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3514 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3517 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3520 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3521 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3522 command already provided this functionality.
  3523 
  3524 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3525 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3526 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3527 without interpretations.
  3528 
  3529 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3530 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3531 
  3532 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3533 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3534 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3535 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3536 
  3537 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3538 'definition' instead.
  3539 
  3540 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3541 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3542 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3543 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3544 
  3545 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3546 constructors.
  3547 
  3548 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3549 the local file system.
  3550 
  3551 
  3552 *** HOL ***
  3553 
  3554 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3555 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3556 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3557 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3558 
  3559   declare [[coercion f]]
  3560 
  3561 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3562 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3563 
  3564   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3565 
  3566 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3567 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3568 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3569 other theories like this:
  3570 
  3571   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3572 
  3573 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3574 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3575 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3576 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3577 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3578 for examples.
  3579 
  3580 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3581 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3584 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3585 
  3586 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3587 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3588 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3589 
  3590 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3591 functorial structure of types.
  3592 
  3593 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3594 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3595 
  3596 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3597 languages.
  3598 
  3599 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3600 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3604 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3607 combinators any longer.
  3608 
  3609 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3610 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3611 
  3612 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3613 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3614 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3615 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3616 
  3617   record 'a foo = ...
  3618   ...
  3619   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3620 
  3621 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3622 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3626 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3627 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3628 
  3629 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3630 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3631 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3632 
  3633 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3634 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3637 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3638 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3639 independently.
  3640 
  3641 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3642 counter example search.
  3643 
  3644 * Sledgehammer:
  3645   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3646     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3647     sledgehammer").
  3648   - Renamed commands:
  3649     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3650     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3651     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3652     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653   - Renamed options:
  3654     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3655     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3656     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3657     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3658     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3659 
  3660 * Nitpick:
  3661   - Renamed options:
  3662     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3663     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3664     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3666   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3667   - Added "whack" option.
  3668   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3669   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3670   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3671   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3672     higher cardinalities.
  3673   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3674 
  3675 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3676 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3677 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3678 
  3679     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3680 
  3681 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3682 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3683 
  3684 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3685 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3686 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3687 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3688 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3689 "smt_solver".
  3690 
  3691 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3692 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3693 
  3694 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3695 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3696 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3697 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3700   - Renamed:
  3701     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3702     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3703     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704   - Added:
  3705     smt_verbose
  3706     smt_random_seed
  3707     smt_datatypes
  3708     smt_infer_triggers
  3709     smt_monomorph_limit
  3710     cvc3_options
  3711     remote_cvc3_options
  3712     remote_z3_options
  3713     yices_options
  3714 
  3715 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3716 header.
  3717 
  3718 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3719 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3720 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3721 
  3722   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3723 
  3724 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3727 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3730 
  3731 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3732 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3735 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3736 
  3737 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3738 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3741 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3742 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3750 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3753 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3754 for congruent(2)).
  3755 
  3756 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3757 
  3758   types
  3759     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3760     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3761 
  3762   constants
  3763     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3764     True ~> HOL.True
  3765     False ~> HOL.False
  3766     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3767     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3768     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3769     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3770     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3771     The ~> HOL.The
  3772     All ~> HOL.All
  3773     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3774     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3775     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3776     If ~> HOL.If
  3777     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3778     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3779     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3780     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3781     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3782     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3783     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3784     op : ~> Set.member
  3785     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3786 
  3787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3790 
  3791     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3792     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3793     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3794     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3795     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3796     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3797     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3798     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3799 
  3800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * More stylized fact names:
  3803 
  3804   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3805   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3806   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3807   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3808 
  3809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 
  3811 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3812 
  3813   constants
  3814     null ~> List.null
  3815 
  3816   facts
  3817     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3818     null_empty ~> null_def
  3819 
  3820 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3821 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3822 generation.
  3823 
  3824 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3825 Haskell code.
  3826 
  3827 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3828 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3829 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3832 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3835 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3836 
  3837 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3838 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3839 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3840 
  3841 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3842 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3848 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3849 referred to by its qualified name.
