NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Apr 06 22:05:25 2019 +0200 (5 months ago)
changeset 70072 54dc58086351
parent 70069 381035c03220
child 70075 ee0b8e06b01c
permissions -rw-r--r--
support both hinted and unhinted fonts;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2019 (June 2019)
     8 -------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * The font collection "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from
    13 the existing "DejaVu" fonts, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    14 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    15 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    16 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    17 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    18 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    20 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    21 
    22 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    23 
    24 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    25 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    26 
    27 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    28 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    29 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )". Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    36 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    37 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    38 automatically.
    39 
    40 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    41 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Commands 'generate_file', 'export_generated_files', and
    45 'compile_generated_files' support a stateless (PIDE-conformant) model
    46 for generated sources and compiled binaries of other languages. The
    47 compilation process is managed in Isabelle/ML, and results exported to
    48 the session database for further use (e.g. with "isabelle export" or
    49 "isabelle build -e").
    50 
    51 
    52 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    53 
    54 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    55 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    56 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    57 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    58 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", it now
    59 defaults to 1, but 0 works as well.
    60 
    61 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    62 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    63 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    64 
    65 * Further markup and rendering for "plain text" (e.g. informal prose)
    66 and "raw text" (e.g. verbatim sources). This improves the visual
    67 appearance of formal comments inside the term language, or in general
    68 for repeated alternation of formal and informal text.
    69 
    70 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    71 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    72 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    73 ongoing document processing.
    74 
    75 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    76 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    77 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    78 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    79 
    80 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    81 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    82 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    83 Isabelle component).
    84 
    85 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    86 overview column.
    87 
    88 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    89 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    90 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    91 separated from option "-s".
    92 
    93 * Isabelle DejaVu fonts are available with hinting by default, which is
    94 relevant for low-resolution displays. This may be disabled via system
    95 option "isabelle_fonts_hinted = false" in
    96 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings -- it occasionally yields better
    97 results.
    98 
    99 * OpenJDK 11 has quite different font rendering, with better glyph
   100 shapes and improved sub-pixel anti-aliasing. In some situations results
   101 might be *worse* than Oracle Java 8, though -- a proper HiDPI / UHD
   102 display is recommended.
   103 
   104 
   105 *** Document preparation ***
   106 
   107 * Document markers are formal comments of the form \<^marker>\<open>marker_body\<close> that
   108 are stripped from document output: the effect is to modify the semantic
   109 presentation context or to emit markup to the PIDE document. Some
   110 predefined markers are taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative,
   111 e.g. \<^marker>\<open>contributor arg\<close> or \<^marker>\<open>license arg\<close> and produce PIDE markup that
   112 can retrieved from the document database.
   113 
   114 * Old-style command tags %name are re-interpreted as markers \<^marker>\<open>tag name\<close>
   115 and produce LaTeX environments as before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
   116 multiple markers are composed in canonical order, resulting in a
   117 reversed list of tags in the presentation context.
   118 
   119 
   120 *** Isar ***
   121 
   122 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
   123 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
   124 
   125 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
   126 precedence over goal/proof. This is particularly relevant for the
   127 headless PIDE session and server.
   128 
   129 * Command keywords of kind thy_decl / thy_goal may be more specifically
   130 fit into the traditional document model of "definition-statement-proof"
   131 via thy_defn / thy_stmt / thy_goal_defn / thy_goal_stmt.
   132 
   133 
   134 *** HOL ***
   135 
   136 * Command 'export_code' produces output as logical files within the
   137 theory context, as well as formal session exports that can be
   138 materialized via command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build
   139 -e" (with 'export_files' in the session ROOT). Isabelle/jEdit also
   140 provides a virtual file-system "isabelle-export:" that can be explored
   141 in the regular file-browser. A 'file_prefix' argument allows to specify
   142 an explicit name prefix for the target file (SML, OCaml, Scala) or
   143 directory (Haskell); the default is "export" with a consecutive number
   144 within each theory.
   145 
   146 * Command 'export_code': the 'file' argument is now legacy and will be
   147 removed soon: writing to the physical file-system is not well-defined in
   148 a reactive/parallel application like Isabelle. The empty 'file' argument
   149 has been discontinued already: it is superseded by the file-browser in
   150 Isabelle/jEdit on "isabelle-export:". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * Command 'code_reflect' no longer supports the 'file' argument: it has
   153 been superseded by 'file_prefix' for stateless file management as in
   154 'export_code'. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   157 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   158 
   159 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith supersedes Nums as library for
   160 proper integer arithmetic. The library is located via standard
   161 invocations of "ocamlfind" (via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND settings variable).
   162 The environment provided by "isabelle ocaml_setup" already contains this
   163 tool and the required packages. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   166 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for 'code_stmts'
   170 antiquotation. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   173 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   174 
   175 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter> (not the corresponding binding operators)
   176 now have the same precedence as any other prefix function symbol. Minor
   177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   180 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   181 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   182 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   183 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   186 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*, are
   187 not used by default any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using declare
   188 image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   189 
   190 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   191 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   192 
   193 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   194 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   195 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   196 
   197 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint
   198 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute have been renamed to
   201 sum_mset.swap and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * ML structure Inductive: slightly more conventional naming schema.
   205 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * ML: Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   208 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators
   209 Named_Target.theory_map[_result] to lift specifications to the global
   210 theory level.
   211 
   212 * Theory HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: 'case_of_simps' now supports
   213 overlapping and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested
   214 patterns. It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which
   215 assumes sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   216 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Theory HOL-Library.Multiset: the <Union># operator now has the same
   220 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   221 
   222 * Session HOL-Library and HOL-Number_Theory: Exponentiation by squaring,
   223 used for computing powers in class "monoid_mult" and modular
   224 exponentiation.
   225 
   226 * Session HOL-Computational_Algebra: Formal Laurent series and overhaul
   227 of Formal power series.
   228 
   229 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: More material on residue rings in
   230 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   231 
   232 * Session HOL-Analysis: More material and better organization.
   233 
   234 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   235 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   236 retrieved via "isabelle build -e HOL-SPARK-Examples" on the
   237 command-line.
   238 
   239 * Sledgehammer:
   240   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has been
   241     updated.
   242   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   243     less time (in most cases).
   244 
   245 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   246 
   247 
   248 *** ML ***
   249 
   250 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   251 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   252 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   253 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   254 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   255 
   256   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   257   module Isabelle.Pure where
   258     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   259     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   260     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   261     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   262   \<close>
   263 
   264 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   265 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   266 external compiler is applied.
   267 
   268 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   269 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   270 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   271 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   272 ">" as separator. For example:
   273 
   274   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   275   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   276 
   277   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   278   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   279 
   280   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   281   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   282 
   283 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   284 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   285 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   286 observes the official standard).
   287 
   288 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   289 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   290 
   291 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   292 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   293 useful.
   294 
   295 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   296 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   297 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead, or
   298 the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   301 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   302 
   303 
   304 *** System ***
   305 
   306 * Update to OpenJDK 11: the current long-term support version of Java.
   307 
   308 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   309 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   310 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   311 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   312 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   313 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   314 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   315 are gradually phased out.
   316 
   317 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   318 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   319 
   320 * System option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   321 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   322 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   323 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   324 
   325 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   326 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   327 Isabelle/PIDE.
   328 
   329 * The command-line tool "isabelle build -e" retrieves theory exports
   330 from the session build database, using 'export_files' in session ROOT
   331 entries.
   332 
   333 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   334 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   335 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   336 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   337 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   338 dump".
   339 
   340 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   341 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   342 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   343 
   344 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   345 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   346 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   347 component).
   348 
   349 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   350 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   351 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   352 
   353 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   354 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   355 is no longer required.
   356 
   357 * OCaml tools and libraries are now accesed via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND,
   358 which needs to point to a suitable version of "ocamlfind" (e.g. via
   359 OPAM, see below). INCOMPATIBILITY: settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and
   360 ISABELLE_OCAMLC are no longer supported.
   361 
   362 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   363 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   364 
   365   isabelle ghc_setup
   366   isabelle ghc_stack
   367 
   368   isabelle ocaml_setup
   369   isabelle ocaml_opam
   370 
   371 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   372 (and corresponding directory contents):
   373 
   374   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   375   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   376   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   377 
   378   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   379   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   380 
   381 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   382 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   383 
   384   ISABELLE_GHC
   385 
   386   ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND
   387 
   388 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   389 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   390 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT, or by resetting these variables in
   391 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings.
   392 
   393 
   394 
   395 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   396 ---------------------------------
   397 
   398 *** General ***
   399 
   400 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   401 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   402 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   403 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   404 
   405 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   406 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   407 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   408 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   409 
   410 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   411 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   412 
   413 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   414 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   415 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   416 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   417 avoid this.
   418 
   419 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   420 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   421 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   422 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   423 
   424 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   425 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   426 instead.
   427 
   428 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   429 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   430 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   431 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   432 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   433 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   434 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   435 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   436 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   437 syntax), use option "-m".
   438 
   439 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   441 
   442 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   443 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   444 without specific Prover IDE management.
   445 
   446 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   448 context.
   449 
   450 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   451 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   452 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   453 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   454 
   455   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   456 
   457 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   458 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   459 
   460 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   461 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   462 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   463 output.
   464 
   465 
   466 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   467 
   468 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   469 for session management:
   470 
   471   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   472     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   473 
   474   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   475     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   476 
   477   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   478     and -S
   479 
   480   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   481     theories
   482 
   483   Examples:
   484     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   485     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   486     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   487     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   488     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   489 
   490 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   491 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   492 
   493 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   494 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   495 
   496 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   497 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   498 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   499 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   500 arguments into this format.
