NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed May 02 20:43:57 2012 +0200 (2012-05-02)
changeset 47856 57d1df2f2a0f
parent 47855 1246d847b8c1
child 47866 2cc26ddd8298
child 47887 4e9c06c194d9
permissions -rw-r--r--
some re-ordering;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    12     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    13   - markup for bound variables
    14   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
    15   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    16   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    17     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    18 
    19 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    20 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    21 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    22 
    23 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    24 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    25 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    26 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    27 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    28 
    29   context
    30     fixes x y z :: 'a
    31     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    32   begin
    33 
    34   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    35 
    36   end
    37 
    38   thm my_trans
    39 
    40 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    41 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    42 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    43 
    44 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    45 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    46 
    47 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    48 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    49 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    50 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
    51 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
    52 
    53 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    54 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    55 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    56 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    57 indices of schematic variables.
    58 
    59 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    60 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    61 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    62 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    63 etc. was exploited.
    64 
    65 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
    66 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
    67 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
    68 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
    69 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
    70 of the material of that old tutorial.
    71 
    72 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
    73 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
    74 manual.
    75 
    76 
    77 *** Pure ***
    78 
    79 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    80 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    81 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    82 
    83 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    84 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    85 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    86 undocumented feature.)
    87 
    88 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
    89 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    90 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
    91 
    92   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
    93 
    94   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
    95     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
    96 
    97 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    98 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    99 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   100 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   101 
   102 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   103 
   104     num ~> num_token
   105     xnum ~> xnum_token
   106     xstr ~> str_token
   107 
   108 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   109 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   110 position information via constraints).
   111 
   112 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   113 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   114 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   117 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   118 
   119 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   120 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   121 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   124 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   127 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   128 
   129   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   130 
   131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132 
   133 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   134 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   135 
   136 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   137 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   138 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   139 
   140 
   141 *** HOL ***
   142 
   143 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   144 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   145 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   146 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   147 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   148 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   149 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   150 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   151 possible.
   152 
   153 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   154 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   155 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   156 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   157 
   158 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   159 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160 
   161 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   162 
   163 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   164 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   165 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   166 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   167 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   168 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   169 
   170   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   171     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   172 
   173   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   174     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   175     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   176 
   177   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   178     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   179 
   180   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   181     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   182     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   183 
   184   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   185     Redefine using other integer operations.
   186 
   187 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   188 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   189 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   190 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   191 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   192 
   193   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   194     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   195     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   196     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   197     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   198 
   199     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   200     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   201 
   202   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   203     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   204     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   205     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   206     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   207     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   208     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   209     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   210 
   211   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   212     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   213     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   214     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   215 
   216   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   217     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   218     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   219     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   220 
   221   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   222     from type nat to type int.
   223 
   224 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   225 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   226 
   227   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   228     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   229     type.  Example syntax:
   230 
   231     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   232       is List.insert
   233 
   234     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   235     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   236     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   237     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   238     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   239     by the package.
   240 
   241   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   242     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   243     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   244     code generation for each constant.
   245 
   246   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   247     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   248     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   249     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   250     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   251 
   252   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   253     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   254     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   255 
   256 * Quotient package:
   257 
   258   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   259     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   260 
   261   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   262     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   263 
   264   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   265     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   266     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   269     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   270 
   271 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   272 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   273 
   274 * Quickcheck:
   275 
   276   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   277     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   278     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   279     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   280     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   281 
   282     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   283     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   284     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   285 
   286     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   287     continues searching for genuine ones.
   288 
   289     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   290     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   291     show genuine counterexamples.
   292 
   293   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   294     value generators for a given type and operations.
   295 
   296     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   297     constructors of that type.
   298 
   299   - Support for multisets.
   300 
   301   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   302 
   303   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   304     conjectures in a locale context.
   305 
   306 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   307 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   308 
   309 * Sledgehammer:
   310   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   311     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   312   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   313   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   314     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   315   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   316   - Sped up the minimizer.
   317   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   318   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   319   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   320 
   321 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   322 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   323 
   324 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   325 
   326 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   329 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   330 
   331   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   332 
   333 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   334 a list and a nat.
   335 
   336 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   337 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   338 
   339 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   340 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   341 default.
   342 
   343 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   344 
   345   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   346 
   347 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   348 
   349 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   350 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   351 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   352 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   353 one_case.
   354 
   355 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   356 the result of the fact expression.
   357 
   358 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   359 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   360 of some relation theorems:
   361 
   362   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   363   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   364   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   365   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   366   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   367   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   368 
   369 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   370 
   371 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   372 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   373 
   374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   375 
   376 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   377 to match the constant's name:
   378 
   379   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   380   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   381   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   382   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   383   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   384   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   385   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   386   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   387   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   388   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   389   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   390   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   391   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   392   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   393   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   394   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   395   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   396   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   397   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   398   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   399   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   400   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   401   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   402   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   403 
   404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   405 
   406 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   407 and corresponding theorem names:
   408 
   409   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   410 
   411   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   412 
   413   - Renamed theorems:
   414 
   415     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   416     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   417     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   418     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   419     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   420     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   421     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   422     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   423     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   424     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   425     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   426     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   427     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   428     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   429     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   430     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   431     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   432     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   433     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   434     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   435     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   436     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   437     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   438 
   439     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   440 
   441     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   442 
   443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   444 
   445 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   446 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   447 
   448   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   449   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   450   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   451   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   452   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   453   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   454   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   455   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   456   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   457   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   458   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   459   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   460   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   461   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   462   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   463   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   464   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   465   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   466   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   467   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   468   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   469 
   470 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   471 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   474 
   475 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   476 
   477   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   478   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   479   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   480   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   481   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   482   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   483   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   484   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   485   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   486   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   487   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   488   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   489   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   490   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   491   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   492   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   493   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   494   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   495 
   496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   499 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   500 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   501 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   502 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   503 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   504 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   505 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   506 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   507 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   508 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   509 
   510 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   511 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   512 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   513 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   514 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   515 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   516 
   517 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   518 through option types.
   519 
   520 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   521 relations.
   522 
   523 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   526 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   527 
   528   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   529   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   530   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   531   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   532   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   533   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   534   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   535   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   536   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   537   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   538   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   539   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   540   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   541   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   542   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   543   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   544   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   545   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   546   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   547   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   548   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   549   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   550   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   551   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   552   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   553   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   554   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   555   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   556   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   557   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   558   zless_le ~> less_le
   559   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   560   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   561   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   562 
   563 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   564 
   565   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   566 
   567 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   568 
   569 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   570 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   571 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   572 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   574 
   575 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   576 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   577 
   578 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   579 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   580 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   581 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   582 follows:
   583 
   584   Operations:
   585   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   586   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   587   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   588   del -> rbt_del
   589   delete -> rbt_delete
   590   ins -> rbt_ins
   591   insert -> rbt_insert
   592   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   593   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   594   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   595   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   596   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   597   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   598   tree_less -> rbt_less
   599   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   600   union -> rbt_union
   601   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   602   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   603 
   604   Lemmas:
   605   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   606   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   607   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   608   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   609   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   610   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   611   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   612   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   613   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   614   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   615   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   616   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   617   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   618   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   619   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   620   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   621   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   622   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   623   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   624   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   625   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   626   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   627   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   628   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   629   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   630   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   631   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   632   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   633   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   634   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   635   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   636   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   637   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   638   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   639   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   640   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   641   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   642   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   643   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   644   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   645   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   646   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   647   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   648   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   649   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   650   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   651   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   652   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   653   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   654   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   655   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   656   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   657   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   658   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   659   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   660   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   661   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   662   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   663   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   664   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   665   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   666   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   667   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   668   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   669   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   670   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   671   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   672   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   673   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   674   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   675   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   676   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   677   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   678   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   679   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   680   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   681   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   682   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   683   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   684   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   685   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   686   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   687   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   688 
   689 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   690 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   691 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693   Changed Operations:
   694   float_abs -> abs
   695   float_nprt -> nprt
   696   float_pprt -> pprt
   697   pow2 -> use powr
   698   round_down -> float_round_down
   699   round_up -> float_round_up
   700   scale -> exponent
   701 
   702   Removed Operations:
   703   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   704 
   705   Renamed Lemmas:
   706   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   707   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   708   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   709   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   710   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   711   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   712   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   713   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   714   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   715   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   716   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   717   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   718   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   719   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   720   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   721   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   722   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   723   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   724   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   725   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   726   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   727   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   728   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   729   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   730   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   731   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   732   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   733   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   734   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   735   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   736   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   737   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   738   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   739   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   740   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   741   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   742 
   743   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   744   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   745   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   746   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   747   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   748   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   749   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   750   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   751   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   752   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   753 
   754 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   755 association lists with distinct keys.
   756 
   757 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   758 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   759 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   760 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   763 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   764 instead.