  3850 
  3851   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3852   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3853   product ~>  Enum.product
  3854 
  3855 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3856 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3860 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3861 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3865 sort_key.
  3866 
  3867 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3871 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3872 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3873 
  3874   types
  3875     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3876               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3877               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3878         (depends on your needs)
  3879 
  3880   constants
  3881      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3882      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3883      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3884 
  3885 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3886 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3887 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3888 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3891 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3892 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3893 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3894 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3900 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3901 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3902 
  3903 
  3904 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3905 
  3906 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3907 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3908 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3909 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3910 compatibility.
  3911 
  3912 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3913 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3914 
  3915 
  3916 *** HOLCF ***
  3917 
  3918 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3919 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3920 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3924 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3925 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3928   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3929   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3930 
  3931 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3932 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3933 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3934 
  3935 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3936 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3937 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3938 domain definition now works:
  3939 
  3940   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3941 
  3942 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3943 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3944 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3945 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3946 
  3947   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3948     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3949 
  3950   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3951 
  3952 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3953 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3954 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3957 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3960 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3961 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3962 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3963 
  3964 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3965 
  3966 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972 
  3973 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3974 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3975 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3976 
  3977 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3978 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3979 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3982 still supported as an input translation.
  3983 
  3984 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3985 
  3986   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3987   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3988   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3989   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3990   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3991   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3992   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3993 
  3994 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3995 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3998   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3999   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4000   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4001   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4002   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4003 
  4004 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4005 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4008 
  4009   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4010   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4011   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4012   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4013 
  4014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4017 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4020 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4023   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4024   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4025   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4026   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4027   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4028   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4029   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4030   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4031   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4032   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4033   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4034   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4035   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4036   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4037   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4038   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4039   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4040   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4041   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4042 
  4043 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4046   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4047   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4048   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4049   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4050   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4051   box_less             ~> box_below
  4052   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4053   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4054   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4055   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4056   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4057   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4058   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4059   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4060   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4061   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4062   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4063   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4064   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4065   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4066   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4067   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4068   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4069   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4070   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4071   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4072   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4073   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4074   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4075   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4076   up_less              ~> up_below
  4077   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4078   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4079   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4080   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4081   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4082   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4083   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4084   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4085   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4086   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4087   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4088   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4089   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4090 
  4091 
  4092 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4093 
  4094 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4095 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 
  4098 *** ML ***
  4099 
  4100 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4101 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4102 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4103 
  4104 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4105 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4106 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4107 
  4108 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4109 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4110 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4111 
  4112 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4113 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4114 
  4115 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4116 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4117 
  4118 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4119 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4120 
  4121 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4122 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4123 
  4124 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4125 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4126 almost all situations.
  4127 
  4128 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4129 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4130 Isabelle/ML.
  4131 
  4132 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4133 meaning.
  4134 
  4135 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4136 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4137 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4138 
  4139 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4140 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4141 
  4142 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4143 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4144 
  4145 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4146 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4147 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4148 
  4149 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4150 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4151 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4152 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4153 configuration options.
  4154 
  4155 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4156 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4157 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4158 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4159 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4160 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4161 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4162 
  4163 
  4164 
  4165 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4166 ---------------------------------
  4167 
  4168 *** General ***
  4169 
  4170 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4171 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4172 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4173 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4174 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4175 their full internal name.
  4176 
  4177 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4178 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4179 Some hints on upgrading:
  4180 
  4181   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4182     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4183     which are independent of this issue.
  4184 
  4185   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4186     provides the following special forms:
  4187 
  4188       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4189       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4190       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4191 
  4192     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4193     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4194     extra variables".
  4195 
  4196     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4197     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4198     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4199     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4200     "logic".
  4201 
  4202   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4203     antiquotations:
  4204 
  4205       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4206       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4207       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4208       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4209 
  4210   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4211     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4212     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4213     antiquotations.
  4214 
  4215 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4216 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4217 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4218 diagnose syntax problems.
