NEWS
author blanchet
Tue May 27 17:32:42 2014 +0200 (2014-05-27)
changeset 57094 589ec121ce1a
parent 57091 1fa9c19ba2c9
child 57112 70395c65c0e3
permissions -rw-r--r--
don't generate discriminators and selectors for 'datatype_new' unless the user asked for it
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319   * No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by default,
   320     eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322   * No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   323     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   324     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * Old datatype package:
   328   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   329     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   332     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   333     "case_prod").
   334     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   337   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   338   datatype package.
   339   Renamed constants:
   340     Option.set ~> set_option
   341     Option.map ~> map_option
   342     option_rel ~> rel_option
   343   Renamed theorems:
   344     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   345     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   346     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   347     option.recs ~> option.rec
   348     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   349     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   350     map.simps ~> list.map
   351     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   352     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   353     the.simps ~> option.sel
   354   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   357     sum_map ~> map_sum
   358     map_pair ~> map_prod
   359     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   360     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   361     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   362     set_rel ~> rel_set
   363     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   364     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   365     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   366     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   367 
   368 * New theory:
   369     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   370 
   371 * Theory reorganizations:
   372   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   373 
   374 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   375   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   376   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   377   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   378   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   379   the old default can be restored using
   380   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * SMT module:
   383   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   384     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   385     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   386     elsewhere.
   387 
   388 * Sledgehammer:
   389   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   390   - MaSh overhaul:
   391       - New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on Python
   392         and increase performance and reliability.
   393       - Activation of MaSh now works via the "MaSh" system option (without
   394         requiring restart), instead of former settings variable "MASH".
   395         The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu Plugin
   396         Options / Isabelle / General. Allowed values include "sml" (for the
   397         default SML engine), "py" (for the old Python engine), and "none".
   398   - New option:
   399       smt_proofs
   400   - Renamed options:
   401       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   402       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404 
   405 * Metis:
   406   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   407     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   410 
   411 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   412 
   413 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   414 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   415 
   416 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   417 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   418 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   419 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   420 
   421 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   425 with the given constants.
   426 
   427 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   428 
   429 Fact consolidations:
   430     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   431     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   432     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   433     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   434     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   435     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   436     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   437     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   438     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   439     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   440     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   441     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   442     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   443     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   444     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   445     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   446     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   447     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   448     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   449     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   450     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   451     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   452     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   453     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   454     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   455     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   456     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   457     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   458     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   459     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   460     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   461     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   462     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   463     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   464     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   465     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   466     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   467     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   468     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   469     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   470 
   471 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   472 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   473 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   474 
   475 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   476 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   477 
   478 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   479 
   480 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   481 
   482 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   489 operations on records.
   490 
   491 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   495     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   499     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   500     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   504   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   505   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   506   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   507     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   508   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   509     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   510   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   514     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   515     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   516     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   517     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   519 
   520 * Fact name consolidation:
   521     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   522     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   523     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   524     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   525     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   527 
   528 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   529 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   530 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   531 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   532 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   533 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   534 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   535 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   538 
   539 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   540 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   541 
   542 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   543 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   544 
   545 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   546 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   547 or the brute way with
   548 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   549 
   550 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   551 
   552 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   553 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554 
   555 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   556 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   557 
   558 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   559 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   560 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY
   562 
   563 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   564   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   565   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   566   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   567   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   568   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   569   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   570   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   571   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   572   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   573   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   574   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   575 
   576   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   577 
   578   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   579     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   580     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   581     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   582     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   584 
   585 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   586   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   587 
   588   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   589 
   590   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   591 
   592   - removed constant isDiff
   593 
   594   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   595     syntax.
   596 
   597   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   598 
   599   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   600 
   601   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   602 
   603   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   604 
   605   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   606     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   607 
   608   - Other renamings:
   609     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   610     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   611     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   612     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   613     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   614     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   615     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   619   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   620 
   621 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   622   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   623   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   624 
   625   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   626   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   627   removes
   628     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   629 
   630   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   631     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   632 
   633   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   634 
   635   Renamings:
   636     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   637     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   638     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   639     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   640     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   641     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   642     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   643     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   644     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   645     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   646     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   647     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   648 
   649     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   650     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   651     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   652 
   653   Removed theorems:
   654     complex_zero_def
   655     complex_add_def
   656     complex_minus_def
   657     complex_diff_def
   658     complex_one_def
   659     complex_mult_def
   660     complex_inverse_def
   661     complex_scaleR_def
   662 
   663 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   664 
   665 * Nitpick:
   666   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   667     infinite values.
   668   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   669     "Rep_Integ".
   670   - Removed "std" option.
   671   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   672     "hide_types".
   673 
   674 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   675   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   676   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   677     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   678     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   679     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   680     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   681     intervals.
   682 
   683   - renamed theorems:
   684     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   685     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   686     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   687 
   688 * HOL-Probability:
   689   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   690     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   691 
   692     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   693     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   694     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   695     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   696     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   697     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   698     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   699     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   700     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   701     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   702     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   703     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   704     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   705     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   706     integral_indicator          ~>
   707          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   708     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   709     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   710     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   711 
   712     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   713          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   714 
   715     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   716          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   717 
   718     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   719          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   720 
   721     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   722          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   723          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   724 
   725     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   726          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   727 
   728     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   729          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   730 
   731     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   732          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   733          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   734 
   735     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   736          positive_integral_real_affine
   737 
   738     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   739          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   740 
   741     The following theorems where removed:
   742 
   743     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   744     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   745     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   746     lebesgue_integral_multc
   747     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   748     integral_cmul_indicator
   749     integral_real
   750 
   751   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   752 
   753     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   754       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   755 
   756     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   757 
   758 *** Scala ***
   759 
   760 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   761 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   762 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   763 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   764 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 
   767 *** ML ***
   768 
   769 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   770 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   773 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   774 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   778 
   779 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   780 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   781 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   785 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   786 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   787 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   788 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   789 of schematic variables.
   790 
   791 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   792 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   793 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   794 formal context.
   795 
   796 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   797 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   798 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   799 actually belongs to it).
   800 
   801 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   802 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   803 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   804 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   805 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   806 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   807 
   808 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   809 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   810 
   811 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   812 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   813 
   814 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   815 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   816 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   817 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   818 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   819 
   820 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   821 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   822 purposes.
   823 
   824 
   825 *** System ***
   826 
   827 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   828 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   829 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   830 processing is started.
   831 
   832 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   833 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   834 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   835 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   836 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   837 
   838 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   839 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   840 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   841 
   842 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   843 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   844 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   845 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   846 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   847 settings variable yet.
   848 
   849 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar
   850 functionality may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   851 
   852 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
   853 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
   854 
   855 
   856 
   857 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   858 -------------------------------------
   859 
   860 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   861 
   862 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   863 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   864 
   865 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   866 after edits surrounding the command location.
   867 
   868 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   869 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   870 e.g. out-of-memory).
   871 
   872 
   873 *** System ***
   874 
   875 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   876 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   877 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   878 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   879 
   880 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   881 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   882 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   883 
   884 
   885 
   886 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   887 -------------------------------------
   888 
   889 *** General ***
   890 
   891 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   892 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   893 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   896 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897 
   898 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   899 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   900 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   901 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   902 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   903 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   904 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   905 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   906 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   907 syntax.
   908 
   909 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   910 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911 
   912 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   913 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   914 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   915 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   916 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   917 
   918 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   920 
   921 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   922 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   923 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   924 
   925 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   926 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   927 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   928 
   929 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   930 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   931 
   932 
   933 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   934 
   935 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   936 Documentation panel.
   937 
   938 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   939 documentation.
   940 
   941 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   942 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   943 
   944 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   945 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   946 normal editing and checking process.
   947 
   948 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   949 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   950 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   951 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   952 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   953 
   954 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   955 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   956 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   957 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   958 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   959 
   960 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   961 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   962 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   963 
   964 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   965 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   966 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   967 to resolve conflict.
   968 
   969 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   970 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   971 
   972 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   973 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   974 such command executions while editing.
   975 
   976 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   977 document content.
   978 
   979 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   980 toplevel theorem statements.
   981 
   982 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   983 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   984 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   985 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   986 
   987 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   988 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   989 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   990 
   991 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   992 / Global Options / Appearance".
   993 
   994 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   995 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   996 
   997 
   998 *** Pure ***
   999 
  1000 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1001 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1002 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1003 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1004 details.
  1005 
  1006 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1007 
  1008 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1009 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1010 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1011 
  1012 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1016 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1017 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1018 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1021 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1022 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1025 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1026 
  1027 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1028 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1029 situations.