   501 
   502 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   503 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   504 
   505 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   506 functions (e.g. State output).
   507 
   508 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   509 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   510 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   511 
   512 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   513 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   514 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515 
   516 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   517 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   518 
   519 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   520 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   521 Isabelle".
   522 
   523 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   524 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   525 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   526 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   527 Unicode content when saving the file.
   528 
   529 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   530 
   531 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   532 
   533 
   534 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   535 
   536 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   537 Isabelle/jEdit.
   538 
   539 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   540 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   541 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   542 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   543 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   544 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 
   547 *** Document preparation ***
   548 
   549 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   550 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   551 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   552 are supported:
   553 
   554   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   555   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   556   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   557 
   558 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   559 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   560 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   561 
   562 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   563 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   564 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   565 
   566 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   567 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   568 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   569 
   570 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   571 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   572 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   573 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   574 
   575 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   576 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   577 
   578 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   579 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   580 normally need to import.
   581 
   582 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   583 session name verbatim.
   584 
   585 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   586 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   587 
   588 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   589 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   590 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   591 
   592 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   593 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   594 anymore.
   595 
   596 
   597 *** Isar ***
   598 
   599 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   600 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   601 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   602 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   603 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   604 
   605 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   606 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   607 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   608 
   609 
   610 *** Pure ***
   611 
   612 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   613 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   614 
   615 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   616 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   617 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   618 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   619 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   620 
   621 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   622 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   623 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   624 duplicate constant declarations.
   625 
   626 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   627 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   628 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   629 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   630 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   631 
   632 
   633 *** HOL ***
   634 
   635 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   636 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   637 
   638 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   639 
   640   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   641 
   642   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   643     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   644     constraints instead.
   645 
   646   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   647 
   648   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   649     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   650     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   651     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   652 
   653   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   654     standard target languages.
   655 
   656   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   657     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   658     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   659     HOL string values and vice versa.
   660 
   661   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   662     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   663 
   664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   667 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   668 
   669 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   670 
   671 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   672 former axioms:
   673 
   674   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   675 
   676 are replaced by:
   677 
   678   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   679 
   680 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   681 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   682 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   683 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   684 
   685 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   686 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   687 
   688 * Clarifed theorem names:
   689 
   690   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   691   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   692 
   693 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 * SMT module:
   696 
   697   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   698     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   701     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   702     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   705 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   706 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   715 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   717 
   718 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   719 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   720 Renamed:
   721 
   722   span_inc ~> span_superset
   723   span_superset ~> span_base
   724   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   725 
   726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   727 
   728 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   729 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   730 
   731 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   732 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   733 
   734 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   735 
   736   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   737     input syntax
   738 
   739   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   740 
   741 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   742 
   743 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   744 
   745 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   746 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   750   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   751   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   752   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   753 
   754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   757 
   758   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   759   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   760   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   761   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   762   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   763 
   764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   767 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   768 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   769 broken proofs.
   770 
   771 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   772 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   773 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   774 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   775 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   776 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   777 
   778 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   779 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   780 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   781 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   782 examples.
   783 
   784 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   785 
   786 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   787 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   790 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   791 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   793 
   794 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   795 infix/prefix notation.
   796 
   797 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   798 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   802 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   804 
   805 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   806 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   810 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   811 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   812 
   813 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   814 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   815 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   816 
   817 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   818 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   819 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   820 
   821 
   822 *** ML ***
   823 
   824 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   825 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   826 
   827 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   828 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   829 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   830 "isabelle process".
   831 
   832 
   833 *** System ***
   834 
   835 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   836 longer supported.
   837 
   838 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   839 support has been discontinued.
   840 
   841 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   842 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   843 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   846 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   847 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   848 quotes):
   849 
   850   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   851   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   852 
   853   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   854   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   855 
   856   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   857   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   858 
   859 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   860   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   861   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   862   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   863 
   864 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   865 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   866 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   867 only.
   868 
   869 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   870 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   871 up-to-date status of a session.
   872 
   873 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   874 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   875 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   876 directory.
   877 
   878 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   879 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   880 
   881 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   882 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   883 
   884 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   885 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   886 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   887 See also the "system" manual.
   888 
   889 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   890 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   891 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   892 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   893 been discontinued.
   894 
   895 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   896 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897 
   898 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   899 repository for the generated session files.
   900 
   901 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   902 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   903 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   904 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   905 ISABELLE_HOME).
   906 
   907 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   908 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   909 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   910 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   911 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   912 
   913 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   914 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   915 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   916 
   917 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   918 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   919 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   920 32/64 bit.
   921 
   922 
   923 
   924 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   925 ----------------------------------
   926 
   927 *** General ***
   928 
   929 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   930 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   931 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   932 
   933 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   934 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   935 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   936 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   937 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   938 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   939 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   940 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   941 
   942 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   943 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   944 just the theory base name as before).
   945 
   946 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   947 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   948 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   949 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   950 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   951 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   952 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   953 
   954 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   955 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   956 leads to the follow renamings:
   957 
   958   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   959   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   960   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   961   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   962   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   963 
   964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   967 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   968 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   969 
   970 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   971 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   972 
   973 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   974 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   975 antiquotations:
   976 
   977   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   978     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   979   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   980     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   981   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   982 
   983 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   984 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   985 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   986 tutorial on code generation.
   987 
   988 
   989 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   990 
   991 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   992 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   993 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   994 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   995 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   996 
   997 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   998 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   999 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
  1000 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
  1001 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
  1002 effectively always enabled.
  1003 
  1004 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
  1005 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
  1006 buffers.
  1007 
  1008 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
  1009 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
  1010 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
  1011 represented by a different border color.
  1012 
  1013 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
  1014 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
  1015 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
  1016 
  1017 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
  1018 document in the default web browser.
  1019 
  1020 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
  1021 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
  1022 used for formal checking.
  1023 
  1024 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
  1025 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
  1026 enabled at all times.
  1027 
  1028 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
  1029 
  1030 
  1031 *** Pure ***
  1032 
  1033 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
  1034 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
  1035 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
  1036 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
  1039   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
  1040     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
  1041   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
  1042     malformed.
  1043   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
  1044     malformed.
  1045 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
  1048 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
  1049 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1050 
  1051 
  1052 *** HOL ***
  1053 
  1054 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
  1055 
  1056 * SMT module:
  1057   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
  1058     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
  1059     disabled by default.
  1060   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
  1061   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1062 
  1063 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1064 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1065 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1069 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1070 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1072 
  1073 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1074 of "Complex_Main").
  1075 
  1076 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1077 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1078 
  1079 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1083 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1086 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1087 
  1088 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1089 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1090 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1091 
  1092 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1093 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1096 
  1097 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1098 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1101 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1102 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1103 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1104 
  1105 * Generalized some facts:
  1106     measure_induct_rule
  1107     measure_induct
  1108     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1109     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1110     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1111     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113 
  1114 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1115 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1116 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1117 euclidean size.
  1118 
  1119 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1120   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1121   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1122     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1123     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1124   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1125     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1129 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1130 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1131 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1132 
  1133 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1134   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1135   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1136 
  1137 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1138 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1141 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1142 
  1143 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1144 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1145 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1151 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1152 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1153 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1154 
  1155 syntax (ASCII)
  1156   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1157   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1158   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1159 
  1160 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1161 multisets have been renamed:
  1162 
  1163   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1164   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1165 
  1166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1167 
  1168 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1169 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1170 
  1171 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1172 
  1173 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1174 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1175 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1176 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1177 
  1178 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1179 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1180 
  1181 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1182 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1183 
  1184 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1185 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1186 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1187 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 
  1191 *** System ***
  1192 
  1193 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1194 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1195 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1196 
  1197 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1198 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1199 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1200 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1201 
  1202 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1203 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1204 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1205 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1206 
  1207 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1208 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1209 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1210 unchanged.
  1211 
  1212 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1213 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1216 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1217 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1218 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1219 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1220 
  1221 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1222 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1223 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1224 
  1225 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1226 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1227 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1228 
  1229 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1230 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1231 
  1232   isabelle imports -I -a
  1233   isabelle imports -U -a
  1234   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1235   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1236 
  1237 
  1238 
  1239 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1240 -------------------------------------
  1241 
  1242 *** General ***
  1243 
  1244 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1245   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1246     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1247   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1248     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1249     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1250     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1251     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1252 
  1253 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1254 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1255 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1256 
  1257 bundle foo
  1258 begin
  1259   declare a [simp]
  1260   declare b [intro]
  1261 end
  1262 
  1263 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1264 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1265 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1266 
  1267 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1268 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1269 discontinued.
  1270 
  1271 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1272 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1273 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1274 
  1275 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1276 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1277 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1278 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1279 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1280 
  1281 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1282 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1283 
  1284 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1285 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1286 
  1287 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1288 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1289 examples.
  1290 
  1291 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1292 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1293 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1294 
  1295 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1296 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1297 
  1298 
  1299 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1300 
  1301 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1302 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1303 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1304 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1305 
  1306 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1307 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1308 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1309 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1310 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1311 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1312 
  1313 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1314 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1315 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1316 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1317 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1318 
  1319 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1320 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1321 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1322 
  1323 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1324 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1325 
  1326 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1327 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1328 
  1329 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1330 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1331 
  1332 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1333 
  1334 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1335 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1336 systematic renaming.
  1337 
  1338 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1339 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1340 theorem statement.
  1341 
  1342 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1343 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1344 
  1345 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1346 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1347 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1348 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1349 
  1350 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1351 following independent stages:
  1352 
  1353   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1354   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1355   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1356   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1357 
  1358 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1359 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1360 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1361 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1362 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1363 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1364 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1365 
  1366 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1367 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1368 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1369 
  1370 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1371 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1372 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1373 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1374 
  1375 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1376 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1377 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1378 
  1379 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1380 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1381 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1382 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1383 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1384 old keymaps.