  4219 
  4220 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4221 
  4222 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4223 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4224 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4225 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4226 
  4227 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4228 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4229 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4230 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4233 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4234 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4235 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4236 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4237 
  4238 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4239 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4240 
  4241 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4242 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4243 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4244 
  4245   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4246 
  4247 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4248 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4249 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4250 
  4251 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4252 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4256 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4257 
  4258 
  4259 *** Pure ***
  4260 
  4261 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4262 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4263 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4264 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4265 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4266 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4267 inspect proof terms.
  4268 
  4269 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4270 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4271 are added internally.  For example:
  4272 
  4273   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4274 
  4275 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4276 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4277 
  4278 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4281 'class' instead.
  4282 
  4283 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4284 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4288 invariants.
  4289 
  4290 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4291 user space functionality any longer.
  4292 
  4293 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4294 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4296 
  4297 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4298 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4299 
  4300 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4301 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4302 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4303 
  4304 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4305 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4306 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4307 
  4308 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4309 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 
  4312 *** HOL ***
  4313 
  4314 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4315 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4316 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4317 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4318 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4319 
  4320 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4321 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4322 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4323 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4324 
  4325   fun
  4326     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4327   where
  4328     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4329 
  4330   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4331     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4332 
  4333   quotient_definition
  4334     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4335 
  4336 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4337 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4338 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4339 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4340 
  4341 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4342 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4343 
  4344 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4345 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4346 
  4347 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4349 
  4350 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4351 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4352 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4353 
  4354 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4355 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4358 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4364 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4367 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4368 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4371   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4372   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4373   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4374   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4375   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4376   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4377   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4378   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4379   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4380   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4381   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4382   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4383   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4384   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4385   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4386   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4387   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4388   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4389   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4390   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4391   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4392   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4393   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4394   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4395   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4396   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4397   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4398   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4399   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4400 
  4401 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4402 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4403 
  4404 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4405 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4406 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4407 
  4408 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4409 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4410 
  4411 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4412 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4413 
  4414 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4415 
  4416 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4417 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4418 
  4419 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4420 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4425 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4426 
  4427 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4428 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4429 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4430 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431 
  4432 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4433   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4434   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4435   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4437 
  4438 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4439 lattices):
  4440 
  4441     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4442     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4443 
  4444     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4445 
  4446     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4447     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4448     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4449     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4450     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4451     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4452     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4453     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4454     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4455     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4456     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4457     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4458     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4459 
  4460     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4461     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4462     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4463     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4464     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4465     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4466     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4467     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4468     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4469     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4470     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4471     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4472     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4473     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4474     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4475     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4476     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4477     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4478 
  4479   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4480   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4481 
  4482     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4483     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4484     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4485     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4486     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4487 
  4488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4489 
  4490 * Refined field classes:
  4491   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4492     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4493     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4494   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4498   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4499   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4500   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4501     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4502   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4503     equal_neg_zero.
  4504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4505 
  4506 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4507 sets to lattices:
  4508 
  4509   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4510   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4511   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4512   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4513   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4514   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4515   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4516   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4517   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4518   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4519 
  4520 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4521 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4522 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4523 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4524 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4525 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4528 multiset order:
  4529 
  4530   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4531     <= and <;
  4532   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4533     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4534     multiset_order;
  4535   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4536     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4537     generation;
  4538   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4539     if needed.
  4540 
  4541 Renamed:
  4542 
  4543   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4544   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4545   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4546 
  4547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4550 
  4551 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4552 
  4553 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4554 
  4555 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4556 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4557 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4558 
  4559   Constants:
  4560   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4561   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4562   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4563   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4564   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4565   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4566   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4567   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4568   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4569   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4570   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4571   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4572   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4573 
  4574   Lemmas:
  4575   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4576   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4577   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4578   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4579   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4580   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4581   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4582   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4583   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4584   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4585   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4586   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4587   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4588 
  4589 * Sledgehammer:
  4590   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4591     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4592     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4593     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4594     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4595     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4596     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4598   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4599     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4600   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4601     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4602     is still experimental.)