  1030 
  1031 
  1032 *** HOL ***
  1033 
  1034 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1035 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1039 
  1040 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1041 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1042 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1043 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1044 
  1045   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1046 
  1047 * Code generator:
  1048   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1049     'code_instance'.
  1050   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1051     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1052 
  1053 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1054 examples.
  1055 
  1056 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1057 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1058 to distinguish both when desired.
  1059 
  1060 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1061 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1062 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1063 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1066 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1067 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1068 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1069 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1070 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1073 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1074 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1075 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1076 
  1077 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1078 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1079 
  1080 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1081 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1082 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1083 
  1084 * Lifting:
  1085   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1086     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1087       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1088       transfer rules
  1089     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1090       correspondence relation can be generated
  1091     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1092       parametricity
  1093     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1094   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1095   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1096     copies
  1097   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1098     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1099     anonymous context)
  1100   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1101     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1102   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1103     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1104   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1105     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1106 
  1107 * Transfer:
  1108   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1109     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1110   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1111   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1112     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1113   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1114 
  1115 * Reification and reflection:
  1116   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1117     "Reification".
  1118   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1119   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1121 
  1122 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1123   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1124     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1125     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1126   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1127     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1128   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1129     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1130     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1131     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1132     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1133     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1134     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1135     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1136   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1137     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1138   - Fact renames:
  1139       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1140       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1142 
  1143 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1144 
  1145 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1146 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1147 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1151 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1152 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1153 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1154 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1155 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1156 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1157 lemmas.
  1158 
  1159 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1160 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1161 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1164 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1165 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1166 
  1167 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1168 top and bottom elements.
  1169 
  1170 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1171 
  1172 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1173 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1174 
  1175  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1176    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1177    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1178 
  1179  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1180    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1181    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1182 
  1183    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1184    arbitrary filter.
  1185 
  1186  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1187    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1188    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1189    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1190    on a compact set.
  1191 
  1192  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1193    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1194    linear_continuum_topology).
  1195 
  1196  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1197    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1198    on all sequences converging to x.
  1199 
  1200  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1201    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1202    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1203    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1204    left or right.
  1205 
  1206  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1207 
  1208      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1209 
  1210  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1211    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1212 
  1213  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1214    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1215    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1216    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1217    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1218    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1219 
  1220  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1221 
  1222    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1223 
  1224    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1225      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1226 
  1227    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1228 
  1229    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1230      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1231 
  1232    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1233 
  1234    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1235 
  1236  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1237 
  1238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240 * Nitpick:
  1241   - Added option "spy".
  1242   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1243 
  1244 * Sledgehammer:
  1245   - Renamed option:
  1246       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1247     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1248   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1249   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1250   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1251 
  1252 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1253 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1254 
  1255 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1256   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1257   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1258     generated code.
  1259   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1260   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1261   - Fact renames:
  1262     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1263     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1264     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1265 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1268 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1269 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1270 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1271 
  1272 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1273 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1274 
  1275 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1278 
  1279     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1280     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1281 
  1282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1283 
  1284 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1285 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1286 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1287 
  1288 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1289 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1290 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1291 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293 * HOL-BNF:
  1294   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1295     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1296     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1297     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1298   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1299     coinduct).
  1300   - Renamed keywords:
  1301     data ~> datatype_new
  1302     codata ~> codatatype
  1303     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1304   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1305     discs ~> disc
  1306     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1307     map_id' ~> map_id
  1308     sels ~> sel
  1309     set_map' ~> set_map
  1310     sets ~> set
  1311 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1312 
  1313 
  1314 *** ML ***
  1315 
  1316 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1317 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1318 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1319 Examples.thy in particular.
  1320 
  1321 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1322 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1323 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1324 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1325 
  1326 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1327 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1328 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1329 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1333 
  1334     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1335     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1336 
  1337 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1338 
  1339 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1340 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1341 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1342 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1343 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1344 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1345 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1346 
  1347 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1348 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1349 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1350 clasets separately from the context.
  1351 
  1352 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1353 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1354 
  1355 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1356 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1357 
  1358 
  1359 *** System ***
  1360 
  1361 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1362 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1363 
  1364 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1365 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1368 settings variable.
  1369 
  1370 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1371 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1372 always pdf.
  1373 
  1374 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1375 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1376 
  1377 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1378 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1379 
  1380 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1381 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1382 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1383 
  1384 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1385 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1386 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1387 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1388 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1389 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1390 
  1391 
  1392 
  1393 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1394 -----------------------------------
  1395 
  1396 *** General ***
  1397 
  1398 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1399 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1400 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1401 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1402 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1403 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1404 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1405 
  1406 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1407 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1408 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1409 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1410 
  1411 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1412 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1413 
  1414 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1415 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1416 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1417 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1418 dependencies properly.
  1419 
  1420 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1421 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1422 
  1423 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1424 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1425 
  1426 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1427 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1428 and "class ... context ...".
  1429 
  1430 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1431 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1432 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1433 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1434 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1435 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1436 
  1437 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1438 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1439 
  1440 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1441 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1442 
  1443 
  1444 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1445 
  1446 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1447 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1448 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1449 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1450 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1451 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1452 
  1453 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1454 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1455 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1456 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1457 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1458 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1459 
  1460 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1461 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1462 browser on demand.
  1463 
  1464 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1465 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1466 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1467 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1468 
  1469 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1470 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1471 
  1472 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1473 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1474 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1475 potentially infinite message streams.
  1476 
  1477 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1478 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1479 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1480 schemes.
  1481 
  1482 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1483 symbols.
  1484 
  1485 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1486 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1487 
  1488 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1489 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1490 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1491 
  1492 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1493 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1494 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1495 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1496 
  1497 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1498 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1499 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1500 
  1501 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1502 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1503 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1504 Isabelle distribution.
  1505 
  1506 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1507 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1508 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1509 
  1510 
  1511 *** Pure ***
  1512 
  1513 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1514 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1515 
  1516 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1517 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1518 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1521 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1522 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1523 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1524 with some care where this is really required.
  1525 
  1526 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1527 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1528 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1529 
  1530   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1531 
  1532 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1533 a Hasse diagram.
  1534 
  1535 
  1536 *** HOL ***
  1537 
  1538 * Sledgehammer:
  1539 
  1540   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1541     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1542   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1543   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1544   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1545   - Renamed options:
  1546       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1547       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1548       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1549       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1550 
  1551 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1552 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1553 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1554 
  1555 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Lifting:
  1559   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1560   - quot_del attribute
  1561   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1562 
  1563 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1564 expressions.
  1565 
  1566 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1567 pointfree expressions.
  1568 
  1569 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1570 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1571 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1572 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1576 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1577 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1578 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1579 accordingly.
  1580 
  1581 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1582 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1585 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1586 
  1587 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588 
  1589 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1590 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1591 
  1592 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1593 
  1594 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1595 
  1596   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1597   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1598 
  1599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1602 
  1603   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1604   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1605 
  1606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1609 
  1610   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1611     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1612     output f x converges to G.
  1613 
  1614   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1615     infinity (at_bot).
  1616 
  1617   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1618     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1619 
  1620   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1621     at_top".
  1622 
  1623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1626 lattice type classes.
  1627 
  1628 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1629 
  1630     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1631     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1632 
  1633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1636 changes as follows.
  1637 
  1638   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1639 
  1640       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1641       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1642 
  1643   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1644     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1645     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1646     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1647 
  1648   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1649     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1650     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1651 
  1652   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1653     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1654     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1655     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1656 
  1657   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1658     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1659 
  1660       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1661       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1662       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1663       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1664       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1665       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1666       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1667       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1668       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1669       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1670       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1671       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1672       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1673       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1674       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1675       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1676 
  1677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1678 
  1679 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1680 
  1681 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1682 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1683 
  1684 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1685 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1686 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1687 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1688 
  1689   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1690   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1691   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1692   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1693   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1694   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1695   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1696   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1697   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1698   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1699 
  1700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1701 
  1702 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1703 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1704 Data").
  1705 
  1706 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1707 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1708 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1709 code.
  1710 
  1711 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1712 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1713 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715 
  1716 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1717 
  1718 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1719 
  1720 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1721 
  1722   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1723   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1724 
  1725 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1726 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1727 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1728 
  1729   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1730 
  1731     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1732     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1733     cart_base i  removed
  1734     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1735 
  1736   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1737 
  1738   Renamed lemmas:
  1739 
  1740     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1741     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1742     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1743     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1744     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1745     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1746     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1747     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1748     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1749     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1750 
  1751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1752 
  1753 * HOL/Probability:
  1754 
  1755   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1756 
  1757   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1758     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1759     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1760 
  1761   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1762     projective family).
