NEWS
author blanchet
Tue Feb 04 01:35:48 2014 +0100 (2014-02-04)
changeset 55315 54b0352fb46d
parent 55297 1dfcd49f5dcb
child 55316 885500f4aa6a
permissions -rw-r--r--
removed legacy 'metisFT' method
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 
    41 *** Pure ***
    42 
    43 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    44 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    45 instantiated theorem.
    46 
    47 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    48 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    49 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    50 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    51 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    52 
    53   attribute_setup standard =
    54     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    55 
    56 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    57 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    58 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    59 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    60 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    61 
    62 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    63 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    64 differently).
    65 
    66 
    67 *** HOL ***
    68 
    69 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    70 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    71 
    72 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    73   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    74   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    75   "Main".
    76   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77   Theory renamings:
    78     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    79     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    80     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    81     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    82     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    83     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    84     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    85     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
    86     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
    87     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
    88     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
    89     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
    90     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
    91     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
    92     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
    93     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
    94     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
    95     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
    96     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
    97     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
    98     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
    99     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   100   New theories:
   101     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
   102     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   103     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   104     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   105     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   106     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   107   Discontinued theory:
   108     BNF/BNF.thy
   109     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   110 
   111 * New theory:
   112     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   113 
   114 * Theory reorganizations:
   115   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   116 
   117 * Sledgehammer:
   118   - New option:
   119       smt_proofs
   120   - Renamed options:
   121       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   122       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   123     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * Metis:
   126   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   127     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   130 
   131 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   132 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   133 
   134 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   135 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   136 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   137 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   138 
   139 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141 
   142 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   143 with the given constants.
   144 
   145 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   146 
   147 Fact consolidations:
   148     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   149     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   150     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   151     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   152     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   153     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   154     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   155     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   156     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   157     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   158     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   159     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   160     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   161     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   162     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   163     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   164     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   165     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   166     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   167     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   168     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   169     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   170     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   171     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   172     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   173     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   174     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   175     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   176     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   177     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   178     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   179     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   180     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   181     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   182     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   183     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   184     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   185     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   186     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   187     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   188 
   189 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   190 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   191 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   192 
   193 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   194 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   195 
   196 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   197 
   198 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   199 
   200 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   207 operations on records.
   208 
   209 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   213     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   217     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   218     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   222   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   223   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   224   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   225     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   226   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   227     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   228   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   229 INCOMPATBILITY.
   230 
   231 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   232     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   233     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   234     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   235     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Fact name consolidation:
   239     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   240     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   241     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   242     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   243     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   247 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   248 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   249 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   250 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   251 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   252 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   253 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   256 
   257 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   258 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   259 
   260 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   261 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   262 
   263 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   264 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   265 or the brute way with
   266 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   267 
   268 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   269 
   270 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   271 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   274 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   275 
   276 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   277 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   278 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   279 INCOMPATIBILITY
   280 
   281 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   282 
   283 * Nitpick:
   284   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   285     infinite values.
   286 
   287 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   288   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   289   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   290     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   291     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   292     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   293     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   294     intervals.
   295 
   296 
   297 *** ML ***
   298 
   299 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   300 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   301 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   302 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   303 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   304 of schematic variables.
   305 
   306 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   307 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   309 formal context.
   310 
   311 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   312 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   313 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   314 actually belongs to it).
   315 
   316 
   317 *** System ***
   318 
   319 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   320 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   321 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   322 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   323 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   324 
   325 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   326 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   327 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   328 
   329 
   330 
   331 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   332 -------------------------------------
   333 
   334 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   335 
   336 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   337 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   338 
   339 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   340 after edits surrounding the command location.
   341 
   342 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   343 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   344 e.g. out-of-memory).
   345 
   346 
   347 *** System ***
   348 
   349 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   350 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   351 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   352 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   353 
   354 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   355 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   356 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   357 
   358 
   359 
   360 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   361 -------------------------------------
   362 
   363 *** General ***
   364 
   365 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   366 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   367 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   370 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   373 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   374 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   375 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   376 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   377 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   378 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   379 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   380 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   381 syntax.
   382 
   383 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   384 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   385 
   386 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   387 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   388 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   389 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   390 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   391 
   392 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   394 
   395 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   396 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   397 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   398 
   399 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   400 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   401 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   402 
   403 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   404 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   405 
   406 
   407 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   408 
   409 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   410 Documentation panel.
   411 
   412 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   413 documentation.
   414 
   415 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   416 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   417 
   418 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   419 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   420 normal editing and checking process.
   421 
   422 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   423 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   424 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   425 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   426 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   427 
   428 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   429 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   430 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   431 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   432 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   433 
   434 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   435 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   436 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   437 
   438 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   439 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   440 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   441 to resolve conflict.
   442 
   443 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   444 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   445 
   446 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   447 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   448 such command executions while editing.
   449 
   450 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   451 document content.
   452 
   453 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   454 toplevel theorem statements.
   455 
   456 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   457 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   458 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   459 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   460 
   461 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   462 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   463 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   464 
   465 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   466 / Global Options / Appearance".
   467 
   468 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   469 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   470 
   471 
   472 *** Pure ***
   473 
   474 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   475 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   476 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   477 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   478 details.
   479 
   480 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   481 
   482 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   483 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   484 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   485 
   486 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   488 
   489 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   490 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   491 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   492 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   495 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   496 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   499 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   500 
   501 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   502 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   503 situations.
   504 
   505 
   506 *** HOL ***
   507 
   508 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   509 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   513 
   514 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   515 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   516 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   517 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   518 
   519   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   520 
   521 * Code generator:
   522   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   523     'code_instance'.
   524   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   525     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   526 
   527 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   528 examples.
   529 
   530 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   531 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   532 to distinguish both when desired.
   533 
   534 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   535 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   536 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   537 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   540 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   541 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   542 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   543 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   544 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   547 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   548 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   549 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   550 
   551 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   552 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   553 
   554 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   555 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   556 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   557 
   558 * Lifting:
   559   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   560     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   561       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   562       transfer rules
   563     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   564       correspondence relation can be generated
   565     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   566       parametricity
   567     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   568   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   569   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   570     copies
   571   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   572     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   573     anonymous context)
   574   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   575     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   576   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   577     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   578   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   579     INCOMPATIBILITY
   580 
   581 * Transfer:
   582   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   583     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   584   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   585   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   586     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   587   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   588 
   589 * Reification and reflection:
   590   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   591     "Reification".
   592   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   593   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   595 
   596 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   597   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   598     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   599     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   600   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   601     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   602   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   603     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   604     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   605     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   606     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   607     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   608     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   609     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   610   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   611     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   612   - Fact renames:
   613       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   614       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   618 
   619 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   620 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   621 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   625 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   626 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   627 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   628 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   629 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   630 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   631 lemmas.
   632 
   633 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   634 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   635 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   638 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   639 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   640 
   641 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   642 top and bottom elements.
   643 
   644 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   645 
   646 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   647 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   648 
   649  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   650    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   651    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   652 
   653  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   654    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   655    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   656 
   657    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   658    arbitrary filter.
   659 
   660  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   661    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   662    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   663    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   664    on a compact set.
   665 
   666  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   667    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   668    linear_continuum_topology).
   669 
   670  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   671    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   672    on all sequences converging to x.
   673 
   674  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   675    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   676    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   677    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   678    left or right.
   679 
   680  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   681 
   682      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   683 
   684  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   685    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   686 
   687  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   688    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   689    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   690    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   691    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   692    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   693 
   694  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   695 
   696    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   697 
   698    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   699      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   700 
   701    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   702 
   703    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   704      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   705 
   706    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   707 
   708    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   709 
   710  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   711 
   712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * Nitpick:
   715   - Added option "spy"
   716   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   717 
   718 * Sledgehammer:
   719   - Renamed option:
   720       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   721     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   722   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   723   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   724   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   725 
   726 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   727 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   728 
   729 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   730   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   731   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   732     generated code.
   733   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   734   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   735   - Fact renames:
   736     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   737     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   738     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   739 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   740 
   741 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   742 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   743 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   744 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   745 
   746 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   747 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   748 
   749 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   752 
   753     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   754     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   755 
   756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   757 
   758 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   759 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   760 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   761 
   762 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   763 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   764 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   765 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   766 
   767 * HOL-BNF:
   768   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   769     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   770     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   771     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   772   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   773     coinduct).
   774   - Renamed keywords:
   775     data ~> datatype_new
   776     codata ~> codatatype
   777     bnf_def ~> bnf
   778   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   779     discs ~> disc
   780     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   781     map_id' ~> map_id
   782     sels ~> sel
   783     set_map' ~> set_map
   784     sets ~> set
   785 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 
   788 *** ML ***
   789 
   790 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   791 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   792 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   793 Examples.thy in particular.