  4603   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4604     full-typed mode.
  4605   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4606 
  4607 * Nitpick:
  4608   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4609   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4610   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4611     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4612   - Added support for quotient types.
  4613   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4614     constructs.
  4615   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4616     "termination" proofs).
  4617   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4618   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4619   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4620   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4621     record getters.
  4622   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4623   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4624   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4625   - Added "atoms" option.
  4626   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4627     problems.
  4628   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4629     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4630     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4632     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4633   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4634 
  4635 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4636   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4637   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4638   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4639   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4640   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4641   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4642   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4643   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4644   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4645 
  4646 
  4647 *** HOLCF ***
  4648 
  4649 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4650 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4651 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4652 
  4653 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4654 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4655 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4656 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4657 
  4658 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4659 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4660 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4661 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4662 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4663 
  4664 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4665 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4666 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4667 
  4668 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4669 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4672   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4673 
  4674 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4675 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4678   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4679   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4680   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4681   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4682 
  4683 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4684 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4687   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4688   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4689 
  4690 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4691 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4695 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4700 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 
  4703 *** ML ***
  4704 
  4705 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4706 
  4707     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4708     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4709 
  4710     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4711     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4712     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4713     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4714 
  4715     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4716     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4717     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4718 
  4719 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4720 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4721 
  4722 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4723 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4724 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4725 
  4726 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4727 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4728 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4729 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4730 
  4731 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4732 the context or even global references.
  4733 
  4734 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4735 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4736 
  4737 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4738 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4739 
  4740   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4741   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4742   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4743   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4744   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4745   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4746   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4747   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4748   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4749   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4750 
  4751 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4752 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4753 
  4754 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4755 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4756 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4757 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4758 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4759 
  4760 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4761 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4762 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4763 Theory_Data version.
  4764 
  4765 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4766 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4767 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4768 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4769 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4770 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4771 explicitly in rare situations.
  4772 
  4773 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4774 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4778 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4779 
  4780 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4781 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4782 quite rare).
  4783 
  4784 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4785 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4786 
  4787 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4788 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4789 terms.
  4790 
  4791 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4792 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4793 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4794 
  4795 
  4796 *** System ***
  4797 
  4798 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4799 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4800 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4801 
  4802 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4803 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4804 respectively.
  4805 
  4806 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4807 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4808 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4809 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4810 
  4811   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4812 
  4813 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4814 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4815 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4816 component.
  4817 
  4818 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4819 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4820 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4821 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4822 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4823 the user for manual installation.
  4824 
  4825 
  4826 
  4827 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4828 -------------------------------------
  4829 
  4830 *** General ***
  4831 
  4832 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4833 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4834 
  4835 
  4836 *** Pure ***
  4837 
  4838 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4839 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4840 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4841 
  4842 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4843 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4844 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4845 
  4846 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4847 interpretation.
  4848 
  4849 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4850 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852 
  4853 *** Document preparation ***
  4854 
  4855 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4856 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4857 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4858 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4859 
  4860 
  4861 *** HOL ***
  4862 
  4863 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4864 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4865 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4866 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4867 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4868 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4869 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4870 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4871 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4872 
  4873 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4874 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4875 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4876 
  4877 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4878 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4879 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4880 
  4881 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4882 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4883 
  4884 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4885 
  4886 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4887 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4888 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4889 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4890 
  4891 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4892 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4893 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4894 "mirabelle" utility.
  4895 
  4896 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4897 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4898 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4899 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4900 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4901 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4902 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4903 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4904 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4905 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4906 
  4907 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4908 procedure only.
  4909 
  4910 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4911 
  4912 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4913 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4914 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4915 that fail later.
  4916 
  4917 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4918 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4919 
  4920 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4921 the same method as the approximation method.
  4922 
  4923 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4924 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4925 series expansion.
  4926 
  4927 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4928 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4929 
  4930 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4931 reals.
  4932 
  4933 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4934 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4935 
  4936 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4937 fixpoint theorem.