   765 
   766   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   767   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   768   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   769   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   770   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   771   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   772   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   773   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   774   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   775   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   776   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   777   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   778   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   779   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   780   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   781   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   782   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   783   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   784   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   785   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   786   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   787   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   788   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   789   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   790   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   791   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   792   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   793   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   794   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   795   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   796   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   797   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   798   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   799   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   800   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   801   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   802   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   803   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   804   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   805   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   806   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   807 
   808 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   809 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   810 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   811 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   812 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   813 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   814 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   815 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   816 
   817 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   818 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   819 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   820 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   821 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   822 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   823 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   824 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   825 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   826 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   827 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   828 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   829 
   830   Renamed constants:
   831   measure -> emeasure
   832   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   833   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   834   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   835   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   836 
   837   Removed locales:
   838   completeable_measure_space
   839   finite_measure_space
   840   finite_prob_space
   841   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   842   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   843   finite_sigma_algebra
   844   measure_space
   845   pair_finite_prob_space
   846   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   847   pair_finite_space
   848   pair_sigma_algebra
   849   product_sigma_algebra
   850 
   851   Removed constants:
   852   conditional_space
   853   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   854   image_space
   855   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   856   pair_measure_generator
   857   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   858   subvimage
   859 
   860   Replacement theorems:
   861   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   862   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   863   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   864   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   865   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   866   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   867   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   868   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   869   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   870   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   871   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   872   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   873   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   874   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   875   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   876   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   877   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   878   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   879   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   880   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   881   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   882   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   883   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   884   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   885   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   886   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   887   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   888   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   889   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   890   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   891   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   892   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   893   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   894   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   895   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   896   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   897   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   898   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   899   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   900   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   901   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   902   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   903   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   904   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   905   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
   906   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
   907   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
   908   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
   909   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
   910   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
   911   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
   912   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
   913   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   914   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
   915   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
   916   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
   917   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
   918   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
   919   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   920   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
   921   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
   922   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
   923   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   924   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
   925   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
   926   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
   927   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
   928   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
   929   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
   930   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
   931   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
   932   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
   933   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
   934   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
   935   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   936   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
   937   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
   938   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
   939   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
   940   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   941   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   942   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   943   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   944   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
   945   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
   946   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
   947   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
   948   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
   949   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
   950   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
   951   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
   952   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
   953   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
   954   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
   955   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
   956   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
   957   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
   958   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
   959   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
   960   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
   961   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
   962   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
   963   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
   964   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
   965   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
   966   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
   967   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   968   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
   969   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
   970   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
   971   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
   972   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
   973   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
   974   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
   975   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
   976   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
   977   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
   978   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
   979   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   980   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
   981   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   982   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
   983   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
   984   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
   985   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
   986   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
   987   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
   988   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
   989 
   990 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
   991 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
   992 
   993 
   994 *** FOL ***
   995 
   996 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   997 
   998 
   999 *** ZF ***
  1000 
  1001 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1002 analysis.
  1003 
  1004 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1005 
  1006 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 
  1009 *** ML ***
  1010 
  1011 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1012 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1013 
  1014 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1015 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1016 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1017 
  1018 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1019 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1020 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1021 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1022 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1023 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1024 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1025 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1026 
  1027 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1028 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1029 
  1030 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1031 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1032 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1033 
  1034 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1035 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1036 
  1037 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1038 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1039 context as well.
  1040 
  1041 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1042 
  1043   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1044   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1045   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1046   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1047   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1048   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1049   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1050   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1051   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1052   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1053   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1054   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1055 
  1056 
  1057 *** System ***
  1058 
  1059 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1060 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1061 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1062 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1063 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1064 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1065 the generic user home was intended.
  1066 
  1067 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1068 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1069 
  1070 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1071 (not just JRE).
  1072 
  1073 
  1074 
  1075 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1076 ------------------------------------
  1077 
  1078 *** General ***
  1079 
  1080 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1081 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1082 
  1083   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1084     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1085     files for checking).
  1086 
  1087   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1088     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1089     positions.
  1090 
  1091   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1092     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1093     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1094 
  1095   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1096     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1097     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1098 
  1099   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1100     cores.
  1101 
  1102   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1103     versions (garbage collection).
  1104 
  1105 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1106 including some remaining limitations.
  1107 
  1108 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1109 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1110 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1111 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1112 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1116 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1117 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1118 
  1119 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1120 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1121 usedir option -Q.
  1122 
  1123 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1124 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1125 
  1126   long_names   ~> names_long
  1127   short_names  ~> names_short
  1128   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1129 
  1130 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1131 
  1132   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1133 
  1134 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1135 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1136 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1137 
  1138 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1139 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1140 
  1141 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1142   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1143   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1144   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1145     "Classical Reasoner".
  1146 
  1147 
  1148 *** HOL ***
  1149 
  1150 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1151 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1154 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1155 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1156 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1157 class complete_linorder.
  1158 
  1159 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1160 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1161 
  1162 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1163 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1164 
  1165   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1166   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1167   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1168   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1169   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1170   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1171   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1172   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1173   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1174   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1175   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1176 
  1177 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1178 
  1179   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1180   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1181   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1182   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1183   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1184   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1185   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1186   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1187   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1188   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1189   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1190   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1191   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1192   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1193   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1194   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1195 
  1196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1200 
  1201 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1202 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1203 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1204 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1205 
  1206 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1207 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1208 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1210 
  1211 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1212 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1213 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1214 
  1215 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1216 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1217 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1218 
  1219 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1220 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1221 
  1222 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1223 
  1224     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1225     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1226 
  1227 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1228 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1231 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1232 
  1233 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1234 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1235 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1236 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1239   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1240   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1241   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1242   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1243   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1244   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1245 
  1246 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1247 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1248 
  1249   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1250   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1251   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1252   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1253   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1254   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1255   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1256   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1257   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1258   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1259   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1260   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1261   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1262   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1263   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1264   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1265   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1266   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1267   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1268   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1269   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1270   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1271   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1272   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1273   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1274   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1275   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1276   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1277   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1278   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1279   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1280   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1281   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1282   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1283   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1284   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1285   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1286   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1287   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1288   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1289   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1290   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1291   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1292   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1293   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1294   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1295   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1296   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1297   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1298   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1299   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1300   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1301   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1302   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1303   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1304   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1305   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1306   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1307   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1308   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1309   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1310   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1311   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1312   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1313   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1314   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1315   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1316   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1317   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1318   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1319   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1320   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1321   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1322   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1323   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1324   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1325   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1326   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1327   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1328   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1329   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1330   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1331 
  1332 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1333 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1334 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1335 
  1336 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1337 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1338 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1339 
  1340 * Code generation:
  1341 
  1342   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1343     characters in the target language.
  1344 
  1345   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1346     instead.
  1347 
  1348   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1349 
  1350   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1351     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1352 
  1353       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1354 
  1355 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1358 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1359 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1360 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1361 syntax.
  1362 
  1363 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1364 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1365 
  1366 * Nitpick:
  1367   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1368   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1369   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1370     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1371 
  1372 * Sledgehammer:
  1373   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1374   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1375     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1376   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1377     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1378   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1379     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1380   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1381     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1382   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1383     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384 
  1385 * Metis:
  1386   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1387   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1389 
  1390 * Command 'try':
  1391   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1392     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1393   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1394     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1395 
  1396 * Quickcheck:
  1397   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1398     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1399   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1400     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1401   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1402     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1403     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1404     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1405   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1406     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1407 
  1408 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1409 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1410 
  1411 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1412 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1413 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1414 
  1415 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1416 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1418 
  1419 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1420 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1421 
  1422 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1423 arithmetic.
  1424 
  1425 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1426 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1427 and lattice type classes.
  1428 
  1429 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1430 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1431 
  1432 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1433 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1434 
  1435 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1436 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1437 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1440   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1441   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1442   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1443 
  1444 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1445 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1446 constants:
  1447 
  1448   type inat   ~> type enat
  1449   Fin         ~> enat
  1450   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1451   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1452   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1453 
  1454 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1455 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1458 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1459 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1460 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1461 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1462 
  1463 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1464 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1465 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1466 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1467 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1468 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1469 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1470 
  1471   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1472   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1473   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1474   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1475 
  1476 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1477 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1478 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1479 
  1480   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1481   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1482   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1483   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1484   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1485   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1486   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1487   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1488   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1489   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1490   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1491   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1492   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1493   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1494   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1495   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1496   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1497   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1498   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1499   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1500   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1501   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1502   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1503   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1504   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1505   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1506   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1507   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1508   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1509   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1510   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1511   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1512   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1513   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1514   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1515   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1516   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1517   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1518   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1519   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1520   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1521   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1522   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1523   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1524   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1525   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1526   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1527   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1528   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1529   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1530   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1531 
  1532 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1533   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1534   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1535   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1536   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1537     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1540 
  1541   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1542   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1543   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1544   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1545   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1546   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1547   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1548   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1549   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1550   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1551   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1552   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1553   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1554   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1555   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1556   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1557   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1558   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1559   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1560   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1561   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1562   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1563   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1564   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1565   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1566 
  1567 
  1568 *** Document preparation ***
  1569 
  1570 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1571 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1572 same.
