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NEWS

author | nipkow |

Fri May 25 18:10:56 2007 +0200 (2007-05-25) | |

changeset 23102 | 559709b43104 |

parent 23029 | 79ee75dc1e59 |

child 23103 | b00e7ce9dcdc |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

*** empty log message ***

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

10 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

11 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true).

13 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

14 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

15 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

17 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

18 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

19 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

20 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

22 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

23 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

24 quotes.

26 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

27 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

28 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

29 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

30 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

31 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

32 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

34 * Command 'find_theorems': support "*" wildcard in "name:" criterion.

36 * Proof General interface: A search form for the "Find Theorems" command is

37 now available via C-c C-a C-f. The old minibuffer interface is available

38 via C-c C-a C-m. Variable proof-find-theorems-command (customizable via

39 'Proof-General -> Advanced -> Internals -> Prover Config') controls the

40 default behavior of 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' (C-c C-f): set to

41 isar-find-theorems-form or isar-find-theorems-minibuffer.

43 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

44 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

45 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

46 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

47 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

48 limit is imposed.

50 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

51 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

52 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

53 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

54 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

55 and scalability.

57 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

58 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

61 *** Document preparation ***

63 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

64 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

65 current context.

67 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

68 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

70 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

71 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

72 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

76 *** Pure ***

78 * code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now referred

79 to by usual term syntax (including optional type annotations).

81 * code generator:

82 - Isar 'definition's, 'constdef's and primitive instance definitions are added

83 explicitly to the table of defining equations

84 - primitive definitions are not used as defining equations by default any longer

85 - defining equations are now definitly restricted to meta "==" and object

86 equality "="

87 - HOL theories have been adopted accordingly

89 * class_package.ML offers a combination of axclasses and locales to

90 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. See

91 HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples.

93 * Yet another code generator framework allows to generate executable

94 code for ML and Haskell (including "class"es). A short usage sketch:

96 internal compilation:

97 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (SML #)

98 writing SML code to a file:

99 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (SML <filename>)

100 writing OCaml code to a file:

101 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (OCaml <filename>)

102 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

103 code_gen <list of constants (term syntax)> (Haskell <filename>)

105 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL/Main.

107 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

109 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

110 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

111 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

112 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

114 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

116 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

117 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

119 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

120 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

122 code_instance <and-list of instances>

123 {(target)}+

124 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

126 code_class <and_list of classes>

127 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

128 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

130 code_instance and code_class only apply to target Haskell.

132 See HOL theories and HOL/ex/Codegenerator*.thy for usage examples.

133 Doc/Isar/Advanced/Codegen/ provides a tutorial.

135 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

136 syntax.

138 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

139 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

140 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

141 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

142 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

143 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

145 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

146 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

147 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

148 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

149 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

150 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

151 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

152 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

153 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

154 equations, see section "definitions".

156 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

157 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

159 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

160 then guess x and y by clarify

162 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

163 proof tools being involved here.

165 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

166 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

167 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

168 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

169 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

170 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

171 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

172 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

174 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

175 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

176 certain special cases of literal facts:

178 have "A" by fact == note `A`

179 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

180 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

181 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

183 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

184 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

185 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

187 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

188 both named and unnamed ones.

190 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

192 def x == "t" and y == "u"

194 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

195 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

196 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

197 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

199 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

200 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

201 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

202 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

203 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

205 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

206 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

207 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

208 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

209 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

210 originally first one.

212 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

213 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

214 expected.

216 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

217 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

218 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

219 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

220 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

222 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

223 assumes "EX x. P x"

224 obtains x where "P x"

226 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

227 assumes "A & B"

228 obtains A and B

230 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

231 assumes "A | B"

232 obtains

233 A

234 | B

236 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

237 explicitly:

239 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

240 obtains "~ thesis"

242 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

243 obtains "thesis ==> something"

245 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

246 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

247 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

248 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

249 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

250 case_names).

252 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

253 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

254 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

255 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

257 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

258 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

259 top-level lemma.

261 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

262 introduction rule (default "that").

264 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

265 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

266 to occur.

268 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

269 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

270 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

271 representations independently of name spaces.

273 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

274 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

275 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

277 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

278 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

279 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic

280 representation of given constants retrieved from the context.

282 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

283 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

284 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

285 isar-ref manual. Examples:

287 axiomatization

288 eq (infix "===" 50) where

289 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

291 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

292 definition g where "g x = f x x"

294 abbreviation

295 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

296 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

298 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

299 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

300 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

301 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

302 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

303 HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

304 entities from a monomorphic theory.

306 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

307 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

308 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

309 'translations' in common applications.

311 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

312 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

313 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

314 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

316 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

317 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

318 abbreviations on output.

320 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling:

321 - use of locales "var" and "struct" no longer necessary;

322 - parameter renamings are no longer required to be injective.

323 This enables, for example, to define a locale for endomorphisms thus:

324 locale endom = homom mult mult h.

326 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

327 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

328 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

329 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

330 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

331 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

332 `unfold_locales'; see below.

334 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

335 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

336 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

337 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

338 unfold predicates to assumptions.

340 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

341 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

342 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

344 * Provers/induct: improved internal context management to support

345 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

346 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

347 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

348 obsolete anyway). The subsequent proof patterns illustrate advanced

349 techniques of natural induction; general datatypes and inductive sets

350 work analogously (see also src/HOL/Lambda for realistic examples).

352 (1) This is how to ``strengthen'' an inductive goal wrt. certain

353 parameters:

355 lemma

356 fixes n :: nat and x :: 'a

357 assumes a: "A n x"

358 shows "P n x"

359 using a -- {* make induct insert fact a *}

360 proof (induct n arbitrary: x) -- {* generalize goal to "!!x. A n x ==> P n x" *}

361 case 0

362 show ?case sorry

363 next

364 case (Suc n)

365 note `!!x. A n x ==> P n x` -- {* induction hypothesis, according to induction rule *}

366 note `A (Suc n) x` -- {* induction premise, stemming from fact a *}

367 show ?case sorry

368 qed

370 (2) This is how to perform induction over ``expressions of a certain

371 form'', using a locally defined inductive parameter n == "a x"

372 together with strengthening (the latter is usually required to get

373 sufficiently flexible induction hypotheses):

375 lemma

376 fixes a :: "'a => nat"

377 assumes a: "A (a x)"

378 shows "P (a x)"

379 using a

380 proof (induct n == "a x" arbitrary: x)

381 ...

383 See also HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy for an application of the this

384 particular technique.

386 (3) This is how to perform existential reasoning ('obtains' or

387 'obtain') by induction, while avoiding explicit object-logic

388 encodings:

390 lemma

391 fixes n :: nat

392 obtains x :: 'a where "P n x" and "Q n x"

393 proof (induct n arbitrary: thesis)

394 case 0

395 obtain x where "P 0 x" and "Q 0 x" sorry

396 then show thesis by (rule 0)

397 next

398 case (Suc n)

399 obtain x where "P n x" and "Q n x" by (rule Suc.hyps)

400 obtain x where "P (Suc n) x" and "Q (Suc n) x" sorry

401 then show thesis by (rule Suc.prems)

402 qed

404 Here the 'arbitrary: thesis' specification essentially modifies the

405 scope of the formal thesis parameter, in order to the get the whole

406 existence statement through the induction as expected.

408 * Provers/induct: mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

409 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually

410 provide foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar

411 (e.g. inductive sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to

412 specify mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

414 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

415 (induct set: foo bar)

416 (induct type: foo bar)

418 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

419 new format.