  4938 
  4939 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4940   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4941     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4942   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4943     accordingly
  4944   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4945     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4946   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4947     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4948 
  4949 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4950 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4951 lattice.
  4952 
  4953 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4954 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4955 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4956 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4957 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4958 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4962   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4963     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4964   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4965     le_inf_iff
  4966   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4967     sup_aci)
  4968   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4969   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4970   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4971     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4972     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4973     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4974     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4975     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4976     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4977     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4978     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4979     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4980     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4981   - authentic syntax for
  4982     Set.Pow
  4983     Set.image
  4984   - mere abbreviations:
  4985     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4986     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4987     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4988     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4989     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4990     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4991     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4992     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4993   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4994 
  4995 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4996 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4997 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4998 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4999 
  5000 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5001 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5002 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5003 
  5004 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5005 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5008 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5009 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5010 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5013 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5014 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5015 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5016 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5017 
  5018 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5019 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5023 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5026 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5027 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5028 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5029 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5030 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5031 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5033 
  5034 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5035     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5036     code_post       replaces    code post
  5037     etc.
  5038   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5039 
  5040 * Renamed methods:
  5041     sizechange -> size_change
  5042     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5043   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5046 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5047 
  5048 * Renamed theorems:
  5049     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5050     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5051     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5052     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5053     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5054   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5055 
  5056 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 
  5063 *** HOLCF ***
  5064 
  5065 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5066 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5067 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5068 
  5069 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5070 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5071 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5072 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5073 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5074 
  5075 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5076 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5077 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5078 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5079 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5080 
  5081 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5082 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5083 constructor are pre-configured.
  5084 
  5085 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5086 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5087 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5088 
  5089 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5090 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5091 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5092 as well.)
  5093 
  5094 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5095 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5096 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5097 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5098 examples.
  5099 
  5100 
  5101 *** ML ***
  5102 
  5103 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5104 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5105 
  5106 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5107 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5108 position, logical grouping etc.
  5109 
  5110 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5111 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5112 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5113 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5114 
  5115 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5116 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5117 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5118 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5119 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5120 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5121 
  5122 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5123 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5124 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5125 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5126 experiments with references.
  5127 
  5128 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5129 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5130 
  5131 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5132 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5133 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5134 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5135 
  5136 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5137 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5138 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5139 
  5140 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5141 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5142 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5143 
  5144 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5145 
  5146 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5150 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5151 
  5152 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5153 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5154 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5155 
  5156 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5157 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5158 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5159 
  5160 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5161 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5162 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5166 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5167 instead of global theory.
  5168 
  5169 
  5170 *** System ***
  5171 
  5172 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5173 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5174 usedir option -q.
  5175 
  5176 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5177 also the system manual.
  5178 
  5179 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5180 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5181 
  5182 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5183 this is always enabled.
  5184 
  5185 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5186 
  5187 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5188 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5189 currently supported on Linux only.
  5190 
  5191 
  5192 
  5193 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5194 --------------------------------
  5195 
  5196 *** General ***
  5197 
  5198 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5199 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5200 
  5201   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5202     "isatool."
  5203 
  5204   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5205     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5206 
  5207   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5208     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5209 
  5210 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5211 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5212 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5213 
  5214 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5215 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5216 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5217 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5218 via "isabelle emacs".
  5219 
  5220 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5221 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5222 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5223 
  5224 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5225 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5226 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5227 
  5228 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5229 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5230 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5231 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5232 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5233 
  5234 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5235 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5236 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5237 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5238 
  5239 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5240 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5241 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5242 
  5243 
  5244 *** Pure ***
  5245 
  5246 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5247 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5248 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5249 
  5250 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5251 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5252 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5253 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5254 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5255 
  5256 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5257 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5258 useful in locale declarations.
  5259 
  5260 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5261 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5262 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5263 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5264 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5265 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5266 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5267 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5268 no longer generated.