  1573 
  1574 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1575 result.
  1576 
  1577 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1578 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1579 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1580 
  1581 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1582 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1583 
  1584 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1585 like this:
  1586 
  1587   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1588   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1589 
  1590 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1591 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1592 layouts.
  1593 
  1594 
  1595 *** ML ***
  1596 
  1597 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1598 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1599 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1600 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1601 under external program control.
  1602 
  1603 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1604 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1605 
  1606 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1607 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1608 (better known as Proof General).
  1609 
  1610 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1611 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1612 
  1613 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1614 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1615 
  1616 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1617 (including quotes etc.).
  1618 
  1619 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1620 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1621 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1622 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1623 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1624 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1625 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1626 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1627 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1628 
  1629 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1630 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1631 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1632 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1633 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1634 
  1635 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1636 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1637 
  1638 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1639 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1640 
  1641 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1642 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1643 
  1644 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1645 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1646 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1647 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1648 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1650 proper Proof.context.
  1651 
  1652 
  1653 *** System ***
  1654 
  1655 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1656 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1657 
  1658 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1659 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1660 
  1661 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1662 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1663 
  1664   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1665   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1666   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1667   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1668   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1669 
  1670 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1671 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1674 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1675 example:
  1676 
  1677   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1678 
  1679 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1680 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1681 
  1682 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1683 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1684 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1685 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1686 
  1687 
  1688 
  1689 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1690 ----------------------------------
  1691 
  1692 *** General ***
  1693 
  1694 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1695 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1696 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1697 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1698 like this:
  1699 
  1700   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1701 
  1702 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1703 
  1704 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1705 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1706 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1707 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1708 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1709 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1710 
  1711 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1712 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1713 the following package declarations:
  1714 
  1715   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1716   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1717 
  1718 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1719 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1720 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1721 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1722 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1723 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1724 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1725 
  1726 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1727 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1728 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1729 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1730 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1731 
  1732 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1733 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1734 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1735 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1736 
  1737 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1738 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1739 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1740 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1741 
  1742   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1743 
  1744   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1745   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1746   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1747   show_types                    show_types
  1748   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1749   show_consts                   show_consts
  1750   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1751 
  1752   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1753   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1754   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1755 
  1756   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1757   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1758 
  1759   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1760 
  1761   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1762   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1763   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1764   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1765   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1766 
  1767 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1768 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1769 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1770 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1771 
  1772 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1776   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1777 
  1778 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1779 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1780 float_token.
  1781 
  1782 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1783 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1787 DejaVu Sans.
  1788 
  1789 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1790 
  1791 
  1792 *** Pure ***
  1793 
  1794 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1795 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1796 time.
  1797 
  1798 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1799 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1802 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1803 
  1804 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1805 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1806 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1807 command already provided this functionality.
  1808 
  1809 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1810 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1811 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1812 without interpretations.
  1813 
  1814 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1815 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1816 
  1817 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1818 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1819 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1820 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1821 
  1822 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1823 'definition' instead.
  1824 
  1825 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1826 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1827 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1828 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1829 
  1830 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1831 constructors.
  1832 
  1833 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1834 the local file system.
  1835 
  1836 
  1837 *** HOL ***
  1838 
  1839 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1840 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1841 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1842 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1843 
  1844   declare [[coercion f]]
  1845 
  1846 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1847 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1848 
  1849   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1850 
  1851 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1852 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1853 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1854 other theories like this:
  1855 
  1856   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1857 
  1858 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1859 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1860 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1861 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1862 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1863 for examples.
  1864 
  1865 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1866 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1867 
  1868 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1869 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1870 
  1871 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1872 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1873 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1874 
  1875 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1876 functorial structure of types.
  1877 
  1878 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1879 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1880 
  1881 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1882 languages.
  1883 
  1884 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1885 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1887 
  1888 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1889 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1890 
  1891 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1892 combinators any longer.
  1893 
  1894 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1895 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1896 
  1897 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1898 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1899 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1900 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1901 
  1902   record 'a foo = ...
  1903   ...
  1904   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1905 
  1906 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1907 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1911 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1912 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1913 
  1914 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1915 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1916 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1917 
  1918 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1919 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920 
  1921 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1922 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1923 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1924 independently.
  1925 
  1926 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1927 counter example search.
  1928 
  1929 * Sledgehammer:
  1930   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1931     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1932     sledgehammer").
  1933   - Renamed commands:
  1934     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1935     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1936     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1937     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938   - Renamed options:
  1939     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1940     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1941     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1942     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1943     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Nitpick:
  1946   - Renamed options:
  1947     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1948     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1949     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1950   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1951   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1952   - Added "whack" option.
  1953   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1954   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1955   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1956   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1957     higher cardinalities.
  1958   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1959 
  1960 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1961 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1962 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1963 
  1964     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1965 
  1966 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1967 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1968 
  1969 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1970 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1971 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1972 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1973 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1974 "smt_solver".
  1975 
  1976 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1977 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1978 
  1979 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1980 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1981 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1982 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1985   - Renamed:
  1986     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1987     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1988     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989   - Added:
  1990     smt_verbose
  1991     smt_random_seed
  1992     smt_datatypes
  1993     smt_infer_triggers
  1994     smt_monomorph_limit
  1995     cvc3_options
  1996     remote_cvc3_options
  1997     remote_z3_options
  1998     yices_options
  1999 
  2000 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2001 header.
  2002 
  2003 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2004 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2005 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2006 
  2007   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2008 
  2009 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2010 
  2011 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2012 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2015 
  2016 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2017 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2020 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2021 
  2022 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2023 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2026 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2027 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2030 
  2031 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2033 
  2034 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2035 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2036 
  2037 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2038 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2039 for congruent(2)).
  2040 
  2041 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2042 
  2043   types
  2044     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2045     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2046 
  2047   constants
  2048     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2049     True ~> HOL.True
  2050     False ~> HOL.False
  2051     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2052     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2053     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2054     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2055     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2056     The ~> HOL.The
  2057     All ~> HOL.All
  2058     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2059     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2060     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2061     If ~> HOL.If
  2062     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2063     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2064     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2065     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2066     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2067     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2068     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2069     op : ~> Set.member
  2070     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2071 
  2072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2073 
  2074 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2075 
  2076     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2077     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2078     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2079     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2080     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2081     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2082     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2083     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2084 
  2085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2086 
  2087 * More stylized fact names:
  2088 
  2089   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2090   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2091   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2092   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2093 
  2094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095 
  2096 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2097 
  2098   constants
  2099     null ~> List.null
  2100 
  2101   facts
  2102     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2103     null_empty ~> null_def
  2104 
  2105 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2106 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2107 generation.
  2108 
  2109 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2110 Haskell code.
  2111 
  2112 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2113 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2114 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2115 
  2116 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2117 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2118 
  2119 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2120 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2121 
  2122 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2123 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2124 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2127 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2131 
  2132 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2133 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2134 referred to by its qualified name.
  2135 
  2136   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2137   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2138   product ~>  Enum.product
  2139 
  2140 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2141 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2143 
  2144 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2145 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2146 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2150 sort_key.
  2151 
  2152 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154 
  2155 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2156 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2157 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2158 
  2159   types
  2160     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2161               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2162               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2163         (depends on your needs)
  2164 
  2165   constants
  2166      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2167      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2168      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2169 
  2170 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2171 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2172 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2173 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2176 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2177 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2178 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2179 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2185 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2186 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2187 
  2188 
  2189 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2190 
  2191 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2192 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2193 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2194 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2195 compatibility.
  2196 
  2197 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2198 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2199 
  2200 
  2201 *** HOLCF ***
  2202 
  2203 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2204 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2205 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2209 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2210 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2213   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2214   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2215 
  2216 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2217 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2218 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2221 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2222 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2223 domain definition now works:
  2224 
  2225   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2226 
  2227 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2228 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2229 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2230 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2231 
  2232   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2233     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2234 
  2235   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2236 
  2237 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2238 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2239 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2242 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2245 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2246 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2247 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2248 
  2249 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2250 
  2251 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2252 
  2253 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2257 
  2258 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2259 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2260 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2261 
  2262 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2263 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2264 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2267 still supported as an input translation.
  2268 
  2269 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2270 
  2271   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2272   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2273   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2274   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2275   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2276   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2277   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2278 
  2279 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2280 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2283   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2284   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2285   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2286   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2287   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2288 
  2289 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2290 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2293 
  2294   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2295   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2296   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2297   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2298 
  2299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2300 
  2301 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2302 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2303 
  2304 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2305 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2306 
  2307   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2308   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2309   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2310   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2311   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2312   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2313   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2314   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2315   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2316   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2317   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2318   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2319   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2320   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2321   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2322   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2323   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2324   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2325   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2326   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2327 
  2328 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2331   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2332   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2333   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2334   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2335   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2336   box_less             ~> box_below
  2337   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2338   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2339   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2340   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2341   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2342   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2343   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2344   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2345   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2346   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2347   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2348   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2349   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2350   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2351   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2352   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2353   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2354   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2355   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2356   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2357   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2358   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2359   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2360   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2361   up_less              ~> up_below
  2362   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2363   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2364   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2365   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2366   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2367   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2368   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2369   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2370   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2371   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2372   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2373   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2374   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2375 
  2376 
  2377 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2378 
  2379 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2380 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382 
  2383 *** ML ***
  2384 
  2385 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2386 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2387 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2388 
  2389 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2390 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2391 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2392 
  2393 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2394 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2395 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2396 
  2397 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2398 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2399 
  2400 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2401 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2402 
  2403 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2404 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2405 
  2406 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2407 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2408 
  2409 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2410 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2411 almost all situations.