  1763 
  1764 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1765 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1766 
  1767 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1768 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1769 datatypes.
  1770 
  1771 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1772 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1773 
  1774 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1775 trees for the code generator.
  1776 
  1777 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1778 Lifting/Transfer.
  1779 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1783 
  1784 
  1785 *** Document preparation ***
  1786 
  1787 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1788 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1789 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1790 
  1791 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1792 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1793 
  1794 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1795 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1796 document/root.tex.
  1797 
  1798 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1799 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 
  1802 *** ML ***
  1803 
  1804 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1805 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1806 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1807 
  1808 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1809 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1810 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1811 
  1812 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1813 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1814 necessarily printing visible text.
  1815 
  1816 
  1817 *** System ***
  1818 
  1819 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1820 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1821 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1822 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1823 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1824 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1825 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1826 
  1827 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1828 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1829 
  1830   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1831 
  1832 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1833 
  1834 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1835 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1836 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1837 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1838 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1839 
  1840 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1841 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1842 
  1843 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1844 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1845 
  1846 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1850 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1851 version of Isabelle.
  1852 
  1853 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1854 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1855 
  1856 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1857 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1858 for home-made settings.
  1859 
  1860 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1861 
  1862 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1863 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1864 configuration.
  1865 
  1866 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1867 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1868 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1869 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1870 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1871 
  1872 
  1873 
  1874 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1875 ------------------------------
  1876 
  1877 *** General ***
  1878 
  1879 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1880 
  1881   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1882     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1883   - markup for bound variables
  1884   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1885   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1886   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1887     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1888 
  1889 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1890 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1891 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1892 
  1893 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1894 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1895 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1896 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1897 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1898 
  1899   context
  1900     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1901     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1902   begin
  1903 
  1904   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1905 
  1906   end
  1907 
  1908   thm my_trans
  1909 
  1910 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1911 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1912 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1913 
  1914 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1915 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1916 
  1917 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1918 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1919 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1920 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1921 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1922 
  1923 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1924 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1925 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1926 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1927 indices of schematic variables.
  1928 
  1929 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1930 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1931 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1932 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1933 etc. was exploited.
  1934 
  1935 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1936 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1937 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1938 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1939 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1940 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1941 
  1942 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1943 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1944 manual.
  1945 
  1946 
  1947 *** Pure ***
  1948 
  1949 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1950 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1951 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1952 
  1953 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1954 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1955 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1956 undocumented feature.)
  1957 
  1958 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1959 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1960 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1961 
  1962   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1963 
  1964   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1965     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1966 
  1967 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1968 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1969 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1970 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1971 
  1972 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1973 
  1974     num ~> num_token
  1975     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1976     xstr ~> str_token
  1977 
  1978 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1979 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1980 position information via constraints).
  1981 
  1982 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1983 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1984 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1987 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1988 
  1989 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1990 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1991 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1992 
  1993 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1994 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1997 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1998 
  1999   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2000 
  2001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2002 
  2003 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2004 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2005 
  2006 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2007 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2008 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2009 
  2010 
  2011 *** HOL ***
  2012 
  2013 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2014 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2015 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2016 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2017 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2018 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2019 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2020 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2021 possible.
  2022 
  2023 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2024 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2025 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2026 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2027 
  2028 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2029 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2030 
  2031 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2032 
  2033 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2034 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2035 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2036 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2037 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2038 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2039 
  2040   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2041     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2042 
  2043   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2044     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2045     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2046 
  2047   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2048     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2049 
  2050   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2051     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2052     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2053 
  2054   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2055     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2056 
  2057 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2058 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2059 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2060 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2061 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2062 
  2063   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2064     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2065     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2066     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2067     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2068 
  2069     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2070     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2071 
  2072   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2073     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2074     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2075     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2076     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2077     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2078     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2079     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2080 
  2081   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2082     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2083     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2084     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2085 
  2086   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2087     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2088     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2089     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2090 
  2091   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2092     from type nat to type int.
  2093 
  2094 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2095 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2096 
  2097   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2098     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2099     type.  Example syntax:
  2100 
  2101     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2102       is List.insert
  2103 
  2104     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2105     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2106     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2107     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2108     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2109     by the package.
  2110 
  2111   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2112     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2113     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2114     code generation for each constant.
  2115 
  2116   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2117     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2118     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2119     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2120     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2121 
  2122   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2123     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2124     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2125 
  2126 * Quotient package:
  2127 
  2128   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2129     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2130 
  2131   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2132     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2133 
  2134   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2135     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2136     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2137 
  2138   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2139     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2142 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2143 
  2144 * Quickcheck:
  2145 
  2146   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2147     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2148     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2149     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2150     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2151 
  2152     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2153     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2154     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2155 
  2156     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2157     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2158 
  2159     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2160     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2161     show genuine counterexamples.
  2162 
  2163   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2164     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2165 
  2166     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2167     constructors of that type.
  2168 
  2169   - Support for multisets.
  2170 
  2171   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2172 
  2173   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2174     conjectures in a locale context.
  2175 
  2176 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2177 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2178 
  2179 * Sledgehammer:
  2180   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2181     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2182   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2183   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2184     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2185   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2186   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2187   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2188   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2189 
  2190 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2191 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2192 
  2193 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2194 
  2195 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2198 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2199 
  2200   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2201 
  2202 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2203 a list and a nat.
  2204 
  2205 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2206 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2207 
  2208 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2209 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2210 default.
  2211 
  2212 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2213 
  2214   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2215 
  2216 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2217 
  2218 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2219 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2220 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2221 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2222 one_case.
  2223 
  2224 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2225 the result of the fact expression.
  2226 
  2227 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2228 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2229 of some relation theorems:
  2230 
  2231   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2232   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2233   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2234   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2235   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2236   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2237 
  2238 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2239 
  2240 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2241 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2242 
  2243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244 
  2245 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2246 to match the constant's name:
  2247 
  2248   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2249   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2250   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2251   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2252   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2253   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2254   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2255   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2256   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2257   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2258   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2259   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2260   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2261   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2262   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2263   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2264   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2265   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2266   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2267   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2268   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2269   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2270   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2271   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2272 
  2273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2276 and corresponding theorem names:
  2277 
  2278   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2279 
  2280   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2281 
  2282   - Renamed theorems:
  2283 
  2284     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2285     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2286     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2287     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2288     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2289     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2290     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2291     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2292     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2293     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2294     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2295     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2296     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2297     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2298     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2299     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2300     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2301     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2302     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2303     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2304     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2305     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2306     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2307 
  2308     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2309 
  2310     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2311 
  2312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2315 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2316 
  2317   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2318   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2319   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2320   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2321   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2322   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2323   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2324   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2325   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2326   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2327   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2328   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2329   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2330   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2331   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2332   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2333   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2334   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2335   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2336   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2337   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2338 
  2339 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2340 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2345 
  2346   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2347   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2348   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2349   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2350   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2351   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2352   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2353   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2354   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2355   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2356   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2357   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2358   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2359   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2360   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2361   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2362   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2363   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2364 
  2365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2368 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2369 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2370 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2371 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2372 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2373 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2375 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2376 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2377 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2378 
  2379 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2380 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2381 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2382 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2383 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2384 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2385 
  2386 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2387 through option types.
  2388 
  2389 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2390 relations.