  5269 
  5270 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5271 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5272 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5273 
  5274 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5275 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5276 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5277 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5278 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5279 
  5280 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5281 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5282 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5283 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5284 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5285 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5286 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5287 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5288 
  5289 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5290 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5291 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5292 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5293 
  5294 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5295 
  5296 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5297 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5298 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5299 
  5300 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5301 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5302 
  5303 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5304 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5305 in HOL, write
  5306 
  5307     class foo = ...
  5308 
  5309 instead of
  5310 
  5311     class foo = type + ...
  5312 
  5313 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5314 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5315 
  5316 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5317 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5318 
  5319 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5320 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5321 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5322 
  5323 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5324 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5325 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5326 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5327 directly in regular applications.
  5328 
  5329 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5330 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5331 
  5332 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5333 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5334 
  5335 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5336 theory context.
  5337 
  5338 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5339 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5340 
  5341 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5342 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5343 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5344 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5345 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5346 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5347 
  5348   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5349 
  5350 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5351 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5352 normalization.
  5353 
  5354 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5355 addressing etc.
  5356 
  5357 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5358 
  5359   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5360   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5361 
  5362 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5363 
  5364   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5365      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5366      parts of the code generator framework).
  5367 
  5368   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5369      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5370      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5371 
  5372 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5373 
  5374 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5375 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5378 patterns, e.g.
  5379 
  5380     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5381 
  5382 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5383 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5384 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5385 hyphen:
  5386 
  5387     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5388 
  5389 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5390 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5391 
  5392 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5393 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5394 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5395 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5396 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5397 higher-order unification.
  5398 
  5399 
  5400 *** Document preparation ***
  5401 
  5402 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5403 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5404 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5405 
  5406 
  5407 *** HOL ***
  5408 
  5409 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5410 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5411 
  5412 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5413 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5414 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5415 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5416 Main, as before.
  5417 
  5418 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5419 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5420 
  5421 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5422 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5423 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5424 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5425 
  5426 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5427 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5428 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5429 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5430 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5431 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5432 
  5433 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5434 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5435 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5436 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5437 
  5438 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5439 menu.
  5440 
  5441 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5442 (contains the empty clause).
  5443 
  5444 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5445 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5446 
  5447 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5448 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5449 
  5450 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5451 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5452 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5453 
  5454 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5455 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5456 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5457 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5458 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5459 
  5460 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5461 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5462 
  5463 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5464 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5465 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5466 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5467 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5468 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5469 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5470 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5471 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5472 
  5473 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5474 
  5475 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5476 
  5477 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5478 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5481 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5482 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5483 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5484 
  5485 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5486 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5487 
  5488     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5489     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5490     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5491     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5492     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5493     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5494     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5495     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5496 
  5497 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5498 theory Set.
  5499 
  5500 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5501 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5502 
  5503 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5504 
  5505 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5506 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5507 
  5508 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5509 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5510 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5511 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5512 allowed. For examples see
  5513 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5514 
  5515 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5516 
  5517 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5519 
  5520 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5521 structure:
  5522 
  5523     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5524     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5525     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5526     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5527     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5528     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5529     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5530     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5531     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5532     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5533     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5534     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5535     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5536     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5537     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5538     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5539     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5540     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5541     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5542     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5543     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5544     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5545     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5546     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5547     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5548     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5549     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5550     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5551     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5552     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5553     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5554     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5555     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5556 
  5557     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5558     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5559     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5560     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5561     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5562     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5563     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5564     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5565     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5566     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5567 
  5568     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5569     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5570     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5571     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5572     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5573     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5574 
  5575 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5576 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5577 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5578 
  5579 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5580 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5581 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5582 
  5583 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5584 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5587 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5588 
  5589 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5590 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5591 proofs, e.g.
  5592 
  5593   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5594 
  5595 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5596 
  5597 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5598 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5599 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5600 
  5601 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5602 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5604 
  5605 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5606 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5607 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5609 
  5610 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5611 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5612 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5613 preorder_class.*.
  5614 
  5615 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5616 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5617 
  5618 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5619 
  5620   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5621 
  5622 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5623 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5624 fold_image.