421 * Provers/induct: improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

422 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

423 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are

424 nested accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured

425 explicitly. For example:

427 lemma

428 fixes n :: nat

429 shows "P n" and "Q n"

430 proof (induct n)

431 case 0 case 1

432 show "P 0" sorry

433 next

434 case 0 case 2

435 show "Q 0" sorry

436 next

437 case (Suc n) case 1

438 note `P n` and `Q n`

439 show "P (Suc n)" sorry

440 next

441 case (Suc n) case 2

442 note `P n` and `Q n`

443 show "Q (Suc n)" sorry

444 qed

446 The split into subcases may be deferred as follows -- this is

447 particularly relevant for goal statements with local premises.

449 lemma

450 fixes n :: nat

451 shows "A n ==> P n" and "B n ==> Q n"

452 proof (induct n)

453 case 0

454 {

455 case 1

456 note `A 0`

457 show "P 0" sorry

458 next

459 case 2

460 note `B 0`

461 show "Q 0" sorry

462 }

463 next

464 case (Suc n)

465 note `A n ==> P n` and `B n ==> Q n`

466 {

467 case 1

468 note `A (Suc n)`

469 show "P (Suc n)" sorry

470 next

471 case 2

472 note `B (Suc n)`

473 show "Q (Suc n)" sorry

474 }

475 qed

477 If simultaneous goals are to be used with mutual rules, the statement

478 needs to be structured carefully as a two-level conjunction, using

479 lists of propositions separated by 'and':

481 lemma

482 shows "a : A ==> P1 a"

483 "a : A ==> P2 a"

484 and "b : B ==> Q1 b"

485 "b : B ==> Q2 b"

486 "b : B ==> Q3 b"

487 proof (induct set: A B)

489 * Provers/induct: support coinduction as well. See

490 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

492 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

493 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

495 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

496 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

497 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

498 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

500 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

501 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

502 manipulating the claset.

504 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

505 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

506 least one premise.

508 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

509 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

510 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

511 rule steps.

513 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

514 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

515 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

516 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

517 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

518 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

520 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

521 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

522 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

524 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

525 the graph browser tool.

527 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses entities with internal name

528 (trailing "_") by default; use '!' option for full details.

531 *** HOL ***

533 * constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML antiquotations

534 @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to circumvent

535 possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

537 * Constant renames due to introduction of canonical name prefixing for

538 class package:

540 HOL.abs ~> HOL.minus_class.abs

541 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

542 Nat.power ~> Nat.power_class.power

543 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

544 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

546 * case expressions and primrec: missing cases now mapped to "undefined"

547 instead of "arbitrary"

549 * new constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined"

551 * new class "default" with associated constant "default"

553 * Library/List_Comprehension provides Haskell-like input syntax for list

554 comprehensions.

556 * Library/Pretty_Int.thy: maps HOL numerals on target language integer literals

557 when generating code.

559 * Library/Pretty_Char.thy: maps HOL characters on target language character literals

560 when generating code.

562 * Library/Commutative_Ring.thy: switched from recdef to function package;

563 constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for algebraic operations.

565 * Some steps towards more uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

567 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

568 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

570 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

571 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

572 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

573 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

575 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

576 for "inf" and "sup" operations.

578 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

580 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

581 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

582 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

583 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

584 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

585 le_meetI ~> le_infI

586 join_leI ~> le_supI

587 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

588 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

589 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

590 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

591 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

592 join_comm ~> sup_commute

593 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

594 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

595 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

596 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

597 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

598 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

599 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

600 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

601 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

602 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

603 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

604 join_aci ~> sup_aci

605 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

606 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

607 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

608 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

609 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

610 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

611 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

612 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

613 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

614 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

616 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

617 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

618 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

619 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

620 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

621 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

622 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

623 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

624 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

625 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

626 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

627 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

628 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

629 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

630 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

631 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

632 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

634 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

635 mono_join ~> mono_sup

636 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

637 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

638 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

639 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

640 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

641 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

642 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

643 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

644 meet1I ~> inf1I

645 meet2I ~> inf2I

646 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

647 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

648 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

649 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

650 meet1E ~> inf1E

651 meet2E ~> inf2E

652 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

653 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

654 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

655 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

656 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

657 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

658 join1CI ~> sup1CI

659 join2CI ~> sup2CI

660 join1E ~> sup1E

661 join2E ~> sup2E

663 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

664 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

665 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

666 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

667 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

668 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

670 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

671 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

673 meet_min ~> inf_min

674 join_max ~> sup_max

676 * Classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

677 "cases" renamed ro "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to

678 avoid clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

680 * Classes "order" and "linorder":

681 potential INCOMPATIBILITY: order of proof goals in order/linorder instance

682 proofs changed.

684 * Dropped lemma duplicate def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

685 INCOMPATIBILITY.

687 * Dropped lemma duplicate if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

688 INCOMPATIBILITY.

690 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

691 type "'a::size ==> bool"

693 * Renamed constants "Divides.op div", "Divides.op mod" and "Divides.op

694 dvd" to "Divides.div_class.div", "Divides.div_class.mod" and "Divides.dvd". INCOMPATIBILITY.

696 * Added method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes

697 termination relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures

698 -- 'function' package.

700 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

701 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

702 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

703 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

704 adapted.

706 * axclass "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and

707 0 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do

708 not inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a

709 theorem there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of

710 semiring_0, there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

712 * axclass "recpower" was generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

713 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: If you use recpower and need

714 commutativity or a semiring property, add the corresponding classes.

716 * Unified locale partial_order with class definition (cf. theory

717 Orderings), added parameter ``less''. INCOMPATIBILITY.

719 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

720 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong. On

721 Isar level, use abbreviations instead.

723 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.memberl" INCOMPATIBILITY:

724 rarely occuring name references (e.g. ``List.op mem.simps'') require

725 renaming (e.g. ``List.memberl.simps'').

727 * Renamed constants "0" to "HOL.zero_class.zero" and "1" to "HOL.one_class.one".

728 INCOMPATIBILITY.

730 * Added theory Code_Generator providing class 'eq', allowing for code

731 generation with polymorphic equality.

733 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

734 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

735 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

737 - new constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

738 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

739 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

740 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

741 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

743 See HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

745 * New top level command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a

746 term that may contain free variables. For example ``normal_form

747 "rev[a,b,c]"'' produces ``[b,c,a]'' (without proof). This command is

748 suitable for heavy-duty computations because the functions are

749 compiled to ML first.

751 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

752 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

753 "A = B" (with priority 50).

755 * Renamed constants in HOL.thy and Orderings.thy:

756 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

757 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

758 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

759 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

760 op < ~> Orderings.ord_class.less

761 op <= ~> Orderings.ord_class.less_eq

763 Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

765 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus", "times",

766 "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for "+", "-" and "*"

767 may go wrong.

768 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

770 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

771 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

773 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

774 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

775 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows that

776 this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

777 distribution).

778 INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

780 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

781 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and so on.

782 INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names. Consider use

783 of const_name ML antiquotations.

785 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

786 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

787 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".

789 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

791 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

792 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

794 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

795 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

797 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

798 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq_simproc"). For backward

799 compatibility this can be disabled by ML "reset use_neq_simproc".

801 * "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to True/False by

802 simp.

804 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as ``simp''.

806 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

808 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

809 ``rule'' method.