  1385 
  1386 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1387 and diverse:
  1388 
  1389   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1390   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1391   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1392 
  1393 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1394 have to be changed.
  1395 
  1396 
  1397 *** Document preparation ***
  1398 
  1399 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1400 
  1401 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1402 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1403 
  1404 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1405 this allows special forms of document output.
  1406 
  1407 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1408 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1409 derivatives.
  1410 
  1411 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1412 
  1413 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1414 Isabelle2015).
  1415 
  1416 
  1417 *** Isar ***
  1418 
  1419 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1420 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1421 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1422 
  1423 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1424 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1425 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1426 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1427 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1430 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1431 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1432 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1433 
  1434 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1435 context.
  1436 
  1437 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1438 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1439 
  1440 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1441 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1442 
  1443 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1444 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1445 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1446 
  1447 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1448 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1452 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1453 definitions.
  1454 
  1455 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1456 expression, e.g.
  1457 
  1458   (use facts in simp)
  1459   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1460 
  1461 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1462 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1463 
  1464 
  1465 *** Pure ***
  1466 
  1467 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1468 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1469 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1470 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1471 
  1472 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1473 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1474 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1475 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1476 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1477 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1478 
  1479 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1480 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1481 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1482 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1483 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1484 types where this is really intended.
  1485 
  1486 
  1487 *** HOL ***
  1488 
  1489 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1490 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1491 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1492 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1493 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1494 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1495 
  1496 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1497 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1498 
  1499 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1500 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * Sledgehammer:
  1503   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1504   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1505 
  1506 * (Co)datatype package:
  1507   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1508     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1509     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1510     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1511   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1512     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1513   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1514     to the map function.
  1515   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1516   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1517        terms of map and set
  1518        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1519   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1520        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1521     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1522   - Renamed lemmas:
  1523       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1524       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1525     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1526   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1527   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1528     equivalent) form.
  1529     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1532 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1533 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1534 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1537 
  1538   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1539   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1540 
  1541 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1542 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1543 eliminated altogether.
  1544 
  1545 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1546 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1547 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1548 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1549 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1550 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1552 
  1553 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1557 
  1558     setsum ~> sum
  1559     setprod ~> prod
  1560     listsum ~> sum_list
  1561     listprod ~> prod_list
  1562 
  1563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1566     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1567     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1568     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1569     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1570     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1571     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1572     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1573     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1574     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1575     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1576     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1577     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1578     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1579     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1580     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1581     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1582     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1583     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1584     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1585     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1586     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1587     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1588     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1589     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1590     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1591     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1592     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1593     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1594     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1596 
  1597 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1598 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1599 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1602 
  1603 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1604 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1605 
  1606   - Logical representation:
  1607     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1608     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1609       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1610     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1611       are non-canonical.
  1612   - Printing and parsing:
  1613     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1614       (as before).
  1615     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1616     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1617       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1618       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1619     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1620       printed as their logical representation.
  1621   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1622     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1623   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1624 
  1625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1628 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1629 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1630 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1633 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1634 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1635 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1636 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1639 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1642 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1643 
  1644 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1645 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1646 interface for the generated code.
  1647 
  1648 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1649 spelt out explicitly.
  1650 
  1651 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1652 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1653 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1654 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1655 
  1656 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1657 products.
  1658 
  1659 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1660 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1661 
  1662 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1663 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1664 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1665 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1666 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1667 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1668 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1672 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1673 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1679   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1680   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1681 
  1682 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1683   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1684     le_add_same_cancel1
  1685     le_add_same_cancel2
  1686     less_add_same_cancel1
  1687     less_add_same_cancel2
  1688     add_le_same_cancel1
  1689     add_le_same_cancel2
  1690     add_less_same_cancel1
  1691     add_less_same_cancel2
  1692 
  1693 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1694   superseeded by a more general version:
  1695     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1696     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1697     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1698     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1699     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1700     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1701     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1702     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1706 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1709 
  1710 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1711 
  1712   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1713   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1714 
  1715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1716 
  1717 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1721 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1722 A)".
  1723 
  1724 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1727 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1728 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1729 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1732 dioid.
  1733 
  1734 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1735 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1736 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1737 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1738 
  1739 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1740 of a more general type also:
  1741   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1742   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1743   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1744   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1745   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1746   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1747   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1748   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1749   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1750   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1751   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1752   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1753   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1754   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1755   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1756   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1757   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1758   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1759   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1760   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1761   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1762   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1763   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1764   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1765   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1766   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1767   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1768   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1769   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1770   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1771   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1772   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1773   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1774   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1775   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1776   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1777   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1778   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1779   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1780   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1781   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1782   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1783   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1784   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1785   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1786   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1787   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1788   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1789   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1790   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1791   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1792   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1793   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1794   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1795   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1796   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1797   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1798   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1799   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1800   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1801   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1802   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1803   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1804   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1805   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1806   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1807   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1808   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1809   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1810   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1811   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1812   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1813   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1814   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1815   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1816   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1817   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1818   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1819   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1820   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1821   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1822   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1823   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1824   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1825   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1826   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1827   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1828   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1830 
  1831 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1832 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1835 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1836 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1837 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1838 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1839 
  1840 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1841 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1842 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1843 once.
  1844 
  1845 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1846 set_mset rather than count.
  1847 
  1848   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1849     by default.
  1850 
  1851   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1852     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1853 
  1854   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1855     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1856 
  1857   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1858     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1859 
  1860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1861 
  1862 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1863 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1864 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1865 underscores.
  1866 
  1867 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1868 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1869 relation.
  1870 
  1871 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1872 everywhere fix bijections.
  1873 
  1874 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1875 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1876 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1877 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1878 
  1879 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1880 
  1881 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1882 
  1883 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1884 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1885 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1888 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1889 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1890 
  1891 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1892 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1893 
  1894 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1895 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1896 domain.
  1897 
  1898 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1899 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1902   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1903 
  1904 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1905 Probability Mass Functions.
  1906 
  1907 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1908 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1909 folding over a list in random order.
  1910 
  1911 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1912 subprobability distributions.
  1913 
  1914 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1915 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1916 
  1917     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1918     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1919     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1920     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1921     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1922     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1923     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1924     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1925     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1926     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1927     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1928     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1929     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1930     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1931     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1932     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1933     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1934     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1935     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1936     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1937     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1938     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1939 
  1940 Some functions have been renamed:
  1941     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1942 
  1943 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1944     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1945     #\<subset># ~> <
  1946     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1947     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1949 
  1950 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1951 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1952 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1953 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1954 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1955 
  1956 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1957 been renamed:
  1958 
  1959     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1960     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1961     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1962     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1963     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1964     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1965     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1966     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1967     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1968 
  1969     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1970     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1971     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1972     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1973     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1974     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1975     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1976     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1977     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1978     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1979     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1981 
  1982 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1986 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1987 
  1988     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1989     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1990     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1991     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1992     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1993     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1994     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1995     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1996     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1997     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1998     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1999     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  2000     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  2001     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2002     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2003     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2004     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2005 
  2006 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  2007 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  2008 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  2009 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  2010 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  2011 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  2014 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  2015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2016 
  2017 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  2018 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  2019 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2020 
  2021 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  2022 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  2023 removed or changed:
  2024 
  2025   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  2026   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  2027   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  2028   union_single_eq_diff
  2029   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2030   diff_single_eq_union
  2031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  2034 to use add_mset instead of single:
  2035 
  2036   mset_add
  2037   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2038   diff_single_eq_union
  2039   union_single_eq_diff
  2040   union_single_eq_member
  2041   add_eq_conv_diff
  2042   insert_noteq_member
  2043   add_eq_conv_ex
  2044   multi_member_split
  2045   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  2046   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  2047   mset_subset_insertD
  2048   insert_subset_eq_iff
  2049   insert_union_subset_iff
  2050   multi_psub_of_add_self
  2051   inter_add_left1
  2052   inter_add_left2
  2053   inter_add_right1
  2054   inter_add_right2
  2055   sup_union_left1
  2056   sup_union_left2
  2057   sup_union_right1
  2058   sup_union_right2
  2059   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  2060   multi_nonempty_split
  2061   mset_insort
  2062   mset_update
  2063   mult1I
  2064   less_add
  2065   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2066   rel_mset_Zero
  2067   msed_map_invL
  2068   msed_map_invR
  2069   msed_rel_invL
  2070   msed_rel_invR
  2071   le_multiset_right_total
  2072   multiset_induct
  2073   multiset_induct2_size
  2074   multiset_induct2
  2075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2076 
  2077 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2078 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2079 element:
  2080 
  2081   image_mset
  2082   mset
  2083   replicate_mset
  2084   mult1
  2085   pred_mset
  2086   rel_mset'
  2087   mset_insort
  2088 
  2089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2092 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2093 
  2094   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2095   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2096   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2097   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2098   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2099   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2100   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2101   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2102   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2103   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2104   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2105   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2106   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2107   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2108   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2109   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2110   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2111   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2112   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2116 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2117 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2119 
  2120 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2121 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2122 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2125 multisets:
  2126 
  2127   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2128   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2129 
  2130 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2131 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2132 
  2133   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2134   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2135 
  2136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2137 
  2138 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2139 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2140 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2141 
  2142 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2143 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2144 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2145 
  2146 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2147 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2148 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2149 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2150 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2151 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2154 the following renaming
  2155 
  2156   prefixeq -> prefix
  2157   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2158   suffixeq -> suffix
  2159   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2160 
  2161 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2162 
  2163 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2164 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2165 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2166 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2167 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2168 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2171 theories.