   794 
   795 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   796 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   797 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   798 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   799 
   800 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   801 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   802 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   803 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   805 
   806 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   807 
   808     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   809     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   810 
   811 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   814 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   815 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   816 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   817 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   818 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   819 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   820 
   821 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   822 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   823 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   824 clasets separately from the context.
   825 
   826 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   827 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   828 
   829 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   830 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   831 
   832 
   833 *** System ***
   834 
   835 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   836 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   837 
   838 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   839 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   842 settings variable.
   843 
   844 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   845 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   846 always pdf.
   847 
   848 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   849 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   850 
   851 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   852 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   853 
   854 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   855 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   856 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   857 
   858 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   859 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   860 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   861 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   862 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   863 for HTML presentation of theories.
   864 
   865 
   866 
   867 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   868 -----------------------------------
   869 
   870 *** General ***
   871 
   872 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   873 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   874 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   875 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   876 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   877 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   878 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   879 
   880 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   881 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   882 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   883 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   884 
   885 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   886 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   887 
   888 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   889 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   890 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   891 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   892 dependencies properly.
   893 
   894 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   895 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   896 
   897 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   898 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   899 
   900 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   901 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   902 and "class ... context ...".
   903 
   904 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   905 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   906 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   907 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   908 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   909 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   910 
   911 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   912 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   913 
   914 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   915 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   916 
   917 
   918 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   919 
   920 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   921 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   922 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   923 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   924 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   925 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   926 
   927 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   928 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   929 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   930 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   931 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   932 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   933 
   934 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   935 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   936 browser on demand.
   937 
   938 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   939 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   940 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   941 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   942 
   943 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   944 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   945 
   946 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   947 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   948 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   949 potentially infinite message streams.
   950 
   951 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   952 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   953 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   954 schemes.
   955 
   956 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   957 symbols.
   958 
   959 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   960 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   961 
   962 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   963 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   964 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   965 
   966 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   967 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   968 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   969 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   970 
   971 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   972 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   973 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   974 
   975 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   976 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   977 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   978 Isabelle distribution.
   979 
   980 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   981 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   982 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   983 
   984 
   985 *** Pure ***
   986 
   987 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   988 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   989 
   990 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   991 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   992 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   995 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   996 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   997 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   998 with some care where this is really required.
   999 
  1000 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1001 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1002 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1003 
  1004   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1005 
  1006 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1007 a Hasse diagram.
  1008 
  1009 
  1010 *** HOL ***
  1011 
  1012 * Sledgehammer:
  1013 
  1014   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1015     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1016   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1017   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1018   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1019   - Renamed options:
  1020       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1021       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1022       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1023       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1024 
  1025 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1026 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1027 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1028 
  1029 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * Lifting:
  1033   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1034   - quot_del attribute
  1035   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1036 
  1037 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1038 expressions.
  1039 
  1040 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1041 pointfree expressions.
  1042 
  1043 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1044 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1045 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1046 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1048 
  1049 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1050 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1051 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1052 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1053 accordingly.
  1054 
  1055 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1056 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1059 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1062 
  1063 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1064 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1065 
  1066 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1067 
  1068 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1069 
  1070   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1071   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1072 
  1073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1076 
  1077   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1078   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1079 
  1080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1083 
  1084   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1085     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1086     output f x converges to G.
  1087 
  1088   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1089     infinity (at_bot).
  1090 
  1091   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1092     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1093 
  1094   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1095     at_top".
  1096 
  1097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1100 lattice type classes.
  1101 
  1102 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1103 
  1104     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1105     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1106 
  1107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1110 changes as follows.
  1111 
  1112   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1113 
  1114       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1115       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1116 
  1117   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1118     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1119     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1120     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1121 
  1122   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1123     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1124     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1125 
  1126   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1127     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1128     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1129     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1130 
  1131   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1132     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1133 
  1134       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1135       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1136       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1137       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1138       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1139       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1140       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1141       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1142       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1143       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1144       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1145       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1146       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1147       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1148       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1149       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1150 
  1151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1154 
  1155 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1156 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1157 
  1158 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1159 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1160 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1161 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1162 
  1163   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1164   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1165   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1166   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1167   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1168   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1169   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1170   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1171   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1172   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1173 
  1174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1175 
  1176 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1177 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1178 Data").
  1179 
  1180 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1181 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1182 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1183 code.
  1184 
  1185 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1186 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1187 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1191 
  1192 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1193 
  1194 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1195 
  1196   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1197   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1198 
  1199 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1200 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1201 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1202 
  1203   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1204 
  1205     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1206     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1207     cart_base i  removed
  1208     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1209 
  1210   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1211 
  1212   Renamed lemmas:
  1213 
  1214     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1215     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1216     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1217     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1218     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1219     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1220     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1221     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1222     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1223     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1224 
  1225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * HOL/Probability:
  1228 
  1229   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1230 
  1231   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1232     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1233     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1234 
  1235   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1236     projective family).
  1237 
  1238 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1239 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1240 
  1241 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1242 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1243 datatypes.
  1244 
  1245 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1246 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1247 
  1248 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1249 trees for the code generator.
  1250 
  1251 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1252 Lifting/Transfer.
  1253 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1257 
  1258 
  1259 *** Document preparation ***
  1260 
  1261 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1262 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1263 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1264 
  1265 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1266 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1267 
  1268 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1269 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1270 document/root.tex.
  1271 
  1272 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1273 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 
  1276 *** ML ***
  1277 
  1278 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1279 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1280 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1281 
  1282 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1283 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1284 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1285 
  1286 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1287 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1288 necessarily printing visible text.
  1289 
  1290 
  1291 *** System ***
  1292 
  1293 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1294 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1295 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1296 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1297 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1298 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1299 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1300 
  1301 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1302 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1303 
  1304   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1305 
  1306 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1307 
  1308 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1309 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1310 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1311 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1312 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1313 
  1314 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1315 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1316 
  1317 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1318 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1319 
  1320 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1324 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1325 version of Isabelle.
  1326 
  1327 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1328 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1329 
  1330 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1331 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1332 for home-made settings.
  1333 
  1334 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1335 
  1336 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1337 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1338 configuration.
  1339 
  1340 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1341 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1342 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1343 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1344 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1345 
  1346 
  1347 
  1348 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1349 ------------------------------
  1350 
  1351 *** General ***
  1352 
  1353 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1354 
  1355   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1356     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1357   - markup for bound variables
  1358   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1359   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1360   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1361     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1362 
  1363 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1364 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1365 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1366 
  1367 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1368 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1369 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1370 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1371 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1372 
  1373   context
  1374     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1375     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1376   begin
  1377 
  1378   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1379 
  1380   end
  1381 
  1382   thm my_trans
  1383 
  1384 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1385 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1386 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1387 
  1388 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1389 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1390 
  1391 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1392 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1393 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1394 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1395 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1396 
  1397 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1398 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1399 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1400 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1401 indices of schematic variables.
  1402 
  1403 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1404 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1405 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1406 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1407 etc. was exploited.
  1408 
  1409 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1410 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1411 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1412 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1413 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1414 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1415 
  1416 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1417 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1418 manual.
  1419 
  1420 
  1421 *** Pure ***
  1422 
  1423 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1424 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1425 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1426 
  1427 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1428 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1429 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1430 undocumented feature.)
  1431 
  1432 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1433 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1434 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1435 
  1436   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1437 
  1438   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1439     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1440 
  1441 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1442 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1443 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1444 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1445 
  1446 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1447 
  1448     num ~> num_token
  1449     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1450     xstr ~> str_token
  1451 
  1452 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1453 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1454 position information via constraints).
  1455 
  1456 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1457 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1458 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1461 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1462 
  1463 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1464 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1465 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1466 
  1467 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1468 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1469 
  1470 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1471 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1472 
  1473   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1474 
  1475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1476 
  1477 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1478 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1479 
  1480 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1481 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1482 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1483 
  1484 
  1485 *** HOL ***
  1486 
  1487 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1488 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1489 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1490 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1491 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1492 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1493 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1494 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1495 possible.
  1496 
  1497 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1498 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1499 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1500 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1501 
  1502 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1503 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1504 
  1505 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1506 
  1507 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1508 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1509 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1510 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1511 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1512 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1513 
  1514   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1515     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1516 
  1517   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1518     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1519     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1520 
  1521   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1522     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1523 
  1524   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1525     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1526     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1527 
  1528   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1529     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1530 
  1531 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1532 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1533 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1534 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1535 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1536 
  1537   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1538     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1539     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1540     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1541     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1542 
  1543     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1544     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1545 
  1546   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1547     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1548     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1549     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1550     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1551     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1552     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1553     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1554 
  1555   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1556     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1557     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1558     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1559 
  1560   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1561     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1562     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1563     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1564 
  1565   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1566     from type nat to type int.
  1567 
  1568 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1569 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1570 
  1571   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1572     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1573     type.  Example syntax:
  1574 
  1575     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1576       is List.insert
  1577 
  1578     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1579     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1580     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1581     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1582     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1583     by the package.