811 * Reimplemented methods ``sat'' and ``satx'', with several

812 improvements: goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==>

813 False", equivalences (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable

814 names of the form "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant

815 speedup.

817 * Methods ``sat'' and ``satx'' can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

818 zChaff is still supported as well.

820 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

821 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

823 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

824 Library.

826 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

828 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

829 as greatest fixed-point.

831 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

832 association lists.

834 * Added proof method ``evaluation'' for efficiently solving a goal

835 (i.e. a boolean expression) by compiling it to ML. The goal is

836 "proved" (via an oracle) if it evaluates to True.

838 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

839 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the simplifier

840 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY. Set

841 fast_arith_split_limit to 0 to obtain the old behavior.

843 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

845 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

846 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

847 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

848 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

849 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

850 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

852 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

853 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

854 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

855 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

856 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

857 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

858 subgoal. An Example is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

860 * Reflection: Automatic refification now handels binding, an example

861 is available in HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

864 *** HOL-Algebra ***

866 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

868 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

869 INCOMPATIBILITY.

871 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

872 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

874 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

875 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

876 of algebraic structures.

878 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

881 *** HOL-Complex ***

883 * Theory Real: new method ferrack implements quantifier elimination

884 for linear arithmetic over the reals. The quantifier elimination

885 feature is used only for decision, for compatibility with arith. This

886 means a goal is either solved or left unchanged, no simplification.

888 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

889 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

890 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

891 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

892 INCOMPATIBILITY.

894 * Real: New axiomatic classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

895 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

896 and norm :: 'a => real.

898 * Real: New constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects

899 from reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set

900 is now defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

902 * Real: ML code generation is supported now and hence also quickcheck.

903 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

905 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

906 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

907 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

908 INCOMPATIBILITY.

910 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

911 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

912 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

913 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

914 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

915 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

916 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

917 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

918 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

919 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

920 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

921 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

922 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

923 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

925 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

926 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

927 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

928 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

930 approx <-- capprox

931 HFinite <-- CFinite

932 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

933 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

934 monad <-- cmonad

935 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

936 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

937 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

938 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

941 *** ML ***

943 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

944 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

945 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really

946 need to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

948 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

949 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

950 compile-time. For example:

952 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

953 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

954 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

955 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

956 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

957 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

958 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

959 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

960 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

961 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

962 ML {* @{context} *}

963 ML {* @{theory} *}

964 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

965 ML {* @{simpset} *}

966 ML {* @{claset} *}

967 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

969 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

971 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

972 Toplevel.debug enabled.

974 * Pure/library:

976 val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list

977 val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd

979 The semantics of "burrow" is: "take a function with *simulatanously*

980 transforms a list of value, and apply it *simulatanously* to a list of

981 list of values of the appropriate type". Compare this with "map" which

982 would *not* apply its argument function simulatanously but in

983 sequence; "fold_burrow" has an additional context.

985 * Pure/library: functions map2 and fold2 with curried syntax for

986 simultanous mapping and folding:

988 val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list

989 val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c

991 * Pure/library: indexed lists - some functions in the Isabelle library

992 treating lists over 'a as finite mappings from [0...n] to 'a have been

993 given more convenient names and signatures reminiscent of similar

994 functions for alists, tables, etc:

996 val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a

997 val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list

998 val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b

1000 Note that fold_index starts counting at index 0, not 1 like foldln

1001 used to.

1003 * Pure/library: added general ``divide_and_conquer'' combinator on

1004 lists.

1006 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

1007 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

1008 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

1010 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

1011 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

1012 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

1014 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

1015 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

1017 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

1018 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory)

1019 vs. local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

1020 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

1021 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also

1022 structure Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

1023 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

1024 declarations and definitions.

1026 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

1027 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

1028 logic, but only for type inference.) IMPORTANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

1029 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1031 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

1032 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

1033 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

1034 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

1035 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supercede

1036 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

1038 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

1039 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

1040 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

1041 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

1042 attributes, methods, etc.

1044 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

1045 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

1046 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

1047 fold_map combinators.

1049 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

1050 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

1051 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

1052 derivation.

1054 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

1055 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

1056 achieve the old behaviour.

1058 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

1059 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

1060 statements.

1062 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

1063 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

1064 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

1066 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

1067 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

1068 some popular functions from term.ML:

1070 Term.variant -> Name.variant

1071 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list (*canonical argument order*)

1072 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

1074 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

1075 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

1077 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

1078 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

1079 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

1080 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

1081 various freeze_thaw operations.

1083 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

1084 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

1085 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

1086 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

1087 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

1088 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

1089 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

1090 in a locale context).

1092 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

1093 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

1094 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

1095 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

1096 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

1098 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

1100 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

1101 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

1102 this:

1104 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

1106 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

1107 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

1108 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

1109 -- use plain ERROR instead.

1111 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

1112 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

1114 * Isar: installed ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context,

1115 subject to ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

1117 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

1118 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

1119 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

1120 batch mode.

1122 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

1123 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

1124 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

1125 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

1126 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

1128 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

1129 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

1130 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

1131 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

1132 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

1133 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

1135 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

1136 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

1137 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

1138 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1140 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

1141 "Trueprop" etc.

1144 *** System ***

1146 * settings: ML_IDENTIFIER -- which is appended to user specific heap

1147 locations -- now includes the Isabelle version identifier as well.

1148 This simplifies use of multiple Isabelle installations.

1150 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

1151 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

1152 code.

1155 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

1156 ----------------------------------

1158 *** General ***

1160 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

1162 theory <name>

1163 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

1164 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

1165 begin

1167 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

1169 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

1171 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

1172 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

1173 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

1175 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

1176 relative and absolute paths.

1178 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

1179 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

1180 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

1181 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

1182 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

1183 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

1184 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

1185 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

1186 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

1188 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

1190 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

1191 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

1192 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

1194 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

1195 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

1197 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

1198 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

1199 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

1200 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

1202 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

1203 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

1205 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

1206 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

1207 faster.

1210 *** Document preparation ***

1212 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

1213 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

1214 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

1215 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

1216 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

1217 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

1219 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

1220 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

1221 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

1222 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

1223 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

1224 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

1225 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

1226 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

1227 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

1228 \isadroptag.

1230 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

1231 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

1232 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

1233 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

1234 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

1235 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

1236 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

1237 specified above.

1239 * Several new antiquotations:

1241 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

1243 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

1245 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

1246 argument is a known logical constant;

1248 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

1249 theorem applying a "style" to it

1251 @{ML text}

1253 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

1254 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

1255 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

1256 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

1257 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

1258 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

1259 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

1261 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

1262 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

1263 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

1264 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

1266 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

1267 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

1268 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

1270 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

1271 a proof context.

1273 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

1274 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

1276 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

1277 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

1279 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

1280 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

1281 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

1284 *** Pure ***

1286 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

1287 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

1288 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

1289 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

1290 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

1291 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

1292 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

1294 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

1295 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

1296 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

1297 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

1298 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

1299 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

1300 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

1301 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

1303 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

1304 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

1305 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

1307 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

1308 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

1309 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

1311 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

1312 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

1313 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

1314 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

1315 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1317 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

1318 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

1319 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

1320 axclasses vs. locales.

1322 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

1323 instead of base 26 numbers.

1325 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

1326 marks in schematic variable names.

1328 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

1329 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

1330 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

1332 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

1333 by simp

1335 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

1337 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

1338 annotations as "(00...)".

1340 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

1341 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

1342 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

1343 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

1344 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

1345 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

1346 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

1348 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

1349 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

1350 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

1351 specifications.