  2172 
  2173 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2174 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2175 
  2176 
  2177 *** ML ***
  2178 
  2179 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2180 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2181 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2182 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2184 
  2185 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2186 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2187 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2188 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2189 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2190 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2191 superseded by General.Div.
  2192 
  2193 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2194 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2195 
  2196 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2197 with approximative output quality.
  2198 
  2199 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2200 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2201 
  2202 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2203 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2204 requiring separate files.
  2205 
  2206 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2207 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2208 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2209 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2210 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2211 
  2212 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2213 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2214 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2215 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2216 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2217 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2218 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2221 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2225 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2226 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2227 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2230 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 
  2233 *** System ***
  2234 
  2235 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2236 
  2237 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2238 much less disk space.
  2239 
  2240 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2241 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2242 particular:
  2243 
  2244   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2245     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2246   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2247   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2248 
  2249 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2250 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2251 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2252 
  2253 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2254 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2255 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2256 return code 1.
  2257 
  2258 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2259 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2260 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2261 
  2262 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2263 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2264 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2265 
  2266 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2267 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2268 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2269 by default).
  2270 
  2271 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2272 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2273 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2274 resulting log files.
  2275 
  2276 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2277 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2278 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2279 implicit default via option -p.
  2280 
  2281 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2282 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2283 
  2284 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2285 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2286 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2287 
  2288 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2289 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2290 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2291 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2292 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2295 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2296 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2297 
  2298 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2299 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2300 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2301 
  2302 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2303 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2304 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2305 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2306 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2307 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2308 been discontinued.
  2309 
  2310 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2311 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2312 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2313 
  2314 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2315 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2316 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2317 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2318 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2319 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2320 
  2321 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2322 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2323 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2324 connection).
  2325 
  2326 
  2327 
  2328 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2329 -----------------------------------
  2330 
  2331 *** General ***
  2332 
  2333 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2334 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2335 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2336 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2337 examples that do require HOL.
  2338 
  2339 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2340 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2341 
  2342 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2343 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2344 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2345 has been removed (see below).
  2346 
  2347 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2348 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2349 
  2350 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2351 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2352 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2353 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2354 
  2355 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2356 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2357 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2358 meaning.
  2359 
  2360 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2361 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2362 to update old sources.
  2363 
  2364 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2365 
  2366   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2367   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2368   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2369   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2370 
  2371 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2372 accordingly.
  2373 
  2374 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2375 'theorem'.
  2376 
  2377 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2378 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2379 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2380 
  2381 
  2382 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2383 
  2384 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2385 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2386 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2387 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2388 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2389 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2390 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2391 any effect on the running ML program.
  2392 
  2393 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2394 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2395 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2396 update.
  2397 
  2398 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2399 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2400 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2401 
  2402 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2403 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2404 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2405 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2406 visibility.
  2407 
  2408 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2409 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2410 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2411 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2412 panel.
  2413 
  2414 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2415 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2416 
  2417 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2418 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2419 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2420 
  2421 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2422 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2423 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2424 
  2425 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2426 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2427 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2428 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2429 
  2430 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2431 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2432 the editor.
  2433 
  2434 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2435 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2436 
  2437 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2438 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2439 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2440 instead.
  2441 
  2442 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2443 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2444 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2445 
  2446 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2447 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2448 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2449 
  2450 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2451 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2452 
  2453 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2454 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2455 
  2456 
  2457 *** Document preparation ***
  2458 
  2459 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2460 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2461 
  2462 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2463 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2464 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2465 
  2466 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2467 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2468 follows:
  2469 
  2470   \<^item>  itemize
  2471   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2472   \<^descr>  description
  2473 
  2474 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2475 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2476 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2477 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2478 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2479 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2480 
  2481 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2482 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2483 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2484 
  2485 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2486 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2487 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2488 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2489 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2490 
  2491 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2492 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2493 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2494 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2495 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2496 
  2497 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2498 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2499 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2500 
  2501 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2502 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2503 
  2504 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2505 
  2506 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2507 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2508 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2509 
  2510 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2511 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2512 
  2513 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2514 entities of the Isar language.
  2515 
  2516 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2517 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2518 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2519 
  2520 
  2521 *** Isar ***
  2522 
  2523 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2524 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2525 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2526 example:
  2527 
  2528   have result: "C x y"
  2529     if "A x" and "B y"
  2530     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2531     <proof>
  2532 
  2533 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2534 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2535 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2536 
  2537   {
  2538     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2539     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2540     have "C x y" <proof>
  2541   }
  2542   note result = this
  2543 
  2544 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2545 instead of 'assume' above.
  2546 
  2547 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2548 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2549 
  2550   assume result: "C x y"
  2551     if "A x" and "B y"
  2552     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2553 
  2554 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2555 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2556 
  2557 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2558 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2559 example:
  2560 
  2561   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2562 
  2563 is equivalent to:
  2564 
  2565   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2566 
  2567 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2568 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2569 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2570 follows:
  2571 
  2572   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2573 
  2574 or:
  2575 
  2576   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2577 
  2578 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2579 
  2580   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2581 
  2582 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2583 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2584 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2585 of the local context elements yet.
  2586 
  2587 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2588 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2589 
  2590   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2591   then have something
  2592   proof cases
  2593     case a
  2594     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2595   next
  2596     case b
  2597     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2598   next
  2599     case c
  2600     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2601   qed
  2602 
  2603 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2604 
  2605   case a: (c xs)
  2606   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2607 
  2608 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2609 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2610 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2611 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2612 and always put attributes in front.
  2613 
  2614 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2615 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2616 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2617 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2618 
  2619 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2620 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2621 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2622 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2623 
  2624   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2625     supply [simp] = a
  2626   proof
  2627     show A by simp
  2628   next
  2629     show A by simp
  2630   qed
  2631 
  2632 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2633 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2634 
  2635 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2636 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2637 
  2638 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2639 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2640 
  2641 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2642 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2643 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2644 manual.
  2645 
  2646 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2647 ('apply' scripts).
  2648 
  2649 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2650 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2651 example:
  2652 
  2653 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2654   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2655 proof goal_cases
  2656   case (1 x)
  2657   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2658 next
  2659   case (2 y z)
  2660   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2661 qed
  2662 
  2663 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2664   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2665 proof goal_cases
  2666   case prems: 1
  2667   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2668 next
  2669   case prems: 2
  2670   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2671 qed
  2672 
  2673 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2674 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2675 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2676 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2677 
  2678 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2679 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2680 
  2681 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2682 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2683 
  2684 
  2685 *** Pure ***
  2686 
  2687 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2688 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2689 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2690 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2691 
  2692 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2693 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2696 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2697 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2698 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2699 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2700 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2701 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2702 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2703 
  2704   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2705   begin
  2706     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2707   end
  2708 
  2709   locale morphism =
  2710     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2711     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2712   begin
  2713     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2714   end
  2715 
  2716 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2717 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2718 
  2719 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2720 'defines'.
  2721 
  2722 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2723 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2726 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2727 
  2728 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2729 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2732 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2733 exploited.
  2734 
  2735 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2736 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2737 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2738 
  2739 
  2740 *** HOL ***
  2741 
  2742 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2743 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2744 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2745 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2746 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2747 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2750 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2751 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2752 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2753 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2754 
  2755 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2756 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2757 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2758 simplify porting old theories:
  2759 
  2760   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2761 
  2762   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2763 
  2764   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2765   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2766 
  2767   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2768 
  2769   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2770   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2771 
  2772   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2773 
  2774   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2775     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2776 
  2777   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2778   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2779   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2780 
  2781   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2782   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2783   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2784 
  2785 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2786 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2787 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2788 
  2789 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2790 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2791 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2792 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2793 
  2794 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2795 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2796 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2797 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2798 
  2799 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2800 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2801 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2802 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2803 
  2804 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2805 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2806 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2810 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2811 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2812 
  2813 Consolidated facts:
  2814   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2815   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2816   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2817   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2818   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2819   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2820   split_split ~> prod.split
  2821   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2822   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2823   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2824   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2825   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2826   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2827   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2828   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2829   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2830   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2831   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2832   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2833   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2834   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2835   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2836   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2837   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2838   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2839   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2840   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2841   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2842   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2843   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2844   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2845   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2846   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2847   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2848   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2849 
  2850 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2851   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2852   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2853   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2854   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2855 
  2856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2859 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2860 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2861 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2862 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2863 
  2864 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2865   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2866   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2867   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2868   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2869   real_of_one of_int_1
  2870   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2871   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2872   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2873   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2874   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2875   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2876   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2877   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2878   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2879   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2880   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2881   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2882   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2883   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2884   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2885   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2886   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2887 
  2888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2889 
  2890 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2891 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2892 
  2893 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2894 
  2895 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897 * Sledgehammer:
  2898   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2899   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2900     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2901   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2902   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2903   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2904     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2906 
  2907 * Nitpick:
  2908   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2909   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2910   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2911   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2912   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2913 
  2914 * (Co)datatype package:
  2915   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2916     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2917   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2918   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2919     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2921     being defined.
  2922   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2923 
  2924 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2925 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2926 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2927 
  2928 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2929 
  2930 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2931 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2932 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2933 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2934 
  2935 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2939 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2940 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2941 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2942 
  2943 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2944 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2945 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2946 
  2947 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2948 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2949 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2950 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2951 
  2952 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2953 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2954 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2955 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2956 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2957 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2958 during instantiation.