  2391 
  2392 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2395 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2396 
  2397   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2398   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2399   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2400   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2401   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2402   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2403   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2404   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2405   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2406   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2407   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2408   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2409   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2410   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2411   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2412   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2413   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2414   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2415   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2416   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2417   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2418   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2419   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2420   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2421   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2422   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2423   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2424   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2425   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2426   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2427   zless_le ~> less_le
  2428   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2429   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2430   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2431 
  2432 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2433 
  2434   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2435 
  2436 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2437 
  2438 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2439 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2440 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2441 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2445 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2446 
  2447 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2448 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2449 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2450 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2451 follows:
  2452 
  2453   Operations:
  2454   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2455   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2456   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2457   del -> rbt_del
  2458   delete -> rbt_delete
  2459   ins -> rbt_ins
  2460   insert -> rbt_insert
  2461   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2462   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2463   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2464   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2465   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2466   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2467   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2468   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2469   union -> rbt_union
  2470   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2471   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2472 
  2473   Lemmas:
  2474   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2475   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2476   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2477   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2478   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2479   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2480   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2481   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2482   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2483   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2484   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2485   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2486   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2487   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2488   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2489   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2490   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2491   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2492   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2493   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2494   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2495   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2496   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2497   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2498   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2499   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2500   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2501   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2502   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2503   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2504   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2505   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2506   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2507   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2508   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2509   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2510   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2511   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2512   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2513   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2514   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2515   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2516   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2517   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2518   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2519   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2520   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2521   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2522   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2523   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2524   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2525   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2526   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2527   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2528   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2529   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2530   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2531   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2532   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2533   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2534   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2535   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2536   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2537   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2538   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2539   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2540   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2541   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2542   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2543   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2544   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2545   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2546   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2547   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2548   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2549   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2550   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2551   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2552   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2553   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2554   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2555   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2556   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2557 
  2558 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2559 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2560 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2561 
  2562   Changed Operations:
  2563   float_abs -> abs
  2564   float_nprt -> nprt
  2565   float_pprt -> pprt
  2566   pow2 -> use powr
  2567   round_down -> float_round_down
  2568   round_up -> float_round_up
  2569   scale -> exponent
  2570 
  2571   Removed Operations:
  2572   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2573 
  2574   Renamed Lemmas:
  2575   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2576   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2577   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2578   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2579   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2580   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2581   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2582   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2583   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2584   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2585   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2586   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2587   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2588   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2589   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2590   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2591   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2592   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2593   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2594   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2595   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2596   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2597   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2598   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2599   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2600   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2601   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2602   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2603   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2604   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2605   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2606   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2607   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2608   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2609   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2610   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2611 
  2612   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2613   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2614   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2615   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2616   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2617   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2618   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2619   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2620   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2621   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2622 
  2623 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2624 association lists with distinct keys.
  2625 
  2626 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2627 annotated commands.
  2628 
  2629 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2630 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2631 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2632 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2633 
  2634 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2635 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2636 instead.
  2637 
  2638   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2639   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2640   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2641   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2642   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2643   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2644   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2645   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2646   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2647   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2648   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2649   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2650   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2651   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2652   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2653   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2654   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2655   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2656   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2657   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2658   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2659   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2660   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2661   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2662   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2663   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2664   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2665   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2666   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2667   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2668   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2669   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2670   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2671   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2672   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2673   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2674   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2675   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2676   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2677   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2678   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2679 
  2680 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2681 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2682 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2683 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2684 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2685 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2686 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2687 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2688 
  2689 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2690 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2691 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2692 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2693 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2694 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2695 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2696 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2697 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2698 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2699 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2700 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702   Renamed constants:
  2703   measure -> emeasure
  2704   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2705   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2706   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2707   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2708 
  2709   Removed locales:
  2710   completeable_measure_space
  2711   finite_measure_space
  2712   finite_prob_space
  2713   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2714   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2715   finite_sigma_algebra
  2716   measure_space
  2717   pair_finite_prob_space
  2718   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2719   pair_finite_space
  2720   pair_sigma_algebra
  2721   product_sigma_algebra
  2722 
  2723   Removed constants:
  2724   conditional_space
  2725   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2726   image_space
  2727   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2728   pair_measure_generator
  2729   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2730   subvimage
  2731 
  2732   Replacement theorems:
  2733   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2734   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2735   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2736   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2737   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2738   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2739   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2740   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2741   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2742   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2743   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2744   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2745   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2746   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2747   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2748   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2749   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2750   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2751   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2752   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2753   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2754   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2755   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2756   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2757   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2758   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2759   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2760   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2761   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2762   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2763   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2764   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2765   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2766   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2767   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2768   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2769   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2770   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2771   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2772   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2773   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2774   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2775   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2776   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2777   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2778   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2779   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2780   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2781   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2782   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2783   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2784   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2785   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2786   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2787   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2788   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2789   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2790   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2791   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2792   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2793   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2794   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2795   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2796   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2797   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2798   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2799   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2800   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2801   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2802   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2803   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2804   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2805   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2806   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2807   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2808   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2809   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2810   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2811   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2812   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2813   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2814   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2815   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2816   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2817   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2818   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2819   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2820   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2821   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2822   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2823   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2824   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2825   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2826   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2827   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2828   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2829   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2830   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2831   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2832   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2833   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2834   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2835   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2836   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2837   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2838   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2839   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2840   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2841   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2842   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2843   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2844   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2845   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2846   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2847   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2848   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2849   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2850   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2851   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2852   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2853   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2854   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2855   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2856   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2857   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2858   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2859   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2860   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2861 
  2862 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2863 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2864 
  2865 
  2866 *** FOL ***
  2867 
  2868 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2869 
  2870 
  2871 *** ZF ***
  2872 
  2873 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2874 analysis.
  2875 
  2876 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2877 
  2878 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2879 
  2880 
  2881 *** ML ***
  2882 
  2883 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2884 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2885 
  2886 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2887 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2888 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2889 
  2890 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2891 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2892 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2893 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2894 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2895 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2896 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2897 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2898 
  2899 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2900 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2901 
  2902 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2903 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2904 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2905 
  2906 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2907 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2910 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2911 context as well.
  2912 
  2913 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2914 
  2915   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2916   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2917   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2918   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2919   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2920   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2921   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2922   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2923   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2924   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2925   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2926   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2927 
  2928 
  2929 *** System ***
  2930 
  2931 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2932 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2933 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2934 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2935 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2936 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2937 the generic user home was intended.
  2938 
  2939 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2940 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2941 
  2942 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2943 (not just JRE).
  2944 
  2945 
  2946 
  2947 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2948 ------------------------------------
  2949 
  2950 *** General ***
  2951 
  2952 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2953 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2954 
  2955   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2956     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2957     files for checking).
  2958 
  2959   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2960     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2961     positions.
  2962 
  2963   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2964     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2965     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2966 
  2967   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2968     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2969     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2970 
  2971   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2972     cores.
  2973 
  2974   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2975     versions (garbage collection).
  2976 
  2977 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2978 including some remaining limitations.
  2979 
  2980 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2981 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2982 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2983 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2984 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2988 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2989 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2990 
  2991 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2992 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2993 usedir option -Q.
  2994 
  2995 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2996 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2997 
  2998   long_names   ~> names_long
  2999   short_names  ~> names_short
  3000   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3001 
  3002 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3003 
  3004   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3005 
  3006 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3007 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3008 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3009 
  3010 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3011 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3012 
  3013 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3014   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3015   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3016   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3017     "Classical Reasoner".
  3018 
  3019 
  3020 *** HOL ***
  3021 
  3022 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3023 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3026 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3027 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3028 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3029 class complete_linorder.
  3030 
  3031 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3032 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3033 
  3034 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3035 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3036 
  3037   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3038   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3039   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3040   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3041   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3042   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3043   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3044   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3045   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3046   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3047   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3048 
  3049 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3050 
  3051   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3052   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3053   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3054   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3055   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3056   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3057   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3058   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3059   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3060   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3061   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3062   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3063   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3064   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3065   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3066   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3067 
  3068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3074 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3075 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3076 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3079 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3080 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3084 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3085 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3086 
  3087 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3088 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3089 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3092 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3093 
  3094 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3095 
  3096     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3097     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3098 
  3099 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3100 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3103 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3106 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3107 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3108 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3111   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3112   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3113   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3114   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3115   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3116   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3117 
  3118 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3119 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3122   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3123   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3124   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3125   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3126   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3127   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3128   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3129   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3130   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3131   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3132   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3133   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3134   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3135   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3136   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3137   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3138   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3139   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3140   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3141   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3142   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3143   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3144   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3145   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3146   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3147   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3148   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3149   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3150   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3151   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3152   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3153   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3154   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3155   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3156   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3157   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3158   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3159   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3160   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3161   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3162   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3163   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3164   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3165   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3166   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3167   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3168   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3169   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3170   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3171   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3172   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3173   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3174   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3175   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3176   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3177   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3178   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3179   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3180   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3181   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3182   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3183   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3184   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3185   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3186   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3187   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3188   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3189   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3190   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3191   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3192   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3193   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3194   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3195   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3196   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3197   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3198   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3199   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3200   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3201   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3202   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3203 
  3204 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3205 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3206 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3207 
  3208 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3209 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3210 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3211 
  3212 * Code generation:
  3213 
  3214   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3215     characters in the target language.
  3216 
  3217   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3218     instead.
  3219 
  3220   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3221 
  3222   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3223     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3224 
  3225       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3226 
  3227 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228 
  3229 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3230 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3231 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3232 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3233 syntax.