  1584 
  1585   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1586     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1587     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1588     code generation for each constant.
  1589 
  1590   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1591     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1592     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1593     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1594     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1595 
  1596   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1597     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1598     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1599 
  1600 * Quotient package:
  1601 
  1602   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1603     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1604 
  1605   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1606     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1607 
  1608   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1609     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1610     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1611 
  1612   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1613     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1616 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1617 
  1618 * Quickcheck:
  1619 
  1620   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1621     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1622     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1623     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1624     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1625 
  1626     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1627     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1628     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1629 
  1630     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1631     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1632 
  1633     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1634     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1635     show genuine counterexamples.
  1636 
  1637   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1638     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1639 
  1640     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1641     constructors of that type.
  1642 
  1643   - Support for multisets.
  1644 
  1645   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1646 
  1647   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1648     conjectures in a locale context.
  1649 
  1650 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1651 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1652 
  1653 * Sledgehammer:
  1654   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1655     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1656   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1657   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1658     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1659   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1660   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1661   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1662   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1663 
  1664 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1665 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1666 
  1667 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1668 
  1669 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1672 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1673 
  1674   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1675 
  1676 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1677 a list and a nat.
  1678 
  1679 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1680 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1681 
  1682 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1683 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1684 default.
  1685 
  1686 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1687 
  1688   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1689 
  1690 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1691 
  1692 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1693 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1694 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1695 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1696 one_case.
  1697 
  1698 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1699 the result of the fact expression.
  1700 
  1701 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1702 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1703 of some relation theorems:
  1704 
  1705   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1706   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1707   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1708   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1709   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1710   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1711 
  1712 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1713 
  1714 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1715 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1716 
  1717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1718 
  1719 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1720 to match the constant's name:
  1721 
  1722   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1723   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1724   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1725   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1726   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1727   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1728   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1729   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1730   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1731   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1732   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1733   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1734   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1735   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1736   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1737   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1738   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1739   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1740   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1741   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1742   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1743   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1744   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1745   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1746 
  1747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1748 
  1749 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1750 and corresponding theorem names:
  1751 
  1752   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1753 
  1754   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1755 
  1756   - Renamed theorems:
  1757 
  1758     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1759     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1760     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1761     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1762     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1763     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1764     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1765     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1766     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1767     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1768     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1769     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1770     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1771     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1772     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1773     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1774     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1775     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1776     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1777     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1778     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1779     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1780     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1781 
  1782     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1783 
  1784     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1785 
  1786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1789 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1790 
  1791   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1792   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1793   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1794   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1795   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1796   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1797   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1798   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1799   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1800   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1801   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1802   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1803   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1804   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1805   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1806   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1807   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1808   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1809   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1810   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1811   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1812 
  1813 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1814 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1815 
  1816 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1817 
  1818 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1819 
  1820   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1821   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1822   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1823   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1824   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1825   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1826   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1827   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1828   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1829   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1830   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1831   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1832   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1833   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1834   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1835   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1836   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1837   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1838 
  1839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840 
  1841 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1842 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1843 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1844 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1845 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1846 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1847 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1848 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1849 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1850 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1851 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1852 
  1853 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1854 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1855 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1856 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1857 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1858 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1859 
  1860 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1861 through option types.
  1862 
  1863 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1864 relations.
  1865 
  1866 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1867 
  1868 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1869 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1870 
  1871   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1872   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1873   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1874   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1875   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1876   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1877   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1878   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1879   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1880   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1881   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1882   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1883   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1884   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1885   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1886   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1887   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1888   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1889   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1890   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1891   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1892   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1893   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1894   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1895   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1896   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1897   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1898   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1899   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1900   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1901   zless_le ~> less_le
  1902   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1903   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1904   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1905 
  1906 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1907 
  1908   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1909 
  1910 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1911 
  1912 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1913 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1914 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1915 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1919 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1920 
  1921 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1922 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1923 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1924 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1925 follows:
  1926 
  1927   Operations:
  1928   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1929   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1930   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1931   del -> rbt_del
  1932   delete -> rbt_delete
  1933   ins -> rbt_ins
  1934   insert -> rbt_insert
  1935   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1936   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1937   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1938   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1939   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1940   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1941   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1942   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1943   union -> rbt_union
  1944   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1945   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1946 
  1947   Lemmas:
  1948   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1949   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1950   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1951   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1952   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1953   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1954   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1955   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1956   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1957   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1958   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1959   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1960   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1961   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1962   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1963   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1964   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1965   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1966   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1967   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1968   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1969   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1970   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1971   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1972   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1973   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1974   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1975   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1976   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1977   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1978   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1979   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1980   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1981   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1982   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1983   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1984   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1985   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1986   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1987   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1988   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1989   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1990   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1991   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1992   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1993   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1994   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1995   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1996   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1997   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1998   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1999   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2000   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2001   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2002   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2003   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2004   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2005   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2006   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2007   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2008   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2009   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2010   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2011   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2012   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2013   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2014   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2015   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2016   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2017   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2018   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2019   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2020   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2021   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2022   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2023   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2024   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2025   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2026   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2027   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2028   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2029   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2030   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2031 
  2032 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2033 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2034 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2035 
  2036   Changed Operations:
  2037   float_abs -> abs
  2038   float_nprt -> nprt
  2039   float_pprt -> pprt
  2040   pow2 -> use powr
  2041   round_down -> float_round_down
  2042   round_up -> float_round_up
  2043   scale -> exponent
  2044 
  2045   Removed Operations:
  2046   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2047 
  2048   Renamed Lemmas:
  2049   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2050   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2051   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2052   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2053   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2054   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2055   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2056   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2057   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2058   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2059   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2060   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2061   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2062   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2063   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2064   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2065   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2066   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2067   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2068   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2069   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2070   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2071   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2072   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2073   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2074   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2075   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2076   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2077   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2078   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2079   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2080   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2081   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2082   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2083   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2084   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2085 
  2086   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2087   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2088   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2089   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2090   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2091   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2092   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2093   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2094   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2095   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2096 
  2097 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2098 association lists with distinct keys.
  2099 
  2100 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2101 annotated commands.
  2102 
  2103 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2104 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2105 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2106 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2107 
  2108 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2109 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2110 instead.
  2111 
  2112   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2113   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2114   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2115   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2116   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2117   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2118   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2119   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2120   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2121   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2122   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2123   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2124   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2125   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2126   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2127   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2128   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2129   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2130   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2131   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2132   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2133   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2134   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2135   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2136   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2137   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2138   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2139   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2140   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2141   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2142   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2143   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2144   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2145   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2146   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2147   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2148   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2149   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2150   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2151   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2152   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2153 
  2154 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2155 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2156 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2157 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2158 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2159 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2160 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2161 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2162 
  2163 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2164 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2165 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2166 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2167 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2168 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2169 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2170 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2171 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2172 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2173 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2174 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176   Renamed constants:
  2177   measure -> emeasure
  2178   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2179   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2180   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2181   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2182 
  2183   Removed locales:
  2184   completeable_measure_space
  2185   finite_measure_space
  2186   finite_prob_space
  2187   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2188   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2189   finite_sigma_algebra
  2190   measure_space
  2191   pair_finite_prob_space
  2192   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2193   pair_finite_space
  2194   pair_sigma_algebra
  2195   product_sigma_algebra
  2196 
  2197   Removed constants:
  2198   conditional_space
  2199   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2200   image_space
  2201   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2202   pair_measure_generator
  2203   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2204   subvimage
  2205 
  2206   Replacement theorems:
  2207   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2208   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2209   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2210   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2211   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2212   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2213   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2214   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2215   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2216   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2217   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2218   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2219   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2220   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2221   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2222   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2223   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2224   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2225   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2226   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2227   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2228   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2229   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2230   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2231   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2232   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2233   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2234   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2235   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2236   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2237   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2238   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2239   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2240   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2241   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2242   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2243   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2244   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2245   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2246   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2247   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2248   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2249   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2250   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2251   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2252   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2253   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2254   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2255   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2256   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2257   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2258   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2259   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2260   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2261   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2262   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2263   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2264   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2265   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2266   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2267   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2268   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2269   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2270   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2271   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2272   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2273   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2274   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2275   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2276   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2277   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2278   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2279   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2280   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2281   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2282   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2283   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2284   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2285   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2286   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2287   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2288   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2289   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2290   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2291   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2292   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2293   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2294   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2295   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2296   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2297   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2298   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2299   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2300   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2301   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2302   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2303   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2304   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2305   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2306   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2307   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2308   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2309   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2310   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2311   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2312   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2313   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2314   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2315   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2316   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2317   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2318   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2319   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2320   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2321   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2322   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2323   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2324   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2325   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2326   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2327   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2328   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2329   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2330   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2331   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2332   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2333   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2334   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2335 
  2336 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2337 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2338 
  2339 
  2340 *** FOL ***
  2341 
  2342 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2343 
  2344 
  2345 *** ZF ***
  2346 
  2347 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2348 analysis.