  5625 
  5626 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5627 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5628 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5629 the former will disappear at some point.
  5630 
  5631 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5632 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5633 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5634 
  5635 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5636 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5637 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5638 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5639 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5640 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5641 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5642 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5643 
  5644 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5645 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5646 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5647 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5648 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5649 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5650 
  5651     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5652     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5653     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5654     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5655     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5656     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5657     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5658 
  5659 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5660 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5661 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5662 
  5663 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5664 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5665 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5666 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5667 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5668 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5669 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5670 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5671 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5672 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5673 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5674 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5675 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5676 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5677 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5678 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5679 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5680 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5681 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5682 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5683 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5684 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5685 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5686 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5687 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5688 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5689 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5690 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5691 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5692 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5693 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5694 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5695 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5696 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5697 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5698 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5699 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5700 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5701 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5702 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5703 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5704 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5705 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5706 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5707 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5708 
  5709 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5710 
  5711 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5712 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5713 
  5714 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5715 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5716 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5717 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5718 
  5719 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5720 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5721 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5722 theory RealVector.
  5723 
  5724 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5725 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5726 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5727 and inner products are included.
  5728 
  5729 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5730 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5731 supported.
  5732 
  5733 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5734 first diagonalization argument.
  5735 
  5736 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5737 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5738 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5739 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5740 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5741 
  5742     hide (open) const gcd
  5743     abbreviation gcd where
  5744       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5745     notation (output)
  5746       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5747 
  5748 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5749 
  5750 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5751 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5752 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5753 
  5754 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5755 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5756 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5757 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5758 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5759 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5760 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5761 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5762 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5763 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5764 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5765 cases.
  5766 
  5767 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5768 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5769 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5770 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5771 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5772 
  5773     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5774     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5775     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5776     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5777     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5778 
  5779 
  5780 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5781 
  5782 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5783 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5784 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5785 
  5786 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5787 
  5788 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5789 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5790 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5791 
  5792 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5793 
  5794 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5795 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5796 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5797 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5798 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5799 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5800 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5801 
  5802 
  5803 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5804 
  5805 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5806 
  5807 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5808 theory targets.
  5809 
  5810 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5811 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5812 'inductive' etc.
  5813 
  5814 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5815 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5816 
  5817 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5818 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5819 
  5820 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5821 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5822 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5823 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5824 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5825 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5826 the algorithm W:
  5827 
  5828  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5829  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5830          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5831 
  5832 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5833 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5834 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5835 
  5836 
  5837 *** HOLCF ***
  5838 
  5839 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5840 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5841 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5842 
  5843 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5844 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5845 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5846 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5847 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5848 
  5849 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5850 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5851 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5852 
  5853 
  5854 *** ZF ***
  5855 
  5856 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5857 
  5858 
  5859 *** ML ***
  5860 
  5861 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5862 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5863 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5864 5.2.1!
  5865 
  5866 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5867 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5868 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5869 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5870 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5871 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5872 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5873 
  5874 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5875 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5876 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5877 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5878 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5879 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5880 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5881 
  5882 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5883 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5884 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5885 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5886 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5887 
  5888 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5889 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5890 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5891 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5892 Method.add_method.
  5893 
  5894 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5895 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5896 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5897 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5898 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5899 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5900 
  5901 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5902 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5903 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5904 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5905 examples.
  5906 
  5907 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5908 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5909 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5910 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5911 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5912 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5913 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5914 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5915 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5916 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5917 
  5918 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5919 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5920 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5921 
  5922 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5923 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5924 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5925 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5926 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5927 resort for legacy applications.
  5928 
  5929 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5930 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5931 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5932 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5933 explicit runtime argument.
  5934 
  5935 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5936 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5937 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5938 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5939 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5942 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5943 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5944 theory state.