  3234 
  3235 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3236 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3237 
  3238 * Nitpick:
  3239   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3240   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3241   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3242     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Sledgehammer:
  3245   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3246   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3247     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3248   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3249     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3250   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3251     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3253     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3254   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3255     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Metis:
  3258   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3260     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Command 'try':
  3263   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3264     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3266     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3267 
  3268 * Quickcheck:
  3269   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3270     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3271   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3272     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3273   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3274     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3275     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3276     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3277   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3278     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3279 
  3280 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3281 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3282 
  3283 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3284 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3285 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3286 
  3287 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3288 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3292 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3295 arithmetic.
  3296 
  3297 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3298 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3299 and lattice type classes.
  3300 
  3301 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3302 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3303 
  3304 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3305 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3306 
  3307 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3308 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3309 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310 
  3311   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3312   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3313   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3314   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3315 
  3316 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3317 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3318 constants:
  3319 
  3320   type inat   ~> type enat
  3321   Fin         ~> enat
  3322   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3323   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3324   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3325 
  3326 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3327 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3330 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3331 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3332 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3333 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3334 
  3335 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3336 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3337 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3338 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3339 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3340 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3341 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3342 
  3343   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3344   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3345   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3346   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3347 
  3348 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3349 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3350 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3353   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3354   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3355   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3356   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3357   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3358   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3359   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3360   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3361   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3362   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3363   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3364   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3365   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3366   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3367   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3368   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3369   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3370   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3371   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3372   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3373   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3374   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3375   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3376   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3377   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3378   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3379   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3380   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3381   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3382   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3383   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3384   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3385   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3386   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3387   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3388   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3389   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3390   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3391   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3392   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3393   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3394   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3395   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3396   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3397   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3398   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3399   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3400   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3401   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3402   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3403 
  3404 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3405   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3406   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3407   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3408   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3409     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3414   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3415   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3416   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3417   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3418   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3419   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3420   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3421   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3422   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3423   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3424   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3425   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3426   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3427   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3428   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3429   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3430   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3431   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3432   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3433   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3434   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3435   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3436   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3437   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3438 
  3439 
  3440 *** Document preparation ***
  3441 
  3442 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3443 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3444 same.
  3445 
  3446 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3447 result.
  3448 
  3449 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3450 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3451 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3452 
  3453 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3454 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3455 
  3456 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3457 like this:
  3458 
  3459   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3460   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3461 
  3462 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3463 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3464 layouts.
  3465 
  3466 
  3467 *** ML ***
  3468 
  3469 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3470 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3471 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3472 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3473 under external program control.
  3474 
  3475 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3476 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3477 
  3478 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3479 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3480 (better known as Proof General).
  3481 
  3482 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3483 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3484 
  3485 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3486 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3487 
  3488 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3489 (including quotes etc.).
  3490 
  3491 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3492 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3493 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3494 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3495 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3496 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3497 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3498 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3499 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3500 
  3501 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3502 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3503 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3504 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3505 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3506 
  3507 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3508 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3509 
  3510 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3511 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3512 
  3513 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3514 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3515 
  3516 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3517 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3518 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3519 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3520 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3521 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3522 proper Proof.context.
  3523 
  3524 
  3525 *** System ***
  3526 
  3527 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3528 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3529 
  3530 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3531 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3532 
  3533 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3534 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3535 
  3536   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3537   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3538   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3539   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3540   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3541 
  3542 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3543 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3544 
  3545 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3546 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3547 example:
  3548 
  3549   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3550 
  3551 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3552 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3553 
  3554 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3555 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3556 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3557 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3558 
  3559 
  3560 
  3561 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3562 ----------------------------------
  3563 
  3564 *** General ***
  3565 
  3566 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3567 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3568 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3569 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3570 like this:
  3571 
  3572   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3573 
  3574 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3575 
  3576 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3577 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3578 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3579 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3580 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3581 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3582 
  3583 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3584 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3585 the following package declarations:
  3586 
  3587   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3588   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3589 
  3590 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3591 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3592 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3593 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3594 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3595 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3596 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3597 
  3598 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3599 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3600 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3601 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3602 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3603 
  3604 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3605 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3606 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3607 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3608 
  3609 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3610 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3611 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3612 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3613 
  3614   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3615 
  3616   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3617   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3618   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3619   show_types                    show_types
  3620   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3621   show_consts                   show_consts
  3622   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3623 
  3624   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3625   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3626   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3627 
  3628   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3629   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3630 
  3631   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3632 
  3633   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3634   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3635   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3636   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3637   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3638 
  3639 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3640 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3641 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3642 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3643 
  3644 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3648   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3649 
  3650 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3651 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3652 float_token.
  3653 
  3654 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3655 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3659 DejaVu Sans.
  3660 
  3661 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3662 
  3663 
  3664 *** Pure ***
  3665 
  3666 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3667 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3668 time.
  3669 
  3670 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3671 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3674 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3677 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3678 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3679 command already provided this functionality.
  3680 
  3681 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3682 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3683 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3684 without interpretations.
  3685 
  3686 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3687 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3688 
  3689 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3690 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3691 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3692 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3693 
  3694 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3695 'definition' instead.
  3696 
  3697 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3698 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3699 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3700 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3701 
  3702 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3703 constructors.
  3704 
  3705 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3706 the local file system.
  3707 
  3708 
  3709 *** HOL ***
  3710 
  3711 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3712 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3713 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3714 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3715 
  3716   declare [[coercion f]]
  3717 
  3718 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3719 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3720 
  3721   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3722 
  3723 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3724 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3725 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3726 other theories like this:
  3727 
  3728   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3729 
  3730 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3731 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3732 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3733 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3734 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3735 for examples.
  3736 
  3737 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3738 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3741 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3742 
  3743 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3744 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3745 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3746 
  3747 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3748 functorial structure of types.
  3749 
  3750 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3751 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3752 
  3753 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3754 languages.
  3755 
  3756 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3757 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3761 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3764 combinators any longer.
  3765 
  3766 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3767 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3768 
  3769 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3770 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3771 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3772 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3773 
  3774   record 'a foo = ...
  3775   ...
  3776   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3777 
  3778 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3779 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3781 
  3782 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3783 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3784 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3785 
  3786 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3787 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3788 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3789 
  3790 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3791 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3794 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3795 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3796 independently.
  3797 
  3798 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3799 counter example search.
  3800 
  3801 * Sledgehammer:
  3802   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3803     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3804     sledgehammer").
  3805   - Renamed commands:
  3806     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3807     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3808     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3809     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810   - Renamed options:
  3811     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3812     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3813     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3814     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3815     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3816 
  3817 * Nitpick:
  3818   - Renamed options:
  3819     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3820     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3821     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3822   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3823   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3824   - Added "whack" option.
  3825   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3826   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3827   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3828   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3829     higher cardinalities.
  3830   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3831 
  3832 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3833 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3834 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3835 
  3836     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3837 
  3838 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3839 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3840 
  3841 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3842 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3843 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3844 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3845 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3846 "smt_solver".
  3847 
  3848 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3849 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3850 
  3851 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3852 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3853 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3854 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3857   - Renamed:
  3858     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3859     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3860     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3861   - Added:
  3862     smt_verbose
  3863     smt_random_seed
  3864     smt_datatypes
  3865     smt_infer_triggers
  3866     smt_monomorph_limit
  3867     cvc3_options
  3868     remote_cvc3_options
  3869     remote_z3_options
  3870     yices_options
  3871 
  3872 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3873 header.
  3874 
  3875 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3876 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3877 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3878 
  3879   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3880 
  3881 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3884 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3889 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3890 
  3891 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3892 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3893 
  3894 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3895 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3898 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3899 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900 
  3901 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3907 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3910 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3911 for congruent(2)).
  3912 
  3913 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3914 
  3915   types
  3916     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3917     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3918 
  3919   constants
  3920     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3921     True ~> HOL.True
  3922     False ~> HOL.False
  3923     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3924     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3925     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3926     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3927     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3928     The ~> HOL.The
  3929     All ~> HOL.All
  3930     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3931     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3932     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3933     If ~> HOL.If
  3934     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3935     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3936     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3937     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3938     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3939     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3940     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3941     op : ~> Set.member
  3942     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3943 
  3944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3947 
  3948     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3949     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3950     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3951     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3952     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3953     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3954     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3955     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3956 
  3957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * More stylized fact names:
  3960 
  3961   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3962   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3963   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3964   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3965 
  3966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3969 
  3970   constants
  3971     null ~> List.null
  3972 
  3973   facts
  3974     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3975     null_empty ~> null_def
  3976 
  3977 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3978 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3979 generation.
  3980 
  3981 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3982 Haskell code.
  3983 
  3984 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3985 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3986 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3989 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3992 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3993 
  3994 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3995 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3996 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3999 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4005 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4006 referred to by its qualified name.