  2959 
  2960 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2961 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2962 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2965 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2966 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2967 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2968 
  2969   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2970   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2971 
  2972 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Library/Multiset:
  2975   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2976       < ~> <#
  2977       > ~> >#
  2978       <= ~> <=#
  2979       >= ~> >=#
  2980       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2981       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2982     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2984       \<subset>#
  2985       \<subseteq>#
  2986       \<supset>#
  2987       \<supseteq>#
  2988   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2989     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2990     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2991     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2992     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2993     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2994     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995   - Renamed conversions:
  2996       multiset_of ~> mset
  2997       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2998       set_of ~> set_mset
  2999     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3000   - Renamed lemmas:
  3001       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3002       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  3003       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3004     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3005   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  3006     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  3007     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  3008     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3009 
  3010 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  3011 
  3012 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  3013 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  3014 chain-complete partial orders.
  3015 
  3016 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  3017 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  3018 
  3019 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  3020 periodic functions.
  3021 
  3022 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  3023 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  3024 GCD.
  3025 
  3026 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  3027 
  3028 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  3029 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3030 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  3031 
  3032 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  3033 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  3034 
  3035 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  3036 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  3037 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  3038 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  3039 
  3040 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  3041 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  3042 
  3043 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  3044 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  3045 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  3046 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  3047 properties.
  3048 
  3049 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  3050 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  3051 
  3052 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  3053 structures.
  3054 
  3055 
  3056 *** ML ***
  3057 
  3058 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  3059 system are available:
  3060 
  3061   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3062   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3063   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3064 
  3065 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3066 
  3067 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3068 Isar proof method.
  3069 
  3070 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3071 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3072 breaks.
  3073 
  3074 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3075 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3076 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3079 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3080 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3081 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3082 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3085 
  3086   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3087   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3088 
  3089   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3090   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3091 
  3092 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3093 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3094 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3095 
  3096 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3097 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3098 instead (with proper context).
  3099 
  3100 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3101 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3102 
  3103 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3104 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3105 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3106 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3107 the proof context discipline.
  3108 
  3109 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3110 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3111 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3112 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3113 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3114 
  3115 
  3116 *** System ***
  3117 
  3118 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3119 
  3120 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3121 conflations:
  3122 
  3123     hence  ~>  then have
  3124     thus   ~>  then show
  3125 
  3126 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3127 maintainability of proofs.
  3128 
  3129 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3130 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3131 performance.
  3132 
  3133 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3134 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3135 
  3136     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3137 
  3138 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3139 space.
  3140 
  3141 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3142 platforms as follows.
  3143 
  3144   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3145     associated with the main app bundle
  3146 
  3147   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3148     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3149     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3150 
  3151   - isabelle build: settings
  3152     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3153 
  3154 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3155 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3156 
  3157 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3158 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3159 required after change.
  3160 
  3161 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3162 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3163 
  3164 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3165 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3166 
  3167 
  3168 
  3169 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3170 ------------------------------
  3171 
  3172 *** General ***
  3173 
  3174 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3175 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3176 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3177 
  3178   context
  3179   begin
  3180 
  3181   private definition ...
  3182   private lemma ...
  3183 
  3184   qualified definition ...
  3185   qualified lemma ...
  3186 
  3187   lemma ...
  3188   theorem ...
  3189 
  3190   end
  3191 
  3192 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3193 naming policy.
  3194 
  3195 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3196 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3197 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3198 
  3199 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3200 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3201 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3202 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3203 
  3204 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3205 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3206 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3210 theory context.
  3211 
  3212 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3213 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3214 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3215 
  3216 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3217 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3218 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3219 sources.
  3220 
  3221 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3222 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3223 
  3224 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3225 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3226 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3227 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3228 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3229 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3230 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3231 
  3232 
  3233 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3234 
  3235 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3236 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3237 
  3238 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3239 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3240 in the buffer.
  3241 
  3242 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3243 marker, SideKick parser.
  3244 
  3245 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3246 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3247 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3248 
  3249 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3250 Options / Text Area).
  3251 
  3252 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3253 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3254 
  3255 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3256 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3257 
  3258 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3259 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3260 
  3261 
  3262 *** Document preparation ***
  3263 
  3264 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3265 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3266 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3267 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3268 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3269 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3270 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3271 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3274 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3275 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3276 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3277 
  3278 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3279 style.
  3280 
  3281 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3282 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3283 
  3284 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3285 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3286 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3287 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3288 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3289 
  3290 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3291 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3292 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3293 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3294 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3295 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3296 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3299 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3300 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3302 
  3303 
  3304 *** Pure ***
  3305 
  3306 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3307 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3308 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3309 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3310 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3311 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3312 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3313 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3314 
  3315 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3316 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3317 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3318 
  3319 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3320 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3321 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3322 different index.
  3323 
  3324 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3325 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3326 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3327 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3328 
  3329 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3330 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3331 token category instead.
  3332 
  3333 
  3334 *** HOL ***
  3335 
  3336 * New (co)datatype package:
  3337   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3338     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3339     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3340     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3341     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342   - Renamed theorems:
  3343       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3344       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3345       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3346       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3347       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3348       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3349       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3350       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3351       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3352       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3353       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3354       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3355       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3356     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3358     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3359     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3361     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3362     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3364     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3365     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3366     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3367     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3368     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3369     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370   - Renamed theories:
  3371       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3372       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3373       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3374       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3375       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3376       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3377     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3379     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3380     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3381     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3382     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3383     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3384     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3385     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3386     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3387   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3388     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3389     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3390     rules.
  3391 
  3392 * Old datatype package:
  3393   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3394     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3395     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3396     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3397     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398   - Renamed theorems:
  3399       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3400     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401   - Renamed theory:
  3402       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Nitpick:
  3406   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3407     operations.
  3408 
  3409 * Sledgehammer:
  3410   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3411     default.
  3412   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3413     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3414   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3415     Removed sub-command:
  3416       min
  3417   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3418     dramatically improved.
  3419   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3420 
  3421 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3422   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3423     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3424     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3425     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3426     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3427     point to it.
  3428     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3430     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3432     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3433   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3434     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3435 
  3436 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3437 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3438 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3439 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3440 
  3441 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3442 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3443 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3446 
  3447 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3448 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3449 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3450 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451 
  3452 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3453 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454 
  3455 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3459 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3460 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3463 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3466 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3467 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3468 
  3469 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3470 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3471 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3472 needed.
  3473 
  3474 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3475 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3476 
  3477 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3478 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3479 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3480 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3481 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3482 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3483 
  3484 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3485 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3486 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3487 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3488 
  3489 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3490 type class hierarchy:
  3491   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3492   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3493   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3494   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3495 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3498   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3499   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3500 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3503 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3504 
  3505 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3506   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3507   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3508   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3509 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3512 and part of theory Main.
  3513   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3520 Fact rename:
  3521     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3525 
  3526 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3527 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3528 
  3529 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3530 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3531 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3532 
  3533 * Library/Multiset:
  3534   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3535   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3536     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3537   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3538       <# ~> #<#
  3539       <=# ~> #<=#
  3540       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3541       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3542     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3544       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3545       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3546     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547   - Renamed
  3548       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3549       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3550       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3551     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3553   - Added attributes:
  3554       image_mset.id [simp]
  3555       image_mset_id [simp]
  3556       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3557       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3558       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3559       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3560       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3561       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3562     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3565 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3566 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3567 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3570 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3571 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3572 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3573 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3574 examples.
  3575 
  3576 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3577   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3578   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3579   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3580     projection
  3581 
  3582 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3583 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3584 
  3585 
  3586 *** ML ***
  3587 
  3588 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3589 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3590 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3591 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3592 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3593 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3594 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3595 
  3596 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3597 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3598 
  3599 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3600 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3601 
  3602 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3606 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3607 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3608 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3609 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3610 nested.
  3611 
  3612 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3613 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3616 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3617 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3621 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3622 Thm.term_of etc.
  3623 
  3624 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3625 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3626 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3629 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3630 
  3631 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3632 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3633 
  3634 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3635 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3636 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3639 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3640 
  3641 
  3642 *** System ***
  3643 
  3644 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3645 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3646 
  3647 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3648 
  3649 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3650 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3651 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3652 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3656 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3657 
  3658 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3659 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3660 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3661 
  3662 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3663 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3664 
  3665 
  3666 
  3667 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3668 ---------------------------------
  3669 
  3670 *** General ***
  3671 
  3672 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3673 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3674 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3675 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3676 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3677 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3678 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3679 some examples.
  3680 
  3681 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3682 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3683 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3684 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3685 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3686 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3687 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3688 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3689 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3690 
  3691 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3692 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3693 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3694 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3695 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3696 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3697 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3698 proof tools.
  3699 
  3700 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3701 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3702 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3703 
  3704 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3705 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3706 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3707 
  3708 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3709 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3710 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3711 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3714 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3715 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3719 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3720 
  3721 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3722 not check existence within the file-system.
  3723 
  3724 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3725 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3726 
  3727 
  3728 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3729 
  3730 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3731 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3732 buffer.
  3733 
  3734 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3735 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3736 
  3737 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3738 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3739 
  3740 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3741 auxiliary ML files.
  3742 
  3743 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3744 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3745 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3746 
  3747 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3748 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3749 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3750 
  3751 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3752 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3753 
  3754 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3755 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3756 caret".
  3757 
  3758 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3759 completion popup and context-menu.
  3760 
  3761 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3762 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3763 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3764 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3765 
  3766 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3767 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3768 
  3769 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3770 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3771 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3772 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3773 
  3774 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3775 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3776 
  3777 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3778 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3779 
  3780 * Improved monitor panel.
  3781 
  3782 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3783 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3784 
  3785 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3786 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3787 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3788 
  3789 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3790 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3791 within the context.