  2412 
  2413 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2414 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2415 Isabelle/ML.
  2416 
  2417 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2418 meaning.
  2419 
  2420 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2421 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2422 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2423 
  2424 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2425 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2426 
  2427 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2428 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2429 
  2430 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2431 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2432 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2433 
  2434 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2435 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2436 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2437 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2438 configuration options.
  2439 
  2440 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2441 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2442 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2443 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2444 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2445 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2446 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2447 
  2448 
  2449 
  2450 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2451 ---------------------------------
  2452 
  2453 *** General ***
  2454 
  2455 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2456 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2457 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2458 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2459 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2460 their full internal name.
  2461 
  2462 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2463 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2464 Some hints on upgrading:
  2465 
  2466   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2467     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2468     which are independent of this issue.
  2469 
  2470   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2471     provides the following special forms:
  2472 
  2473       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2474       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2475       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2476 
  2477     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2478     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2479     extra variables".
  2480 
  2481     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2482     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2483     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2484     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2485     "logic".
  2486 
  2487   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2488     antiquotations:
  2489 
  2490       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2491       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2492       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2493       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2494 
  2495   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2496     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2497     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2498     antiquotations.
  2499 
  2500 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2501 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2502 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2503 diagnose syntax problems.
  2504 
  2505 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2506 
  2507 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2508 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2509 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2510 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2511 
  2512 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2513 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2514 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2515 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2518 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2519 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2520 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2521 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2524 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2525 
  2526 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2527 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2528 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2529 
  2530   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2531 
  2532 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2533 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2534 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2535 
  2536 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2537 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2539 
  2540 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2541 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2542 
  2543 
  2544 *** Pure ***
  2545 
  2546 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2547 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2548 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2549 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2550 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2551 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2552 inspect proof terms.
  2553 
  2554 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2555 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2556 are added internally.  For example:
  2557 
  2558   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2559 
  2560 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2561 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562 
  2563 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2564 
  2565 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2566 'class' instead.
  2567 
  2568 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2569 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2573 invariants.
  2574 
  2575 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2576 user space functionality any longer.
  2577 
  2578 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2579 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2581 
  2582 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2583 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2584 
  2585 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2586 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2587 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2588 
  2589 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2590 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2591 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2592 
  2593 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2594 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596 
  2597 *** HOL ***
  2598 
  2599 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2600 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2601 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2602 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2603 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2604 
  2605 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2606 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2607 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2608 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2609 
  2610   fun
  2611     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2612   where
  2613     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2614 
  2615   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2616     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2617 
  2618   quotient_definition
  2619     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2620 
  2621 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2622 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2623 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2624 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2625 
  2626 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2627 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2628 
  2629 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2630 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2631 
  2632 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2636 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2637 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2638 
  2639 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2640 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2647 
  2648 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2649 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2650 
  2651 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2652 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2653 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2656   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2657   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2658   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2659   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2660   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2661   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2662   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2663   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2664   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2665   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2666   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2667   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2668   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2669   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2670   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2671   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2672   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2673   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2674   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2675   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2676   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2677   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2678   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2679   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2680   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2681   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2682   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2683   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2684   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2685 
  2686 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2687 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2688 
  2689 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2690 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2691 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2692 
  2693 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2694 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2695 
  2696 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2697 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2700 
  2701 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2702 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2705 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2708 
  2709 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2710 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2711 
  2712 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2713 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2714 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2715 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2718   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2719   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2720   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2724 lattices):
  2725 
  2726     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2727     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2728 
  2729     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2730 
  2731     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2732     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2733     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2734     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2735     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2736     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2737     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2738     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2739     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2740     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2741     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2742     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2743     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2744 
  2745     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2746     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2747     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2748     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2749     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2750     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2751     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2752     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2753     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2754     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2755     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2756     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2757     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2758     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2759     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2760     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2761     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2762     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2763 
  2764   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2765   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2766 
  2767     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2768     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2769     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2770     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2771     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2772 
  2773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775 * Refined field classes:
  2776   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2777     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2778     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2779   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781 
  2782 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2783   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2784   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2785   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2786     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2787   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2788     equal_neg_zero.
  2789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2792 sets to lattices:
  2793 
  2794   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2795   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2796   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2797   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2798   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2799   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2800   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2801   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2802   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2803   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2804 
  2805 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2806 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2807 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2808 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2809 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2810 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2811 
  2812 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2813 multiset order:
  2814 
  2815   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2816     <= and <;
  2817   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2818     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2819     multiset_order;
  2820   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2821     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2822     generation;
  2823   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2824     if needed.
  2825 
  2826 Renamed:
  2827 
  2828   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2829   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2830   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2831 
  2832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833 
  2834 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2835 
  2836 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2837 
  2838 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2839 
  2840 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2841 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2842 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844   Constants:
  2845   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2846   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2847   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2848   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2849   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2850   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2851   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2852   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2853   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2854   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2855   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2856   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2857   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2858 
  2859   Lemmas:
  2860   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2861   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2862   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2863   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2864   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2865   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2866   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2867   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2868   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2869   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2870   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2871   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2872   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2873 
  2874 * Sledgehammer:
  2875   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2876     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2877     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2878     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2879     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2880     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2881     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2883   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2884     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2885   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2886     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2887     is still experimental.)
  2888   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2889     full-typed mode.
  2890   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2891 
  2892 * Nitpick:
  2893   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2894   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2895   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2896     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2897   - Added support for quotient types.
  2898   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2899     constructs.
  2900   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2901     "termination" proofs).
  2902   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2903   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2904   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2905   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2906     record getters.
  2907   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2908   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2909   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2910   - Added "atoms" option.
  2911   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2912     problems.
  2913   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2914     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2915     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2917     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2919 
  2920 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2921   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2922   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2923   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2924   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2925   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2926   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2927   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2928   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2929   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930 
  2931 
  2932 *** HOLCF ***
  2933 
  2934 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2935 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2936 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2939 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2940 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2941 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2942 
  2943 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2944 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2945 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2946 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2947 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2948 
  2949 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2950 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2951 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952 
  2953 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2954 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2957   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2958 
  2959 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2960 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2963   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2964   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2965   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2966   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2967 
  2968 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2969 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2972   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2973   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2974 
  2975 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2976 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2978 
  2979 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2980 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2981 
  2982 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2985 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 
  2988 *** ML ***
  2989 
  2990 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2991 
  2992     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2993     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2994 
  2995     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2996     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2997     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2998     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2999 
  3000     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3001     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3002     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3003 
  3004 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3005 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3006 
  3007 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3008 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3009 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3010 
  3011 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3012 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3013 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3014 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3015 
  3016 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3017 the context or even global references.
  3018 
  3019 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3020 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3021 
  3022 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3023 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3024 
  3025   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3026   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3027   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3028   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3029   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3030   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3031   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3032   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3033   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3034   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3035 
  3036 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3037 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3038 
  3039 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3040 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3041 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3042 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3043 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3044 
  3045 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3046 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3047 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3048 Theory_Data version.
  3049 
  3050 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3051 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3052 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3053 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3054 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3055 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3056 explicitly in rare situations.
  3057 
  3058 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3059 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3063 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3066 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3067 quite rare).
  3068 
  3069 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3070 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3073 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3074 terms.
  3075 
  3076 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3077 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3078 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3079 
  3080 
  3081 *** System ***
  3082 
  3083 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3084 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3085 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3086 
  3087 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3088 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3089 respectively.
  3090 
  3091 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3092 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3093 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3094 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3095 
  3096   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3097 
  3098 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3099 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3100 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3101 component.
  3102 
  3103 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3104 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3105 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3106 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3107 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3108 the user for manual installation.
  3109 
  3110 
  3111 
  3112 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3113 -------------------------------------
  3114 
  3115 *** General ***
  3116 
  3117 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3118 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3119 
  3120 
  3121 *** Pure ***
  3122 
  3123 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3124 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3125 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3126 
  3127 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3128 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3129 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3130 
  3131 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3132 interpretation.
  3133 
  3134 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3135 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 
  3138 *** Document preparation ***
  3139 
  3140 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3141 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3142 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3143 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3144 
  3145 
  3146 *** HOL ***
  3147 
  3148 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3149 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3150 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3151 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3152 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3153 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3154 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3155 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3156 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3157 
  3158 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3159 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3160 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3161 
  3162 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3163 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3164 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3165 
  3166 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3167 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3168 
  3169 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3170 
  3171 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3172 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3173 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3174 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3175 
  3176 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3177 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3178 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3179 "mirabelle" utility.