  4007 
  4008   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4009   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4010   product ~>  Enum.product
  4011 
  4012 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4013 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4017 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4018 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4022 sort_key.
  4023 
  4024 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4028 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4029 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4030 
  4031   types
  4032     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4033               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4034               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4035         (depends on your needs)
  4036 
  4037   constants
  4038      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4039      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4040      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4041 
  4042 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4043 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4044 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4045 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4046 
  4047 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4048 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4049 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4050 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4051 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4057 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4058 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4059 
  4060 
  4061 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4062 
  4063 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4064 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4065 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4066 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4067 compatibility.
  4068 
  4069 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4070 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4071 
  4072 
  4073 *** HOLCF ***
  4074 
  4075 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4076 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4077 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4081 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4082 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4085   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4086   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4087 
  4088 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4089 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4090 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4091 
  4092 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4093 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4094 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4095 domain definition now works:
  4096 
  4097   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4098 
  4099 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4100 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4101 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4102 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4103 
  4104   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4105     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4106 
  4107   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4108 
  4109 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4110 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4111 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4112 
  4113 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4114 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4115 
  4116 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4117 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4118 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4119 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4120 
  4121 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4122 
  4123 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4126 
  4127 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4129 
  4130 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4131 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4132 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4133 
  4134 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4135 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4136 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4137 
  4138 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4139 still supported as an input translation.
  4140 
  4141 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4142 
  4143   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4144   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4145   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4146   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4147   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4148   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4149   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4150 
  4151 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4152 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4155   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4156   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4157   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4158   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4159   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4160 
  4161 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4162 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4163 
  4164 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4165 
  4166   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4167   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4168   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4169   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4170 
  4171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4174 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4177 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4180   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4181   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4182   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4183   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4184   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4185   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4186   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4187   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4188   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4189   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4190   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4191   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4192   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4193   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4194   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4195   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4196   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4197   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4198   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4199 
  4200 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4201 
  4202   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4203   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4204   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4205   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4206   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4207   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4208   box_less             ~> box_below
  4209   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4210   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4211   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4212   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4213   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4214   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4215   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4216   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4217   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4218   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4219   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4220   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4221   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4222   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4223   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4224   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4225   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4226   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4227   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4228   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4229   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4230   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4231   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4232   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4233   up_less              ~> up_below
  4234   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4235   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4236   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4237   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4238   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4239   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4240   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4241   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4242   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4243   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4244   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4245   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4246   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4247 
  4248 
  4249 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4250 
  4251 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4252 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4253 
  4254 
  4255 *** ML ***
  4256 
  4257 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4258 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4259 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4260 
  4261 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4262 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4263 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4264 
  4265 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4266 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4267 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4268 
  4269 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4270 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4271 
  4272 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4273 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4274 
  4275 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4276 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4277 
  4278 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4279 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4280 
  4281 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4282 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4283 almost all situations.
  4284 
  4285 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4286 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4287 Isabelle/ML.
  4288 
  4289 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4290 meaning.
  4291 
  4292 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4293 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4294 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4295 
  4296 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4297 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4298 
  4299 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4300 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4301 
  4302 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4303 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4304 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4305 
  4306 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4307 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4308 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4309 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4310 configuration options.
  4311 
  4312 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4313 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4314 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4315 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4316 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4317 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4318 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4319 
  4320 
  4321 
  4322 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4323 ---------------------------------
  4324 
  4325 *** General ***
  4326 
  4327 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4328 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4329 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4330 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4331 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4332 their full internal name.
  4333 
  4334 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4335 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4336 Some hints on upgrading:
  4337 
  4338   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4339     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4340     which are independent of this issue.
  4341 
  4342   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4343     provides the following special forms:
  4344 
  4345       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4346       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4347       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4348 
  4349     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4350     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4351     extra variables".
  4352 
  4353     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4354     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4355     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4356     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4357     "logic".
  4358 
  4359   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4360     antiquotations:
  4361 
  4362       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4363       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4364       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4365       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4366 
  4367   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4368     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4369     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4370     antiquotations.
  4371 
  4372 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4373 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4374 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4375 diagnose syntax problems.
  4376 
  4377 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4378 
  4379 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4380 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4381 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4382 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4383 
  4384 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4385 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4386 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4387 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4388 
  4389 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4390 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4391 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4392 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4393 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4396 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4397 
  4398 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4399 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4400 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4401 
  4402   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4403 
  4404 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4405 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4406 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4407 
  4408 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4409 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411 
  4412 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4413 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4414 
  4415 
  4416 *** Pure ***
  4417 
  4418 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4419 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4420 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4421 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4422 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4423 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4424 inspect proof terms.
  4425 
  4426 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4427 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4428 are added internally.  For example:
  4429 
  4430   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4431 
  4432 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4433 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4438 'class' instead.
  4439 
  4440 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4441 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4445 invariants.
  4446 
  4447 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4448 user space functionality any longer.
  4449 
  4450 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4451 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4455 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4456 
  4457 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4458 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4459 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4460 
  4461 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4462 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4463 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4464 
  4465 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4466 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4467 
  4468 
  4469 *** HOL ***
  4470 
  4471 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4472 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4473 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4474 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4475 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4476 
  4477 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4478 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4479 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4480 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4481 
  4482   fun
  4483     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4484   where
  4485     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4486 
  4487   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4488     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4489 
  4490   quotient_definition
  4491     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4492 
  4493 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4494 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4495 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4496 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4497 
  4498 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4499 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4500 
  4501 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4502 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4503 
  4504 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4506 
  4507 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4508 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4509 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4510 
  4511 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4512 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4513 
  4514 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4516 
  4517 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4519 
  4520 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4521 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4524 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4525 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4528   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4529   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4530   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4531   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4532   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4533   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4534   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4535   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4536   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4537   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4538   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4539   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4540   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4541   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4542   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4543   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4544   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4545   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4546   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4547   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4548   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4549   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4550   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4551   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4552   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4553   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4554   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4555   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4556   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4557 
  4558 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4559 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4560 
  4561 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4562 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4563 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4564 
  4565 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4566 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4567 
  4568 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4569 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4570 
  4571 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4572 
  4573 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4574 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4577 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4578 
  4579 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4582 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4583 
  4584 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4585 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4586 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4587 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4590   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4591   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4592   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4596 lattices):
  4597 
  4598     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4599     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4600 
  4601     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4602 
  4603     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4604     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4605     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4606     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4607     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4608     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4609     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4610     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4611     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4612     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4613     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4614     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4615     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4616 
  4617     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4618     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4619     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4620     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4621     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4622     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4623     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4624     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4625     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4626     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4627     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4628     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4629     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4630     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4631     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4632     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4633     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4634     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4635 
  4636   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4637   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4638 
  4639     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4640     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4641     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4642     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4643     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4644 
  4645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * Refined field classes:
  4648   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4649     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4650     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4651   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4655   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4656   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4657   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4658     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4659   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4660     equal_neg_zero.
  4661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4662 
  4663 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4664 sets to lattices:
  4665 
  4666   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4667   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4668   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4669   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4670   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4671   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4672   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4673   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4674   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4675   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4676 
  4677 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4678 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4679 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4680 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4681 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4682 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4683 
  4684 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4685 multiset order:
  4686 
  4687   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4688     <= and <;
  4689   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4690     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4691     multiset_order;
  4692   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4693     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4694     generation;
  4695   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4696     if needed.
  4697 
  4698 Renamed:
  4699 
  4700   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4701   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4702   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4703 
  4704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4705 
  4706 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4707 
  4708 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4709 
  4710 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4711 
  4712 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4713 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4714 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716   Constants:
  4717   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4718   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4719   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4720   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4721   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4722   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4723   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4724   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4725   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4726   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4727   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4728   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4729   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4730 
  4731   Lemmas:
  4732   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4733   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4734   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4735   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4736   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4737   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4738   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4739   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4740   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4741   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4742   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4743   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4744   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4745 
  4746 * Sledgehammer:
  4747   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4748     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4749     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4750     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4751     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4752     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4753     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4755   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4756     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4757   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4758     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4759     is still experimental.)
  4760   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4761     full-typed mode.
  4762   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4763 
  4764 * Nitpick:
  4765   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4766   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4767   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4768     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4769   - Added support for quotient types.
  4770   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4771     constructs.
  4772   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4773     "termination" proofs).
  4774   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4775   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4776   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4777   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4778     record getters.
  4779   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4780   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4781   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4782   - Added "atoms" option.
  4783   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4784     problems.