  5945 
  5946 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5947 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5948 
  5949   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5950   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5951   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5952   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5953   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5954   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5955   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5956   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5957   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5958   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5959 
  5960 
  5961 *** System ***
  5962 
  5963 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5964 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5965 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5966 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5967 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5968 
  5969 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5970 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5971 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5972 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5973 
  5974 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5975 
  5976 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5977 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5978 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5979 prover operations.
  5980 
  5981 
  5982 
  5983 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5984 -------------------------------
  5985 
  5986 *** General ***
  5987 
  5988 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5989 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5990 
  5991 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5992 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5993 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5994 provides a proper context already.
  5995 
  5996 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5997 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5998 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5999 
  6000 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6001 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6002 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6003 swap theory imports.
  6004 
  6005 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6006 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6007 
  6008 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6009 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6010 white space without escapes.
  6011 
  6012 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6013 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6014 "foo_bar".
  6015 
  6016 
  6017 *** Pure ***
  6018 
  6019 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6020 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6021 
  6022 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6023 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6024 
  6025 (1) unused_thms
  6026      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6027 
  6028 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6029      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6030      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6031 
  6032 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6033      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6034      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6035      their ancestors.
  6036 
  6037 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6038 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6039 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6040 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6041 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6042 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6043 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6044 
  6045 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6046 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6047 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6048 
  6049 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6050 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6051 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6052 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6053 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6054 
  6055 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6056 
  6057 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6058 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6059 update of theories within ML code.
  6060 
  6061 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6062 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6063 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6064 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6065 
  6066 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6067 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6068 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6070 
  6071 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6072 
  6073 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6074 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6075 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6076 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6077 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6078 
  6079 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6080 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6081 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6082 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6083 situations.
  6084 
  6085 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6086 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6087 proof text.
  6088 
  6089 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6090 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6091 
  6092 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6093 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6094 predicates.
  6095 
  6096 
  6097 *** Document preparation ***
  6098 
  6099 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6100 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6101 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6102 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6103 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6104 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6105 
  6106 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6107 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6108 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6109 
  6110 
  6111 *** HOL ***
  6112 
  6113 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6114 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6115 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6116 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6117 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6118 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6119 
  6120 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6121 with multithreading.
  6122 
  6123 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6124 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6125 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6126 
  6127 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6128 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6129 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6130 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6131 
  6132 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6133 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6134 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6135 and makes them available separately.  See
  6136 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6137 
  6138 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6139 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6140 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6141 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6142 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6143 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6144 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6145 the declared rules.
  6146 
  6147 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6148 
  6149   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6150 
  6151 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6152 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6153 
  6154 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6155 
  6156   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6157 
  6158   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6159     definitions on => and bool.
  6160 
  6161   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6162     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6163     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6164 
  6165       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6166       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6167       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6168       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6169       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6170       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6171       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6172       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6173 
  6174   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6175     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6176     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6177 
  6178   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6179     The proof pattern
  6180 
  6181       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6182       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6183 
  6184     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6185     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6186 
  6187       have "EX S. P S"
  6188       proof
  6189         show "P S" <...>
  6190       qed
  6191 
  6192   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6193     The proof pattern
  6194 
  6195       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6196       also have "S = T" <...>
  6197       finally have "P T" .
  6198 
  6199     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6200     must be replaced by something like
  6201 
  6202       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6203       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6204       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6205 
  6206   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6207     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6208 
  6209       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6210 
  6211     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6212     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6213     type of the form
  6214 
  6215       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6216 
  6217     rather than
  6218 
  6219       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6220 
  6221 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6222 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6223 
  6224 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6225 
  6226 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6227 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6229 
  6230 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6231 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6232 
  6233 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6234 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 
  6236 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6237 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6238 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6239 
  6240 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6241 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6242 
  6243   less_trans
  6244   less_linear
  6245   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6246   le_less_trans
  6247   less_le_trans
  6248   less_not_sym
  6249   less_asym
  6250 
  6251 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6252 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6253 and different variable names.
  6254 
  6255 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6256 
  6257 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6258 finite maps.
  6259 
  6260 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6261 
  6262 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6263 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6264 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6265 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6266 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"