  2349 
  2350 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2351 
  2352 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 
  2355 *** ML ***
  2356 
  2357 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2358 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2359 
  2360 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2361 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2362 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2363 
  2364 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2365 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2366 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2367 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2368 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2369 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2370 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2371 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2372 
  2373 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2374 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2375 
  2376 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2377 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2378 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2379 
  2380 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2381 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2384 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2385 context as well.
  2386 
  2387 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2388 
  2389   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2390   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2391   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2392   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2393   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2394   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2395   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2396   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2397   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2398   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2399   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2400   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2401 
  2402 
  2403 *** System ***
  2404 
  2405 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2406 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2407 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2408 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2409 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2410 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2411 the generic user home was intended.
  2412 
  2413 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2414 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2415 
  2416 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2417 (not just JRE).
  2418 
  2419 
  2420 
  2421 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2422 ------------------------------------
  2423 
  2424 *** General ***
  2425 
  2426 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2427 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2428 
  2429   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2430     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2431     files for checking).
  2432 
  2433   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2434     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2435     positions.
  2436 
  2437   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2438     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2439     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2440 
  2441   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2442     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2443     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2444 
  2445   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2446     cores.
  2447 
  2448   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2449     versions (garbage collection).
  2450 
  2451 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2452 including some remaining limitations.
  2453 
  2454 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2455 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2456 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2457 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2458 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2462 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2463 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2464 
  2465 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2466 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2467 usedir option -Q.
  2468 
  2469 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2470 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2471 
  2472   long_names   ~> names_long
  2473   short_names  ~> names_short
  2474   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2475 
  2476 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2477 
  2478   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2479 
  2480 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2481 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2482 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2483 
  2484 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2485 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2486 
  2487 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2488   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2489   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2490   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2491     "Classical Reasoner".
  2492 
  2493 
  2494 *** HOL ***
  2495 
  2496 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2497 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2500 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2501 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2502 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2503 class complete_linorder.
  2504 
  2505 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2506 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2507 
  2508 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2509 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2510 
  2511   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2512   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2513   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2514   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2515   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2516   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2517   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2518   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2519   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2520   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2521   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2522 
  2523 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2524 
  2525   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2526   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2527   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2528   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2529   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2530   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2531   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2532   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2533   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2534   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2535   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2536   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2537   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2538   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2539   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2540   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2541 
  2542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2546 
  2547 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2548 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2549 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2550 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2551 
  2552 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2553 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2554 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2556 
  2557 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2558 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2559 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2560 
  2561 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2562 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2563 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2564 
  2565 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2566 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2567 
  2568 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2569 
  2570     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2571     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2572 
  2573 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2574 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2575 
  2576 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2577 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2578 
  2579 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2580 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2581 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2582 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2585   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2586   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2587   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2588   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2589   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2590   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2591 
  2592 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2593 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2596   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2597   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2598   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2599   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2600   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2601   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2602   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2603   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2604   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2605   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2606   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2607   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2608   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2609   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2610   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2611   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2612   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2613   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2614   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2615   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2616   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2617   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2618   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2619   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2620   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2621   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2622   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2623   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2624   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2625   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2626   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2627   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2628   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2629   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2630   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2631   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2632   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2633   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2634   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2635   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2636   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2637   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2638   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2639   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2640   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2641   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2642   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2643   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2644   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2645   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2646   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2647   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2648   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2649   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2650   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2651   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2652   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2653   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2654   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2655   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2656   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2657   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2658   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2659   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2660   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2661   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2662   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2663   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2664   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2665   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2666   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2667   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2668   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2669   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2670   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2671   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2672   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2673   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2674   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2675   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2676   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2677 
  2678 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2679 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2680 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2681 
  2682 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2683 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2684 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2685 
  2686 * Code generation:
  2687 
  2688   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2689     characters in the target language.
  2690 
  2691   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2692     instead.
  2693 
  2694   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2695 
  2696   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2697     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2698 
  2699       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2700 
  2701 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2704 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2705 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2706 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2707 syntax.
  2708 
  2709 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2710 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2711 
  2712 * Nitpick:
  2713   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2714   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2715   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2716     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * Sledgehammer:
  2719   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2720   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2721     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2722   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2723     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2724   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2725     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2727     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2728   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2729     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * Metis:
  2732   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2734     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Command 'try':
  2737   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2738     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2739   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2740     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2741 
  2742 * Quickcheck:
  2743   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2744     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2745   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2746     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2747   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2748     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2749     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2750     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2751   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2752     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2753 
  2754 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2755 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2756 
  2757 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2758 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2759 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2760 
  2761 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2762 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2766 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2767 
  2768 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2769 arithmetic.
  2770 
  2771 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2772 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2773 and lattice type classes.
  2774 
  2775 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2776 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2777 
  2778 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2779 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2780 
  2781 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2782 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2783 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2786   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2787   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2788   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2789 
  2790 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2791 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2792 constants:
  2793 
  2794   type inat   ~> type enat
  2795   Fin         ~> enat
  2796   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2797   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2798   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2799 
  2800 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2801 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2802 
  2803 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2804 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2805 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2806 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2807 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2808 
  2809 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2810 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2811 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2812 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2813 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2814 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2815 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2816 
  2817   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2818   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2819   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2820   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2821 
  2822 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2823 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2824 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2827   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2828   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2829   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2830   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2831   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2832   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2833   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2834   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2835   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2836   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2837   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2838   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2839   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2840   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2841   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2842   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2843   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2844   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2845   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2846   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2847   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2848   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2849   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2850   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2851   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2852   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2853   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2854   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2855   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2856   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2857   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2858   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2859   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2860   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2861   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2862   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2863   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2864   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2865   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2866   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2867   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2868   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2869   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2870   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2871   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2872   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2873   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2874   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2875   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2876   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2877 
  2878 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2879   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2880   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2881   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2882   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2883     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886 
  2887   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2888   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2889   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2890   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2891   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2892   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2893   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2894   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2895   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2896   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2897   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2898   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2899   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2900   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2901   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2902   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2903   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2904   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2905   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2906   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2907   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2908   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2909   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2910   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2911   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2912 
  2913 
  2914 *** Document preparation ***
  2915 
  2916 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2917 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2918 same.
  2919 
  2920 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2921 result.
  2922 
  2923 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2924 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2925 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2926 
  2927 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2928 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2929 
  2930 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2931 like this:
  2932 
  2933   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2934   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2935 
  2936 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2937 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2938 layouts.
  2939 
  2940 
  2941 *** ML ***
  2942 
  2943 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2944 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2945 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2946 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2947 under external program control.
  2948 
  2949 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2950 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2951 
  2952 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2953 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2954 (better known as Proof General).
  2955 
  2956 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2957 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2958 
  2959 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2960 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2961 
  2962 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2963 (including quotes etc.).
  2964 
  2965 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2966 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2967 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2968 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2969 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2970 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2971 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2972 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2973 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2974 
  2975 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2976 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2977 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2978 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2979 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2980 
  2981 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2982 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2983 
  2984 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2985 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2986 
  2987 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2988 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2989 
  2990 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2991 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2992 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2993 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2994 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2995 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2996 proper Proof.context.
  2997 
  2998 
  2999 *** System ***
  3000 
  3001 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3002 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3003 
  3004 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3005 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3006 
  3007 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3008 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3009 
  3010   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3011   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3012   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3013   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3014   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3015 
  3016 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3017 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3020 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3021 example:
  3022 
  3023   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3024 
  3025 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3026 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3027 
  3028 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3029 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3030 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3031 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3032 
  3033 
  3034 
  3035 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3036 ----------------------------------
  3037 
  3038 *** General ***
  3039 
  3040 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3041 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3042 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3043 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3044 like this:
  3045 
  3046   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3047 
  3048 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3049 
  3050 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3051 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3052 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3053 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3054 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3055 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3056 
  3057 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3058 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3059 the following package declarations:
  3060 
  3061   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3062   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3063 
  3064 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3065 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3066 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3067 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3068 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3069 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3070 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3071 
  3072 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3073 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3074 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3075 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3076 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3077 
  3078 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3079 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3080 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3081 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3082 
  3083 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3084 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3085 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3086 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3087 
  3088   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3089 
  3090   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3091   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3092   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3093   show_types                    show_types
  3094   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3095   show_consts                   show_consts
  3096   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3097 
  3098   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3099   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3100   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3101 
  3102   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3103   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3104 
  3105   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3106 
  3107   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3108   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3109   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3110   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3111   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3112 
  3113 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3114 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3115 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3116 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3117 
  3118 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3122   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3123 
  3124 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3125 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3126 float_token.
  3127 
  3128 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3129 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3133 DejaVu Sans.
  3134 
  3135 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3136 
  3137 
  3138 *** Pure ***
  3139 
  3140 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3141 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3142 time.
  3143 
  3144 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3145 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3148 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3149 
  3150 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3151 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3152 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3153 command already provided this functionality.
  3154 
  3155 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3156 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3157 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3158 without interpretations.
  3159 
  3160 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3161 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3162 
  3163 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3164 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3165 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3166 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3167 
  3168 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3169 'definition' instead.
  3170 
  3171 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3172 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3173 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3174 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3175 
  3176 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3177 constructors.
  3178 
  3179 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3180 the local file system.
  3181 
  3182 
  3183 *** HOL ***
  3184 
  3185 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3186 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3187 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3188 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3189 
  3190   declare [[coercion f]]
  3191 
  3192 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3193 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3194 
  3195   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3196 
  3197 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3198 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3199 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3200 other theories like this:
  3201 
  3202   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3203 
  3204 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3205 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3206 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3207 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3208 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3209 for examples.
  3210 
  3211 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3212 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3215 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3216 
  3217 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3218 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3219 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3220 
  3221 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3222 functorial structure of types.
  3223 
  3224 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3225 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3226 
  3227 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3228 languages.
  3229 
  3230 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3231 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3235 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3238 combinators any longer.
  3239 
  3240 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3241 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3242 
  3243 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3244 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3245 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3246 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3247 
  3248   record 'a foo = ...
  3249   ...
  3250   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3251 
  3252 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3253 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3257 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3258 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3259 
  3260 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3261 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3262 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3263 
  3264 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3265 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3268 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3269 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3270 independently.
  3271 
  3272 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3273 counter example search.
  3274 
  3275 * Sledgehammer:
  3276   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3277     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3278     sledgehammer").
  3279   - Renamed commands:
  3280     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3281     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3282     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3283     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284   - Renamed options:
  3285     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3286     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3287     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3288     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3289     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Nitpick:
  3292   - Renamed options:
  3293     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3294     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3295     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3297   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3298   - Added "whack" option.
  3299   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3300   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3301   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3302   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3303     higher cardinalities.
  3304   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3305 
  3306 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3307 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3308 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3309 
  3310     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3311 
  3312 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3313 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3314 
  3315 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3316 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3317 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3318 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3319 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3320 "smt_solver".
  3321 
  3322 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3323 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3324 
  3325 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3326 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3327 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3328 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3331   - Renamed:
  3332     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3333     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3334     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335   - Added:
  3336     smt_verbose
  3337     smt_random_seed
  3338     smt_datatypes
  3339     smt_infer_triggers
  3340     smt_monomorph_limit
  3341     cvc3_options
  3342     remote_cvc3_options
  3343     remote_z3_options
  3344     yices_options
  3345 
  3346 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3347 header.
  3348 
  3349 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3350 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3351 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3352 
  3353   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3354 
  3355 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3356 
  3357 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3358 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359 
  3360 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3361 
  3362 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3363 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3366 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3367 
  3368 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3369 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3372 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3373 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3379 
  3380 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3381 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3384 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3385 for congruent(2)).
  3386 
  3387 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3388 
  3389   types
  3390     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3391     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3392 
  3393   constants
  3394     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3395     True ~> HOL.True
  3396     False ~> HOL.False
  3397     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3398     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3399     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3400     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3401     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3402     The ~> HOL.The
  3403     All ~> HOL.All
  3404     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3405     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3406     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3407     If ~> HOL.If
  3408     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3409     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3410     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3411     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3412     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3413     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3414     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3415     op : ~> Set.member
  3416     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3417 
  3418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3421 
  3422     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3423     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3424     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3425     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3426     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3427     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3428     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3429     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3430 
  3431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * More stylized fact names:
  3434 
  3435   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3436   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3437   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3438   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3439 
  3440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3443 
  3444   constants
  3445     null ~> List.null
  3446 
  3447   facts
  3448     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3449     null_empty ~> null_def
  3450 
  3451 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3452 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3453 generation.
  3454 
  3455 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3456 Haskell code.
  3457 
  3458 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3459 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3460 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3463 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3466 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3467 
  3468 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3469 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3470 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3473 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474 
  3475 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3479 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3480 referred to by its qualified name.
  3481 
  3482   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3483   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3484   product ~>  Enum.product
  3485 
  3486 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3487 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3491 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3492 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3496 sort_key.
  3497 
  3498 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3502 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3503 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3504 
  3505   types
  3506     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3507               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3508               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3509         (depends on your needs)
  3510 
  3511   constants
  3512      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3513      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3514      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3515 
  3516 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3517 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3518 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3519 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3522 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3523 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3524 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3525 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3531 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3532 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3533 
  3534 
  3535 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3536 
  3537 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3538 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3539 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3540 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3541 compatibility.
  3542 
  3543 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3544 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3545 
  3546 
  3547 *** HOLCF ***
  3548 
  3549 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3550 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3551 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3555 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3556 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3559   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3560   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3561 
  3562 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3563 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3564 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3567 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3568 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3569 domain definition now works:
  3570 
  3571   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3572 
  3573 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3574 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3575 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3576 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3577 
  3578   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3579     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3580 
  3581   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3582 
  3583 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3584 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3585 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3586 
  3587 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3588 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3589 
  3590 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3591 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3592 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3593 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3594 
  3595 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3596 
  3597 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3605 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3606 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3607 
  3608 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3609 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3610 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3613 still supported as an input translation.
  3614 
  3615 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3616 
  3617   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3618   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3619   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3620   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3621   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3622   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3623   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3624 
  3625 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3626 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3629   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3630   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3631   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3632   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3633   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3634 
  3635 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3636 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3639 
  3640   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3641   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3642   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3643   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3644 
  3645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3648 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3651 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3652 
  3653   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3654   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3655   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3656   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3657   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3658   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3659   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3660   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3661   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3662   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3663   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3664   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3665   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3666   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3667   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3668   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3669   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3670   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3671   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3672   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3673 
  3674 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3677   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3678   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3679   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3680   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3681   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3682   box_less             ~> box_below
  3683   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3684   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3685   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3686   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3687   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3688   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3689   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3690   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3691   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3692   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3693   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3694   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3695   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3696   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3697   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3698   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3699   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3700   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3701   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3702   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3703   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3704   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3705   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3706   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3707   up_less              ~> up_below
  3708   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3709   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3710   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3711   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3712   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3713   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3714   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3715   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3716   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3717   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3718   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3719   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3720   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3721 
  3722 
  3723 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3724 
  3725 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3726 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 
  3729 *** ML ***
  3730 
  3731 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3732 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3733 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3734 
  3735 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3736 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3737 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3738 
  3739 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3740 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3741 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3742 
  3743 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3744 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3745 
  3746 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3747 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3748 
  3749 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3750 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3751 
  3752 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3753 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3754 
  3755 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3756 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3757 almost all situations.
  3758 
  3759 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3760 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3761 Isabelle/ML.
  3762 
  3763 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3764 meaning.
  3765 
  3766 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3767 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3768 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3769 
  3770 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3771 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3772 
  3773 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3774 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3775 
  3776 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3777 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3778 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3779 
  3780 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3781 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3782 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3783 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3784 configuration options.
  3785 
  3786 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3787 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3788 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3789 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3790 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3791 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3792 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3793 
  3794 
  3795 
  3796 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3797 ---------------------------------
  3798 
  3799 *** General ***
  3800 
  3801 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3802 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3803 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3804 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3805 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3806 their full internal name.
  3807 
  3808 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3809 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3810 Some hints on upgrading:
  3811 
  3812   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3813     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3814     which are independent of this issue.
  3815 
  3816   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3817     provides the following special forms:
  3818 
  3819       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3820       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3821       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3822 
  3823     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3824     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3825     extra variables".
  3826 
  3827     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3828     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3829     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3830     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3831     "logic".
  3832 
  3833   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3834     antiquotations:
  3835 
  3836       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3837       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3838       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3839       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3840 
  3841   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3842     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3843     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3844     antiquotations.
  3845 
  3846 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3847 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3848 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3849 diagnose syntax problems.
  3850 
  3851 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3852 
  3853 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3854 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3855 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3856 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3857 
  3858 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3859 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3860 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3861 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3864 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3865 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3866 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3867 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3870 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3871 
  3872 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3873 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3874 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3875 
  3876   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3877 
  3878 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3879 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3880 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3881 
  3882 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3883 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3887 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3888 
  3889 
  3890 *** Pure ***
  3891 
  3892 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3893 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3894 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3895 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3896 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3897 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3898 inspect proof terms.
  3899 
  3900 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3901 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3902 are added internally.  For example:
  3903 
  3904   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3905 
  3906 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3907 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3912 'class' instead.
  3913 
  3914 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3915 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3919 invariants.
  3920 
  3921 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3922 user space functionality any longer.
  3923 
  3924 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3925 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3929 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3930 
  3931 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3932 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3933 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3934 
  3935 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3936 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3937 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3938 
  3939 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3940 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942 
  3943 *** HOL ***
  3944 
  3945 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3946 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3947 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3948 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3949 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3950 
  3951 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3952 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3953 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3954 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3955 
  3956   fun
  3957     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3958   where
  3959     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3960 
  3961   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3962     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3963 
  3964   quotient_definition
  3965     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3966 
  3967 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3968 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3969 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3970 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3971 
  3972 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3973 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3974 
  3975 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3976 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3977 
  3978 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3982 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3983 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3984 
  3985 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3986 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3995 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3998 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3999 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4002   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4003   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4004   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4005   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4006   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4007   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4008   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4009   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4010   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4011   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4012   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4013   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4014   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4015   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4016   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4017   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4018   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4019   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4020   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4021   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4022   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4023   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4024   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4025   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4026   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4027   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4028   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4029   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4030   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4031 
  4032 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4033 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4034 
  4035 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4036 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4037 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4038 
  4039 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4040 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4041 
  4042 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4043 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4046 
  4047 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4048 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4051 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4056 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4057 
  4058 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4059 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4060 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4061 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4064   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4065   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4066   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4070 lattices):
  4071 
  4072     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4073     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4074 
  4075     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4076 
  4077     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4078     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4079     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4080     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4081     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4082     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4083     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4084     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4085     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4086     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4087     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4088     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4089     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4090 
  4091     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4092     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4093     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4094     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4095     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4096     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4097     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4098     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4099     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4100     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4101     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4102     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4103     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4104     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4105     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4106     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4107     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4108     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4109 
  4110   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4111   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4112 
  4113     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4114     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4115     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4116     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4117     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4118 
  4119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 * Refined field classes:
  4122   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4123     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4124     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4125   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4127 
  4128 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4129   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4130   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4131   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4132     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4133   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4134     equal_neg_zero.
  4135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4138 sets to lattices:
  4139 
  4140   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4141   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4142   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4143   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4144   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4145   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4146   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4147   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4148   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4149   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4150 
  4151 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4152 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4153 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4154 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4155 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4156 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4157 
  4158 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4159 multiset order:
  4160 
  4161   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4162     <= and <;
  4163   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4164     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4165     multiset_order;
  4166   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4167     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4168     generation;
  4169   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4170     if needed.
  4171 
  4172 Renamed:
  4173 
  4174   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4175   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4176   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4177 
  4178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4181 
  4182 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4183 
  4184 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4185 
  4186 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4187 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4188 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190   Constants:
  4191   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4192   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4193   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4194   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4195   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4196   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4197   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4198   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4199   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4200   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4201   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4202   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4203   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4204 
  4205   Lemmas:
  4206   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4207   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4208   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4209   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4210   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4211   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4212   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4213   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4214   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4215   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4216   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4217   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4218   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4219 
  4220 * Sledgehammer:
  4221   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4222     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4223     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4224     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4225     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4226     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4227     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4229   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4230     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4231   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4232     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4233     is still experimental.)
  4234   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4235     full-typed mode.
  4236   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4237 
  4238 * Nitpick:
  4239   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4240   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4241   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4242     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4243   - Added support for quotient types.
  4244   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4245     constructs.
  4246   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4247     "termination" proofs).
  4248   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4249   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4250   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4251   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4252     record getters.
  4253   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4254   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4255   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4256   - Added "atoms" option.
  4257   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4258     problems.
  4259   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4260     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4261     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4262   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4263     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4267   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4268   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4269   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4270   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4271   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4272   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4273   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4274   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4275   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4276 
  4277 
  4278 *** HOLCF ***
  4279 
  4280 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4281 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4282 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4283 
  4284 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4285 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4286 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4287 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4290 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4291 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4292 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4293 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4296 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4297 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4300 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4303   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4304 
  4305 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4306 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4309   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4310   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4311   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4312   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4313 
  4314 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4315 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4316 
  4317   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4318   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4319   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4320 
  4321 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4322 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4324 
  4325 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4326 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4331 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 
  4334 *** ML ***
  4335 
  4336 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4337 
  4338     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4339     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4340 
  4341     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4342     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4343     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4344     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4345 
  4346     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4347     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4348     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4349 
  4350 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4351 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4352 
  4353 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4354 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4355 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4356 
  4357 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4358 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4359 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4360 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4361 
  4362 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4363 the context or even global references.
  4364 
  4365 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4366 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4367 
  4368 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4369 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4370 
  4371   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4372   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4373   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4374   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4375   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4376   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4377   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4378   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4379   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4380   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4381 
  4382 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4383 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4384 
  4385 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4386 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4387 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4388 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4389 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4390 
  4391 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4392 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4393 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4394 Theory_Data version.
  4395 
  4396 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4397 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4398 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4399 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4400 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4401 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4402 explicitly in rare situations.
  4403 
  4404 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4405 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4409 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4412 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4413 quite rare).
  4414 
  4415 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4416 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4419 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4420 terms.
  4421 
  4422 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4423 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4424 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4425 
  4426 
  4427 *** System ***
  4428 
  4429 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4430 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4431 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4432 
  4433 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4434 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4435 respectively.
  4436 
  4437 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4438 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4439 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4440 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4441 
  4442   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4443 
  4444 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4445 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4446 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4447 component.
  4448 
  4449 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4450 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4451 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4452 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4453 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4454 the user for manual installation.
  4455 
  4456 
  4457 
  4458 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4459 -------------------------------------
  4460 
  4461 *** General ***
  4462 
  4463 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4464 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4465 
  4466 
  4467 *** Pure ***
  4468 
  4469 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4470 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4471 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4472 
  4473 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4474 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4475 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4476 
  4477 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4478 interpretation.
  4479 
  4480 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4481 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4482 
  4483 
  4484 *** Document preparation ***
  4485 
  4486 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4487 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4488 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4489 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4490 
  4491 
  4492 *** HOL ***
  4493 
  4494 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4495 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4496 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4497 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4498 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4499 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4500 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4501 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4502 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4503 
  4504 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4505 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4506 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4507 
  4508 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4509 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4510 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4511 
  4512 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4513 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4514 
  4515 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4516 
  4517 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4518 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4519 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4520 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4521 
  4522 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4523 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4524 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4525 "mirabelle" utility.
  4526 
  4527 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4528 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4529 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4530 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4531 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4532 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4533 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4534 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4535 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4536 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4537 
  4538 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4539 procedure only.
  4540 
  4541 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4542 
  4543 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4544 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4545 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4546 that fail later.
  4547 
  4548 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4549 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4550 
  4551 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4552 the same method as the approximation method.
  4553 
  4554 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4555 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4556 series expansion.
  4557 
  4558 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4559 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4560 
  4561 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4562 reals.
  4563 
  4564 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4565 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4566 
  4567 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4568 fixpoint theorem.
  4569 
  4570 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4571   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4572     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4573   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4574     accordingly
  4575   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4576     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4577   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4578     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4579 
  4580 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4581 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4582 lattice.
  4583 
  4584 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4585 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4586 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4587 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4588 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4589 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4593   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4594     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4595   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4596     le_inf_iff
  4597   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4598     sup_aci)
  4599   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4600   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4601   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4602     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4603     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4604     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4605     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4606     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4607     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4608     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4609     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4610     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4611     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4612   - authentic syntax for
  4613     Set.Pow
  4614     Set.image
  4615   - mere abbreviations:
  4616     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4617     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4618     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4619     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4620     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4621     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4622     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4623     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4624   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4625 
  4626 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4627 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4628 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4629 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4630 
  4631 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4632 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4633 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4634 
  4635 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4636 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4639 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4640 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4641 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4644 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4645 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4646 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4647 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4648 
  4649 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4650 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4652 
  4653 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4654 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4657 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4658 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4659 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4660 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4661 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4662 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4666     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4667     code_post       replaces    code post
  4668     etc.
  4669   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671 * Renamed methods:
  4672     sizechange -> size_change
  4673     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4674   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4677 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4678 
  4679 * Renamed theorems:
  4680     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4681     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4682     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4683     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4684     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4685   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 
  4694 *** HOLCF ***
  4695 
  4696 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4697 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4698 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4699 
  4700 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4701 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4702 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4703 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4704 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4705 
  4706 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4707 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4708 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4709 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4710 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4711 
  4712 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4713 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4714 constructor are pre-configured.
  4715 
  4716 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4717 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4718 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4719 
  4720 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4721 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4722 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4723 as well.)
  4724 
  4725 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4726 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4727 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4728 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4729 examples.
  4730 
  4731 
  4732 *** ML ***
  4733 
  4734 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4735 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4736 
  4737 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4738 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4739 position, logical grouping etc.
  4740 
  4741 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4742 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4743 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4744 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4745 
  4746 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4747 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4748 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4749 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4750 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4751 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4752 
  4753 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4754 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4755 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4756 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4757 experiments with references.
  4758 
  4759 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4760 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4761 
  4762 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4763 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4764 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4765 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4766 
  4767 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4768 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4769 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4770 
  4771 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4772 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4773 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774 
  4775 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4779 
  4780 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4781 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4782 
  4783 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4784 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4785 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4786 
  4787 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4788 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4789 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4792 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4793 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4795 
  4796 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4797 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4798 instead of global theory.
  4799 
  4800 
  4801 *** System ***
  4802 
  4803 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4804 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4805 usedir option -q.
  4806 
  4807 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4808 also the system manual.
  4809 
  4810 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4811 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4812 
  4813 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4814 this is always enabled.
  4815 
  4816 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4817 
  4818 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4819 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4820 currently supported on Linux only.
  4821 
  4822 
  4823 
  4824 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4825 --------------------------------
  4826 
  4827 *** General ***
  4828 
  4829 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4830 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4831 
  4832   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4833     "isatool."
  4834 
  4835   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4836     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4837 
  4838   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4839     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4840 
  4841 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4842 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4843 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4844 
  4845 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4846 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4847 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4848 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4849 via "isabelle emacs".
  4850 
  4851 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4852 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4853 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4854 
  4855 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4856 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4857 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4858 
  4859 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4860 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4861 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4862 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4863 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4864 
  4865 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4866 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4867 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4868 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4869 
  4870 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4871 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4872 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4873 
  4874 
  4875 *** Pure ***
  4876 
  4877 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4878 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4879 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4880 
  4881 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4882 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4883 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4884 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4885 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4886 
  4887 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4888 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4889 useful in locale declarations.
  4890 
  4891 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4892 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4893 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4894 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4895 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4896 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4897 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4898 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4899 no longer generated.
  4900 
  4901 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4902 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4903 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4904 
  4905 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4906 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4907 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4908 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4909 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4910 
  4911 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4913 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4914 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4915 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4916 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4917 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4918 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4919 
  4920 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4921 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4922 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4923 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4924 
  4925 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4926 
  4927 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4928 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4929 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4930 
  4931 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4932 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4933 
  4934 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4935 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4936 in HOL, write
  4937 
  4938     class foo = ...
  4939 
  4940 instead of
  4941 
  4942     class foo = type + ...
  4943 
  4944 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4945 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4946 
  4947 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4948 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4949 
  4950 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4951 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4952 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4953 
  4954 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4955 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4956 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4957 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4958 directly in regular applications.
  4959 
  4960 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4961 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4962 
  4963 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4964 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4965 
  4966 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4967 theory context.
  4968 
  4969 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4970 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4973 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4974 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4975 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4976 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4977 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4978 
  4979   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4980 
  4981 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4982 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4983 normalization.
  4984 
  4985 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4986 addressing etc.
  4987 
  4988 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4989 
  4990   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4991   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4992 
  4993 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4994 
  4995   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4996      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4997      parts of the code generator framework).
  4998 
  4999   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5000      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5001      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5002 
  5003 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5006 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5007 
  5008 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5009 patterns, e.g.
  5010 
  5011     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5012 
  5013 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5014 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5015 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5016 hyphen:
  5017 
  5018     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5019 
  5020 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5021 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5022 
  5023 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5024 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5025 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5026 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5027 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5028 higher-order unification.
  5029 
  5030 
  5031 *** Document preparation ***
  5032 
  5033 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5034 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5035 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5036 
  5037 
  5038 *** HOL ***
  5039 
  5040 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5041 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5042 
  5043 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5044 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5045 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5046 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5047 Main, as before.
  5048 
  5049 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5050 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5051 
  5052 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5053 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5054 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5055 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5056 
  5057 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5058 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5059 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5060 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5061 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5062 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5063 
  5064 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5065 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5066 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5067 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5068 
  5069 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5070 menu.
  5071 
  5072 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5073 (contains the empty clause).
  5074 
  5075 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5076 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5077 
  5078 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5079 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5080 
  5081 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5082 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5083 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5084 
  5085 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5086 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5087 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5088 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5089 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5090 
  5091 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5092 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5093 
  5094 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5095 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5096 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5097 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5098 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5099 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5100 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5101 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5102 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5103 
  5104 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5105 
  5106 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5107 
  5108 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5109 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5110 
  5111 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5112 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5113 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5114 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5115 
  5116 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5117 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5118 
  5119     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5120     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5121     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5122     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5123     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5124     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5125     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5126     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5127 
  5128 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5129 theory Set.
  5130 
  5131 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5132 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5133 
  5134 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5135 
  5136 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5137 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5138 
  5139 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5140 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5141 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5142 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5143 allowed. For examples see
  5144 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5145 
  5146 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5147 
  5148 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5150 
  5151 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5152 structure:
  5153 
  5154     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5155     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5156     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5157     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5158     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5159     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5160     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5161     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5162     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5163     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5164     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5165     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5166     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5167     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5168     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5169     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5170     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5171     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5172     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5173     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5174     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5175     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5176     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5177     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5178     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5179     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5180     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5181     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5182     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5183     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5184     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5185     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5186     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5187 
  5188     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5189     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5190     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5191     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5192     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5193     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5194     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5195     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5196     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5197     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5198 
  5199     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5200     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5201     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5202     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5203     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5204     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5205 
  5206 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5207 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5208 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5209 
  5210 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5211 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5212 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5213 
  5214 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5215 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5216 
  5217 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5218 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5219 
  5220 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5221 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5222 proofs, e.g.
  5223 
  5224   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5225 
  5226 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5227 
  5228 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5229 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5230 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5231 
  5232 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5233 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5235 
  5236 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5237 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5238 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5240 
  5241 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5242 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5243 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5244 preorder_class.*.
  5245 
  5246 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5247 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5248 
  5249 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5250 
  5251   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5252 
  5253 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5254 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5255 fold_image.
  5256 
  5257 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5258 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5259 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5260 the former will disappear at some point.
  5261 
  5262 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5263 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5264 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5265 
  5266 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5267 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5268 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5269 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5270 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5271 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5272 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5273 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5274 
  5275 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5276 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5277 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5278 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5279 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5280 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5281 
  5282     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5283     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5284     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5285     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5286     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5287     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5288     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5289 
  5290 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5291 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5292 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5293 
  5294 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5295 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5296 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5297 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5298 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5299 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5300 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5301 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5302 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5303 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5304 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5305 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5306 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5307 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5308 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5309 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5310 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5311 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5312 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5313 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5314 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5315 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5316 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5317 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5318 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5319 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5320 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5321 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5322 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5323 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5324 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5325 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5326 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5327 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5328 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5329 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5330 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5331 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5332 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5333 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5334 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5335 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5336 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5337 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5338 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5339 
  5340 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5341 
  5342 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5343 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5344 
  5345 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5346 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5347 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5348 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5349 
  5350 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5351 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5352 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5353 theory RealVector.
  5354 
  5355 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5356 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5357 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5358 and inner products are included.
  5359 
  5360 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5361 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5362 supported.
  5363 
  5364 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5365 first diagonalization argument.
  5366 
  5367 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5368 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5369 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5370 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5371 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5372 
  5373     hide (open) const gcd
  5374     abbreviation gcd where
  5375       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5376     notation (output)
  5377       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5378 
  5379 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5380 
  5381 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5382 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5383 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5384 
  5385 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5386 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5387 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5388 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5389 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5390 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5391 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5392 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5393 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5394 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5395 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5396 cases.
  5397 
  5398 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5399 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5400 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5401 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5402 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5403 
  5404     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5405     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5406     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5407     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5408     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5409 
  5410 
  5411 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5412 
  5413 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5414 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5415 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5416 
  5417 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5418 
  5419 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5420 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5421 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5422 
  5423 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5424 
  5425 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5426 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5427 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5428 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5429 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5430 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5431 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5432 
  5433 
  5434 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5435 
  5436 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5437 
  5438 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5439 theory targets.
  5440 
  5441 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5442 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5443 'inductive' etc.
  5444 
  5445 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5446 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5447 
  5448 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5449 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5450 
  5451 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5452 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5453 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5454 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5455 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5456 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5457 the algorithm W:
  5458 
  5459  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5460  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5461          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5462 
  5463 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5464 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5465 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5466 
  5467 
  5468 *** HOLCF ***
  5469 
  5470 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5471 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5472 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5473 
  5474 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5475 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5476 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5477 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5478 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5481 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5482 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5483 
  5484 
  5485 *** ZF ***
  5486 
  5487 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5488 
  5489 
  5490 *** ML ***
  5491 
  5492 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5493 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5494 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5495 5.2.1!
  5496 
  5497 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5498 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5499 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5500 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5501 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5502 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5503 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5504 
  5505 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5506 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5507 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5508 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5509 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5510 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5511 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5512 
  5513 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5514 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5515 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5516 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5517 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5518 
  5519 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5520 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5521 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5522 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5523 Method.add_method.
  5524 
  5525 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5526 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5527 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5528 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5529 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5530 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5531 
  5532 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5533 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5534 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5535 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5536 examples.
  5537 
  5538 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5539 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5540 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5541 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5542 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5543 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5544 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5545 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5546 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5547 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5548 
  5549 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5550 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5551 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5552 
  5553 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5554 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5555 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5556 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5557 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5558 resort for legacy applications.
  5559 
  5560 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5561 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5562 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5563 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5564 explicit runtime argument.
  5565 
  5566 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5567 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5568 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5569 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5570 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5571 
  5572 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5573 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5574 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5575 theory state.
  5576 
  5577 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5578 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5579 
  5580   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5581   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5582   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5583   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5584   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5585   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5586   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5587   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5588   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5589   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5590 
  5591 
  5592 *** System ***
  5593 
  5594 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5595 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5596 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5597 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5598 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5599 
  5600 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5601 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5602 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5603 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5604 
  5605 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5606 
  5607 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5608 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5609 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5610 prover operations.
  5611 
  5612 
  5613 
  5614 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5615 -------------------------------
  5616 
  5617 *** General ***
  5618 
  5619 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5620 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5621 
  5622 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5623 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5624 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5625 provides a proper context already.
  5626 
  5627 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5628 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5629 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5630 
  5631 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5632 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5633 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5634 swap theory imports.
  5635 
  5636 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5637 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5638 
  5639 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5640 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5641 white space without escapes.
  5642 
  5643 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5644 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5645 "foo_bar".
  5646 
  5647 
  5648 *** Pure ***
  5649 
  5650 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5651 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5652 
  5653 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5654 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5655 
  5656 (1) unused_thms
  5657      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5658 
  5659 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5660      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5661      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5662 
  5663 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5664      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5665      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5666      their ancestors.
  5667 
  5668 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5669 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5670 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5671 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5672 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5673 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5674 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5675 
  5676 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5677 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5678 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5679 
  5680 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5681 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5682 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5683 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5684 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5685 
  5686 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5687 
  5688 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5689 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5690 update of theories within ML code.
  5691 
  5692 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5693 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5694 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5695 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5696 
  5697 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5698 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5699 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5701 
  5702 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5703 
  5704 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5705 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5706 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5707 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5708 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5709 
  5710 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5711 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5712 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5713 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5714 situations.
  5715 
  5716 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5717 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5718 proof text.
  5719 
  5720 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5721 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5722 
  5723 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5724 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5725 predicates.
  5726 
  5727 
  5728 *** Document preparation ***
  5729 
  5730 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5731 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5732 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5733 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5734 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5735 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5736 
  5737 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5738 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5739 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5740 
  5741 
  5742 *** HOL ***
  5743 
  5744 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5745 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5746 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5747 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5748 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5749 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5750 
  5751 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5752 with multithreading.
  5753 
  5754 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5755 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5756 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5757 
  5758 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5759 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5760 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5761 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5762 
  5763 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5764 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5765 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5766 and makes them available separately.  See
  5767 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5768 
  5769 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5770 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5771 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5772 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5773 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5774 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5775 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5776 the declared rules.
  5777 
  5778 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5779 
  5780   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5781 
  5782 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5783 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5784 
  5785 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5786 
  5787   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5788 
  5789   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5790     definitions on => and bool.
  5791 
  5792   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5793     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5794     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5795 
  5796       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5797       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5798       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5799       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5800       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5801       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5802       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5803       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5804 
  5805   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5806     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5807     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5808 
  5809   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5810     The proof pattern
  5811 
  5812       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5813       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5814 
  5815     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5816     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5817 
  5818       have "EX S. P S"
  5819       proof
  5820         show "P S" <...>
  5821       qed
  5822 
  5823   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5824     The proof pattern
  5825 
  5826       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5827       also have "S = T" <...>
  5828       finally have "P T" .
  5829 
  5830     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5831     must be replaced by something like
  5832 
  5833       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5834       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5835       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5836 
  5837   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5838     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5839 
  5840       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5841 
  5842     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5843     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5844     type of the form
  5845 
  5846       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5847 
  5848     rather than
  5849 
  5850       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5851 
  5852 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5853 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5854 
  5855 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5856 
  5857 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5858 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5860 
  5861 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5862 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5863 
  5864 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5865 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5866 
  5867 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5868 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5869 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5870 
  5871 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5872 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5873 
  5874   less_trans
  5875   less_linear
  5876   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5877   le_less_trans
  5878   less_le_trans
  5879   less_not_sym
  5880   less_asym
  5881 
  5882 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5883 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5884 and different variable names.
  5885 
  5886 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5887 
  5888 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5889 finite maps.
  5890 
  5891 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5892 
  5893 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5894 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5895 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5896 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5897 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5898 accordingly.
  5899 
  5900 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5901 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5902 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5903 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5904 
  5905 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5906 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5907 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5908 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5909 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5911 
  5912 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5913 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5914 
  5915 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5916 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5917 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5918 
  5919 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5920 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5921 
  5922 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5923 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5924 
  5925 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5926 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5927 
  5928 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5929 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5930 
  5931 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5932 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5934 
  5935 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5936 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5937 
  5938 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5939 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5940 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5941 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5942 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5943 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5944 
  5945 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5946 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5947 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5948 
  5949 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5950 
  5951 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5952 
  5953 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5954 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5955 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5956 
  5957 
  5958 *** ZF ***
  5959 
  5960 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5961 same session:
  5962 
  5963   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5964   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5965   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5966   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5967   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5968   List      -> List_ZF
  5969   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5970 
  5971 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5972 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5973 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5974 
  5975 
  5976 *** ML ***
  5977 
  5978 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5979 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5980 
  5981 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5982 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5983 
  5984 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5985 
  5986 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5987 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5988 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5989 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5990 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5991 
  5992 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5993 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5994 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5995 
  5996 
  5997 *** System ***
  5998 
  5999 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6000 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6001 
  6002 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6003 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6004 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6005 
  6006 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6007 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6008 
  6009 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6010 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6011 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6012 
  6013 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6014 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6015 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6016 
  6017 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6018 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6019 
  6020 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6021 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6022 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6023 script.
  6024 
  6025 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6026 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6027 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6028 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6029 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6030 
  6031 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6032 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6033 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6034 
  6035 
  6036 
  6037 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6038 -----------------------------------
  6039 
  6040 *** General ***
  6041 
  6042 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6043 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6044 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6045 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6046 
  6047 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6048 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6049 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6050 
  6051 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6052 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6053 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6054 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6055 
  6056 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6057 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6058 quotes.
  6059 
  6060 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6061 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6062 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6063 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6064 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6065 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6066 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6067 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6068 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6069 
  6070 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6071 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6072 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6073 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6074 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6075 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6076 
  6077 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6078 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6079 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6080 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6081 
  6082 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6083 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6084 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6085 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6086 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6087 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6088 
  6089 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6090 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6091 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6092 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6093 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6094 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6095 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6096 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6097 
  6098 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6099 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6100 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6101 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6102 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6103 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6104 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6105 
  6106 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6107 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6108 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6109 
  6110 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6111 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6112 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6113 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6114 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6115 limit is imposed.
  6116 
  6117 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6118 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6119 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6120 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6121 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6122 and scalability.
  6123 
  6124 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6125 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6126 
  6127 
  6128 *** Document preparation ***
  6129 
  6130 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6131 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6132 current context.
  6133 
  6134 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6135 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6136 
  6137 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6138 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6139 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6140 
  6141 
  6142 *** Pure ***
  6143 
  6144 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6145 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6146 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6147 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6148 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6149 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6150 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6151 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6152 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6153 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6154 
  6155 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6156 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6157 sketch:
  6158 
  6159     internal compilation:
  6160         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6161     writing SML code to a file:
  6162         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6163     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6164         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6165     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6166         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6167 
  6168     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6169         method ``eval''
  6170 
  6171 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6172 
  6173 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6174 
  6175     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6176     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6177     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6178     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6179 
  6180 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6181 
  6182     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6183       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6184 
  6185     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6186       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6187 
  6188     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6189       {(target)}+
  6190         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6191 
  6192     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6193       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6194         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6195 
  6196 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6197 
  6198 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6199 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6200 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6201 codegen".
  6202 
  6203 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6204 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6205 annotations).
  6206 
  6207 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6208 syntax.
  6209 
  6210 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6211 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6212 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6213 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6214 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6215 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6216 
  6217 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6218 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6219 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6220 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6221 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6222 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6223 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6224 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6225 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6226 equations, see section "definitions".
  6227 
  6228 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6229 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6230 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6231 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6232 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6233 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6234 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6235 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6236 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6237 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6238 
  6239 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6240 configuration options:
  6241 
  6242   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6243   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6244   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6245   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6246   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6247   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6248   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6249   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6250   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6251 
  6252 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6253 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6254 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6255 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6256 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6257 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6258 order.
  6259 
  6260 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6261 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6262 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6263 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6264 context encountered later on.
  6265 
  6266 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6267 'simproc_setup' declares name