  4785   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4786     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4787     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4789     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4791 
  4792 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4793   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4794   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4795   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4796   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4797   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4798   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4799   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4800   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4801   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 
  4804 *** HOLCF ***
  4805 
  4806 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4807 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4808 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4809 
  4810 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4811 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4812 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4813 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4816 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4817 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4818 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4819 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4820 
  4821 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4822 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4823 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4824 
  4825 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4826 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4827 
  4828   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4829   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4830 
  4831 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4832 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4833 
  4834   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4835   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4836   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4837   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4838   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4839 
  4840 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4841 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4844   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4845   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4846 
  4847 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4848 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4850 
  4851 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4852 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4857 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4858 
  4859 
  4860 *** ML ***
  4861 
  4862 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4863 
  4864     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4865     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4866 
  4867     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4868     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4869     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4870     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4871 
  4872     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4873     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4874     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4875 
  4876 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4877 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4878 
  4879 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4880 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4881 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4882 
  4883 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4884 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4885 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4886 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4887 
  4888 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4889 the context or even global references.
  4890 
  4891 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4892 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4893 
  4894 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4895 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4896 
  4897   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4898   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4899   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4900   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4901   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4902   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4903   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4904   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4905   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4906   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4907 
  4908 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4909 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4910 
  4911 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4912 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4913 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4914 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4915 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4916 
  4917 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4918 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4919 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4920 Theory_Data version.
  4921 
  4922 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4923 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4924 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4925 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4926 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4927 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4928 explicitly in rare situations.
  4929 
  4930 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4931 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4933 
  4934 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4935 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4936 
  4937 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4938 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4939 quite rare).
  4940 
  4941 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4942 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4945 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4946 terms.
  4947 
  4948 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4949 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4950 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4951 
  4952 
  4953 *** System ***
  4954 
  4955 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4956 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4957 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4958 
  4959 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4960 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4961 respectively.
  4962 
  4963 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4964 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4965 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4966 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4967 
  4968   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4969 
  4970 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4971 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4972 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4973 component.
  4974 
  4975 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4976 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4977 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4978 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4979 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4980 the user for manual installation.
  4981 
  4982 
  4983 
  4984 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4985 -------------------------------------
  4986 
  4987 *** General ***
  4988 
  4989 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4990 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4991 
  4992 
  4993 *** Pure ***
  4994 
  4995 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4996 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4997 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4998 
  4999 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5000 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5001 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5002 
  5003 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5004 interpretation.
  5005 
  5006 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5007 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5008 
  5009 
  5010 *** Document preparation ***
  5011 
  5012 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5013 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5014 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5015 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5016 
  5017 
  5018 *** HOL ***
  5019 
  5020 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5021 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5022 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5023 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5024 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5025 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5026 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5027 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5028 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5029 
  5030 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5031 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5032 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5033 
  5034 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5035 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5036 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5037 
  5038 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5039 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5040 
  5041 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5042 
  5043 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5044 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5045 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5046 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5047 
  5048 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5049 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5050 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5051 "mirabelle" utility.
  5052 
  5053 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5054 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5055 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5056 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5057 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5058 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5059 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5060 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5061 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5062 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5063 
  5064 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5065 procedure only.
  5066 
  5067 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5068 
  5069 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5070 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5071 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5072 that fail later.
  5073 
  5074 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5075 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5076 
  5077 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5078 the same method as the approximation method.
  5079 
  5080 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5081 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5082 series expansion.
  5083 
  5084 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5085 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5086 
  5087 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5088 reals.
  5089 
  5090 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5091 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5092 
  5093 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5094 fixpoint theorem.
  5095 
  5096 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5097   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5098     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5099   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5100     accordingly
  5101   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5102     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5103   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5104     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5105 
  5106 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5107 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5108 lattice.
  5109 
  5110 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5111 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5112 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5113 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5114 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5115 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5117 
  5118 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5119   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5120     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5121   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5122     le_inf_iff
  5123   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5124     sup_aci)
  5125   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5126   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5127   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5128     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5129     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5130     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5131     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5132     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5133     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5134     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5135     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5136     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5137     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5138   - authentic syntax for
  5139     Set.Pow
  5140     Set.image
  5141   - mere abbreviations:
  5142     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5143     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5144     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5145     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5146     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5147     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5148     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5149     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5150   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5151 
  5152 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5153 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5154 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5155 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5156 
  5157 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5158 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5159 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5160 
  5161 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5162 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5163 
  5164 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5165 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5166 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5167 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5168 
  5169 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5170 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5171 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5172 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5173 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5174 
  5175 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5176 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5178 
  5179 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5180 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5181 
  5182 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5183 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5184 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5185 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5186 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5187 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5188 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5190 
  5191 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5192     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5193     code_post       replaces    code post
  5194     etc.
  5195   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5196 
  5197 * Renamed methods:
  5198     sizechange -> size_change
  5199     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5200   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5201 
  5202 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5203 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5204 
  5205 * Renamed theorems:
  5206     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5207     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5208     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5209     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5210     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5211   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5212 
  5213 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5215 
  5216 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5218 
  5219 
  5220 *** HOLCF ***
  5221 
  5222 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5223 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5224 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5225 
  5226 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5227 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5228 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5229 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5230 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5231 
  5232 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5233 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5234 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5235 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5236 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5237 
  5238 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5239 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5240 constructor are pre-configured.
  5241 
  5242 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5243 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5244 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5245 
  5246 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5247 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5248 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5249 as well.)
  5250 
  5251 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5252 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5253 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5254 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5255 examples.
  5256 
  5257 
  5258 *** ML ***
  5259 
  5260 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5261 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5262 
  5263 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5264 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5265 position, logical grouping etc.
  5266 
  5267 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5268 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5269 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5270 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5271 
  5272 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5273 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5274 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5275 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5276 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5277 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5278 
  5279 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5280 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5281 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5282 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5283 experiments with references.
  5284 
  5285 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5286 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5287 
  5288 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5289 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5290 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5291 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5292 
  5293 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5294 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5295 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5296 
  5297 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5298 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5299 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5300 
  5301 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5302 
  5303 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5305 
  5306 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5307 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5308 
  5309 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5310 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5311 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5312 
  5313 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5314 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5315 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5318 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5319 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5321 
  5322 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5323 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5324 instead of global theory.
  5325 
  5326 
  5327 *** System ***
  5328 
  5329 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5330 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5331 usedir option -q.
  5332 
  5333 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5334 also the system manual.
  5335 
  5336 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5337 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5338 
  5339 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5340 this is always enabled.
  5341 
  5342 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5343 
  5344 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5345 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5346 currently supported on Linux only.
  5347 
  5348 
  5349 
  5350 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5351 --------------------------------
  5352 
  5353 *** General ***
  5354 
  5355 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5356 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5357 
  5358   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5359     "isatool."
  5360 
  5361   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5362     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5363 
  5364   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5365     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5366 
  5367 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5368 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5369 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5370 
  5371 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5372 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5373 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5374 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5375 via "isabelle emacs".
  5376 
  5377 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5378 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5379 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5380 
  5381 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5382 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5383 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5384 
  5385 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5386 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5387 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5388 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5389 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5390 
  5391 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5392 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5393 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5394 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5395 
  5396 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5397 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5398 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5399 
  5400 
  5401 *** Pure ***
  5402 
  5403 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5404 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5405 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5406 
  5407 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5408 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5409 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5410 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5411 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5412 
  5413 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5414 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5415 useful in locale declarations.
  5416 
  5417 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5418 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5419 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5420 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5421 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5422 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5423 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5424 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5425 no longer generated.
  5426 
  5427 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5428 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5429 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5430 
  5431 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5432 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5433 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5434 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5435 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5436 
  5437 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5438 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5439 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5440 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5441 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5442 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5443 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5444 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5445 
  5446 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5447 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5448 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5449 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5450 
  5451 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5452 
  5453 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5454 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5455 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5456 
  5457 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5458 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5459 
  5460 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5461 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5462 in HOL, write
  5463 
  5464     class foo = ...
  5465 
  5466 instead of
  5467 
  5468     class foo = type + ...
  5469 
  5470 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5471 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5472 
  5473 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5474 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5475 
  5476 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5477 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5478 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5479 
  5480 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5481 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5482 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5483 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5484 directly in regular applications.
  5485 
  5486 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5487 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5488 
  5489 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5490 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5491 
  5492 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5493 theory context.
  5494 
  5495 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5496 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5499 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5500 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5501 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5502 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5503 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5504 
  5505   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5506 
  5507 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5508 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5509 normalization.
  5510 
  5511 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5512 addressing etc.
  5513 
  5514 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5515 
  5516   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5517   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5518 
  5519 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5520 
  5521   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5522      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5523      parts of the code generator framework).