1353 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

1354 locally fixed variables as well.

1356 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

1357 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

1358 Limit.

1360 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

1361 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

1362 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

1363 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

1364 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

1365 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

1366 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

1368 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

1369 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

1370 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

1372 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1374 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

1375 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

1376 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

1377 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

1378 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

1379 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

1381 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

1382 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

1384 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

1385 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

1386 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

1388 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

1390 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

1391 theory development.

1393 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

1394 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

1395 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

1396 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

1398 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

1399 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

1400 quoted when used as identifier.

1403 *** Locales ***

1405 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

1406 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

1407 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

1408 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

1409 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

1410 commands is a follows:

1412 (1) interpretation expr inst

1413 (2) interpretation target < expr

1414 (3) interpret expr inst

1416 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

1417 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

1418 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

1419 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

1420 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

1421 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

1422 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

1423 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

1424 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

1425 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

1427 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

1428 'interpret' instead.

1430 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

1431 parameters.

1433 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

1434 redeclaration.

1436 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

1438 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

1439 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

1440 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

1441 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

1442 to attribute arguments as expected.

1444 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

1445 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

1446 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

1447 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

1448 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

1449 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

1450 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

1451 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

1452 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

1453 values to argument tokens explicitly.

1455 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

1456 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

1457 theorem statement in rare situations.

1459 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

1460 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

1463 *** Provers ***

1465 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

1466 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

1467 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

1468 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

1469 still available as 'simplesubst'.

1471 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

1472 and quasi orders.

1474 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

1475 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

1477 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

1478 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

1480 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

1481 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

1482 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1485 *** HOL ***

1487 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

1489 syntax (epsilon)

1490 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

1492 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

1493 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

1494 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

1495 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1497 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

1498 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

1499 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

1500 support corresponding Isar calculations.

1502 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

1503 instead of ":".

1505 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

1507 Old New

1508 {..n(} {..<n}

1509 {)n..} {n<..}

1510 {m..n(} {m..<n}

1511 {)m..n} {m<..n}

1512 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

1514 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

1515 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

1516 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

1518 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

1519 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

1521 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

1522 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

1523 interface.

1525 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

1526 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

1527 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

1528 be a tuple pattern.

1530 Some new syntax forms are available:

1532 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

1533 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

1534 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

1535 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

1537 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

1538 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

1540 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

1541 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

1542 (insert F x)'.

1544 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

1545 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

1546 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

1548 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

1549 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

1550 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

1552 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

1553 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

1554 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

1555 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

1556 in unstructured proof scripts.

1558 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

1559 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

1560 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

1561 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

1562 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

1563 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

1564 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

1565 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

1566 <record_name>_ext_type.

1568 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

1569 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

1570 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

1571 quite long.

1573 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

1574 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

1575 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

1576 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

1578 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

1579 type-variables in the term.

1581 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

1582 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

1583 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

1584 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

1585 goals than previously.

1587 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

1588 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

1589 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

1590 just like y <= x.

1592 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

1593 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

1594 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

1595 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

1596 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

1597 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

1598 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

1600 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

1602 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

1603 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

1605 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

1606 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

1607 inequalities.

1609 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1610 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1612 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

1613 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

1614 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

1615 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

1616 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

1617 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

1618 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

1619 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

1620 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

1621 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

1622 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

1624 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

1626 * Theory List:

1628 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1629 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1631 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

1632 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

1633 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

1634 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

1636 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

1637 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

1640 *** HOL-Complex ***

1642 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

1643 integers in the reals.

1645 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1646 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1648 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

1649 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1650 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1651 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1652 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1654 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

1656 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

1658 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

1659 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

1661 hypreal = real star

1662 hypnat = nat star

1663 hcomplex = complex star

1665 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

1666 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1668 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

1670 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

1671 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

1672 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

1673 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

1674 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

1676 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

1677 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

1678 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

1679 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

1680 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

1682 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

1683 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1685 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

1686 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

1687 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

1688 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

1689 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

1690 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

1691 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

1692 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

1693 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

1694 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

1695 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

1696 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

1697 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

1698 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

1699 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

1700 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

1701 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

1702 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

1703 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

1704 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

1705 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

1706 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

1707 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

1708 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

1710 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

1711 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

1712 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1714 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

1715 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

1716 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

1717 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

1718 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

1719 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

1720 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

1721 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

1722 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

1723 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

1724 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

1725 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

1726 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

1727 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

1728 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

1729 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

1730 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

1731 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

1732 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

1733 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

1734 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

1735 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

1736 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

1737 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

1738 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

1739 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

1740 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

1741 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

1742 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

1743 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

1744 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

1745 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

1746 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

1747 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

1748 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

1749 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

1750 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

1751 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

1752 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

1753 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

1754 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

1755 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

1756 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

1757 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

1758 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

1759 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

1760 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

1761 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

1762 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

1763 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

1764 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

1765 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

1766 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

1767 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

1769 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

1770 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

1771 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

1772 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

1773 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

1774 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

1775 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

1776 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

1777 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

1778 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

1779 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

1781 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

1782 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

1783 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

1784 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

1785 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

1786 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

1787 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

1788 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

1789 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

1790 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

1791 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

1792 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

1793 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

1794 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

1795 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

1796 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

1797 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

1798 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

1799 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

1800 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

1801 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

1803 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

1804 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

1805 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

1806 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

1807 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

1808 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

1810 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

1813 *** HOLCF ***

1815 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

1816 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

1817 type-inference.

1819 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

1820 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

1821 instead of exponential time).

1823 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

1824 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

1826 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

1828 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

1829 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

1830 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

1831 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

1832 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1833 syntax and examples.

1835 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

1836 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

1837 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

1838 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

1839 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

1841 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

1842 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1844 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

1845 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

1846 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

1847 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

1848 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

1849 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

1852 *** ZF ***

1854 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

1855 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

1856 of a homomorphism).

1858 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

1859 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

1860 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

1863 *** Cube ***

1865 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

1866 theories.

1869 *** ML ***

1871 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

1872 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

1874 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

1875 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

1876 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

1877 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

1878 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

1880 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

1881 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

1882 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

1883 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

1885 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

1886 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

1887 suggests how one can translate existing code:

1889 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

1890 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

1891 last_elem xs = List.last xs

1892 flat xss = List.concat xss

1893 seq fs = List.app fs

1894 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

1895 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

1897 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

1898 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

1900 x |> f f #> g

1901 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

1903 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

1905 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

1906 infix 2 ?;

1907 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

1908 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

1910 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

1911 infix operators.

1913 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

1914 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

1915 example:

1917 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

1918 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

1920 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

1921 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

1923 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

1924 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

1926 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

1927 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

1929 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

1930 available:

1932 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

1933 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

1934 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

1935 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

1937 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

1938 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

1939 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

1940 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

1941 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

1943 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

1944 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

1945 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

1947 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

1949 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

1950 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

1952 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

1953 Naive rewrites:

1955 make_keylist = AList.make

1956 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

1958 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

1959 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

1961 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

1962 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

1964 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

1965 Naive rewrites:

1967 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

1968 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

1970 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

1971 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

1972 lists.

1974 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

1975 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

1976 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

1977 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

1979 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

1980 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

1981 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

1982 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

1983 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

1984 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

1985 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

1986 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

1987 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

1988 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

1989 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

1990 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

1991 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

1992 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

1993 Output.raw have no effect.

1995 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

1996 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

1997 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

1999 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

2000 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

2001 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

2002 internal and external process view of file names are different.

2004 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

2005 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

2006 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

2007 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

2008 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

2009 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

2010 Library.sort_strings on result).

2012 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

2013 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

2014 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

2015 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

2017 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

2018 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

2019 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

2020 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

2021 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

2022 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

2023 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

2024 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

2025 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

2026 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

2027 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

2029 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

2030 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

2031 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

2032 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

2033 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

2034 with earlier declarations.

2036 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

2037 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

2038 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2040 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

2041 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

2042 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

2043 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

2044 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

2045 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

2047 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

2048 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

2050 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

2051 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

2053 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

2054 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

2055 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

2056 Theory.merge, etc.)

2058 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

2059 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

2060 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

2062 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

2064 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

2065 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

2066 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

2067 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

2069 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

2070 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

2071 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

2072 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

2073 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

2074 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

2075 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

2076 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

2078 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

2079 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

2080 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2082 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

2083 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

2084 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

2086 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

2087 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

2089 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2090 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2091 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2092 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2094 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

2096 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

2097 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

2098 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

2099 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

2100 (both increase the runtime).

2102 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

2103 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

2104 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

2106 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

2107 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

2108 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

2109 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

2110 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

2111 for further details.

2113 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

2114 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

2115 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

2116 scripts for the time being.

2118 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

2119 generated HTML files. For example:

2121 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

2122 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

2125 *** System ***

2127 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

2128 isabelle, isatool etc.).

2130 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

2131 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

2133 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

2134 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

2136 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

2137 distribution being used.

2139 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

2140 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

2141 theories.

2145 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

2146 --------------------------------

2148 *** General ***

2150 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

2151 Replaces linorder.ML.

2153 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

2154 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

2155 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

2156 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

2157 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

2158 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

2159 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

2160 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

2161 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

2162 existing theory and ML files.

2164 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

2166 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

2167 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

2168 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

2169 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

2171 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

2172 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

2173 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

2174 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

2176 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

2177 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

2178 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

2180 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

2181 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

2182 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

2183 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

2184 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

2186 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

2187 (i.e. intersections of classes),

2189 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

2190 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

2191 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

2194 *** Isar ***

2196 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

2197 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

2198 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

2199 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

2200 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

2201 emulations.

2202 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

2203 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

2204 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

2206 * Attributes "where" and "of":

2207 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

2208 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

2209 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

2210 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

2212 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

2213 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

2214 and derived forms.

2216 * Locales:

2217 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

2218 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

2219 "_axioms") in the premise.

2220 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

2221 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

2222 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

2223 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

2224 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

2225 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

2226 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

2227 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

2228 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

2229 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

2230 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

2231 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

2232 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

2233 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

2234 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

2235 with "locale (open)".

2236 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

2238 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

2239 (Isar) contexts.

2242 *** HOL ***

2244 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

2245 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

2246 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

2247 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

2248 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

2250 * Simplifier:

2251 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

2252 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

2253 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

2254 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

2255 to solve goals from the assumptions.

2256 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

2257 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

2258 is solved by simplification already.

2260 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

2261 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

2263 * Numerics:

2264 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

2265 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

2266 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

2267 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

2268 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

2269 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

2270 exponentiation).

2272 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

2274 * Records:

2275 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

2276 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

2277 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

2278 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

2279 (not enabled by default).

2280 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

2281 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

2282 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

2284 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

2285 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

2286 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

2288 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

2290 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

2292 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

2293 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

2295 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

2296 matrix theory to linear programming.

2298 * Unions and Intersections:

2299 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

2300 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

2301 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

2302 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

2304 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

2305 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

2306 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

2307 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

2309 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

2310 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

2312 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

2313 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

2315 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

2316 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

2317 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

2319 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

2320 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

2321 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

2322 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

2323 for examples.

2326 *** HOLCF ***

2328 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

2332 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

2333 ------------------------------

2335 *** General ***

2337 * Provers/simplifier:

2339 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

2340 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

2341 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

2342 the order of assumptions.

2344 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2346 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

2347 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

2349 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

2351 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

2353 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

2355 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

2356 kind of problem.

2358 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

2359 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

2360 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

2361 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

2362 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

2363 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

2364 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

2366 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

2368 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

2369 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

2370 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

2371 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

2372 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

2373 the simplifier would diverge.

2375 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

2377 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

2378 congruence is ignored.

2380 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

2381 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

2382 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

2384 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

2385 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

2386 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

2387 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

2389 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

2390 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

2391 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

2392 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

2393 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

2394 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

2395 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

2397 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

2398 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

2399 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

2400 assumption failed.

2402 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

2403 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

2404 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

2405 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

2406 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

2407 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

2408 on the old view without predicates;

2410 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

2411 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

2412 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

2414 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

2415 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

2416 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

2417 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

2418 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

2419 be given (the default is 40);

2421 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

2422 (batch-mode only);

2424 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

2425 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

2426 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

2428 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

2429 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

2430 for slight decrease in efficiency;

2432 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

2433 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

2435 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

2436 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

2439 *** HOL ***

2441 * arith(_tac)

2443 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

2444 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

2445 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

2446 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

2448 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

2450 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

2451 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

2452 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

2454 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

2455 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

2457 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

2458 are distributed over a sum of terms;

2460 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

2461 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

2462 "<=", "<" and "=").

2464 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

2465 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

2467 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

2468 definition;

2470 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

2471 Finite_Set);

2473 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

2474 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

2476 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

2477 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

2479 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

2480 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

2481 of the empty set.

2483 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

2484 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

2485 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

2486 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

2488 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

2490 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

2491 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

2492 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

2494 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

2496 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

2497 Fleuriot);

2499 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

2501 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

2502 Gray and Kramer);

2504 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

2506 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

2507 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

2509 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

2510 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

2511 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

2512 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

2513 assignment, exceptions.

2516 *** ZF ***

2518 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

2519 universe, etc.);

2521 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

2524 *** ML ***

2526 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

2527 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

2528 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

2530 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

2532 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

2533 up simprocs;

2536 *** Document preparation ***

2538 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

2539 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

2540 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

2542 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

2543 other packages

2545 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

2546 broke \Rightarrow)

2548 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

2549 textcomp package)

2553 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

2554 --------------------------------

2556 *** Document preparation ***

2558 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

2559 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

2560 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

2561 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

2562 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

2563 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

2565 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

2566 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

2567 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

2569 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

2570 blocks after section headings;

2572 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

2573 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

2575 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

2576 better in printed text;

2578 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

2579 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

2580 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

2582 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

2583 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

2584 location;

2587 *** Isar ***

2589 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

2590 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

2591 "case (Suc n)");

2592 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

2593 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

2594 instantiation of cases;

2595 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

2596 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

2597 rules without further ado;

2598 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

2599 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

2600 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

2601 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

2602 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

2603 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

2604 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

2605 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

2606 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

2607 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

2608 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

2609 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

2610 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

2611 below);

2612 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

2613 success (no backtracking);

2614 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

2615 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

2616 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

2617 General versions);

2618 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

2619 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

2621 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

2622 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

2623 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

2624 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

2625 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

2626 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

2627 fails:

2629 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

2631 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

2632 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

2634 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

2635 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

2636 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

2637 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

2638 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

2639 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

2640 some examples;

2642 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

2643 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

2644 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

2645 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

2646 qualified by the locale name);

2648 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

2649 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

2650 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

2651 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

2652 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

2654 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

2655 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

2656 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

2657 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

2658 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

2660 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

2662 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

2663 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

2664 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

2666 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

2668 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

2670 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

2672 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

2673 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

2674 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

2676 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

2677 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

2678 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

2679 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

2680 proof *scripts*;

2682 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

2683 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

2684 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

2685 especially important for locales);

2687 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

2688 mode;

2690 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

2691 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

2692 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

2693 situations;

2695 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

2696 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

2698 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

2699 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

2700 discontinued;

2702 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

2703 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

2704 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

2706 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

2707 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

2708 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

2709 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

2710 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

2711 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

2712 INCOMPATIBILITY;

2714 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

2715 of introduction rules;

2717 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

2718 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

2719 conditional rules;

2721 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

2723 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

2724 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

2726 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

2727 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

2729 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

2730 wf_induct_rule;

2733 *** HOL ***

2735 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

2736 follows:

2738 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

2739 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

2741 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

2742 binary representation internally;

2744 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

2745 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

2747 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

2748 are some hints on converting existing sources:

2750 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

2751 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

2752 to be spaced properly;

2754 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

2755 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

2757 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

2759 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

2761 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

2762 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

2764 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

2766 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

2767 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

2768 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

2769 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

2770 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

2772 * HOL/record package improvements:

2773 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

2774 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

2775 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

2776 declared as simp by default;

2777 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

2778 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

2779 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

2780 INCOMPATIBILITY;

2781 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2782 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

2783 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

2784 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

2785 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

2786 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

2788 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

2789 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

2790 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

2791 via 'generate_code' theory section;

2793 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

2795 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

2796 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

2797 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

2799 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

2800 (beware of argument permutation!);

2802 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

2804 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

2806 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

2807 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

2808 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

2810 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

2811 in this (rare) case use:

2813 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

2814 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

2816 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

2817 MAY FAIL;

2819 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

2820 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

2821 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

2822 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

2824 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

2825 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

2826 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

2828 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

2829 expressions;

2831 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

2832 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2834 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

2835 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

2836 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

2838 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

2840 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

2841 the "cases" method);

2843 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

2844 Florian Kammller);

2846 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

2847 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

2848 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

2850 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

2852 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

2855 *** HOLCF ***

2857 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

2858 operations;

2860 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

2861 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

2863 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

2864 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

2865 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

2867 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

2870 *** ZF ***

2872 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

2873 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

2874 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

2875 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

2877 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

2878 your theory on Main_ZFC;

2880 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

2881 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

2883 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

2884 typeless version of the formalism;

2886 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

2887 format;

2889 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

2890 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

2891 new-style theory format;

2893 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

2896 *** General ***

2898 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

2899 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

2900 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

2901 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

2903 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

2904 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

2906 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

2907 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

2908 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

2909 properly;

2911 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

2912 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

2914 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

2915 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

2916 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

2917 type variable);

2919 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

2920 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

2921 "type_brackets";

2923 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

2924 tokens into AST constants;

2926 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

2927 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

2928 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

2930 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

2931 practice);

2933 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

2934 addSafter;

2936 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

2937 as well;

2939 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

2940 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

2941 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

2942 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

2943 support requires further installations, e.g. from

2944 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

2946 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

2948 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

2949 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

2951 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

2952 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

2954 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

2955 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

2956 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

2958 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

2959 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

2960 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

2961 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

2962 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

2964 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

2965 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

2966 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

2967 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

2969 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

2970 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

2971 terminal);

2975 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

2976 -----------------------------------

2978 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

2980 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

2981 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

2982 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

2984 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

2985 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

2986 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

2987 'split_rule (complete)';

2989 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

2990 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

2992 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

2994 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

2995 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

2996 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

2998 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

2999 operation;

3001 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

3003 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

3005 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

3006 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

3007 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

3009 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

3010 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

3013 *** Document preparation ***

3015 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

3016 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

3017 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

3018 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

3019 type-writer);

3021 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

3022 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

3024 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

3025 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

3027 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

3028 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

3029 definitions);

3031 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

3032 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

3033 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

3034 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

3036 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

3037 fonts;

3039 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

3040 generation;

3042 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

3045 *** Isar ***

3047 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

3048 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

3049 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

3050 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

3051 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

3053 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

3054 rules as well;

3056 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

3057 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

3058 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

3059 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

3061 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

3062 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

3064 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

3065 statements as well;

3067 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

3069 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

3070 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

3072 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

3073 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

3075 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

3077 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

3079 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

3080 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

3082 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

3083 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

3084 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

3086 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

3087 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

3088 the result to be shown in each case;

3090 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

3092 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

3095 *** HOL ***

3097 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

3098 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

3099 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

3100 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

3101 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

3103 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

3104 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

3105 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

3107 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

3108 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

3109 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

3110 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

3111 literature;

3113 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

3114 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

3115 operator \<Sum>;

3117 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

3118 HOL/subset.thy);

3120 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

3121 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

3122 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

3124 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

3125 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

3127 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

3128 rules with string literals);

3130 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

3131 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

3132 functions for the reals;

3134 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

3137 *** CTT ***

3139 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

3140 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

3142 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

3143 and Arith);

3146 *** General ***

3148 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

3149 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

3150 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

3151 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

3153 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

3154 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

3156 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

3157 as assumptions as well;

3159 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

3161 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

3165 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

3166 ----------------------------------

3168 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3170 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

3171 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

3172 issue the following ML commands:

3174 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

3175 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

3177 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

3178 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

3180 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

3182 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

3183 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

3185 select_equality -> some_equality

3186 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

3187 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

3188 selectI2 -> someI2

3189 selectI -> someI

3190 select1_equality -> some1_equality

3191 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

3192 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

3194 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

3196 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

3197 instead);

3199 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

3200 f.simps instead of f.rules;

3202 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

3204 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

3205 sometimes be needed;

3207 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

3209 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

3211 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

3212 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

3213 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

3215 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

3216 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

3218 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

3219 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

3221 syntax (symbols)

3222 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

3223 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

3225 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3227 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

3228 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

3229 internally;

3231 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

3232 changed from A/r to A//r;

3234 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

3235 proofs;

3237 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

3238 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

3240 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3241 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

3242 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

3243 "rule del";

3245 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

3247 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

3249 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

3250 lib/texinputs);

3253 *** Document preparation ***

3255 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

3256 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

3257 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

3258 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

3260 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

3261 including proper document sources;

3263 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

3264 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

3265 of isatool usedir;

3267 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

3268 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

3269 LaTeX debugging;

3271 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

3273 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

3274 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

3275 graph for 'all sessions';

3277 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

3278 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

3279 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

3282 *** Isar ***

3284 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

3285 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

3286 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

3288 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

3289 generalized existence reasoning;

3291 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

3292 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

3293 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

3294 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

3295 premises;

3297 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

3298 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

3299 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

3300 to theorems as "tags";

3302 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

3303 class/type/const name spaces;

3305 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

3306 indicate potential overloading;

3308 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

3310 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

3311 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

3313 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

3314 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

3315 with the version in Provers/classical;

3317 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

3318 case name 'antecedent';

3320 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

3321 to the current context is now done automatically);

3323 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

3324 for definining proof methods in ML;

3326 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3327 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

3328 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

3329 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

3331 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

3332 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

3334 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

3335 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

3336 well (including splits);

3338 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

3339 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

3341 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

3342 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

3344 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

3345 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

3346 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

3348 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

3349 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

3350 calculations;

3352 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

3353 method anyway;

3355 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

3356 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

3357 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

3359 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

3360 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

3361 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

3362 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

3364 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

3366 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

3368 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

3369 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

3370 proof states;

3372 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

3373 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

3374 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

3376 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

3377 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

3378 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

3379 (for HOL datatypes);

3381 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

3382 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

3383 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

3385 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

3387 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

3388 should instead use individual commands for printing items

3389 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

3391 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

3394 *** HOL ***

3396 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

3397 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

3398 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

3399 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

3400 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

3401 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

3403 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

3404 Clemens Ballarin;

3406 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

3407 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

3408 Rasmussen;

3410 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

3411 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

3412 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

3413 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

3414 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

3415 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

3417 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

3418 von Oheimb;

3420 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

3421 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

3423 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

3425 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

3426 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

3427 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

3429 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

3430 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

3431 well; admit "r" as field name;

3433 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

3434 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

3436 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

3437 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

3439 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

3440 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

3441 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

3442 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

3443 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

3444 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

3445 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

3447 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

3448 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

3449 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

3451 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

3452 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

3453 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

3455 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

3456 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

3457 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

3458 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

3459 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

3461 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

3462 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

3463 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

3464 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

3465 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

3466 each equation;

3468 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

3469 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

3470 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

3471 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

3473 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

3474 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

3476 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

3478 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

3479 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

3480 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

3482 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3484 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

3485 main HOL, but was unused);

3487 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

3488 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

3490 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

3491 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

3492 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

3493 bogus);

3496 *** ZF ***

3498 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

3499 expressions over nat and int;

3501 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

3502 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

3503 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

3505 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

3506 using the function intify;

3508 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

3509 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

3511 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

3512 simplification;

3514 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

3515 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

3518 *** General ***

3520 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

3521 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

3523 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

3524 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

3526 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

3527 explicit make_elim);

3529 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

3530 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3531 use instead the strong form,

3532 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3533 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

3534 from destruct-rules;

3536 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

3537 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

3539 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

3541 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

3542 for hiding of names;

3544 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

3545 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

3546 situations;

3548 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

3549 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

3550 Poly/ML);

3552 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

3553 useful for remote X11);

3555 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

3557 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

3558 order;

3560 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

3561 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

3563 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

3564 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

3566 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

3567 overloading (usually false);

3569 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

3570 results;

3574 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

3575 --------------------------------

3577 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

3579 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

3580 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

3581 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

3583 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

3585 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

3586 complement;

3588 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

3590 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

3591 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

3593 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

3594 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

3596 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

3597 to constants declared in the same theory;

3599 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

3600 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

3601 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

3603 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

3605 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

3606 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

3607 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

3608 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

3609 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

3610 where the string argument is only a comment.

3613 *** Proof tools ***

3615 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

3616 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

3617 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

3618 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

3620 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

3621 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

3622 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

3623 matching.

3626 *** General ***

3628 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

3629 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

3630 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

3631 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

3632 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

3633 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

3635 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

3636 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

3637 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

3638 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

3639 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

3641 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

3642 Isabelle/Isar;

3644 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

3645 using the graph browser tool;

3647 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

3649 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

3650 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

3651 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

3652 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

3653 isatool doc ref);

3655 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

3656 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

3658 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

3659 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

3661 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

3662 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

3663 Isabelle;

3665 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

3667 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

3668 empty;

3670 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

3671 long arrows);

3673 * new print_mode "HTML";

3675 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

3676 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

3678 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

3679 mode and goal output format:

3681 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

3682 244c244

3683 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

3684 ---

3685 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

3686 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

3687 181c181

3688 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

3689 ---

3690 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

3692 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

3694 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

3696 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

3697 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

3698 result still apply;

3700 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

3701 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

3704 *** HOL ***

3706 ** HOL arithmetic **

3708 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

3709 int:

3711 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

3712 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

3713 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

3714 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

3715 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

3716 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

3717 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

3718 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

3720 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

3721 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

3722 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

3723 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

3724 simplifier.

3726 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

3727 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

3728 int(m) < int(n)'.

3730 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

3731 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

3732 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

3733 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

3734 type constraints;

3736 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

3737 arguments;

3739 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

3740 are now available;

3742 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

3743 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

3744 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

3745 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

3746 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

3747 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

3749 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

3752 ** HOL misc **

3754 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

3755 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

3757 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

3758 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

3760 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

3761 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

3762 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

3763 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

3765 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

3766 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

3767 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

3768 "mono" attribute);

3770 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

3771 (using function types) such as

3773 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

3775 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

3776 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

3777 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

3778 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

3780 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

3781 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

3783 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

3784 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

3786 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

3787 names rather than an ML expression;

3789 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

3790 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

3791 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

3792 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

3794 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

3795 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

3796 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

3798 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

3799 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

3800 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

3802 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

3803 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

3805 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

3806 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

3807 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

3809 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

3811 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

3812 thus available for user theories;

3814 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

3815 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

3816 time;

3818 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

3819 several times and then mp;

3822 *** LK ***

3824 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

3825 formulas;

3827 * the simplifier is now installed

3829 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

3831 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

3834 *** ZF ***

3836 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

3837 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

3839 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

3840 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

3842 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

3844 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

3845 constructors;

3847 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

3848 type-checking rules;

3850 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

3851 to the claset;

3853 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

3854 if(P,x,y);

3857 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

3859 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

3861 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

3862 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

3864 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

3866 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

3867 printing empty lines;

3869 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

3870 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

3871 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

3872 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

3874 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

3875 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

3876 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

3878 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

3879 now of type real instead of int;

3881 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

3882 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

3883 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

3884 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

3886 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

3887 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

3888 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

3889 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

3890 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

3894 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

3895 ----------------------------------

3897 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

3899 * several changes of automated proof tools;

3901 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

3902 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

3904 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

3905 called `inj_on';

3907 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

3908 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

3909 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

3911 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

3912 required);

3914 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

3915 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

3916 now taken as an integer constant.

3918 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

3921 *** Proof tools ***

3923 * Simplifier:

3924 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

3925 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

3926 simplify.

3927 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

3928 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

3929 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

3930 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

3931 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

3933 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

3934 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

3935 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

3936 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

3937 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

3938 one (emitting a warning).

3939 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

3940 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

3941 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

3942 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

3943 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

3945 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

3946 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

3947 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

3948 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

3949 by Force_tac;

3951 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

3952 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

3954 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

3955 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

3956 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

3957 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

3958 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

3959 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

3960 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

3961 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

3962 split_all_tac for record fields.

3964 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

3965 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

3966 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

3967 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

3969 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

3970 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

3971 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

3972 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

3973 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

3974 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

3975 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

3976 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

3977 t is the name of the datatype).

3979 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

3980 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

3981 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

3982 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

3985 *** General ***

3987 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

3988 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

3989 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

3990 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

3991 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

3992 (backup your sources first!);

3994 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

3995 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

3997 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

3998 definitions that have local scope;

4000 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

4002 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

4003 (e.g. package initialization);

4005 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

4006 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

4008 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

4009 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

4011 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

4013 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

4015 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

4017 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

4020 *** HOL ***

4022 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

4024 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

4025 definitions such as

4027 inductive EVEN ODD

4028 intrs

4029 null "0 : EVEN"

4030 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

4031 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

4033 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

4034 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

4035 correctly (also ZF);

4037 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

4038 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

4039 contained in "induct";

4042 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

4043 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

4045 datatype

4046 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4047 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4048 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4049 | NUM 'a

4050 and

4051 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4052 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4053 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4055 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

4057 datatype

4058 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

4059 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

4061 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

4062 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

4064 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

4065 <function_name>.simps.

4067 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4069 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

4070 ancestor.

4071 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

4072 generic induct_tac instead.

4073 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

4074 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

4075 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

4076 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

4077 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

4078 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

4079 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

4080 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

4081 sort constraints.

4082 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

4083 of recursive argument.

4085 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

4086 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

4089 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

4090 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

4091 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

4092 support is as follows:

4094 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

4095 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

4097 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

4098 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

4100 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

4101 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

4103 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

4104 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

4105 the name of your record type.

4107 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

4109 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

4111 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

4112 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

4113 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

4114 solve record problems automatically.

4117 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

4118 default; theory Main includes everything;

4120 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

4122 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

4124 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

4126 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

4128 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

4129 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

4130 with add/delsplits);

4132 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

4133 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

4134 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

4135 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

4136 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

4137 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

4138 %u.f();

4140 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

4141 makes more sense);

4143 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4144 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4145 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4147 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

4148 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

4149 literature);

4151 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

4152 the well-founded relation;

4154 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

4155 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

4156 release ONLY.

4158 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

4159 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

4160 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4162 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

4164 * HOL/List:

4165 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

4166 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

4167 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

4168 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

4169 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

4170 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

4172 * HOL/Arith:

4173 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

4174 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

4175 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

4176 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

4178 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

4179 instead of "inverse";

4181 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

4182 of the multiset ordering;

4184 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

4185 (not included by default);

4187 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

4189 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

4190 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

4192 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4193 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4194 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4197 *** ZF ***

4199 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

4200 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

4202 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4203 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4204 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4206 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

4207 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

4208 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4210 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

4212 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4213 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4214 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4216 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

4217 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

4220 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4222 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

4223 also src/Pure/README;

4225 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

4226 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

4227 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

4228 print_data function becomes basically useless;

4230 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

4231 are qualified by default;

4233 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

4234 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

4235 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

4237 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

4238 cterm -> thm;

4240 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

4241 subgoal;

4243 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

4245 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

4246 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

4247 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

4248 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

4249 for example;

4253 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

4254 --------------------------------

4256 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4258 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

4259 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

4261 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

4262 simpset / simpset_ref;

4264 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

4265 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

4267 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

4269 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

4272 *** General Changes ***

4274 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

4275 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

4276 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

4277 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

4278 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

4279 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

4280 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

4281 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

4282 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

4283 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

4284 section;

4286 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

4287 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

4288 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

4289 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

4290 to patch your ML files accordingly;

4292 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

4293 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

4294 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

4296 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

4297 conditional equations;

4299 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

4301 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

4302 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

4303 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

4304 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

4306 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

4307 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

4309 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

4310 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

4312 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

4313 show_types);

4315 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

4317 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

4319 * removed old README and Makefiles;

4321 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

4323 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

4325 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

4326 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

4328 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

4329 (which abbreviates $HOME);

4331 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

4332 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

4333 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

4335 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

4336 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

4339 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4341 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

4342 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

4343 splitting it into several subgoals;

4345 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

4348 *** Simplifier ***

4350 * added simplification meta rules:

4351 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

4353 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

4354 logics (again);

4356 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

4358 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

4359 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

4360 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

4363 *** Syntax ***

4365 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

4367 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

4369 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

4371 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

4374 *** HOL ***

4376 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4377 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4379 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

4381 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

4382 protocol TLS;

4384 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

4386 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

4387 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

4388 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

4389 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

4390 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

4391 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

4393 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

4394 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

4395 are rewritten to

4396 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

4397 and those of the form

4398 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

4399 are rewritten to

4400 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

4402 * HOL/datatype

4403 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

4405 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4406 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

4407 ...

4408 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4409 )

4411 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

4413 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4414 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

4415 ...

4416 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4417 )

4418 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

4419 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

4420 split_list_case and split_option_case.

4422 * HOL/Arithmetic:

4423 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

4424 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

4425 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

4426 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

4427 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

4428 `standard'.

4430 * HOL/Lists:

4431 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

4432 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

4433 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

4435 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

4437 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

4438 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

4440 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

4441 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

4442 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

4445 *** HOLCF ***

4447 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

4449 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

4450 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

4452 * domain package:

4453 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

4454 . creates hierachical name space,

4455 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

4456 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

4457 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

4458 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

4459 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

4460 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

4462 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

4464 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

4465 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

4468 *** FOL and ZF ***

4470 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4471 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4473 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

4474 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

4478 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

4479 ------------------------------

4481 *** General Changes ***

4483 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

4484 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

4486 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

4488 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

4490 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

4491 messages and clean internal interface;

4493 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

4494 setting goals_limit);

4497 *** Syntax ***

4499 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

4500 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

4502 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

4503 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

4504 "symbols" syntax table;

4506 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

4507 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

4508 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

4509 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

4510 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

4512 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

4513 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

4514 version of xterm);

4516 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

4518 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

4519 access type of constant);

4522 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4524 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

4525 some limitations. Blast_tac...

4526 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

4527 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

4528 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

4529 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

4530 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

4531 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

4532 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

4534 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

4535 assumptions;

4537 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

4538 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

4539 (and access functions for it);

4541 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

4542 + functions for handling clasimpsets

4543 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

4544 safe steps.

4545 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

4546 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

4547 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

4549 *** Simplifier ***

4551 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

4552 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

4553 redex);

4555 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

4557 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

4559 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

4560 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

4561 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

4562 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

4565 *** HOL ***

4567 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

4568 also for type `nat';

4570 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

4571 datatypes and also for type `nat';

4573 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

4575 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

4576 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

4578 * primrec now also works with type nat;

4580 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

4581 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

4583 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

4584 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

4586 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

4587 infinite lists;

4589 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

4591 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

4592 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

4594 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

4596 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

4598 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

4600 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

4602 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

4603 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

4604 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

4605 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

4606 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

4607 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

4608 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

4609 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

4610 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

4613 *** ZF ***

4615 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

4616 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

4617 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

4621 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

4622 ---------------------------------

4624 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

4626 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

4628 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

4629 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

4630 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

4631 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

4633 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

4635 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

4636 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

4638 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

4640 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

4641 examples on HOL/Auth);

4643 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

4644 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4646 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

4647 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

4651 New in Isabelle94-6

4652 -------------------

4654 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

4655 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

4657 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

4659 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

4661 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

4663 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

4665 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

4669 New in Isabelle94-5

4670 -------------------

4672 * reduced space requirements;

4674 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

4676 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

4678 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

4680 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

4684 New in Isabelle94-4

4685 -------------------

4687 * greatly reduced space requirements;

4689 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

4691 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

4692 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

4694 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

4695 Axiom of Choice;

4697 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

4699 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

4700 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

4702 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

4704 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

4705 translates to the operator "split";

4709 New in Isabelle94-3

4710 -------------------

4712 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

4713 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

4714 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

4716 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

4717 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

4718 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

4720 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

4722 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

4723 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

4725 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

4726 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

4728 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

4729 of the Axiom of Choice;

4733 New in Isabelle94-2

4734 -------------------

4736 * Significantly faster resolution;

4738 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

4739 freely;

4741 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

4742 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

4744 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

4745 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

4746 (theory_of_thm);

4748 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

4750 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

4751 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

4753 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

4754 have been removed;

4756 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

4758 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

4760 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

4761 types;

4764 $Id$