  3180 
  3181 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3182 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3183 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3184 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3185 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3186 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3187 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3188 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3189 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3190 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3191 
  3192 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3193 procedure only.
  3194 
  3195 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3196 
  3197 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3198 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3199 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3200 that fail later.
  3201 
  3202 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3203 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3204 
  3205 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3206 the same method as the approximation method.
  3207 
  3208 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3209 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3210 series expansion.
  3211 
  3212 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3213 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3214 
  3215 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3216 reals.
  3217 
  3218 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3219 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3220 
  3221 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3222 fixpoint theorem.
  3223 
  3224 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3225   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3226     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3227   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3228     accordingly
  3229   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3230     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3231   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3232     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3233 
  3234 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3235 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3236 lattice.
  3237 
  3238 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3239 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3240 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3241 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3242 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3243 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3247   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3248     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3249   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3250     le_inf_iff
  3251   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3252     sup_aci)
  3253   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3254   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3255   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3256     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3257     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3258     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3259     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3260     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3261     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3262     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3263     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3264     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3265     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3266   - authentic syntax for
  3267     Set.Pow
  3268     Set.image
  3269   - mere abbreviations:
  3270     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3271     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3272     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3273     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3274     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3275     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3276     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3277     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3278   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3279 
  3280 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3281 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3282 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3283 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3284 
  3285 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3286 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3287 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288 
  3289 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3290 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3293 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3294 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3295 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3298 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3299 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3300 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3301 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3302 
  3303 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3304 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3308 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3311 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3312 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3313 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3314 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3315 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3316 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3320     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3321     code_post       replaces    code post
  3322     etc.
  3323   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Renamed methods:
  3326     sizechange -> size_change
  3327     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3328   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3331 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3332 
  3333 * Renamed theorems:
  3334     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3335     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3336     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3337     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3338     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3339   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340 
  3341 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3346 
  3347 
  3348 *** HOLCF ***
  3349 
  3350 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3351 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3352 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3353 
  3354 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3355 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3356 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3357 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3358 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3359 
  3360 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3361 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3362 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3363 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3364 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3365 
  3366 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3367 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3368 constructor are pre-configured.
  3369 
  3370 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3371 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3372 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3373 
  3374 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3375 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3376 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3377 as well.)
  3378 
  3379 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3380 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3381 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3382 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3383 examples.
  3384 
  3385 
  3386 *** ML ***
  3387 
  3388 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3389 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3390 
  3391 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3392 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3393 position, logical grouping etc.
  3394 
  3395 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3396 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3397 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3398 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3399 
  3400 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3401 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3402 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3403 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3404 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3405 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3406 
  3407 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3408 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3409 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3410 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3411 experiments with references.
  3412 
  3413 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3414 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3415 
  3416 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3417 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3418 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3419 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3420 
  3421 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3422 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3423 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3424 
  3425 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3426 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3427 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3435 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3436 
  3437 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3438 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3439 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3440 
  3441 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3442 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3443 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3446 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3447 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3451 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3452 instead of global theory.
  3453 
  3454 
  3455 *** System ***
  3456 
  3457 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3458 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3459 usedir option -q.
  3460 
  3461 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3462 also the system manual.
  3463 
  3464 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3465 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3466 
  3467 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3468 this is always enabled.
  3469 
  3470 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3471 
  3472 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3473 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3474 currently supported on Linux only.
  3475 
  3476 
  3477 
  3478 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3479 --------------------------------
  3480 
  3481 *** General ***
  3482 
  3483 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3484 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3485 
  3486   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3487     "isatool."
  3488 
  3489   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3490     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3491 
  3492   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3493     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3494 
  3495 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3496 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3497 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3498 
  3499 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3500 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3501 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3502 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3503 via "isabelle emacs".
  3504 
  3505 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3506 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3507 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3508 
  3509 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3510 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3511 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3512 
  3513 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3514 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3515 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3516 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3517 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3518 
  3519 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3520 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3521 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3522 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3523 
  3524 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3525 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3526 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3527 
  3528 
  3529 *** Pure ***
  3530 
  3531 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3532 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3533 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3534 
  3535 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3536 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3537 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3538 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3539 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3540 
  3541 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3542 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3543 useful in locale declarations.
  3544 
  3545 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3546 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3547 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3548 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3549 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3550 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3551 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3552 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3553 no longer generated.
  3554 
  3555 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3556 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3557 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3558 
  3559 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3560 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3561 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3562 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3563 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3564 
  3565 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3567 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3568 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3569 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3570 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3571 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3572 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3573 
  3574 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3575 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3576 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3577 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3578 
  3579 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3580 
  3581 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3582 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3583 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3584 
  3585 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3586 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3589 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3590 in HOL, write
  3591 
  3592     class foo = ...
  3593 
  3594 instead of
  3595 
  3596     class foo = type + ...
  3597 
  3598 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3599 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3602 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3603 
  3604 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3605 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3606 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3607 
  3608 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3609 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3610 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3611 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3612 directly in regular applications.
  3613 
  3614 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3615 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3616 
  3617 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3618 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3619 
  3620 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3621 theory context.
  3622 
  3623 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3624 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3625 
  3626 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3627 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3628 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3629 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3630 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3631 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3632 
  3633   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3634 
  3635 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3636 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3637 normalization.
  3638 
  3639 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3640 addressing etc.
  3641 
  3642 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3643 
  3644   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3645   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3646 
  3647 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3648 
  3649   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3650      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3651      parts of the code generator framework).
  3652 
  3653   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3654      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3655      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3656 
  3657 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3658 
  3659 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3660 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3661 
  3662 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3663 patterns, e.g.
  3664 
  3665     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3666 
  3667 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3668 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3669 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3670 hyphen:
  3671 
  3672     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3673 
  3674 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3675 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3676 
  3677 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3678 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3679 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3680 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3681 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3682 higher-order unification.
  3683 
  3684 
  3685 *** Document preparation ***
  3686 
  3687 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3688 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3689 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3690 
  3691 
  3692 *** HOL ***
  3693 
  3694 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3695 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3696 
  3697 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3698 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3699 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3700 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3701 Main, as before.
  3702 
  3703 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3704 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3705 
  3706 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3707 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3708 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3709 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3710 
  3711 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3712 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3713 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3714 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3715 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3716 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3717 
  3718 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3719 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3720 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3721 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3722 
  3723 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3724 menu.
  3725 
  3726 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3727 (contains the empty clause).
  3728 
  3729 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3730 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3731 
  3732 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3733 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3734 
  3735 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3736 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3737 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3738 
  3739 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3740 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3741 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3742 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3743 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3744 
  3745 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3746 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3747 
  3748 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3749 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3750 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3751 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3752 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3753 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3754 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3755 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3756 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3757 
  3758 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3759 
  3760 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3761 
  3762 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3763 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3766 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3767 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3768 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3769 
  3770 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3771 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3772 
  3773     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3774     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3775     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3776     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3777     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3778     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3779     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3780     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3781 
  3782 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3783 theory Set.
  3784 
  3785 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3786 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3787 
  3788 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3789 
  3790 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3791 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3792 
  3793 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3794 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3795 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3796 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3797 allowed. For examples see
  3798 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3799 
  3800 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3801 
  3802 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3806 structure:
  3807 
  3808     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3809     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3810     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3811     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3812     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3813     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3814     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3815     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3816     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3817     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3818     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3819     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3820     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3821     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3822     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3823     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3824     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3825     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3826     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3827     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3828     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3829     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3830     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3831     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3832     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3833     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3834     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3835     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3836     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3837     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3838     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3839     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3840     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3841 
  3842     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3843     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3844     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3845     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3846     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3847     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3848     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3849     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3850     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3851     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3852 
  3853     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3854     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3855     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3856     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3857     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3858     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3859 
  3860 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3861 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3862 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3863 
  3864 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3865 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3866 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3867 
  3868 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3869 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3872 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3873 
  3874 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3875 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3876 proofs, e.g.
  3877 
  3878   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3879 
  3880 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3881 
  3882 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3883 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3884 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3887 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3891 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3892 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3896 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3897 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3898 preorder_class.*.
  3899 
  3900 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3901 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3902 
  3903 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3904 
  3905   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3906 
  3907 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3908 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3909 fold_image.
  3910 
  3911 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3912 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3913 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3914 the former will disappear at some point.