  5524 
  5525   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5526      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5527      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5528 
  5529 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5530 
  5531 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5532 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5535 patterns, e.g.
  5536 
  5537     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5538 
  5539 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5540 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5541 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5542 hyphen:
  5543 
  5544     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5545 
  5546 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5547 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5548 
  5549 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5550 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5551 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5552 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5553 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5554 higher-order unification.
  5555 
  5556 
  5557 *** Document preparation ***
  5558 
  5559 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5560 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5561 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5562 
  5563 
  5564 *** HOL ***
  5565 
  5566 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5567 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5568 
  5569 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5570 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5571 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5572 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5573 Main, as before.
  5574 
  5575 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5576 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5577 
  5578 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5579 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5580 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5581 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5582 
  5583 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5584 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5585 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5586 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5587 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5588 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5589 
  5590 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5591 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5592 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5593 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5594 
  5595 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5596 menu.
  5597 
  5598 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5599 (contains the empty clause).
  5600 
  5601 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5602 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5603 
  5604 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5605 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5606 
  5607 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5608 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5609 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5612 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5613 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5614 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5615 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5616 
  5617 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5618 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5619 
  5620 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5621 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5622 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5623 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5624 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5625 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5626 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5627 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5628 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5629 
  5630 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5631 
  5632 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5633 
  5634 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5635 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5636 
  5637 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5638 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5639 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5640 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5641 
  5642 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5643 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5644 
  5645     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5646     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5647     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5648     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5649     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5650     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5651     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5652     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5653 
  5654 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5655 theory Set.
  5656 
  5657 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5658 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5659 
  5660 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5661 
  5662 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5663 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5664 
  5665 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5666 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5667 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5668 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5669 allowed. For examples see
  5670 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5671 
  5672 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5673 
  5674 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5676 
  5677 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5678 structure:
  5679 
  5680     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5681     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5682     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5683     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5684     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5685     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5686     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5687     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5688     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5689     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5690     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5691     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5692     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5693     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5694     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5695     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5696     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5697     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5698     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5699     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5700     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5701     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5702     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5703     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5704     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5705     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5706     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5707     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5708     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5709     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5710     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5711     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5712     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5713 
  5714     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5715     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5716     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5717     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5718     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5719     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5720     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5721     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5722     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5723     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5724 
  5725     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5726     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5727     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5728     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5729     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5730     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5731 
  5732 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5733 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5734 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5735 
  5736 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5737 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5738 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5739 
  5740 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5741 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5742 
  5743 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5744 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5745 
  5746 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5747 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5748 proofs, e.g.
  5749 
  5750   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5751 
  5752 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5753 
  5754 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5755 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5756 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5757 
  5758 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5759 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5761 
  5762 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5763 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5764 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5766 
  5767 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5768 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5769 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5770 preorder_class.*.
  5771 
  5772 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5773 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5774 
  5775 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5776 
  5777   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5778 
  5779 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5780 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5781 fold_image.
  5782 
  5783 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5784 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5785 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5786 the former will disappear at some point.
  5787 
  5788 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5789 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5790 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5791 
  5792 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5793 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5794 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5795 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5796 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5797 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5798 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5799 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5800 
  5801 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5802 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5803 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5804 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5805 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5806 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5807 
  5808     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5809     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5810     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5811     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5812     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5813     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5814     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5815 
  5816 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5817 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5818 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5819 
  5820 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5821 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5822 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5823 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5824 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5825 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5826 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5827 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5828 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5829 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5830 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5831 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5832 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5833 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5834 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5835 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5836 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5837 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5838 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5839 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5840 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5841 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5842 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5843 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5844 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5845 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5846 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5847 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5848 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5849 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5850 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5851 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5852 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5853 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5854 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5855 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5856 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5857 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5858 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5859 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5860 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5861 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5862 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5863 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5864 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5865 
  5866 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5867 
  5868 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5869 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5870 
  5871 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5872 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5873 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5874 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5875 
  5876 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5877 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5878 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5879 theory RealVector.
  5880 
  5881 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5882 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5883 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5884 and inner products are included.
  5885 
  5886 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5887 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5888 supported.
  5889 
  5890 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5891 first diagonalization argument.
  5892 
  5893 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5894 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5895 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5896 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5897 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5898 
  5899     hide (open) const gcd
  5900     abbreviation gcd where
  5901       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5902     notation (output)
  5903       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5904 
  5905 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5906 
  5907 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5908 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5909 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5910 
  5911 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5912 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5913 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5914 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5915 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5916 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5917 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5918 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5919 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5920 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5921 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5922 cases.
  5923 
  5924 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5925 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5926 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5927 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5928 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5929 
  5930     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5931     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5932     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5933     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5934     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5935 
  5936 
  5937 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5938 
  5939 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5940 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5941 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5942 
  5943 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5944 
  5945 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5946 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5947 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5948 
  5949 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5950 
  5951 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5952 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5953 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5954 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5955 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5956 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5957 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5958 
  5959 
  5960 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5961 
  5962 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5963 
  5964 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5965 theory targets.
  5966 
  5967 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5968 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5969 'inductive' etc.
  5970 
  5971 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5972 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5973 
  5974 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5975 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5976 
  5977 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5978 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5979 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5980 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5981 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5982 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5983 the algorithm W:
  5984 
  5985  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5986  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5987          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5988 
  5989 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5990 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5991 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5992 
  5993 
  5994 *** HOLCF ***
  5995 
  5996 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5997 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5998 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5999 
  6000 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6001 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6002 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6003 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6004 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6005 
  6006 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6007 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6008 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6009 
  6010 
  6011 *** ZF ***
  6012 
  6013 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6014 
  6015 
  6016 *** ML ***
  6017 
  6018 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6019 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6020 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6021 5.2.1!
  6022 
  6023 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6024 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6025 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6026 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6027 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6028 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6029 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6030 
  6031 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6032 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6033 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6034 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6035 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6036 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6037 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6038 
  6039 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6040 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6041 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6042 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6043 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6044 
  6045 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6046 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6047 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6048 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6049 Method.add_method.
  6050 
  6051 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6052 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6053 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6054 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6055 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6056 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6057 
  6058 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6059 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6060 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6061 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6062 examples.
  6063 
  6064 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6065 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6066 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6067 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6068 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6069 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6070 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6071 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6072 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6073 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6074 
  6075 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6076 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6077 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6078 
  6079 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6080 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6081 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6082 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6083 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6084 resort for legacy applications.
  6085 
  6086 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6087 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6088 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6089 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6090 explicit runtime argument.
  6091 
  6092 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6093 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6094 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6095 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6096 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6097 
  6098 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6099 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6100 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6101 theory state.
  6102 
  6103 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6104 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6105 
  6106   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6107   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6108   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6109   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6110   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6111   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6112   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6113   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6114   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6115   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6116 
  6117 
  6118 *** System ***
  6119 
  6120 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6121 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6122 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6123 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6124 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6125 
  6126 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6127 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6128 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6129 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6130 
  6131 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6132 
  6133 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6134 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6135 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6136 prover operations.
  6137 
  6138 
  6139 
  6140 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6141 -------------------------------
  6142 
  6143 *** General ***
  6144 
  6145 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6146 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6147 
  6148 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6149 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6150 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6151 provides a proper context already.
  6152 
  6153 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6154 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6155 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6156 
  6157 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6158 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6159 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6160 swap theory imports.
  6161 
  6162 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6163 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6164 
  6165 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6166 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6167 white space without escapes.
  6168 
  6169 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6170 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6171 "foo_bar".
  6172 
  6173 
  6174 *** Pure ***
  6175 
  6176 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6177 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6178 
  6179 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6180 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6181 
  6182 (1) unused_thms
  6183      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6184 
  6185 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6186      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6187      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6188 
  6189 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6190      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6191      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6192      their ancestors.
  6193 
  6194 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6195 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6196 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6197 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6198 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6199 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6200 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6201 
  6202 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6203 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6204 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6205 
  6206 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6207 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6208 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6209 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6210 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6211 
  6212 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6213 
  6214 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6215 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6216 update of theories within ML code.
  6217 
  6218 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6219 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6220 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6221 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6222 
  6223 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6224 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6225 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6227 
  6228 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6229 
  6230 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6231 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6232 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6233 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6234 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6235 
  6236 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6237 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6238 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6239 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6240 situations.
  6241 
  6242 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6243 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6244 proof text.
  6245 
  6246 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6247 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6248 
  6249 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6250 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6251 predicates.
  6252 
  6253 
  6254 *** Document preparation ***
  6255 
  6256 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6257 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6258 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6259 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default