  3792 
  3793 
  3794 *** Pure ***
  3795 
  3796 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3797 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3798 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3799 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3800 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3801 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3802 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3803 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3804 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3805 
  3806 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3807 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3808 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3809 renaming needs to be applied:
  3810 
  3811   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3812   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3813   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3814   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3815   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3816 
  3817 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3818 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3819 old constants:
  3820 
  3821 setup {*
  3822   fn thy => thy
  3823     |> Sign.root_path
  3824     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3825     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3826     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3827     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3828 *}
  3829 
  3830 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3831 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3832 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3833 
  3834 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3835 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3836 instantiated theorem.
  3837 
  3838 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3839 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3840 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3841 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3842 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3843 
  3844   attribute_setup standard =
  3845     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3846 
  3847 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3848 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3849 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3850 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3851 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3852 
  3853 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3854 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3855 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3856 
  3857 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3858 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3859 
  3860 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3861 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3862 
  3863 
  3864 *** HOL ***
  3865 
  3866 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3867 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3876 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3882 with the given constants.
  3883 
  3884 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3885 operations on records.
  3886 
  3887 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3888 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3893 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3894 
  3895 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3898 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3899 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3900 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3901 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3904 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3907   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3908   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3909   part of theory "Main".
  3910 
  3911   Theory renamings:
  3912     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3913     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3914     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3915     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3916     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3917     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3918     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3919     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3920     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3921     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3922     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3923     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3924     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3925     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3926     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3927     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3928     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3929     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3930     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3931     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3932     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3933     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3934 
  3935   New theories:
  3936     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3937     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3938     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3939     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3940     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3941 
  3942   Discontinued theories:
  3943     BNF/BNF.thy
  3944     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3945 
  3946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * New (co)datatype package:
  3949   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3950   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3951     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3952   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3953     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3954   - Renamed commands:
  3955       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3956       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3957       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3958     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3960     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3961     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3963     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3964     using "prim(co)rec".
  3965     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3967     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3968     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3970     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3971     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3972     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * Old datatype package:
  3975   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3976     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3977     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3979     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3980     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3983   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3984   BNF-based datatype package.
  3985 
  3986   Renamed constants:
  3987     Option.set ~> set_option
  3988     Option.map ~> map_option
  3989     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3990 
  3991   Renamed theorems:
  3992     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3993     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3994     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3995     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3996     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3997     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3998     map.simps ~> list.map
  3999     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  4000     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  4001     the.simps ~> option.sel
  4002 
  4003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  4006     sum_map ~> map_sum
  4007     map_pair ~> map_prod
  4008     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  4009     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  4010     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  4011     set_rel ~> rel_set
  4012     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  4013     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  4014     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  4015     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  4016 
  4017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Lifting and Transfer:
  4020   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  4021   - stronger reflexivity prover
  4022   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  4023   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  4024     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  4025     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  4026       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  4027       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  4028       automatically
  4029     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  4030     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  4031       automatically for datatypes
  4032   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  4033     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  4034       more
  4035       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4036     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  4037       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  4038       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4039     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  4040       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  4041       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042   - registration of code equations is more robust
  4043     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  4045     form
  4046     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  4048     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  4050     Code_Numeral.natural
  4051     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  4053     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  4056 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  4057 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  4058 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  4059 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  4060 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  4061 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4064 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4065 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4066 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4067 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4068 
  4069 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4070 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4071 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4072 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4073 
  4074 * Sledgehammer:
  4075   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4076   - MaSh overhaul:
  4077     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4078       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4079     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4080       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4081       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4082       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4083   - New option:
  4084       smt_proofs
  4085   - Renamed options:
  4086       isar_compress ~> compress
  4087       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4088 
  4089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4092 
  4093 * Nitpick:
  4094   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4095     take infinite values.
  4096   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4097     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4098   - Removed "std" option.
  4099   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4100     "hide_types".
  4101 
  4102 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4103 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4106 
  4107 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4108   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4109   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4110     SUP instead uniformly.
  4111   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4112     or SUP and Sup.
  4113   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4114   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4115   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4116     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4117     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4118 
  4119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4122 
  4123 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4124 
  4125   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4126   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4127   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4128   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4129 
  4130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4133 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4134 
  4135 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4136 
  4137     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4138     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4139     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4140     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4141     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4142     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4143     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4144     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4145     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4146     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4147     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4148     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4149     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4150     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4151     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4152     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4153     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4154     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4155     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4156     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4157     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4158     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4159     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4160     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4161     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4162     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4163     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4164     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4165     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4166     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4167     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4168     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4169     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4170     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4171     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4172     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4173     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4174     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4175     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4176     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4177     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4178     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4179     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4180     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4181     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4182     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4183     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4184     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4185     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4186     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4187     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4188     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4189     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4190     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4191     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4192     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4193     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4194     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4195     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4196 
  4197   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4198   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4199   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4200     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4201 
  4202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4205 
  4206   Fact consolidations:
  4207     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4208     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4209     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4210     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4211     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4212     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4213     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4214     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4215     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4216     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4217     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4218     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4219     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4220     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4221     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4222     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4223     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4224     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4225     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4226     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4227     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4228     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4229     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4230     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4231     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4232     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4233     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4234     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4235     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4236     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4237     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4238     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4239     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4240     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4241     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4242     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4243     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4244     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4245     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4246     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4247 
  4248 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4249 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4250 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4251 
  4252 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4253 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4254 
  4255 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4256 
  4257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4260 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4261 
  4262 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4266     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4267 
  4268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4269 
  4270 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4271   consolidation:
  4272     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4273     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4274 
  4275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4276 
  4277 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4278   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4279   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4280   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4281     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4282   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4283     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4284   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4285 
  4286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4289 
  4290     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4291     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4292     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4293     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4294     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4295     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4296     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4297     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4298     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4299     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4300     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4301     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4302     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4303 
  4304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4307 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4308 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4309 
  4310 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4311     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4312     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4313     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4314     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4315 
  4316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Fact name consolidation:
  4319     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4320     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4321     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4322     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4323     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4324 
  4325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4328 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4329 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4330 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4331 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4332 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4333 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4335 
  4336 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4337 
  4338 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4339 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4340 
  4341 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4342 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4343 
  4344 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4345 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4346 or the brute way with
  4347 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4348 
  4349 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4350 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4351 stating boundedness of sets.
  4352 
  4353 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4354 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4355 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4358   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4359   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4360   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4361   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4362   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4363   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4364   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4365   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4366   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4367   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4368   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4369 
  4370   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4371 
  4372   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4373 
  4374     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4375     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4376     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4377     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4378     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4379 
  4380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4383   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4384 
  4385   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4386 
  4387   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4388 
  4389   - removed constant isDiff
  4390 
  4391   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4392     input syntax.
  4393 
  4394   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4395 
  4396   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4397 
  4398   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4399 
  4400   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4401 
  4402   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4403     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4404     has_vector_derivative.
  4405 
  4406   - Other renamings:
  4407     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4408     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4409     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4410     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4411     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4412     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4413     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4414 
  4415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4418 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4419 in continuous_intros.
  4420 
  4421 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4422 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4423 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4424 
  4425 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4426 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4427 especially removes
  4428 
  4429     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4430 
  4431 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4432     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4433 
  4434 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4435 
  4436   Renamings:
  4437     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4438     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4439     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4440     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4441     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4442     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4443     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4444     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4445     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4446     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4447     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4448     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4449 
  4450     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4451     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4452     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4453 
  4454   Removed theorems:
  4455     complex_zero_def
  4456     complex_add_def
  4457     complex_minus_def
  4458     complex_diff_def
  4459     complex_one_def
  4460     complex_mult_def
  4461     complex_inverse_def
  4462     complex_scaleR_def
  4463 
  4464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4465 
  4466 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4467 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4468 
  4469 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4470 
  4471 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4472 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4473 
  4474 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4475 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476 
  4477 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4478 
  4479 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4481 
  4482 * HOL-Word:
  4483   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4484     of "word_arith_wis".
  4485   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4486     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4487     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4488 
  4489 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4490   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4491   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4492   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4493     (except the AFP)
  4494 
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4498   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4499   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4500     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4501   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4502     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4503     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4504     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4505     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4506     intervals.
  4507   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4508     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4509     - renamed theorems:
  4510         interval ~> box
  4511         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4512         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4513         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4514         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4515         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4516         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4517         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4518         open_interval ~> open_box
  4519         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4520         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4521         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4522         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4523         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4524         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4525         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4526         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4527         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4528         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4529         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4530         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4531         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4532         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4533         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4534         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4535         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4536         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4537         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4538         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4539         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4540         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4541         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4542         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4543 
  4544     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4545         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4546         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4547         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4548         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4549         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4550         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4551         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4552         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4553         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4554         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4555         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4556         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4557         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4558         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4559         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4560         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4561         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4562 
  4563   - renamed theorems:
  4564     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4565     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4566     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4567 
  4568 * HOL-Probability:
  4569   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4570 
  4571     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4572       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4573 
  4574     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4575 
  4576   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4577     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4578 
  4579     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4580     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4581     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4582     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4583     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4584     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4585     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4586     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4587     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4588     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4589     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4590     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4591     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4592     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4593     integral_indicator          ~>
  4594          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4595     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4596     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4597     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4598 
  4599     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4600          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4601 
  4602     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4603          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4604 
  4605     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4606          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4607 
  4608     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4609          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4610          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4611 
  4612     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4613          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4614 
  4615     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4616          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4617 
  4618     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4619          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4620          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4621 
  4622     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4623          nn_integral_real_affine
  4624 
  4625     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4626          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4627 
  4628     The following theorems where removed:
  4629 
  4630     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4631     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4632     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4633     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4634     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4635     integral_cmul_indicator
  4636     integral_real
  4637 
  4638   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4639     distributed random variables.