  3915 
  3916 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3917 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3918 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3919 
  3920 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3921 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3922 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3923 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3924 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3925 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3926 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3927 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3928 
  3929 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3930 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3931 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3932 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3933 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3934 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3935 
  3936     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3937     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3938     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3939     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3940     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3941     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3942     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3943 
  3944 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3945 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3946 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3947 
  3948 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3949 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3950 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3951 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3952 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3953 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3954 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3955 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3956 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3957 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3958 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3959 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3960 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3961 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3962 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3963 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3964 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3965 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3966 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3967 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3968 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3969 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3970 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3971 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3972 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3973 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3974 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3975 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3976 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3977 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3978 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3979 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3980 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3981 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3982 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3983 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3984 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3985 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3986 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3987 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3988 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3989 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3990 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3991 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3992 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3993 
  3994 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995 
  3996 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3997 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3998 
  3999 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4000 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4001 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4002 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4003 
  4004 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4005 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4006 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4007 theory RealVector.
  4008 
  4009 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4010 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4011 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4012 and inner products are included.
  4013 
  4014 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4015 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4016 supported.
  4017 
  4018 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4019 first diagonalization argument.
  4020 
  4021 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4022 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4023 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4024 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4025 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4026 
  4027     hide (open) const gcd
  4028     abbreviation gcd where
  4029       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4030     notation (output)
  4031       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4032 
  4033 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4034 
  4035 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4036 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4037 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4040 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4041 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4042 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4043 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4044 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4045 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4046 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4047 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4048 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4049 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4050 cases.
  4051 
  4052 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4053 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4054 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4055 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4056 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4057 
  4058     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4059     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4060     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4061     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4062     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4063 
  4064 
  4065 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4066 
  4067 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4068 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4069 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4070 
  4071 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4072 
  4073 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4074 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4075 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4076 
  4077 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4078 
  4079 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4080 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4081 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4082 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4083 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4084 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4085 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4086 
  4087 
  4088 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4089 
  4090 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4091 
  4092 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4093 theory targets.
  4094 
  4095 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4096 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4097 'inductive' etc.
  4098 
  4099 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4100 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4101 
  4102 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4103 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4104 
  4105 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4106 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4107 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4108 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4109 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4110 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4111 the algorithm W:
  4112 
  4113  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4114  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4115          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4116 
  4117 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4118 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4119 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4120 
  4121 
  4122 *** HOLCF ***
  4123 
  4124 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4125 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4126 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4127 
  4128 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4129 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4130 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4131 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4132 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4135 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4136 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4137 
  4138 
  4139 *** ZF ***
  4140 
  4141 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4142 
  4143 
  4144 *** ML ***
  4145 
  4146 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4147 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4148 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4149 5.2.1!
  4150 
  4151 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4152 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4153 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4154 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4155 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4156 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4157 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4158 
  4159 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4160 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4161 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4162 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4163 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4164 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4165 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4166 
  4167 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4168 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4169 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4170 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4171 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4172 
  4173 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4174 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4175 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4176 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4177 Method.add_method.
  4178 
  4179 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4180 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4181 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4182 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4183 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4184 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4185 
  4186 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4187 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4188 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4189 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4190 examples.
  4191 
  4192 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4193 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4194 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4195 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4196 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4197 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4198 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4199 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4200 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4201 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4202 
  4203 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4204 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4205 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4206 
  4207 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4208 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4209 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4210 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4211 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4212 resort for legacy applications.
  4213 
  4214 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4215 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4216 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4217 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4218 explicit runtime argument.
  4219 
  4220 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4221 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4222 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4223 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4224 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4227 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4228 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4229 theory state.
  4230 
  4231 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4232 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4233 
  4234   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4235   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4236   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4237   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4238   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4239   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4240   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4241   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4242   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4243   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4244 
  4245 
  4246 *** System ***
  4247 
  4248 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4249 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4250 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4251 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4252 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4253 
  4254 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4255 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4256 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4257 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4258 
  4259 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4260 
  4261 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4262 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4263 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4264 prover operations.
  4265 
  4266 
  4267 
  4268 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4269 -------------------------------
  4270 
  4271 *** General ***
  4272 
  4273 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4274 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4275 
  4276 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4277 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4278 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4279 provides a proper context already.
  4280 
  4281 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4282 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4283 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4284 
  4285 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4286 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4287 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4288 swap theory imports.
  4289 
  4290 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4291 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4292 
  4293 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4294 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4295 white space without escapes.
  4296 
  4297 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4298 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4299 "foo_bar".
  4300 
  4301 
  4302 *** Pure ***
  4303 
  4304 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4305 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4306 
  4307 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4308 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4309 
  4310 (1) unused_thms
  4311      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4312 
  4313 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4314      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4315      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4316 
  4317 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4318      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4319      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4320      their ancestors.
  4321 
  4322 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4323 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4324 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4325 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4326 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4327 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4328 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4329 
  4330 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4331 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4332 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4333 
  4334 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4335 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4336 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4337 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4338 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4339 
  4340 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4341 
  4342 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4343 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4344 update of theories within ML code.
  4345 
  4346 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4347 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4348 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4349 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4350 
  4351 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4352 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4353 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4355 
  4356 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4357 
  4358 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4359 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4360 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4361 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4362 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4363 
  4364 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4365 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4366 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4367 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4368 situations.
  4369 
  4370 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4371 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4372 proof text.
  4373 
  4374 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4375 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4376 
  4377 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4378 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4379 predicates.
  4380 
  4381 
  4382 *** Document preparation ***
  4383 
  4384 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4385 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4386 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4387 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4388 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4389 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4390 
  4391 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4392 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4393 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4394 
  4395 
  4396 *** HOL ***
  4397 
  4398 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4399 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4400 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4401 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4402 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4403 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4404 
  4405 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4406 with multithreading.
  4407 
  4408 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4409 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4410 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4411 
  4412 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4413 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4414 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4415 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4418 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4419 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4420 and makes them available separately.  See
  4421 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4422 
  4423 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4424 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4425 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4426 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4427 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4428 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4429 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4430 the declared rules.
  4431 
  4432 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4433 
  4434   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4435 
  4436 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4437 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4438 
  4439 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4440 
  4441   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4442 
  4443   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4444     definitions on => and bool.
  4445 
  4446   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4447     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4448     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4449 
  4450       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4451       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4452       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4453       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4454       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4455       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4456       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4457       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4458 
  4459   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4460     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4461     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4462 
  4463   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4464     The proof pattern
  4465 
  4466       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4467       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4468 
  4469     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4470     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4471 
  4472       have "EX S. P S"
  4473       proof
  4474         show "P S" <...>
  4475       qed
  4476 
  4477   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4478     The proof pattern
  4479 
  4480       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4481       also have "S = T" <...>
  4482       finally have "P T" .
  4483 
  4484     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4485     must be replaced by something like
  4486 
  4487       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4488       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4489       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4490 
  4491   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4492     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4493 
  4494       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4495 
  4496     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4497     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4498     type of the form
  4499 
  4500       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4501 
  4502     rather than
  4503 
  4504       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4505 
  4506 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4507 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4508 
  4509 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4510 
  4511 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4512 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4516 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4519 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4522 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4523 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4526 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4527 
  4528   less_trans
  4529   less_linear
  4530   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4531   le_less_trans
  4532   less_le_trans
  4533   less_not_sym
  4534   less_asym
  4535 
  4536 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4537 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4538 and different variable names.
  4539 
  4540 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4541 
  4542 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4543 finite maps.
  4544 
  4545 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4546 
  4547 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4548 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4549 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4550 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4551 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4552 accordingly.
  4553 
  4554 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4555 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4556 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4557 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4558 
  4559 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4560 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4561 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4562 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4563 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565 
  4566 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4567 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568 
  4569 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4570 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4571 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4572 
  4573 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4577 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4578 
  4579 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4580 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4583 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4586 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4590 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4593 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4594 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4595 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4596 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4597 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4600 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4601 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4602 
  4603 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4604 
  4605 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4606 
  4607 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4608 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4609 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4610 
  4611 
  4612 *** ZF ***
  4613 
  4614 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4615 same session:
  4616 
  4617   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4618   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4619   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4620   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4621   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4622   List      -> List_ZF
  4623   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4624 
  4625 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4626 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4627 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4628 
  4629 
  4630 *** ML ***
  4631 
  4632 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4633 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4634 
  4635 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4636 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4637 
  4638 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4639 
  4640 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4641 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4642 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4643 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4644 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4645 
  4646 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4647 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4648 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4649 
  4650 
  4651 *** System ***
  4652 
  4653 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4654 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4655 
  4656 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4657 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4658 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4659 
  4660 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4661 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4662 
  4663 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4664 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4665 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4666 
  4667 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4668 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4669 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4670 
  4671 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4672 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4673 
  4674 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4675 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4676 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4677 script.
  4678 
  4679 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4680 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4681 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4682 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4683 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4684 
  4685 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4686 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4687 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4688 
  4689 
  4690 
  4691 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4692 -----------------------------------
  4693 
  4694 *** General ***
  4695 
  4696 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4697 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4698 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4699 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4700 
  4701 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4702 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4703 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4706 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4707 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4708 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4711 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4712 quotes.
  4713 
  4714 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4715 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4716 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4717 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4718 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4719 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4720 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4721 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4722 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4723 
  4724 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4725 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4726 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4727 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4728 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4729 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4730 
  4731 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4732 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4733 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4734 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4735 
  4736 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4737 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4738 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4739 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4740 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4741 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4742 
  4743 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4744 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4745 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4746 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4747 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4748 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4749 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4750 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4751 
  4752 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4753 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4754 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4755 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4756 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4757 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4758 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4759 
  4760 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4761 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4762 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4763 
  4764 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4765 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4766 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4767 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4768 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4769 limit is imposed.
  4770 
  4771 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4772 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4773 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4774 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4775 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4776 and scalability.
  4777 
  4778 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4779 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4780 
  4781 
  4782 *** Document preparation ***
  4783 
  4784 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4785 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4786 current context.
  4787 
  4788 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4789 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4790 
  4791 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4792 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4793 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4794 
  4795 
  4796 *** Pure ***
  4797 
  4798 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4799 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4800 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4801 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4802 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4803 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4804 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4805 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4806 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4807 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4808 
  4809 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4810 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4811 sketch:
  4812 
  4813     internal compilation:
  4814         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4815     writing SML code to a file:
  4816         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4817     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4818         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4819     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4820         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4821 
  4822     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4823         method ``eval''
  4824 
  4825 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4826 
  4827 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4828 
  4829     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4830     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4831     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4832     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4833 
  4834 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4835 
  4836     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4837       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4838 
  4839     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4840       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4841 
  4842     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4843       {(target)}+
  4844         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4845 
  4846     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4847       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4848         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4849 
  4850 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4851 
  4852 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4853 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4854 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4855 codegen".
  4856 
  4857 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4858 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4859 annotations).
  4860 
  4861 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4862 syntax.
  4863 
  4864 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4865 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4866 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4867 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4868 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4869 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4870 
  4871 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4872 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4873 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4874 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4875 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4876 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4877 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4878 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4879 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4880 equations, see section "definitions".
  4881 
  4882 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4883 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4884 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4885 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4886 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4887 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4888 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4889 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4890 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4891 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4892 
  4893 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4894 configuration options:
  4895 
  4896   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4897   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4898   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4899   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4900   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4901   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4902   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4903   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4904   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4905 
  4906 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4907 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4908 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4909 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4910 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4911 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4912 order.
  4913 
  4914 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4915 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4916 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4917 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4918 context encountered later on.
  4919 
  4920 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4921 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4922 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4923 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4924 
  4925 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4926 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4927 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4928 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4929 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4930 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4931 
  4932 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4933 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4934 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4935 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4936 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4937 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4938 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4939 more permissive.
  4940 
  4941 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4942 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4943 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4944 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4945 maintainability of proof texts.
  4946 
  4947 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4948 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4949 
  4950   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4951   then guess x and y by clarify
  4952 
  4953 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4954 proof tools being involved here.
  4955 
  4956 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4957 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4958 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4959 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4960 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4961 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4962 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4963 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4964 
  4965 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4966 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4967 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4968 
  4969   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4970   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4971   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4972   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4973 
  4974 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4975 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4976 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4977 
  4978 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4979 both named and unnamed ones.
  4980 
  4981 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4982 
  4983   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4984 
  4985 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4986 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4987 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4988 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4989 
  4990 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4991 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4992 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4993 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4994 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4995 
  4996 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4997 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4998 
  4999 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5000 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5001 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5002 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5003 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5004 originally first one.
  5005 
  5006 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5007 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5008 expected.
  5009 
  5010 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5011 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5012 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5013 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5014 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5015 
  5016   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5017     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5018     obtains x where "P x"
  5019 
  5020   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5021     assumes "A & B"
  5022     obtains A and B
  5023 
  5024   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5025     assumes "A | B"
  5026     obtains
  5027       A
  5028     | B
  5029 
  5030 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5031 explicitly:
  5032 
  5033   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5034     obtains "~ thesis"
  5035 
  5036   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5037     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5038 
  5039 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5040 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5041 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5042 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5043 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5044 case_names).
  5045 
  5046 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5047 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5048 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5049 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5050 
  5051 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5052 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5053 top-level lemma.
  5054 
  5055 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5056 introduction rule (default "that").
  5057 
  5058 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5059 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5060 to occur.
  5061 
  5062 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5063 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5064 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5065 representations independently of name spaces.
  5066 
  5067 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5068 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5069 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5070 
  5071 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5072 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5073 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5074 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5075 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5076 current context.
  5077 
  5078 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5079 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5080 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5081 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5082 
  5083   axiomatization
  5084     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5085     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5086 
  5087   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5088   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5089 
  5090   abbreviation
  5091     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5092     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5093 
  5094 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5095 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5096 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5097 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5098 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5099 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5100 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5101 
  5102 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5103 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5104 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5105 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5106 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5107 
  5108 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5109 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5110 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5111 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5112 
  5113 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5114 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5115 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5116 
  5117   definition "K x _ = x"
  5118 
  5119   inductive conj for A B
  5120   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5121 
  5122 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5123 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5124 abbreviations on output.
  5125 
  5126 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5127 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5128 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5129 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5130 
  5131 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5132 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5133 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5134 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5135 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5136 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5137 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5138 
  5139 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5140 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5141 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5142 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5143 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5144 
  5145 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5146 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5147 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5148 
  5149 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5150 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5151 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5152 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5153 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5154 
  5155   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5156     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5157 
  5158 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5159 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5160 partial_order.
  5161 
  5162 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5163 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5164 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5165 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5166 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5167 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5168 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5169 examples.
  5170 
  5171 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5172 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5173 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5174 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5175 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5176 
  5177 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5178 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5179 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5180 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5181 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5182 
  5183   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5184   (induct set: foo bar)
  5185   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5186   (induct type: foo bar)
  5187 
  5188 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5189 new format.
  5190 
  5191 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5192 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5193 
  5194 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5195 considered a legacy feature.
  5196 
  5197 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5198 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5199 
  5200 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5201 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5202 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5203 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5204   
  5205 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5206 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5207 manipulating the claset.
  5208 
  5209 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5210 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5211 least one premise.
  5212 
  5213 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5214 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5215 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5216 rule steps.
  5217 
  5218 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5219 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5220 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5221 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5222 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5223 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5224 
  5225 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5226 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5227 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5228 
  5229 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5230 the graph browser tool.
  5231 
  5232 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5233 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5234 
  5235 
  5236 *** HOL ***
  5237 
  5238 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5239 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5240 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5241 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5242 multi-threading.
  5243   
  5244 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5245 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5246 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5247 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5248 work with multi-threading.
  5249 
  5250 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5251 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5252 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5253 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5254 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5255 
  5256 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5257 
  5258 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5259 equality.
  5260 
  5261 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5262 the new 'class' package:
  5263 
  5264     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5265     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5266     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5267     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5268     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5269     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5270     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5271     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5272     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5273     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5274     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5275     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5276     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5277     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5278     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5279     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5280     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5281     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5282     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5283     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5284 
  5285 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5286 
  5287 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5288 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5289 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5290 names.
  5291 
  5292 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5293 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5294 
  5295 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5296 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5297 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5298 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5299 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5300 
  5301 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5302 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5303 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5304 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5305 
  5306 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5307 
  5308 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5309 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5310 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5311 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5313 
  5314 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5315 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5318 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5319 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5320 
  5321 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5322 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5323 
  5324 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5325 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5326 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5327 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5328 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5329 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5330 in the current context.
  5331 
  5332 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5333 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5335 
  5336 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5337 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5338 
  5339 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5340 
  5341     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5342     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5343 
  5344     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5345       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5346     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5347     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5348 
  5349     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5350     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5351 
  5352   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5353 
  5354     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5355     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5356     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5357     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5358     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5359     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5360     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5361     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5362     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5363     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5364     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5365     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5366     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5367     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5368     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5369     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5370     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5371     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5372     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5373     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5374     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5375     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5376     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5377     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5378     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5379     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5380     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5381     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5382     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5383     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5384     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5385     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5386     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5387     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5388     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5389 
  5390     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5391     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5392     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5393     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5394     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5395     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5396     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5397     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5398     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5399     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5400     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5401     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5402     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5403     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5404     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5405     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5406     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5407 
  5408     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5409     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5410     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5411     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5412     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5413     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5414     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5415     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5416     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5417     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5418     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5419     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5420     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5421     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5422     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5423     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5424     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5425     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5426     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5427     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5428     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5429     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5430     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5431     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5432     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5433     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5434     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5435     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5436 
  5437     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5438     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5439     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5440     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5441     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5442     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5443 
  5444     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5445     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5446     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5447     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5448 
  5449     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5450     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5451 
  5452     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5453     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5454 
  5455 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5456 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5457 
  5458 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5459 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5460 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5461 "*.size".
  5462 
  5463 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5465 
  5466 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5467 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5468 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5469 
  5470 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5471 
  5472 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5473 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5474 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5475 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5476 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5477 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5478 numerals on all operations.
  5479 
  5480 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5481 
  5482 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5483 
  5484 * Code generator library theories:
  5485   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5486     languages.
  5487   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5488     languages.
  5489   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5490     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5491   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5492   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5493     denominator).
  5494   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5495     representable by rational numbers.
  5496   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5497     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5498     includes Code_Integer.
  5499   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5500     target-language built-in integers.
  5501   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5502     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5503 
  5504 * New package for inductive predicates
  5505 
  5506   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5507 
  5508     inductive
  5509       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5510       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5511     where
  5512       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5513     | ...
  5514 
  5515   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5516 
  5517     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5518 
  5519     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5520     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5521 
  5522     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5523     intros
  5524       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5525       ...
  5526 
  5527   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5528   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5529 
  5530     inductive_set
  5531       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5532       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5533     where
  5534       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5535     | ...
  5536 
  5537   or
  5538 
  5539     inductive_set
  5540       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5541       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5542       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5543     where
  5544       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5545     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5546     | ...
  5547 
  5548   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5549 
  5550   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5551   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5552 
  5553   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5554 
  5555   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5556     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5557     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5558     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5559     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5560 
  5561   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5562     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5563     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5564     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5565     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5566     statements of the form
  5567 
  5568       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5569 
  5570     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5571     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5572 
  5573       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5574 
  5575   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5576 
  5577       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5578         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5579         ==> ... ==> P
  5580 
  5581     for predicates and
  5582 
  5583       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5584         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5585         ==> ... ==> P
  5586 
  5587     for sets rather than
  5588 
  5589       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5590         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5591         ==> ... ==> P
  5592 
  5593     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5594     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5595     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5596 
  5597   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5598     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5599     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5600 
  5601 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5602 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5603 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5604 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5605 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5606 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5607 
  5608 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5609 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5610 
  5611 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5612 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5613 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5614 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5615 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5616 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5617 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5618 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5619 variable.
  5620 
  5621 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5622 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5623 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5624 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5625   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5626   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5627 
  5628 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5629 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5630 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5631 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5632 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5633 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5634 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5635 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5636 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5637 
  5638 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5639 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5640 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5641 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5642 rat, etc.
  5643 
  5644 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5645 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5646 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5647 
  5648 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5649 
  5650 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5651 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5652 
  5653 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5654 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5655 
  5656 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5657 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5658 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5659 
  5660 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5661 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5663 
  5664 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5665 
  5666 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5667 
  5668 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5669 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5670 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5671 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5672 
  5673 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5674 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5675 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5676 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5677 
  5678 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5679 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5680 algebraic operations.
  5681 
  5682 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5684 
  5685 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5687 
  5688 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5689 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5690 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5691 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5692 adapted.
  5693  
  5694 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5695 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5696 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5697 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5698 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5699 
  5700 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5701 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5702 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5703 
  5704 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5705 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5706 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5707 
  5708 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5711 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5712 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5713   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5714       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5715   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5716   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5717   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5718 
  5719 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5720 
  5721 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5722 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5723 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5724 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5725 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5726 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5727 
  5728 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5729 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5730 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5731 
  5732 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5733 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5734 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5736 
  5737 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5738 
  5739 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5740 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5743 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5744 
  5745 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5746 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5747 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5748 
  5749 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5750 True/False.
  5751 
  5752 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5753 
  5754 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5755 
  5756 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5757 ``rule'' method.
  5758 
  5759 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5760 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5761 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5762 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5763 
  5764 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5765 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5766 
  5767 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5768 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5769 
  5770 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5771 Library.
  5772 
  5773 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5774 
  5775 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5776 as greatest fixed-point.
  5777 
  5778 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5779 association lists.
  5780 
  5781 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5782 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5783 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5784 
  5785 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5786 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5787 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5788 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5789 behavior.
  5790 
  5791 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5792 
  5793 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5794 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5795 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5796 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5797 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5798 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5799 
  5800 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5801 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5802 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5803 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5804 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5805 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5806 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5807 
  5808 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5809 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5810 
  5811 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5812 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5813 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5814 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5815 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5816 
  5817 
  5818 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5819 
  5820 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5821 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5822 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5823 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5827 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5828 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5829 
  5830 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5831 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5832 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5833 
  5834 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5835 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5836 
  5837 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5838 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5839 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5841 
  5842   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5843   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5844   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5845   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5846   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5847   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5848   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5849   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5850   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5851   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5852   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5853   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5854   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5855   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5856   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5857 
  5858 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5859 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5860 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5861 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5862 
  5863   approx        <-- capprox
  5864   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5865   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5866   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5867   monad         <-- cmonad
  5868   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5869   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5870   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5871   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5872 
  5873 
  5874 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5875 
  5876 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5877 
  5878 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5880 
  5881 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5882 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5883 
  5884 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5885 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5886 of algebraic structures.
  5887 
  5888 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5889 
  5890 
  5891 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5892 
  5893 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5894 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5895 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5896 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5897 
  5898 
  5899 *** ML ***
  5900 
  5901 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5902 (even on SML/NJ).
  5903 
  5904 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5905 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5906 compile-time.  For example:
  5907 
  5908 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5909 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5910 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5911 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5912 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5913 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5914 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5915 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5916 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5917 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5918 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5919 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5920 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5921 ML {* @{context} *}
  5922 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5923 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5924 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5925 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5926 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5927 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5928 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5929 
  5930 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5931 
  5932 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5933 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5934 
  5935 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5936 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5937 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5938 
  5939 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5940 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5941 
  5942 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5943 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5944 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5945 
  5946 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5947 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5948 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5949 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5950 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5951 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5952 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5953 declarations and definitions.
  5954 
  5955 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5956 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5957 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5958 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5959 
  5960 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5961 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5962 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5963 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5964 
  5965 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5966 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5967 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5968 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5969 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5970 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5971 
  5972 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5973 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5974 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5975 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5976 attributes, methods, etc.
  5977 
  5978 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5979 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5980 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5981 fold_map combinators.
  5982 
  5983 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5984 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5985 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5986 derivation.
  5987 
  5988 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5989 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5990 achieve the old behaviour.
  5991 
  5992 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5993 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5994 statements.
  5995 
  5996 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5997 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5998 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5999 
  6000 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6001 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6002 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6003 
  6004   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6005   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6006   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6007 
  6008 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6009 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6010 
  6011 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6012 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6013 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6014 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6015 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6016 
  6017 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6018 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6019 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6020 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6021 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6022 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6023 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6024 in a locale context).
  6025 
  6026 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6027 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6028 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6029 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6030 
  6031 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6032 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6033 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6034 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6035 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6036 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6037 
  6038 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6039 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6040 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6041 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6042 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6043 
  6044   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6045 
  6046 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6047 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6048 this:
  6049 
  6050   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6051 
  6052 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6053 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6054 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6055 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6056 
  6057 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6058 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6059 
  6060 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6061 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6062 
  6063 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6064 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6065 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6066 batch mode.
  6067 
  6068 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6069 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6070 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6071 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6072 
  6073 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6074 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6075 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6076 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6077 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6078 
  6079 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6080 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6081 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6082 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6083 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6084 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6085 
  6086 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6087 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6088 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6090 
  6091 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6092 "Trueprop" etc.
  6093 
  6094 
  6095 *** System ***
  6096 
  6097 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6098 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6099 Isabelle installations.
  6100 
  6101 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6102 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6103 code.
  6104 
  6105 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6106 
  6107 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6108 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6109 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6110 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6111 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6112 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6113 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6114 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6115 Implementation manual.
  6116 
  6117 
  6118 
  6119 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6120 ----------------------------------
  6121 
  6122 *** General ***
  6123 
  6124 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6125 
  6126   theory <name>
  6127   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6128   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6129   begin
  6130 
  6131 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6132 
  6133   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6134 
  6135 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6136 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6137 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6138 
  6139 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6140 relative and absolute paths.
  6141 
  6142 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6143 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6144 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6145 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6146 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  6147 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  6148 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  6149 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  6150 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  6151 
  6152   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  6153 
  6154 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  6155 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  6156 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  6157 
  6158 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  6159 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  6162 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  6163 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  6164 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  6165 
  6166   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  6167   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  6168 
  6169 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  6170 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  6171 faster.
  6172 
  6173 
  6174 *** Document preparation ***
  6175 
  6176 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  6177 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  6178 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  6179 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  6180 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  6181 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  6182 
  6183 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  6184 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  6185 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  6186 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  6187 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  6188 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  6189 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  6190 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  6191 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  6192 \isadroptag.
  6193 
  6194 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  6195 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  6196 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  6197 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  6198 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  6199 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  6200 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  6201 specified above.
  6202 
  6203 * Several new antiquotations:
  6204 
  6205   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  6206 
  6207   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  6208 
  6209   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  6210   argument is a known logical constant;
  6211 
  6212   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  6213   theorem applying a "style" to it
  6214 
  6215   @{ML text}
  6216 
  6217 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  6218 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  6219 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  6220 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  6221 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  6222 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  6223 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  6224 
  6225 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  6226 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  6227 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  6228 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  6229 
  6230 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  6231 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  6232 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  6233