  4640 
  4641 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4642 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 
  4646 *** Scala ***
  4647 
  4648 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4649 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4650 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4651 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4652 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4655 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4656 
  4657 
  4658 *** ML ***
  4659 
  4660 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4661 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4662 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4663 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4664 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4665 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4666 
  4667 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4668 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4669 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4670 actually belongs to it).
  4671 
  4672 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4673 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4674 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4675 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4676 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4677 of schematic variables.
  4678 
  4679 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4680 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4683 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4684 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4690 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4691 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4695 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4697 formal context.
  4698 
  4699 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4700 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4703 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4704 
  4705 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4706 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4707 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4708 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4709 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4710 
  4711 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4712 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4713 purposes.
  4714 
  4715 
  4716 *** System ***
  4717 
  4718 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4719 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4720 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4721 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4722 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4723 
  4724 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4725 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4726 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4727 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4728 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4729 settings variable.
  4730 
  4731 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4732 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4733 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4734 
  4735 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4736 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4737 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4738 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4739 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4740 
  4741 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4742 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4743 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4744 
  4745 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4746 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4747 
  4748 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4749 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4750 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4751 
  4752 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4753 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4754 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4755 processing is started.
  4756 
  4757 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4758 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4759 
  4760 
  4761 
  4762 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4763 -------------------------------------
  4764 
  4765 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4766 
  4767 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4768 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4769 
  4770 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4771 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4772 
  4773 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4774 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4775 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4776 
  4777 
  4778 *** System ***
  4779 
  4780 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4781 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4782 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4783 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4784 
  4785 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4786 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4787 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4788 
  4789 
  4790 
  4791 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4792 -------------------------------------
  4793 
  4794 *** General ***
  4795 
  4796 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4797 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4798 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4801 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4804 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4805 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4806 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4807 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4808 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4809 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4810 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4811 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4812 syntax.
  4813 
  4814 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4815 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4818 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4819 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4820 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4821 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4822 
  4823 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4825 
  4826 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4827 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4828 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4829 
  4830 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4831 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4832 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4833 
  4834 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4835 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4836 
  4837 
  4838 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4839 
  4840 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4841 Documentation panel.
  4842 
  4843 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4844 documentation.
  4845 
  4846 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4847 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4848 
  4849 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4850 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4851 normal editing and checking process.
  4852 
  4853 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4854 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4855 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4856 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4857 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4858 
  4859 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4860 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4861 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4862 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4863 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4864 
  4865 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4866 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4867 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4868 
  4869 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4870 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4871 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4872 to resolve conflict.
  4873 
  4874 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4875 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4876 
  4877 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4878 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4879 such command executions while editing.
  4880 
  4881 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4882 document content.
  4883 
  4884 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4885 toplevel theorem statements.
  4886 
  4887 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4888 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4889 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4890 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4891 
  4892 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4893 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4894 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4895 
  4896 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4897 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4898 
  4899 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4900 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4901 
  4902 
  4903 *** Pure ***
  4904 
  4905 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4906 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4907 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4908 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4909 details.
  4910 
  4911 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4912 
  4913 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4914 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4915 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4916 
  4917 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4919 
  4920 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4921 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4922 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4923 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4924 
  4925 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4926 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4927 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4928 
  4929 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4930 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4931 
  4932 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4933 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4934 situations.
  4935 
  4936 
  4937 *** HOL ***
  4938 
  4939 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4940 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4942 
  4943 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4944 
  4945 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4946 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4947 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4948 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4949 
  4950   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4951 
  4952 * Code generator:
  4953   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4954     'code_instance'.
  4955   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4956     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4957 
  4958 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4959 examples.
  4960 
  4961 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4962 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4963 to distinguish both when desired.
  4964 
  4965 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4966 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4967 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4968 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4969 
  4970 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4971 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4972 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4973 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4974 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4975 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4976 
  4977 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4978 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4979 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4980 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4981 
  4982 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4983 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4984 
  4985 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4986 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4987 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4988 
  4989 * Lifting:
  4990   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4991     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4992       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4993       transfer rules
  4994     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4995       correspondence relation can be generated
  4996     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4997       parametricity
  4998     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4999   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  5000   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  5001     copies
  5002   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  5003     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  5004     anonymous context)
  5005   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  5006     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5007   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  5008     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  5009   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  5010     INCOMPATIBILITY
  5011 
  5012 * Transfer:
  5013   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  5014     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  5015   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  5016   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  5017     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  5018   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  5019 
  5020 * Reification and reflection:
  5021   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  5022     "Reification".
  5023   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  5024   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  5025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 
  5027 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  5028   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  5029     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5030     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  5031   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  5032     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  5033   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  5034     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  5035     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  5036     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  5037     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  5038     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  5039     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  5040     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  5041   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  5042     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  5043   - Fact renames:
  5044       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  5045       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  5046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  5049 
  5050 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  5051 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  5052 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  5053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5054 
  5055 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  5056 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  5057 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  5058 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  5059 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  5060 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  5061 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5062 lemmas.
  5063 
  5064 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5065 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5066 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5067 
  5068 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5069 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5070 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5071 
  5072 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5073 top and bottom elements.
  5074 
  5075 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5076 
  5077 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5078 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5079 
  5080  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5081    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5082    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5083 
  5084  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5085    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5086    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5087 
  5088    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5089    arbitrary filter.
  5090 
  5091  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5092    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5093    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5094    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5095    on a compact set.
  5096 
  5097  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5098    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5099    linear_continuum_topology).
  5100 
  5101  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5102    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5103    on all sequences converging to x.
  5104 
  5105  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5106    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5107    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5108    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5109    left or right.
  5110 
  5111  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5112 
  5113      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5114 
  5115  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5116    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5117 
  5118  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5119    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5120    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5121    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5122    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5123    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5124 
  5125  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5126 
  5127    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5128 
  5129    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5130      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5131 
  5132    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5133 
  5134    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5135      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5136 
  5137    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5138 
  5139    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5140 
  5141  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5142 
  5143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Nitpick:
  5146   - Added option "spy".
  5147   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5148 
  5149 * Sledgehammer:
  5150   - Renamed option:
  5151       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5152     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5153   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5154   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5155   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5156 
  5157 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5158 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5159 
  5160 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5161   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5162   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5163     generated code.
  5164   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5165   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5166   - Fact renames:
  5167     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5168     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5169     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5170 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5171 
  5172 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5173 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5174 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5175 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5176 
  5177 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5178 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5179 
  5180 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5181 
  5182 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5183 
  5184     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5185     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5186 
  5187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5190 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5191 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5192 
  5193 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5194 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5195 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5196 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 * HOL-BNF:
  5199   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5200     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5201     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5202     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5203   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5204     coinduct).
  5205   - Renamed keywords:
  5206     data ~> datatype_new
  5207     codata ~> codatatype
  5208     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5209   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5210     discs ~> disc
  5211     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5212     map_id' ~> map_id
  5213     sels ~> sel
  5214     set_map' ~> set_map
  5215     sets ~> set
  5216 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5217 
  5218 
  5219 *** ML ***
  5220 
  5221 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5222 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5223 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5224 Examples.thy in particular.
  5225 
  5226 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5227 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5228 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5229 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5230 
  5231 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5232 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5233 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5234 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5236 
  5237 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5238 
  5239     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5240     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5241 
  5242 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5243 
  5244 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5245 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5246 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5247 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5248 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5249 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5250 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5251 
  5252 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5253 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5254 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5255 clasets separately from the context.
  5256 
  5257 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5258 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5259 
  5260 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5261 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5262 
  5263 
  5264 *** System ***
  5265 
  5266 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5267 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5268 
  5269 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5270 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5271 
  5272 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5273 settings variable.
  5274 
  5275 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5276 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5277 always pdf.
  5278 
  5279 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5280 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5281 
  5282 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5283 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5284 
  5285 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5286 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5287 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5288 
  5289 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5290 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5291 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5292 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5293 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5294 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5295 
  5296 
  5297 
  5298 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5299 -----------------------------------
  5300 
  5301 *** General ***
  5302 
  5303 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5304 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5305 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5306 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5307 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5308 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5309 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5310 
  5311 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5312 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5313 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5314 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5315 
  5316 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5317 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5318 
  5319 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5320 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5321 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5322 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5323 dependencies properly.
  5324 
  5325 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5326 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5327 
  5328 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5329 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5330 
  5331 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5332 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5333 and "class ... context ...".
  5334 
  5335 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5336 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5337 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5338 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5339 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5340 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5341 
  5342 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5343 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5344 
  5345 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5346 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5347 
  5348 
  5349 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5350 
  5351 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5352 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5353 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5354 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5355 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5356 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5357 
  5358 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5359 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5360 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5361 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5362 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5363 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5364 
  5365 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5366 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5367 browser on demand.
  5368 
  5369 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5370 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5371 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5372 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5373 
  5374 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5375 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5376 
  5377 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5378 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5379 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5380 potentially infinite message streams.
  5381 
  5382 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5383 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5384 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5385 schemes.
  5386 
  5387 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5388 symbols.
  5389 
  5390 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5391 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5392 
  5393 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5394 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5395 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5396 
  5397 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5398 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5399 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5400 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5401 
  5402 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5403 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5404 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5405 
  5406 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5407 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5408 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5409 Isabelle distribution.
  5410 
  5411 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5412 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5413 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5414 
  5415 
  5416 *** Pure ***
  5417 
  5418 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5419 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5420 
  5421 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5422 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5423 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5424 
  5425 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5426 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5427 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5428 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5429 with some care where this is really required.
  5430 
  5431 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5432 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5433 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5434 
  5435   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5436 
  5437 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5438 a Hasse diagram.
  5439 
  5440 
  5441 *** HOL ***
  5442 
  5443 * Sledgehammer:
  5444 
  5445   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5446     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5447   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5448   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5449   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5450   - Renamed options:
  5451       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5452       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5453       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5454       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5455 
  5456 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5457 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5458 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5459 
  5460 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5462 
  5463 * Lifting:
  5464   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5465   - quot_del attribute
  5466   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5467 
  5468 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5469 expressions.
  5470 
  5471 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5472 pointfree expressions.
  5473 
  5474 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5475 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5476 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5477 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5481 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5482 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5483 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5484 accordingly.
  5485 
  5486 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5487 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5488 
  5489 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5490 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5491 
  5492 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5495 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5496 
  5497 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5498 
  5499 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5500 
  5501   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5502   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5503 
  5504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5507 
  5508   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5509   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5510 
  5511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5512 
  5513 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5514 
  5515   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5516     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5517     output f x converges to G.
  5518 
  5519   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5520     infinity (at_bot).
  5521 
  5522   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5523     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5524 
  5525   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5526     at_top".
  5527 
  5528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5529 
  5530 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5531 lattice type classes.
  5532 
  5533 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5534 
  5535     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5536     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5537 
  5538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5539 
  5540 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5541 changes as follows.
  5542 
  5543   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5544 
  5545       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5546       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5547 
  5548   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5549     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5550     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5551     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5552 
  5553   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5554     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5555     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5556 
  5557   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5558     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5559     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5560     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5561 
  5562   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5563     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5564 
  5565       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5566       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5567       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5568       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5569       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5570       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5571       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5572       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5573       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5574       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5575       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5576       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5577       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5578       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5579       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5580       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5581 
  5582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5585 
  5586 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5587 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5588 
  5589 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5590 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5591 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5592 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5593 
  5594   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5595   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5596   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5597   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5598   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5599   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5600   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5601   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5602   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5603   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5604 
  5605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5606 
  5607 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5608 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5609 Data").
  5610 
  5611 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5612 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5613 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5614 code.
  5615 
  5616 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5617 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5618 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5620 
  5621 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5622 
  5623 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5624 
  5625 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5626 
  5627   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5628   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5629 
  5630 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5631 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5632 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5633 
  5634   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5635 
  5636     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5637     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5638     cart_base i  removed
  5639     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5640 
  5641   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5642 
  5643   Renamed lemmas:
  5644 
  5645     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5646     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5647     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5648     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5649     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5650     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5651     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5652     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5653     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5654     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5655 
  5656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5657 
  5658 * HOL/Probability:
  5659 
  5660   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5661 
  5662   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5663     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5664     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5665 
  5666   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5667     projective family).
  5668 
  5669 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5670 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5671 
  5672 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5673 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5674 datatypes.
  5675 
  5676 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5677 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5678 
  5679 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5680 trees for the code generator.
  5681 
  5682 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5683 Lifting/Transfer.
  5684 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5688 
  5689 
  5690 *** Document preparation ***
  5691 
  5692 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5693 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5694 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5695 
  5696 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5697 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5698 
  5699 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5700 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5701 document/root.tex.
  5702 
  5703 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5704 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5705 
  5706 
  5707 *** ML ***
  5708 
  5709 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5710 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5711 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5712 
  5713 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5714 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5715 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5716 
  5717 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5718 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5719 necessarily printing visible text.
  5720 
  5721 
  5722 *** System ***
  5723 
  5724 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5725 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5726 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5727 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5728 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5729 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5730 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5731 
  5732 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5733 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5734 
  5735   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5736 
  5737 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5738 
  5739 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5740 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5741 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5742 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5743 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5744 
  5745 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5746 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5747 
  5748 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5749 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5750 
  5751 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5753 
  5754 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5755 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5756 version of Isabelle.
  5757 
  5758 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5759 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5760 
  5761 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5762 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5763 for home-made settings.
  5764 
  5765 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5766 
  5767 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5768 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5769 configuration.
  5770 
  5771 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5772 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5773 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5774 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5775 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5776 
  5777 
  5778 
  5779 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5780 ------------------------------
  5781 
  5782 *** General ***
  5783 
  5784 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5785 
  5786   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5787     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5788   - markup for bound variables
  5789   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5790   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5791   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5792     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5793 
  5794 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5795 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5796 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5797 
  5798 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5799 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5800 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5801 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5802 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5803 
  5804   context
  5805     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5806     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5807   begin
  5808 
  5809   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5810 
  5811   end
  5812 
  5813   thm my_trans
  5814 
  5815 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5816 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5817 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5818 
  5819 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5820 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5821 
  5822 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5823 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5824 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5825 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5826 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5827 
  5828 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5829 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5830 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5831 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5832 indices of schematic variables.
  5833 
  5834 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5835 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5836 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5837 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5838 etc. was exploited.
  5839 
  5840 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5841 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5842 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5843 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5844 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5845 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5846 
  5847 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5848 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5849 manual.
  5850 
  5851 
  5852 *** Pure ***
  5853 
  5854 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5855 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5856 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5857 
  5858 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5859 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5860 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5861 undocumented feature.)
  5862 
  5863 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5864 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5865 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5866 
  5867   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5868 
  5869   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5870     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5871 
  5872 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5873 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5874 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5875 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5876 
  5877 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5878 
  5879     num ~> num_token
  5880     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5881     xstr ~> str_token
  5882 
  5883 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5884 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5885 position information via constraints).
  5886 
  5887 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5888 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5889 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5890 
  5891 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5892 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5893 
  5894 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5895 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5896 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5897 
  5898 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5899 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5902 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5903 
  5904   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5905 
  5906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5907 
  5908 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5909 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5910 
  5911 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5912 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5913 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5914 
  5915 
  5916 *** HOL ***
  5917 
  5918 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5919 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5920 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5921 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5922 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5923 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5924 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5925 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5926 possible.
  5927 
  5928 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5929 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5930 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5931 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5932 
  5933 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5934 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5935 
  5936 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5937 
  5938 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5939 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5940 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5941 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5942 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5943 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5944 
  5945   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5946     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5947 
  5948   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5949     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5950     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5951 
  5952   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5953     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5954 
  5955   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5956     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5957     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5958 
  5959   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5960     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5961 
  5962 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5963 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5964 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5965 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5966 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5967 
  5968   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5969     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5970     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5971     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5972     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5973 
  5974     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5975     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5976 
  5977   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5978     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5979     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5980     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5981     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5982     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5983     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5984     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5985 
  5986   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5987     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5988     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5989     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5990 
  5991   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5992     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5993     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5994     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5995 
  5996   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5997     from type nat to type int.
  5998 
  5999 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  6000 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  6001 
  6002   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  6003     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  6004     type.  Example syntax:
  6005 
  6006     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  6007       is List.insert
  6008 
  6009     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  6010     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  6011     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  6012     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  6013     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  6014     by the package.
  6015 
  6016   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  6017     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  6018     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  6019     code generation for each constant.
  6020 
  6021   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  6022     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  6023     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  6024     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  6025     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  6026 
  6027   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  6028     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  6029     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  6030 
  6031 * Quotient package:
  6032 
  6033   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  6034     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  6035 
  6036   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  6037     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  6038 
  6039   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  6040     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  6041     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6042 
  6043   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  6044     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6045 
  6046 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  6047 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  6048 
  6049 * Quickcheck:
  6050 
  6051   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  6052     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  6053     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  6054     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  6055     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  6056 
  6057     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  6058     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  6059     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  6060 
  6061     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6062     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6063 
  6064     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6065     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6066     show genuine counterexamples.
  6067 
  6068   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6069     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6070 
  6071     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6072     constructors of that type.
  6073 
  6074   - Support for multisets.
  6075 
  6076   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6077 
  6078   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6079     conjectures in a locale context.
  6080 
  6081 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6082 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6083 
  6084 * Sledgehammer:
  6085   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6086     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6087   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6088   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6089     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6090   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6091   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6092   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6093   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6094 
  6095 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6096 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6097 
  6098 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6099 
  6100 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6101 
  6102 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6103 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6104 
  6105   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6106 
  6107 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6108 a list and a nat.
  6109 
  6110 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6111 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6112 
  6113 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6114 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6115 default.
  6116 
  6117 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6118 
  6119   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6120 
  6121 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6122 
  6123 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6124 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6125 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6126 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6127 one_case.
  6128 
  6129 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6130 the result of the fact expression.
  6131 
  6132 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6133 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6134 of some relation theorems:
  6135 
  6136   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6137   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6138   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6139   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6140   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6141   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6142 
  6143 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6144 
  6145 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6146 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6147 
  6148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6149 
  6150 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6151 to match the constant's name:
  6152 
  6153   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6154   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6155   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6156   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6157   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6158   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6159   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6160   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6161   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6162   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6163   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6164   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6165   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6166   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6167   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6168   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6169   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6170   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6171   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6172   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6173   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6174   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6175   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6176   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6177 
  6178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6179 
  6180 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6181 and corresponding theorem names:
  6182 
  6183   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6184 
  6185   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6186 
  6187   - Renamed theorems:
  6188 
  6189     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6190     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6191     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6192     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6193     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6194     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6195     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6196     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6197     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6198     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6199     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6200     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6201     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6202     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6203     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6204     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6205     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6206     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6207     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6208     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6209     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6210     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6211     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6212 
  6213     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6214 
  6215     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6216 
  6217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6218 
  6219 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6220 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6221 
  6222   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6223   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6224   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6225   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6226   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6227   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6228   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6229   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6230   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6231   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6232   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6233   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6234   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6235   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6236   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6237   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6238   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6239   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6240   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6241   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6242   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6243 
  6244 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6245 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6246 
  6247 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6248 
  6249 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6250 
  6251   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6252   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6253   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6254   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6255   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6256   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6257   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6258   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6259   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6260   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6261   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6262   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6263   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold