NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Apr 02 13:02:03 2019 +0200 (5 months ago)
changeset 70023 5aef4e9966c4
parent 70022 49e178cbf923
child 70026 6ae9505d693a
permissions -rw-r--r--
misc tuning for release;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2019 (June 2019)
     8 -------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    13 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    14 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    15 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    16 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    17 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    18 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    20 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    21 
    22 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    23 
    24 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    25 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    26 
    27 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    28 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    29 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )". Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    36 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    37 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    38 automatically.
    39 
    40 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    41 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    46 
    47 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    48 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    49 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    50 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    51 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    52 defaults to 0.
    53 
    54 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    55 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    56 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    57 
    58 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    59 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    60 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    61 ongoing document processing.
    62 
    63 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    64 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    65 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    66 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    67 
    68 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    69 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    70 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    71 Isabelle component).
    72 
    73 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    74 overview column.
    75 
    76 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    77 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    78 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    79 separated from option "-s".
    80 
    81 * Update to OpenJDK 11, which is the current long-term support line
    82 after Java 8. It provides a very different font renderer, with improved
    83 sub-pixel font rendering.
    84 
    85 
    86 *** Document preparation ***
    87 
    88 * Document markers are formal comments of the form \<^marker>\<open>marker_body\<close> that
    89 are stripped from document output: the effect is to modify the semantic
    90 presentation context or to emit markup to the PIDE document. Some
    91 predefined markers are taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative,
    92 e.g. \<^marker>\<open>contributor arg\<close> or \<^marker>\<open>license arg\<close> and produce PIDE markup that
    93 can retrieved from the document database.
    94 
    95 * Old-style command tags %name are re-interpreted as markers \<^marker>\<open>tag name\<close>
    96 and produce LaTeX environments as before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
    97 multiple markers are composed in canonical order, resulting in a
    98 reversed list of tags in the presentation context.
    99 
   100 
   101 *** Isar ***
   102 
   103 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
   104 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
   105 
   106 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
   107 precedence over goal/proof. This is particularly relevant for the
   108 headless PIDE session and server.
   109 
   110 * Command keywords of kind thy_decl / thy_goal may be more specifically
   111 fit into the traditional document model of "definition-statement-proof"
   112 via thy_defn / thy_stmt / thy_goal_defn / thy_goal_stmt.
   113 
   114 
   115 *** HOL ***
   116 
   117 * Command 'export_code' produces output as logical files within the
   118 theory context, as well as formal session exports that can be
   119 materialized via command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build
   120 -e" (with 'export_files' in the session ROOT). Isabelle/jEdit also
   121 provides a virtual file-system "isabelle-export:" that can be explored
   122 in the regular file-browser. A 'file_prefix' argument allows to specify
   123 an explicit name prefix for the target file (SML, OCaml, Scala) or
   124 directory (Haskell); the default is "export" with a consecutive number
   125 within each theory.
   126 
   127 * Command 'export_code': the 'file' argument is now legacy and will be
   128 removed soon: writing to the physical file-system is not well-defined in
   129 a reactive/parallel application like Isabelle. The empty 'file' argument
   130 has been discontinued already: it is superseded by the file-browser in
   131 Isabelle/jEdit on "isabelle-export:". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132 
   133 * Command 'code_reflect' no longer supports the 'file' argument: it has
   134 been superseded by 'file_prefix' for stateless file management as in
   135 'export_code'. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   138 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith supersedes Nums as library for
   141 proper integer arithmetic. The library is located via standard
   142 invocations of "ocamlfind" (via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND settings variable).
   143 The environment provided by "isabelle ocaml_setup" already contains this
   144 tool and the required packages. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   145 
   146 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   147 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for 'code_stmts'
   151 antiquotation. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   152 
   153 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   154 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   155 
   156 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter> (not the corresponding binding operators)
   157 now have the same precedence as any other prefix function symbol. Minor
   158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   161 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   162 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   163 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   164 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   167 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*, are
   168 not used by default any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using declare
   169 image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   170 
   171 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   172 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   173 
   174 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   175 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   176 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint
   179 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute have been renamed to
   182 sum_mset.swap and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * ML structure Inductive: slightly more conventional naming schema.
   186 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * ML: Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   189 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators
   190 Named_Target.theory_map[_result] to lift specifications to the global
   191 theory level.
   192 
   193 * Theory HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: 'case_of_simps' now supports
   194 overlapping and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested
   195 patterns. It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which
   196 assumes sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   197 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Theory HOL-Library.Multiset: the <Union># operator now has the same
   201 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   202 
   203 * Session HOL-Library and HOL-Number_Theory: Exponentiation by squaring,
   204 used for computing powers in class "monoid_mult" and modular
   205 exponentiation.
   206 
   207 * Session HOL-Computational_Algebra: Formal Laurent series and overhaul
   208 of Formal power series.
   209 
   210 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: More material on residue rings in
   211 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   212 
   213 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   214 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   215 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   216 
   217   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   218 
   219 * Sledgehammer:
   220   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has been
   221     updated.
   222   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   223     less time (in most cases).
   224 
   225 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   226 
   227 
   228 *** ML ***
   229 
   230 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   231 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   232 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   233 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   234 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   235 
   236   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   237   module Isabelle.Pure where
   238     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   239     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   240     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   241     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   242   \<close>
   243 
   244 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   245 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   246 external compiler is applied.
   247 
   248 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   249 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   250 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   251 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   252 ">" as separator. For example:
   253 
   254   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   255   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   256 
   257   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   258   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   259 
   260   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   261   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   262 
   263 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   264 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   265 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   266 observes the official standard).
   267 
   268 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   269 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   270 
   271 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   272 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   273 useful.
   274 
   275 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   276 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   277 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead, or
   278 the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   281 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   282 
   283 
   284 *** System ***
   285 
   286 * Update to Java 11: the current long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   287 
   288 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   289 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   290 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   291 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   292 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   293 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   294 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   295 are gradually phased out.
   296 
   297 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   298 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   299 
   300 * System option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   301 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   302 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   303 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   304 
   305 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   306 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   307 Isabelle/PIDE.
   308 
   309 * The command-line tool "isabelle build -e" retrieves theory exports
   310 from the session build database, using 'export_files' in session ROOT
   311 entries.
   312 
   313 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   314 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   315 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   316 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   317 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   318 dump".
   319 
   320 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   321 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   322 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   323 
   324 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   325 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   326 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   327 component).
   328 
   329 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   330 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   331 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   332 
   333 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   334 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   335 is no longer required.
   336 
   337 * OCaml tools and libraries are now accesed via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND,
   338 which needs to point to a suitable version of "ocamlfind" (e.g. via
   339 OPAM, see below). INCOMPATIBILITY: settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and
   340 ISABELLE_OCAMLC are no longer supported.
   341 
   342 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   343 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   344 
   345   isabelle ghc_setup
   346   isabelle ghc_stack
   347 
   348   isabelle ocaml_setup
   349   isabelle ocaml_opam
   350 
   351 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   352 (and corresponding directory contents):
   353 
   354   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   355   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   356   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   357 
   358   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   359   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   360 
   361 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   362 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   363 
   364   ISABELLE_GHC
   365 
   366   ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND
   367 
   368 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   369 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   370 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT, or by resetting these variables in
   371 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings.
   372 
   373 
   374 
   375 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   376 ---------------------------------
   377 
   378 *** General ***
   379 
   380 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   381 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   383 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   384 
   385 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   386 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   387 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   388 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   389 
   390 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   391 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   392 
   393 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   394 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   395 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   396 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   397 avoid this.
   398 
   399 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   400 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   401 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   402 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   403 
   404 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   405 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   406 instead.
   407 
   408 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   409 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   410 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   411 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   412 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   413 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   414 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   415 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   416 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   417 syntax), use option "-m".
   418 
   419 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   421 
   422 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   423 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   424 without specific Prover IDE management.
   425 
   426 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   427 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   428 context.
   429 
   430 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   431 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   432 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   433 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   434 
   435   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   436 
   437 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   438 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   439 
   440 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   441 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   442 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   443 output.
   444 
   445 
   446 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   447 
   448 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   449 for session management:
   450 
   451   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   452     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   453 
   454   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   455     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   456 
   457   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   458     and -S
   459 
   460   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   461     theories
   462 
   463   Examples:
   464     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   465     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   466     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   467     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   468     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   469 
   470 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   471 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   472 
   473 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   474 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   475 
   476 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   477 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   478 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   479 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   480 arguments into this format.
   481 
   482 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   483 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   484 
   485 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   486 functions (e.g. State output).
   487 
   488 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   489 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   490 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   491 
   492 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   493 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   494 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   495 
   496 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   497 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   498 
   499 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   500 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   501 Isabelle".
   502 
   503 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   504 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   505 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   506 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   507 Unicode content when saving the file.
   508 
   509 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   510 
   511 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   512 
   513 
   514 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   515 
   516 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   517 Isabelle/jEdit.
   518 
   519 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   520 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   521 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   522 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   523 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   524 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   525 
   526 
   527 *** Document preparation ***
   528 
   529 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   530 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   531 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   532 are supported:
   533 
   534   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   535   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   536   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   537 
   538 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   539 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   540 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   541 
   542 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   543 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   544 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   545 
   546 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   547 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   548 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   549 
   550 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   551 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   552 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   553 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   554 
   555 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   556 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   557 
   558 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   559 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   560 normally need to import.
   561 
   562 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   563 session name verbatim.
   564 
   565 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   566 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   567 
   568 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   569 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   570 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   571 
   572 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   573 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   574 anymore.
   575 
   576 
   577 *** Isar ***
   578 
   579 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   580 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   581 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   582 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   583 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   584 
   585 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   586 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   587 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   588 
   589 
   590 *** Pure ***
   591 
   592 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   593 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   594 
   595 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   596 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   597 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   598 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   599 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   600 
   601 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   602 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   603 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   604 duplicate constant declarations.
   605 
   606 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   607 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   608 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   609 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   610 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   611 
   612 
   613 *** HOL ***
   614 
   615 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   616 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   617 
   618 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   619 
   620   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   621 
   622   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   623     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   624     constraints instead.
   625 
   626   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   627 
   628   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   629     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   630     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   631     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   632 
   633   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   634     standard target languages.
   635 
   636   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   637     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   638     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   639     HOL string values and vice versa.
   640 
   641   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   642     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   643 
   644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   647 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   648 
   649 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   650 
   651 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   652 former axioms:
   653 
   654   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   655 
   656 are replaced by:
   657 
   658   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   659 
   660 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   661 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   662 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   663 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   664 
   665 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   666 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   667 
   668 * Clarifed theorem names:
   669 
   670   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   671   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   672 
   673 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * SMT module:
   676 
   677   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   678     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   681     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   682     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   683 
   684 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   685 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   686 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   695 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   697 
   698 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   699 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   700 Renamed:
   701 
   702   span_inc ~> span_superset
   703   span_superset ~> span_base
   704   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   705 
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   709 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   712 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   713 
   714 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   715 
   716   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   717     input syntax
   718 
   719   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   720 
   721 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   722 
   723 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   724 
   725 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   726 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   730   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   731   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   732   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   733 
   734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   737 
   738   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   739   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   740   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   741   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   742   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   743 
   744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   745 
   746 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   747 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   748 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   749 broken proofs.
   750 
   751 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   752 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   753 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   754 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   755 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   756 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   757 
   758 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   759 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   760 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   761 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   762 examples.
   763 
   764 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   765 
   766 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   767 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768 
   769 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   770 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   771 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   773 
   774 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   775 infix/prefix notation.
   776 
   777 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   778 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   782 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   786 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   790 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   791 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   792 
   793 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   794 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   795 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   796 
   797 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   798 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   799 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   800 
   801 
   802 *** ML ***
   803 
   804 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   805 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   806 
   807 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   808 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   809 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   810 "isabelle process".
   811 
   812 
   813 *** System ***
   814 
   815 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   816 longer supported.
   817 
   818 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   819 support has been discontinued.
   820 
   821 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   822 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   823 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824 
   825 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   826 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   827 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   828 quotes):
   829 
   830   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   831   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   832 
   833   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   834   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   835 
   836   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   837   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   838 
   839 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   840   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   841   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   842   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   843 
   844 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   845 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   846 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   847 only.
   848 
   849 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   850 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   851 up-to-date status of a session.
   852 
   853 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   854 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   855 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   856 directory.
   857 
   858 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   859 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   860 
   861 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   862 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   863 
   864 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   865 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   866 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   867 See also the "system" manual.
   868 
   869 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   870 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   871 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   872 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   873 been discontinued.
   874 
   875 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   876 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   879 repository for the generated session files.
   880 
   881 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   882 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   883 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   884 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   885 ISABELLE_HOME).
   886 
   887 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   888 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   889 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   890 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   891 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   892 
   893 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   894 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   895 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   896 
   897 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   898 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   899 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   900 32/64 bit.
   901 
   902 
   903 
   904 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   905 ----------------------------------
   906 
   907 *** General ***
   908 
   909 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   910 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   911 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   912 
   913 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   914 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   915 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   916 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   917 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   918 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   919 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   920 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   921 
   922 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   923 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   924 just the theory base name as before).
   925 
   926 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   927 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   928 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   929 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   930 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   931 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   932 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   933 
   934 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   935 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   936 leads to the follow renamings:
   937 
   938   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   939   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   940   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   941   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   942   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   943 
   944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   947 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   948 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   949 
   950 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   951 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   952 
   953 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   954 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   955 antiquotations:
   956 
   957   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   958     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   959   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   960     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   961   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   962 
   963 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   964 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   965 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   966 tutorial on code generation.
   967 
   968 
   969 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   970 
   971 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   972 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   973 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   974 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   975 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   976 
   977 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   978 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   979 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   980 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   981 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   982 effectively always enabled.
   983 
   984 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   985 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   986 buffers.
   987 
   988 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   989 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   990 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   991 represented by a different border color.
   992 
   993 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   994 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   995 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   996 
   997 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   998 document in the default web browser.
   999 
  1000 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
  1001 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
  1002 used for formal checking.
  1003 
  1004 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
  1005 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
  1006 enabled at all times.
  1007 
  1008 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
  1009 
  1010 
  1011 *** Pure ***
  1012 
  1013 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
  1014 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
  1015 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
  1016 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1017 
  1018 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
  1019   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
  1020     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
  1021   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
  1022     malformed.
  1023   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
  1024     malformed.
  1025 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
  1028 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
  1029 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1030 
  1031 
  1032 *** HOL ***
  1033 
  1034 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
  1035 
  1036 * SMT module:
  1037   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
  1038     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
  1039     disabled by default.
  1040   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
  1041   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1042 
  1043 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1044 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1045 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1047 
  1048 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1049 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1050 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1052 
  1053 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1054 of "Complex_Main").
  1055 
  1056 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1057 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1058 
  1059 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1063 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1066 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1069 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1070 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1071 
  1072 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1073 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1076 
  1077 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1078 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1079 
  1080 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1081 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1082 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1083 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085 * Generalized some facts:
  1086     measure_induct_rule
  1087     measure_induct
  1088     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1089     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1090     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1091     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1095 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1096 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1097 euclidean size.
  1098 
  1099 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1100   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1101   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1102     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1103     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1104   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1105     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1107 
  1108 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1109 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1110 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1111 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1112 
  1113 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1114   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1115   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1116 
  1117 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1118 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1121 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1122 
  1123 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1124 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1125 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1131 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1132 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1133 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1134 
  1135 syntax (ASCII)
  1136   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1137   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1138   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1139 
  1140 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1141 multisets have been renamed:
  1142 
  1143   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1144   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1145 
  1146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1147 
  1148 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1149 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1150 
  1151 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1152 
  1153 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1154 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1155 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1156 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1157 
  1158 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1159 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1160 
  1161 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1162 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1163 
  1164 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1165 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1166 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1167 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170 
  1171 *** System ***
  1172 
  1173 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1174 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1175 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1176 
  1177 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1178 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1179 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1180 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1181 
  1182 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1183 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1184 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1185 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1186 
  1187 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1188 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1189 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1190 unchanged.
  1191 
  1192 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1193 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1196 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1197 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1198 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1199 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1200 
  1201 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1202 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1203 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1204 
  1205 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1206 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1207 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1208 
  1209 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1210 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1211 
  1212   isabelle imports -I -a
  1213   isabelle imports -U -a
  1214   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1215   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1216 
  1217 
  1218 
  1219 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1220 -------------------------------------
  1221 
  1222 *** General ***
  1223 
  1224 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1225   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1226     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1227   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1228     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1229     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1230     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1231     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1232 
  1233 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1234 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1235 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1236 
  1237 bundle foo
  1238 begin
  1239   declare a [simp]
  1240   declare b [intro]
  1241 end
  1242 
  1243 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1244 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1245 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1246 
  1247 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1248 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1249 discontinued.
  1250 
  1251 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1252 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1253 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1254 
  1255 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1256 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1257 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1258 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1259 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1260 
  1261 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1262 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1263 
  1264 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1265 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1266 
  1267 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1268 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1269 examples.
  1270 
  1271 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1272 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1273 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1274 
  1275 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1276 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1277 
  1278 
  1279 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1280 
  1281 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1282 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1283 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1284 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1285 
  1286 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1287 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1288 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1289 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1290 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1291 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1292 
  1293 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1294 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1295 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1296 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1297 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1298 
  1299 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1300 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1301 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1302 
  1303 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1304 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1305 
  1306 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1307 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1308 
  1309 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1310 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1311 
  1312 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1313 
  1314 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1315 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1316 systematic renaming.
  1317 
  1318 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1319 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1320 theorem statement.
  1321 
  1322 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1323 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1324 
  1325 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1326 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1327 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1328 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1329 
  1330 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1331 following independent stages:
  1332 
  1333   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1334   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1335   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1336   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1337 
  1338 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1339 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1340 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1341 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1342 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1343 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1344 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1345 
  1346 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1347 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1348 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1349 
  1350 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1351 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1352 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1353 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1354 
  1355 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1356 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1357 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1358 
  1359 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1360 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1361 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1362 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1363 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1364 old keymaps.
  1365 
  1366 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1367 and diverse:
  1368 
  1369   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1370   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1371   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1372 
  1373 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1374 have to be changed.
  1375 
  1376 
  1377 *** Document preparation ***
  1378 
  1379 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1380 
  1381 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1382 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1383 
  1384 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1385 this allows special forms of document output.
  1386 
  1387 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1388 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1389 derivatives.
  1390 
  1391 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1392 
  1393 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1394 Isabelle2015).
  1395 
  1396 
  1397 *** Isar ***
  1398 
  1399 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1400 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1401 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1402 
  1403 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1404 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1405 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1406 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1407 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1408 
  1409 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1410 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1411 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1412 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1413 
  1414 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1415 context.
  1416 
  1417 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1418 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1419 
  1420 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1421 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1422 
  1423 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1424 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1425 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1426 
  1427 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1428 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1432 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1433 definitions.
  1434 
  1435 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1436 expression, e.g.
  1437 
  1438   (use facts in simp)
  1439   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1440 
  1441 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1442 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1443 
  1444 
  1445 *** Pure ***
  1446 
  1447 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1448 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1449 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1450 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1451 
  1452 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1453 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1454 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1455 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1456 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1457 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1458 
  1459 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1460 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1461 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1462 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1463 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1464 types where this is really intended.
  1465 
  1466 
  1467 *** HOL ***
  1468 
  1469 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1470 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1471 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1472 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1473 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1474 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1475 
  1476 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1477 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1478 
  1479 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1480 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * Sledgehammer:
  1483   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1484   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1485 
  1486 * (Co)datatype package:
  1487   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1488     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1489     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1490     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1491   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1492     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1493   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1494     to the map function.
  1495   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1496   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1497        terms of map and set
  1498        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1499   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1500        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1501     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1502   - Renamed lemmas:
  1503       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1504       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1505     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1507   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1508     equivalent) form.
  1509     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1512 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1513 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1514 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515 
  1516 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1517 
  1518   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1519   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1520 
  1521 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1522 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1523 eliminated altogether.
  1524 
  1525 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1526 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1527 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1528 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1529 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1530 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1531 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1532 
  1533 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1537 
  1538     setsum ~> sum
  1539     setprod ~> prod
  1540     listsum ~> sum_list
  1541     listprod ~> prod_list
  1542 
  1543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1546     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1547     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1548     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1549     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1550     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1551     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1552     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1553     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1554     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1555     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1556     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1557     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1558     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1559     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1560     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1561     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1562     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1563     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1564     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1565     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1566     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1567     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1568     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1569     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1570     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1571     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1572     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1573     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1574     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1578 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1579 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1582 
  1583 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1584 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1585 
  1586   - Logical representation:
  1587     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1588     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1589       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1590     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1591       are non-canonical.
  1592   - Printing and parsing:
  1593     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1594       (as before).
  1595     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1596     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1597       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1598       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1599     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1600       printed as their logical representation.
  1601   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1602     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1603   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1604 
  1605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606 
  1607 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1608 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1609 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1610 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1611 
  1612 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1613 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1614 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1615 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1616 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1619 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1620 
  1621 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1622 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1623 
  1624 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1625 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1626 interface for the generated code.
  1627 
  1628 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1629 spelt out explicitly.
  1630 
  1631 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1632 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1633 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1634 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1635 
  1636 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1637 products.
  1638 
  1639 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1640 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1641 
  1642 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1643 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1644 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1645 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1646 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1647 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1648 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1652 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1653 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1659   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1660   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1661 
  1662 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1663   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1664     le_add_same_cancel1
  1665     le_add_same_cancel2
  1666     less_add_same_cancel1
  1667     less_add_same_cancel2
  1668     add_le_same_cancel1
  1669     add_le_same_cancel2
  1670     add_less_same_cancel1
  1671     add_less_same_cancel2
  1672 
  1673 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1674   superseeded by a more general version:
  1675     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1676     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1677     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1678     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1679     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1680     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1681     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1682     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1686 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1689 
  1690 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1691 
  1692   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1693   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1694 
  1695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1696 
  1697 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1699 
  1700 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1701 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1702 A)".
  1703 
  1704 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1705 
  1706 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1707 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1708 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1709 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1710 
  1711 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1712 dioid.
  1713 
  1714 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1715 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1716 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1717 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1718 
  1719 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1720 of a more general type also:
  1721   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1722   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1723   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1724   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1725   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1726   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1727   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1728   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1729   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1730   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1731   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1732   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1733   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1734   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1735   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1736   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1737   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1738   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1739   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1740   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1741   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1742   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1743   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1744   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1745   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1746   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1747   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1748   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1749   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1750   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1751   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1752   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1753   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1754   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1755   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1756   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1757   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1758   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1759   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1760   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1761   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1762   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1763   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1764   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1765   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1766   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1767   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1768   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1769   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1770   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1771   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1772   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1773   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1774   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1775   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1776   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1777   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1778   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1779   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1780   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1781   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1782   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1783   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1784   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1785   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1786   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1787   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1788   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1789   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1790   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1791   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1792   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1793   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1794   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1795   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1796   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1797   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1798   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1799   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1800   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1801   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1802   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1803   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1804   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1805   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1806   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1807   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1808   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1810 
  1811 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1812 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813 
  1814 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1815 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1816 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1817 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1818 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1819 
  1820 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1821 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1822 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1823 once.
  1824 
  1825 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1826 set_mset rather than count.
  1827 
  1828   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1829     by default.
  1830 
  1831   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1832     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1833 
  1834   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1835     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1836 
  1837   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1838     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1839 
  1840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1843 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1844 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1845 underscores.
  1846 
  1847 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1848 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1849 relation.
  1850 
  1851 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1852 everywhere fix bijections.
  1853 
  1854 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1855 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1856 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1857 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1858 
  1859 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1860 
  1861 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1862 
  1863 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1864 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1865 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1866 
  1867 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1868 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1869 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1870 
  1871 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1872 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1873 
  1874 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1875 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1876 domain.
  1877 
  1878 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1879 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1882   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1883 
  1884 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1885 Probability Mass Functions.
  1886 
  1887 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1888 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1889 folding over a list in random order.
  1890 
  1891 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1892 subprobability distributions.
  1893 
  1894 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1895 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1896 
  1897     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1898     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1899     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1900     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1901     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1902     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1903     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1904     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1905     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1906     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1907     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1908     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1909     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1910     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1911     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1912     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1913     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1914     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1915     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1916     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1917     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1918     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1919 
  1920 Some functions have been renamed:
  1921     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1922 
  1923 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1924     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1925     #\<subset># ~> <
  1926     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1927     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1931 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1932 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1933 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1934 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1935 
  1936 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1937 been renamed:
  1938 
  1939     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1940     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1941     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1942     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1943     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1944     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1945     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1946     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1947     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1948 
  1949     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1950     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1951     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1952     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1953     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1954     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1955     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1956     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1957     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1958     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1959     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1964 
  1965 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1966 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1967 
  1968     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1969     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1970     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1971     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1972     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1973     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1974     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1975     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1976     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1977     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1978     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1979     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1980     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1981     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1982     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1983     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1984     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1985 
  1986 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1987 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1988 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1989 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1990 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1991 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1992 
  1993 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1994 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1996 
  1997 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1998 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1999 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  2002 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  2003 removed or changed:
  2004 
  2005   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  2006   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  2007   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  2008   union_single_eq_diff
  2009   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2010   diff_single_eq_union
  2011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  2014 to use add_mset instead of single:
  2015 
  2016   mset_add
  2017   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2018   diff_single_eq_union
  2019   union_single_eq_diff
  2020   union_single_eq_member
  2021   add_eq_conv_diff
  2022   insert_noteq_member
  2023   add_eq_conv_ex
  2024   multi_member_split
  2025   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  2026   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  2027   mset_subset_insertD
  2028   insert_subset_eq_iff
  2029   insert_union_subset_iff
  2030   multi_psub_of_add_self
  2031   inter_add_left1
  2032   inter_add_left2
  2033   inter_add_right1
  2034   inter_add_right2
  2035   sup_union_left1
  2036   sup_union_left2
  2037   sup_union_right1
  2038   sup_union_right2
  2039   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  2040   multi_nonempty_split
  2041   mset_insort
  2042   mset_update
  2043   mult1I
  2044   less_add
  2045   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2046   rel_mset_Zero
  2047   msed_map_invL
  2048   msed_map_invR
  2049   msed_rel_invL
  2050   msed_rel_invR
  2051   le_multiset_right_total
  2052   multiset_induct
  2053   multiset_induct2_size
  2054   multiset_induct2
  2055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2056 
  2057 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2058 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2059 element:
  2060 
  2061   image_mset
  2062   mset
  2063   replicate_mset
  2064   mult1
  2065   pred_mset
  2066   rel_mset'
  2067   mset_insort
  2068 
  2069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2072 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2073 
  2074   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2075   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2076   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2077   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2078   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2079   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2080   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2081   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2082   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2083   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2084   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2085   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2086   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2087   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2088   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2089   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2090   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2091   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2092   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2096 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2097 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2099 
  2100 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2101 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2102 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2105 multisets:
  2106 
  2107   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2108   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2109 
  2110 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2111 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2112 
  2113   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2114   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2115 
  2116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2119 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2120 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2123 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2124 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2125 
  2126 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2127 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2128 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2129 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2130 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2131 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2134 the following renaming
  2135 
  2136   prefixeq -> prefix
  2137   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2138   suffixeq -> suffix
  2139   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2140 
  2141 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2142 
  2143 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2144 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2145 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2146 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2147 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2148 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2149 
  2150 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2151 theories.
  2152 
  2153 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2154 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2155 
  2156 
  2157 *** ML ***
  2158 
  2159 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2160 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2161 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2162 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2164 
  2165 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2166 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2167 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2168 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2169 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2170 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2171 superseded by General.Div.
  2172 
  2173 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2174 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2177 with approximative output quality.
  2178 
  2179 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2180 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2181 
  2182 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2183 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2184 requiring separate files.
  2185 
  2186 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2187 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2188 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2189 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2190 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2191 
  2192 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2193 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2194 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2195 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2196 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2197 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2198 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2201 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2205 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2206 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2207 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2210 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212 
  2213 *** System ***
  2214 
  2215 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2216 
  2217 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2218 much less disk space.
  2219 
  2220 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2221 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2222 particular:
  2223 
  2224   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2225     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2226   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2227   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2228 
  2229 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2230 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2231 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2234 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2235 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2236 return code 1.
  2237 
  2238 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2239 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2240 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2241 
  2242 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2243 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2244 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2245 
  2246 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2247 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2248 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2249 by default).
  2250 
  2251 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2252 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2253 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2254 resulting log files.
  2255 
  2256 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2257 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2258 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2259 implicit default via option -p.
  2260 
  2261 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2262 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2263 
  2264 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2265 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2266 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2267 
  2268 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2269 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2270 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2271 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2272 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2275 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2276 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2277 
  2278 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2279 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2280 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2281 
  2282 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2283 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2284 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2285 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2286 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2287 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2288 been discontinued.
  2289 
  2290 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2291 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2292 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2293 
  2294 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2295 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2296 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2297 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2298 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2299 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2300 
  2301 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2302 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2303 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2304 connection).
  2305 
  2306 
  2307 
  2308 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2309 -----------------------------------
  2310 
  2311 *** General ***
  2312 
  2313 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2314 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2315 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2316 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2317 examples that do require HOL.
  2318 
  2319 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2320 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2321 
  2322 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2323 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2324 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2325 has been removed (see below).
  2326 
  2327 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2328 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2329 
  2330 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2331 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2332 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2333 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2334 
  2335 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2336 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2337 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2338 meaning.
  2339 
  2340 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2341 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2342 to update old sources.
  2343 
  2344 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2345 
  2346   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2347   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2348   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2349   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2350 
  2351 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2352 accordingly.
  2353 
  2354 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2355 'theorem'.
  2356 
  2357 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2358 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2359 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2360 
  2361 
  2362 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2363 
  2364 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2365 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2366 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2367 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2368 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2369 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2370 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2371 any effect on the running ML program.
  2372 
  2373 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2374 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2375 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2376 update.
  2377 
  2378 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2379 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2380 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2381 
  2382 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2383 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2384 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2385 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2386 visibility.
  2387 
  2388 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2389 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2390 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2391 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2392 panel.
  2393 
  2394 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2395 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2396 
  2397 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2398 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2399 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2400 
  2401 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2402 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2403 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2404 
  2405 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2406 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2407 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2408 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2409 
  2410 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2411 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2412 the editor.
  2413 
  2414 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2415 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2416 
  2417 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2418 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2419 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2420 instead.
  2421 
  2422 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2423 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2424 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2425 
  2426 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2427 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2428 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2429 
  2430 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2431 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2432 
  2433 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2434 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2435 
  2436 
  2437 *** Document preparation ***
  2438 
  2439 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2440 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2441 
  2442 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2443 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2444 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2445 
  2446 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2447 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2448 follows:
  2449 
  2450   \<^item>  itemize
  2451   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2452   \<^descr>  description
  2453 
  2454 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2455 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2456 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2457 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2458 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2459 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2460 
  2461 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2462 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2463 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2464 
  2465 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2466 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2467 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2468 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2469 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2470 
  2471 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2472 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2473 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2474 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2475 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2476 
  2477 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2478 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2479 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2480 
  2481 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2482 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2483 
  2484 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2485 
  2486 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2487 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2488 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2489 
  2490 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2491 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2492 
  2493 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2494 entities of the Isar language.
  2495 
  2496 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2497 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2498 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2499 
  2500 
  2501 *** Isar ***
  2502 
  2503 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2504 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2505 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2506 example:
  2507 
  2508   have result: "C x y"
  2509     if "A x" and "B y"
  2510     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2511     <proof>
  2512 
  2513 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2514 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2515 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2516 
  2517   {
  2518     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2519     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2520     have "C x y" <proof>
  2521   }
  2522   note result = this
  2523 
  2524 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2525 instead of 'assume' above.
  2526 
  2527 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2528 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2529 
  2530   assume result: "C x y"
  2531     if "A x" and "B y"
  2532     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2533 
  2534 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2535 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2536 
  2537 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2538 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2539 example:
  2540 
  2541   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2542 
  2543 is equivalent to:
  2544 
  2545   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2546 
  2547 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2548 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2549 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2550 follows:
  2551 
  2552   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2553 
  2554 or:
  2555 
  2556   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2557 
  2558 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2559 
  2560   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2561 
  2562 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2563 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2564 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2565 of the local context elements yet.
  2566 
  2567 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2568 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2569 
  2570   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2571   then have something
  2572   proof cases
  2573     case a
  2574     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2575   next
  2576     case b
  2577     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2578   next
  2579     case c
  2580     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2581   qed
  2582 
  2583 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2584 
  2585   case a: (c xs)
  2586   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2587 
  2588 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2589 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2590 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2591 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2592 and always put attributes in front.
  2593 
  2594 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2595 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2596 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2597 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2598 
  2599 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2600 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2601 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2602 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2603 
  2604   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2605     supply [simp] = a
  2606   proof
  2607     show A by simp
  2608   next
  2609     show A by simp
  2610   qed
  2611 
  2612 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2613 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2614 
  2615 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2616 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2617 
  2618 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2619 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2620 
  2621 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2622 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2623 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2624 manual.
  2625 
  2626 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2627 ('apply' scripts).
  2628 
  2629 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2630 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2631 example:
  2632 
  2633 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2634   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2635 proof goal_cases
  2636   case (1 x)
  2637   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2638 next
  2639   case (2 y z)
  2640   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2641 qed
  2642 
  2643 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2644   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2645 proof goal_cases
  2646   case prems: 1
  2647   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2648 next
  2649   case prems: 2
  2650   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2651 qed
  2652 
  2653 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2654 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2655 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2656 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2657 
  2658 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2659 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2660 
  2661 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2662 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2663 
  2664 
  2665 *** Pure ***
  2666 
  2667 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2668 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2669 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2670 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2671 
  2672 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2673 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2674 
  2675 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2676 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2677 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2678 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2679 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2680 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2681 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2682 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2683 
  2684   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2685   begin
  2686     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2687   end
  2688 
  2689   locale morphism =
  2690     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2691     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2692   begin
  2693     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2694   end
  2695 
  2696 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2697 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2698 
  2699 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2700 'defines'.
  2701 
  2702 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2703 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2704 
  2705 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2706 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2707 
  2708 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2709 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2710 
  2711 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2712 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2713 exploited.
  2714 
  2715 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2716 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2717 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2718 
  2719 
  2720 *** HOL ***
  2721 
  2722 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2723 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2724 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2725 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2726 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2727 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2730 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2731 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2732 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2733 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2734 
  2735 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2736 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2737 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2738 simplify porting old theories:
  2739 
  2740   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2741 
  2742   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2743 
  2744   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2745   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2746 
  2747   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2748 
  2749   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2750   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2751 
  2752   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2753 
  2754   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2755     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2756 
  2757   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2758   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2759   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2760 
  2761   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2762   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2763   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2764 
  2765 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2766 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2767 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2768 
  2769 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2770 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2771 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2772 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2773 
  2774 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2775 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2776 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2777 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2778 
  2779 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2780 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2781 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2782 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2785 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2786 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2790 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2791 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2792 
  2793 Consolidated facts:
  2794   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2795   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2796   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2797   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2798   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2799   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2800   split_split ~> prod.split
  2801   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2802   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2803   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2804   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2805   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2806   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2807   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2808   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2809   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2810   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2811   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2812   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2813   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2814   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2815   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2816   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2817   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2818   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2819   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2820   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2821   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2822   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2823   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2824   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2825   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2826   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2827   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2828   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2829 
  2830 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2831   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2832   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2833   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2834   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2835 
  2836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2839 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2840 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2841 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2842 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2843 
  2844 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2845   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2846   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2847   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2848   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2849   real_of_one of_int_1
  2850   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2851   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2852   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2853   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2854   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2855   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2856   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2857   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2858   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2859   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2860   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2861   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2862   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2863   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2864   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2865   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2866   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2867 
  2868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2869 
  2870 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2871 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2872 
  2873 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2874 
  2875 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2876 
  2877 * Sledgehammer:
  2878   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2879   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2880     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2881   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2882   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2883   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2884     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2886 
  2887 * Nitpick:
  2888   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2889   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2890   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2891   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2892   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2893 
  2894 * (Co)datatype package:
  2895   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2896     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2897   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2898   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2899     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2901     being defined.
  2902   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2903 
  2904 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2905 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2906 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2907 
  2908 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2909 
  2910 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2911 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2912 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2913 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2914 
  2915 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2917 
  2918 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2919 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2920 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2921 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2922 
  2923 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2924 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2925 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2926 
  2927 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2928 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2929 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2930 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2931 
  2932 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2933 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2934 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2935 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2936 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2937 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2938 during instantiation.
  2939 
  2940 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2941 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2942 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2943 
  2944 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2945 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2946 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2947 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2948 
  2949   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2950   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2951 
  2952 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * Library/Multiset:
  2955   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2956       < ~> <#
  2957       > ~> >#
  2958       <= ~> <=#
  2959       >= ~> >=#
  2960       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2961       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2962     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2964       \<subset>#
  2965       \<subseteq>#
  2966       \<supset>#
  2967       \<supseteq>#
  2968   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2969     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2970     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2971     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2972     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2973     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2974     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975   - Renamed conversions:
  2976       multiset_of ~> mset
  2977       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2978       set_of ~> set_mset
  2979     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2980   - Renamed lemmas:
  2981       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2982       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2983       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2984     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2985   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2986     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2987     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2988     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2989 
  2990 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2991 
  2992 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2993 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2994 chain-complete partial orders.
  2995 
  2996 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2997 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2998 
  2999 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  3000 periodic functions.
  3001 
  3002 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  3003 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  3004 GCD.
  3005 
  3006 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  3007 
  3008 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  3009 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3010 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  3011 
  3012 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  3013 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  3014 
  3015 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  3016 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  3017 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  3018 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  3019 
  3020 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  3021 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  3022 
  3023 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  3024 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  3025 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  3026 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  3027 properties.
  3028 
  3029 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  3030 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  3031 
  3032 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  3033 structures.
  3034 
  3035 
  3036 *** ML ***
  3037 
  3038 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  3039 system are available:
  3040 
  3041   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3042   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3043   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3044 
  3045 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3046 
  3047 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3048 Isar proof method.
  3049 
  3050 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3051 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3052 breaks.
  3053 
  3054 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3055 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3056 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057 
  3058 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3059 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3060 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3061 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3062 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3065 
  3066   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3067   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3068 
  3069   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3070   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3071 
  3072 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3073 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3074 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3075 
  3076 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3077 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3078 instead (with proper context).
  3079 
  3080 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3081 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3082 
  3083 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3084 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3085 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3086 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3087 the proof context discipline.
  3088 
  3089 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3090 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3091 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3092 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3093 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 
  3096 *** System ***
  3097 
  3098 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3099 
  3100 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3101 conflations:
  3102 
  3103     hence  ~>  then have
  3104     thus   ~>  then show
  3105 
  3106 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3107 maintainability of proofs.
  3108 
  3109 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3110 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3111 performance.
  3112 
  3113 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3114 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3115 
  3116     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3117 
  3118 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3119 space.
  3120 
  3121 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3122 platforms as follows.
  3123 
  3124   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3125     associated with the main app bundle
  3126 
  3127   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3128     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3129     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3130 
  3131   - isabelle build: settings
  3132     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3133 
  3134 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3135 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3136 
  3137 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3138 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3139 required after change.
  3140 
  3141 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3142 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3143 
  3144 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3145 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3146 
  3147 
  3148 
  3149 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3150 ------------------------------
  3151 
  3152 *** General ***
  3153 
  3154 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3155 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3156 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3157 
  3158   context
  3159   begin
  3160 
  3161   private definition ...
  3162   private lemma ...
  3163 
  3164   qualified definition ...
  3165   qualified lemma ...
  3166 
  3167   lemma ...
  3168   theorem ...
  3169 
  3170   end
  3171 
  3172 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3173 naming policy.
  3174 
  3175 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3176 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3177 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3178 
  3179 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3180 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3181 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3182 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3183 
  3184 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3185 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3186 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3190 theory context.
  3191 
  3192 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3193 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3194 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3195 
  3196 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3197 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3198 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3199 sources.
  3200 
  3201 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3202 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3203 
  3204 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3205 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3206 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3207 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3208 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3209 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3210 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3211 
  3212 
  3213 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3214 
  3215 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3216 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3217 
  3218 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3219 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3220 in the buffer.
  3221 
  3222 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3223 marker, SideKick parser.
  3224 
  3225 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3226 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3227 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3228 
  3229 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3230 Options / Text Area).
  3231 
  3232 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3233 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3234 
  3235 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3236 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3237 
  3238 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3239 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3240 
  3241 
  3242 *** Document preparation ***
  3243 
  3244 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3245 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3246 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3247 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3248 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3249 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3250 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3251 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3254 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3255 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3256 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3257 
  3258 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3259 style.
  3260 
  3261 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3262 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3263 
  3264 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3265 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3266 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3267 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3268 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3269 
  3270 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3271 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3272 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3273 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3274 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3275 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3276 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3279 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3280 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282 
  3283 
  3284 *** Pure ***
  3285 
  3286 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3287 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3288 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3289 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3290 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3291 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3292 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3293 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3294 
  3295 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3296 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3297 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3298 
  3299 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3300 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3301 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3302 different index.
  3303 
  3304 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3305 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3306 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3307 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3308 
  3309 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3310 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3311 token category instead.
  3312 
  3313 
  3314 *** HOL ***
  3315 
  3316 * New (co)datatype package:
  3317   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3318     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3319     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3320     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322   - Renamed theorems:
  3323       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3324       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3325       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3326       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3327       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3328       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3329       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3330       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3331       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3332       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3333       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3334       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3335       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3336     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3338     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3339     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3341     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3342     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3344     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3345     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3346     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3347     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3348     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3349     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350   - Renamed theories:
  3351       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3352       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3353       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3354       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3355       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3356       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3357     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3359     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3360     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3361     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3362     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3363     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3364     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3365     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3366     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3367   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3368     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3369     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3370     rules.
  3371 
  3372 * Old datatype package:
  3373   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3374     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3375     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3376     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3377     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378   - Renamed theorems:
  3379       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3380     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381   - Renamed theory:
  3382       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3383     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * Nitpick:
  3386   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3387     operations.
  3388 
  3389 * Sledgehammer:
  3390   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3391     default.
  3392   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3393     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3394   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3395     Removed sub-command:
  3396       min
  3397   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3398     dramatically improved.
  3399   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3400 
  3401 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3402   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3403     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3404     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3405     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3406     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3407     point to it.
  3408     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3410     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3411   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3412     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3413   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3414     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3415 
  3416 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3417 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3418 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3419 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3420 
  3421 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3422 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3423 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3426 
  3427 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3428 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3429 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3430 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3433 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3439 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3440 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3443 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3446 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3447 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3448 
  3449 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3450 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3451 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3452 needed.
  3453 
  3454 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3455 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3456 
  3457 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3458 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3459 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3460 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3461 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3462 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3463 
  3464 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3465 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3466 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3467 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3468 
  3469 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3470 type class hierarchy:
  3471   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3472   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3473   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3474   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3475 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476 
  3477 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3478   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3479   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3480 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3483 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3484 
  3485 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3486   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3487   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3488   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3489 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3492 and part of theory Main.
  3493   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3500 Fact rename:
  3501     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3505 
  3506 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3507 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3508 
  3509 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3510 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3511 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3512 
  3513 * Library/Multiset:
  3514   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3515   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3516     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3517   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3518       <# ~> #<#
  3519       <=# ~> #<=#
  3520       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3521       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3522     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3524       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3525       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3526     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527   - Renamed
  3528       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3529       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3530       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3531     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3533   - Added attributes:
  3534       image_mset.id [simp]
  3535       image_mset_id [simp]
  3536       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3537       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3538       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3539       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3540       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3541       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3542     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3545 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3546 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3547 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3550 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3551 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3552 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3553 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3554 examples.
  3555 
  3556 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3557   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3558   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3559   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3560     projection
  3561 
  3562 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3563 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3564 
  3565 
  3566 *** ML ***
  3567 
  3568 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3569 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3570 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3571 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3572 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3573 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3574 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3575 
  3576 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3577 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3578 
  3579 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3580 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3581 
  3582 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3586 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3587 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3588 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3589 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3590 nested.
  3591 
  3592 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3593 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3596 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3597 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3601 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3602 Thm.term_of etc.
  3603 
  3604 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3605 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3606 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3609 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3610 
  3611 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3612 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3613 
  3614 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3615 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3616 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3619 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3620 
  3621 
  3622 *** System ***
  3623 
  3624 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3625 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3626 
  3627 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3628 
  3629 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3630 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3631 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3632 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3636 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3637 
  3638 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3639 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3640 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3641 
  3642 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3643 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3644 
  3645 
  3646 
  3647 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3648 ---------------------------------
  3649 
  3650 *** General ***
  3651 
  3652 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3653 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3654 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3655 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3656 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3657 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3658 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3659 some examples.
  3660 
  3661 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3662 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3663 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3664 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3665 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3666 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3667 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3668 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3669 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3670 
  3671 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3672 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3673 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3674 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3675 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3676 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3677 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3678 proof tools.
  3679 
  3680 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3681 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3682 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3683 
  3684 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3685 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3686 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3687 
  3688 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3689 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3690 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3691 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3694 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3695 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3699 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3700 
  3701 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3702 not check existence within the file-system.
  3703 
  3704 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3705 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3706 
  3707 
  3708 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3709 
  3710 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3711 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3712 buffer.
  3713 
  3714 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3715 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3716 
  3717 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3718 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3719 
  3720 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3721 auxiliary ML files.
  3722 
  3723 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3724 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3725 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3726 
  3727 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3728 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3729 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3730 
  3731 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3732 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3733 
  3734 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3735 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3736 caret".
  3737 
  3738 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3739 completion popup and context-menu.
  3740 
  3741 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3742 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3743 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3744 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3745 
  3746 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3747 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3748 
  3749 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3750 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3751 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3752 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3753 
  3754 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3755 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3756 
  3757 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3758 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3759 
  3760 * Improved monitor panel.
  3761 
  3762 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3763 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3764 
  3765 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3766 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3767 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3768 
  3769 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3770 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3771 within the context.
  3772 
  3773 
  3774 *** Pure ***
  3775 
  3776 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3777 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3778 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3779 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3780 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3781 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3782 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3783 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3784 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3785 
  3786 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3787 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3788 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3789 renaming needs to be applied:
  3790 
  3791   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3792   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3793   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3794   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3795   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3796 
  3797 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3798 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3799 old constants:
  3800 
  3801 setup {*
  3802   fn thy => thy
  3803     |> Sign.root_path
  3804     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3805     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3806     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3807     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3808 *}
  3809 
  3810 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3811 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3812 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3813 
  3814 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3815 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3816 instantiated theorem.
  3817 
  3818 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3819 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3820 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3821 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3822 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3823 
  3824   attribute_setup standard =
  3825     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3826 
  3827 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3828 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3829 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3830 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3831 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3832 
  3833 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3834 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3835 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3836 
  3837 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3838 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3839 
  3840 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3841 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3842 
  3843 
  3844 *** HOL ***
  3845 
  3846 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3847 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3856 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3862 with the given constants.
  3863 
  3864 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3865 operations on records.
  3866 
  3867 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3868 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3873 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3874 
  3875 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3878 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3879 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3880 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3881 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3884 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3887   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3888   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3889   part of theory "Main".
  3890 
  3891   Theory renamings:
  3892     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3893     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3894     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3895     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3896     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3897     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3898     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3899     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3900     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3901     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3902     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3903     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3904     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3905     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3906     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3907     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3908     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3909     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3910     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3911     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3912     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3913     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3914 
  3915   New theories:
  3916     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3917     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3918     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3919     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3920     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3921 
  3922   Discontinued theories:
  3923     BNF/BNF.thy
  3924     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3925 
  3926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * New (co)datatype package:
  3929   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3930   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3931     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3932   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3933     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3934   - Renamed commands:
  3935       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3936       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3937       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3938     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3939   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3940     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3941     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3943     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3944     using "prim(co)rec".
  3945     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3947     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3948     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3950     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3951     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3952     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Old datatype package:
  3955   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3956     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3957     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3959     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3960     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3963   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3964   BNF-based datatype package.
  3965 
  3966   Renamed constants:
  3967     Option.set ~> set_option
  3968     Option.map ~> map_option
  3969     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3970 
  3971   Renamed theorems:
  3972     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3973     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3974     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3975     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3976     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3977     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3978     map.simps ~> list.map
  3979     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3980     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3981     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3982 
  3983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3986     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3987     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3988     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3989     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3990     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3991     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3992     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3993     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3994     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3995     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3996 
  3997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998 
  3999 * Lifting and Transfer:
  4000   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  4001   - stronger reflexivity prover
  4002   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  4003   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  4004     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  4005     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  4006       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  4007       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  4008       automatically
  4009     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  4010     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  4011       automatically for datatypes
  4012   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  4013     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  4014       more
  4015       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  4017       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  4018       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  4020       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  4021       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022   - registration of code equations is more robust
  4023     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  4025     form
  4026     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  4028     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  4030     Code_Numeral.natural
  4031     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  4033     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  4036 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  4037 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  4038 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  4039 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  4040 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  4041 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4044 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4045 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4046 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4047 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4048 
  4049 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4050 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4051 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4052 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4053 
  4054 * Sledgehammer:
  4055   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4056   - MaSh overhaul:
  4057     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4058       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4059     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4060       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4061       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4062       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4063   - New option:
  4064       smt_proofs
  4065   - Renamed options:
  4066       isar_compress ~> compress
  4067       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4068 
  4069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4072 
  4073 * Nitpick:
  4074   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4075     take infinite values.
  4076   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4077     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4078   - Removed "std" option.
  4079   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4080     "hide_types".
  4081 
  4082 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4083 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4086 
  4087 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4088   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4089   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4090     SUP instead uniformly.
  4091   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4092     or SUP and Sup.
  4093   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4094   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4095   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4096     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4097     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4098 
  4099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4100 
  4101 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4102 
  4103 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4104 
  4105   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4106   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4107   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4108   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4109 
  4110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4111 
  4112 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4113 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4114 
  4115 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4116 
  4117     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4118     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4119     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4120     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4121     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4122     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4123     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4124     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4125     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4126     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4127     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4128     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4129     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4130     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4131     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4132     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4133     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4134     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4135     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4136     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4137     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4138     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4139     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4140     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4141     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4142     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4143     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4144     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4145     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4146     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4147     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4148     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4149     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4150     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4151     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4152     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4153     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4154     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4155     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4156     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4157     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4158     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4159     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4160     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4161     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4162     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4163     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4164     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4165     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4166     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4167     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4168     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4169     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4170     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4171     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4172     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4173     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4174     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4175     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4176 
  4177   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4178   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4179   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4180     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4181 
  4182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4183 
  4184 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4185 
  4186   Fact consolidations:
  4187     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4188     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4189     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4190     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4191     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4192     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4193     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4194     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4195     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4196     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4197     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4198     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4199     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4200     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4201     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4202     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4203     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4204     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4205     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4206     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4207     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4208     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4209     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4210     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4211     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4212     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4213     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4214     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4215     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4216     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4217     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4218     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4219     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4220     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4221     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4222     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4223     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4224     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4225     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4226     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4227 
  4228 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4229 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4230 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4231 
  4232 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4233 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4234 
  4235 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4236 
  4237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4238 
  4239 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4240 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4246     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4247 
  4248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4251   consolidation:
  4252     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4253     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4254 
  4255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4256 
  4257 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4258   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4259   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4260   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4261     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4262   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4263     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4264   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4265 
  4266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4267 
  4268 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4269 
  4270     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4271     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4272     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4273     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4274     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4275     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4276     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4277     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4278     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4279     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4280     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4281     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4282     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4283 
  4284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4285 
  4286 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4287 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4288 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4289 
  4290 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4291     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4292     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4293     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4294     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4295 
  4296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4297 
  4298 * Fact name consolidation:
  4299     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4300     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4301     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4302     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4303     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4304 
  4305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4308 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4309 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4310 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4311 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4312 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4313 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4317 
  4318 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4319 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4320 
  4321 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4322 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4323 
  4324 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4325 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4326 or the brute way with
  4327 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4328 
  4329 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4330 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4331 stating boundedness of sets.
  4332 
  4333 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4334 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4335 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336 
  4337 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4338   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4339   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4340   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4341   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4342   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4343   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4344   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4345   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4346   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4347   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4348   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4349 
  4350   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4351 
  4352   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4353 
  4354     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4355     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4356     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4357     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4358     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4359 
  4360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4363   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4364 
  4365   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4366 
  4367   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4368 
  4369   - removed constant isDiff
  4370 
  4371   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4372     input syntax.
  4373 
  4374   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4375 
  4376   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4377 
  4378   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4379 
  4380   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4381 
  4382   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4383     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4384     has_vector_derivative.
  4385 
  4386   - Other renamings:
  4387     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4388     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4389     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4390     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4391     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4392     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4393     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4394 
  4395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4398 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4399 in continuous_intros.
  4400 
  4401 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4402 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4403 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4404 
  4405 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4406 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4407 especially removes
  4408 
  4409     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4410 
  4411 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4412     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4413 
  4414 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4415 
  4416   Renamings:
  4417     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4418     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4419     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4420     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4421     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4422     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4423     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4424     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4425     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4426     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4427     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4428     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4429 
  4430     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4431     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4432     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4433 
  4434   Removed theorems:
  4435     complex_zero_def
  4436     complex_add_def
  4437     complex_minus_def
  4438     complex_diff_def
  4439     complex_one_def
  4440     complex_mult_def
  4441     complex_inverse_def
  4442     complex_scaleR_def
  4443 
  4444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4447 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4448 
  4449 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4450 
  4451 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4452 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4453 
  4454 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4455 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4458 
  4459 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4461 
  4462 * HOL-Word:
  4463   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4464     of "word_arith_wis".
  4465   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4466     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4467     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4468 
  4469 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4470   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4471   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4472   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4473     (except the AFP)
  4474 
  4475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476 
  4477 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4478   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4479   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4480     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4481   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4482     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4483     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4484     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4485     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4486     intervals.
  4487   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4488     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4489     - renamed theorems:
  4490         interval ~> box
  4491         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4492         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4493         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4494         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4495         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4496         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4497         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4498         open_interval ~> open_box
  4499         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4500         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4501         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4502         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4503         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4504         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4505         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4506         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4507         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4508         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4509         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4510         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4511         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4512         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4513         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4514         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4515         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4516         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4517         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4518         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4519         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4520         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4521         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4522         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4523 
  4524     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4525         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4526         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4527         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4528         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4529         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4530         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4531         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4532         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4533         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4534         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4535         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4536         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4537         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4538         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4539         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4540         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4541         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4542 
  4543   - renamed theorems:
  4544     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4545     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4546     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4547 
  4548 * HOL-Probability:
  4549   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4550 
  4551     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4552       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4553 
  4554     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4555 
  4556   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4557     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4558 
  4559     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4560     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4561     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4562     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4563     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4564     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4565     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4566     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4567     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4568     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4569     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4570     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4571     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4572     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4573     integral_indicator          ~>
  4574          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4575     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4576     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4577     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4578 
  4579     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4580          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4581 
  4582     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4583          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4584 
  4585     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4586          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4587 
  4588     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4589          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4590          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4591 
  4592     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4593          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4594 
  4595     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4596          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4597 
  4598     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4599          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4600          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4601 
  4602     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4603          nn_integral_real_affine
  4604 
  4605     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4606          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4607 
  4608     The following theorems where removed:
  4609 
  4610     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4611     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4612     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4613     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4614     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4615     integral_cmul_indicator
  4616     integral_real
  4617 
  4618   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4619     distributed random variables.
  4620 
  4621 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4622 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4624 
  4625 
  4626 *** Scala ***
  4627 
  4628 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4629 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4630 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4631 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4632 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4633 
  4634 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4635 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 
  4638 *** ML ***
  4639 
  4640 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4641 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4642 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4643 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4644 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4645 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4646 
  4647 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4648 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4649 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4650 actually belongs to it).
  4651 
  4652 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4653 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4654 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4655 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4656 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4657 of schematic variables.
  4658 
  4659 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4660 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4663 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4664 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4668 
  4669 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4670 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4671 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4673 
  4674 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4675 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4677 formal context.
  4678 
  4679 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4680 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4683 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4684 
  4685 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4686 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4687 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4688 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4689 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4690 
  4691 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4692 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4693 purposes.
  4694 
  4695 
  4696 *** System ***
  4697 
  4698 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4699 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4700 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4701 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4702 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4703 
  4704 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4705 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4706 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4707 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4708 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4709 settings variable.
  4710 
  4711 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4712 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4713 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4714 
  4715 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4716 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4717 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4718 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4719 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4720 
  4721 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4722 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4723 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4724 
  4725 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4726 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4727 
  4728 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4729 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4730 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4731 
  4732 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4733 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4734 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4735 processing is started.
  4736 
  4737 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4738 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4739 
  4740 
  4741 
  4742 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4743 -------------------------------------
  4744 
  4745 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4746 
  4747 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4748 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4749 
  4750 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4751 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4752 
  4753 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4754 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4755 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4756 
  4757 
  4758 *** System ***
  4759 
  4760 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4761 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4762 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4763 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4764 
  4765 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4766 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4767 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4768 
  4769 
  4770 
  4771 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4772 -------------------------------------
  4773 
  4774 *** General ***
  4775 
  4776 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4777 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4778 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4779 
  4780 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4781 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4784 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4785 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4786 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4787 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4788 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4789 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4790 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4791 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4792 syntax.
  4793 
  4794 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4795 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4796 
  4797 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4798 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4799 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4800 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4801 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4802 
  4803 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4805 
  4806 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4807 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4808 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4809 
  4810 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4811 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4812 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4813 
  4814 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4815 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4816 
  4817 
  4818 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4819 
  4820 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4821 Documentation panel.
  4822 
  4823 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4824 documentation.
  4825 
  4826 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4827 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4828 
  4829 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4830 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4831 normal editing and checking process.
  4832 
  4833 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4834 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4835 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4836 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4837 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4838 
  4839 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4840 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4841 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4842 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4843 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4844 
  4845 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4846 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4847 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4848 
  4849 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4850 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4851 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4852 to resolve conflict.
  4853 
  4854 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4855 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4856 
  4857 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4858 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4859 such command executions while editing.
  4860 
  4861 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4862 document content.
  4863 
  4864 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4865 toplevel theorem statements.
  4866 
  4867 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4868 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4869 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4870 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4871 
  4872 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4873 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4874 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4875 
  4876 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4877 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4878 
  4879 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4880 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4881 
  4882 
  4883 *** Pure ***
  4884 
  4885 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4886 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4887 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4888 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4889 details.
  4890 
  4891 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4892 
  4893 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4894 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4895 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4896 
  4897 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4899 
  4900 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4901 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4902 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4903 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4906 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4907 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4908 
  4909 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4910 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4911 
  4912 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4913 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4914 situations.
  4915 
  4916 
  4917 *** HOL ***
  4918 
  4919 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4920 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4922 
  4923 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4924 
  4925 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4926 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4927 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4928 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4929 
  4930   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4931 
  4932 * Code generator:
  4933   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4934     'code_instance'.
  4935   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4936     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4937 
  4938 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4939 examples.
  4940 
  4941 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4942 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4943 to distinguish both when desired.
  4944 
  4945 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4946 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4947 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4948 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4949 
  4950 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4951 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4952 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4953 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4954 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4955 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4956 
  4957 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4958 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4959 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4960 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4961 
  4962 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4963 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4964 
  4965 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4966 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4967 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4968 
  4969 * Lifting:
  4970   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4971     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4972       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4973       transfer rules
  4974     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4975       correspondence relation can be generated
  4976     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4977       parametricity
  4978     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4979   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4980   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4981     copies
  4982   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4983     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4984     anonymous context)
  4985   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4986     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4987   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4988     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4989   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4990     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4991 
  4992 * Transfer:
  4993   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4994     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4995   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4996   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4997     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4998   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4999 
  5000 * Reification and reflection:
  5001   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  5002     "Reification".
  5003   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  5004   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  5005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  5008   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  5009     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5010     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  5011   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  5012     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  5013   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  5014     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  5015     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  5016     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  5017     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  5018     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  5019     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  5020     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  5021   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  5022     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  5023   - Fact renames:
  5024       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  5025       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  5026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  5029 
  5030 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  5031 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  5032 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  5033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5034 
  5035 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  5036 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  5037 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  5038 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  5039 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  5040 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  5041 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5042 lemmas.
  5043 
  5044 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5045 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5046 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5049 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5050 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5051 
  5052 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5053 top and bottom elements.
  5054 
  5055 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5056 
  5057 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5058 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5059 
  5060  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5061    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5062    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5063 
  5064  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5065    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5066    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5067 
  5068    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5069    arbitrary filter.
  5070 
  5071  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5072    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5073    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5074    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5075    on a compact set.
  5076 
  5077  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5078    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5079    linear_continuum_topology).
  5080 
  5081  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5082    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5083    on all sequences converging to x.
  5084 
  5085  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5086    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5087    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5088    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5089    left or right.
  5090 
  5091  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5092 
  5093      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5094 
  5095  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5096    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5097 
  5098  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5099    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5100    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5101    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5102    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5103    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5104 
  5105  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5106 
  5107    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5108 
  5109    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5110      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5111 
  5112    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5113 
  5114    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5115      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5116 
  5117    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5118 
  5119    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5120 
  5121  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5122 
  5123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * Nitpick:
  5126   - Added option "spy".
  5127   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5128 
  5129 * Sledgehammer:
  5130   - Renamed option:
  5131       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5132     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5134   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5135   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5136 
  5137 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5138 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5139 
  5140 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5141   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5142   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5143     generated code.
  5144   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5145   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5146   - Fact renames:
  5147     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5148     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5149     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5150 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5153 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5154 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5155 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5156 
  5157 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5158 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5159 
  5160 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5161 
  5162 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5163 
  5164     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5165     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5166 
  5167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5168 
  5169 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5170 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5171 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5172 
  5173 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5174 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5175 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5176 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5177 
  5178 * HOL-BNF:
  5179   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5180     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5181     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5182     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5183   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5184     coinduct).
  5185   - Renamed keywords:
  5186     data ~> datatype_new
  5187     codata ~> codatatype
  5188     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5189   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5190     discs ~> disc
  5191     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5192     map_id' ~> map_id
  5193     sels ~> sel
  5194     set_map' ~> set_map
  5195     sets ~> set
  5196 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 
  5199 *** ML ***
  5200 
  5201 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5202 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5203 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5204 Examples.thy in particular.
  5205 
  5206 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5207 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5208 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5209 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5210 
  5211 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5212 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5213 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5214 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5216 
  5217 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5218 
  5219     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5220     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5221 
  5222 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5223 
  5224 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5225 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5226 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5227 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5228 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5229 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5230 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5231 
  5232 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5233 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5234 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5235 clasets separately from the context.
  5236 
  5237 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5238 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5239 
  5240 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5241 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5242 
  5243 
  5244 *** System ***
  5245 
  5246 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5247 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5248 
  5249 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5250 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5251 
  5252 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5253 settings variable.
  5254 
  5255 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5256 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5257 always pdf.
  5258 
  5259 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5260 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5261 
  5262 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5263 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5264 
  5265 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5266 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5267 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5268 
  5269 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5270 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5271 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5272 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5273 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5274 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5275 
  5276 
  5277 
  5278 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5279 -----------------------------------
  5280 
  5281 *** General ***
  5282 
  5283 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5284 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5285 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5286 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5287 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5288 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5289 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5290 
  5291 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5292 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5293 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5294 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5295 
  5296 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5297 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5298 
  5299 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5300 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5301 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5302 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5303 dependencies properly.
  5304 
  5305 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5306 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5307 
  5308 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5309 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5310 
  5311 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5312 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5313 and "class ... context ...".
  5314 
  5315 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5316 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5317 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5318 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5319 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5320 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5321 
  5322 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5323 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5324 
  5325 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5326 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5327 
  5328 
  5329 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5330 
  5331 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5332 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5333 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5334 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5335 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5336 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5337 
  5338 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5339 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5340 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5341 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5342 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5343 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5344 
  5345 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5346 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5347 browser on demand.
  5348 
  5349 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5350 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5351 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5352 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5353 
  5354 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5355 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5356 
  5357 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5358 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5359 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5360 potentially infinite message streams.
  5361 
  5362 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5363 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5364 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5365 schemes.
  5366 
  5367 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5368 symbols.
  5369 
  5370 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5371 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5372 
  5373 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5374 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5375 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5376 
  5377 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5378 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5379 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5380 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5381 
  5382 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5383 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5384 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5385 
  5386 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5387 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5388 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5389 Isabelle distribution.
  5390 
  5391 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5392 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5393 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5394 
  5395 
  5396 *** Pure ***
  5397 
  5398 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5399 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5400 
  5401 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5402 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5403 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404 
  5405 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5406 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5407 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5408 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5409 with some care where this is really required.
  5410 
  5411 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5412 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5413 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5414 
  5415   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5416 
  5417 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5418 a Hasse diagram.
  5419 
  5420 
  5421 *** HOL ***
  5422 
  5423 * Sledgehammer:
  5424 
  5425   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5426     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5427   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5428   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5429   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5430   - Renamed options:
  5431       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5432       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5433       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5434       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5435 
  5436 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5437 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5438 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5439 
  5440 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5442 
  5443 * Lifting:
  5444   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5445   - quot_del attribute
  5446   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5447 
  5448 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5449 expressions.
  5450 
  5451 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5452 pointfree expressions.
  5453 
  5454 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5455 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5456 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5457 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5459 
  5460 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5461 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5462 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5463 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5464 accordingly.
  5465 
  5466 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5467 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5468 
  5469 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5470 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5471 
  5472 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5473 
  5474 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5475 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5476 
  5477 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5478 
  5479 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5480 
  5481   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5482   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5483 
  5484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5485 
  5486 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5487 
  5488   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5489   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5490 
  5491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5492 
  5493 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5494 
  5495   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5496     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5497     output f x converges to G.
  5498 
  5499   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5500     infinity (at_bot).
  5501 
  5502   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5503     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5504 
  5505   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5506     at_top".
  5507 
  5508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5509 
  5510 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5511 lattice type classes.
  5512 
  5513 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5514 
  5515     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5516     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5517 
  5518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5519 
  5520 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5521 changes as follows.
  5522 
  5523   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5524 
  5525       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5526       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5527 
  5528   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5529     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5530     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5531     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5532 
  5533   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5534     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5535     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5536 
  5537   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5538     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5539     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5540     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5541 
  5542   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5543     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5544 
  5545       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5546       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5547       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5548       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5549       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5550       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5551       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5552       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5553       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5554       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5555       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5556       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5557       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5558       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5559       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5560       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5561 
  5562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5565 
  5566 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5567 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5568 
  5569 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5570 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5571 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5572 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5573 
  5574   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5575   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5576   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5577   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5578   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5579   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5580   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5581   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5582   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5583   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5584 
  5585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5586 
  5587 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5588 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5589 Data").
  5590 
  5591 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5592 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5593 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5594 code.
  5595 
  5596 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5597 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5598 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5600 
  5601 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5602 
  5603 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5604 
  5605 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5606 
  5607   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5608   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5609 
  5610 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5611 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5612 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5613 
  5614   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5615 
  5616     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5617     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5618     cart_base i  removed
  5619     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5620 
  5621   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5622 
  5623   Renamed lemmas:
  5624 
  5625     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5626     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5627     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5628     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5629     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5630     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5631     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5632     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5633     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5634     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5635 
  5636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5637 
  5638 * HOL/Probability:
  5639 
  5640   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5641 
  5642   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5643     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5644     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5645 
  5646   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5647     projective family).
  5648 
  5649 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5650 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5651 
  5652 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5653 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5654 datatypes.
  5655 
  5656 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5657 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5658 
  5659 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5660 trees for the code generator.
  5661 
  5662 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5663 Lifting/Transfer.
  5664 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5665 
  5666 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5668 
  5669 
  5670 *** Document preparation ***
  5671 
  5672 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5673 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5674 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5675 
  5676 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5677 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5678 
  5679 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5680 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5681 document/root.tex.
  5682 
  5683 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5684 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 
  5687 *** ML ***
  5688 
  5689 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5690 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5691 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5692 
  5693 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5694 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5695 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5696 
  5697 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5698 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5699 necessarily printing visible text.
  5700 
  5701 
  5702 *** System ***
  5703 
  5704 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5705 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5706 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5707 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5708 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5709 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5710 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5711 
  5712 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5713 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5714 
  5715   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5716 
  5717 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5718 
  5719 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5720 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5721 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5722 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5723 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5724 
  5725 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5726 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5727 
  5728 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5729 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5730 
  5731 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5733 
  5734 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5735 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5736 version of Isabelle.
  5737 
  5738 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5739 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5740 
  5741 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5742 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5743 for home-made settings.
  5744 
  5745 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5746 
  5747 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5748 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5749 configuration.
  5750 
  5751 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5752 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5753 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5754 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5755 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5756 
  5757 
  5758 
  5759 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5760 ------------------------------
  5761 
  5762 *** General ***
  5763 
  5764 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5765 
  5766   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5767     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5768   - markup for bound variables
  5769   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5770   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5771   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5772     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5773 
  5774 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5775 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5776 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5777 
  5778 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5779 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5780 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5781 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5782 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5783 
  5784   context
  5785     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5786     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5787   begin
  5788 
  5789   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5790 
  5791   end
  5792 
  5793   thm my_trans
  5794 
  5795 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5796 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5797 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5798 
  5799 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5800 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5801 
  5802 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5803 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5804 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5805 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5806 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5807 
  5808 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5809 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5810 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5811 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5812 indices of schematic variables.
  5813 
  5814 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5815 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5816 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5817 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5818 etc. was exploited.
  5819 
  5820 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5821 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5822 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5823 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5824 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5825 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5826 
  5827 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5828 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5829 manual.
  5830 
  5831 
  5832 *** Pure ***
  5833 
  5834 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5835 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5836 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5837 
  5838 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5839 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5840 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5841 undocumented feature.)
  5842 
  5843 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5844 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5845 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5846 
  5847   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5848 
  5849   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5850     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5851 
  5852 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5853 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5854 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5855 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5856 
  5857 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5858 
  5859     num ~> num_token
  5860     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5861     xstr ~> str_token
  5862 
  5863 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5864 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5865 position information via constraints).
  5866 
  5867 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5868 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5869 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5870 
  5871 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5872 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5873 
  5874 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5875 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5876 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877 
  5878 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5879 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5880 
  5881 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5882 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5883 
  5884   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5885 
  5886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5887 
  5888 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5889 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5890 
  5891 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5892 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5893 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5894 
  5895 
  5896 *** HOL ***
  5897 
  5898 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5899 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5900 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5901 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5902 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5903 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5904 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5905 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5906 possible.
  5907 
  5908 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5909 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5910 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5911 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5912 
  5913 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5914 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5917 
  5918 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5919 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5920 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5921 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5922 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5923 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5924 
  5925   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5926     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5927 
  5928   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5929     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5930     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5931 
  5932   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5933     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5934 
  5935   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5936     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5937     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5938 
  5939   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5940     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5941 
  5942 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5943 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5944 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5945 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5946 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5947 
  5948   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5949     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5950     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5951     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5952     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5953 
  5954     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5955     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5956 
  5957   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5958     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5959     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5960     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5961     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5962     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5963     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5964     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5965 
  5966   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5967     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5968     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5969     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5970 
  5971   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5972     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5973     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5974     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5975 
  5976   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5977     from type nat to type int.
  5978 
  5979 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5980 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5981 
  5982   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5983     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5984     type.  Example syntax:
  5985 
  5986     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5987       is List.insert
  5988 
  5989     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5990     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5991     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5992     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5993     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5994     by the package.
  5995 
  5996   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5997     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5998     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5999     code generation for each constant.
  6000 
  6001   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  6002     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  6003     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  6004     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  6005     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  6006 
  6007   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  6008     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  6009     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  6010 
  6011 * Quotient package:
  6012 
  6013   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  6014     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  6015 
  6016   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  6017     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  6018 
  6019   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  6020     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  6021     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6022 
  6023   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  6024     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6025 
  6026 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  6027 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  6028 
  6029 * Quickcheck:
  6030 
  6031   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  6032     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  6033     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  6034     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  6035     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  6036 
  6037     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  6038     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  6039     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  6040 
  6041     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6042     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6043 
  6044     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6045     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6046     show genuine counterexamples.
  6047 
  6048   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6049     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6050 
  6051     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6052     constructors of that type.
  6053 
  6054   - Support for multisets.
  6055 
  6056   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6057 
  6058   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6059     conjectures in a locale context.
  6060 
  6061 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6062 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6063 
  6064 * Sledgehammer:
  6065   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6066     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6067   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6068   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6069     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6070   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6071   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6072   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6073   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6074 
  6075 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6076 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6077 
  6078 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6079 
  6080 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6083 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6084 
  6085   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6086 
  6087 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6088 a list and a nat.
  6089 
  6090 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6091 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6092 
  6093 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6094 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6095 default.
  6096 
  6097 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6098 
  6099   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6100 
  6101 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6102 
  6103 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6104 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6105 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6106 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6107 one_case.
  6108 
  6109 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6110 the result of the fact expression.
  6111 
  6112 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6113 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6114 of some relation theorems:
  6115 
  6116   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6117   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6118   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6119   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6120   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6121   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6122 
  6123 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6124 
  6125 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6126 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6127 
  6128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6129 
  6130 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6131 to match the constant's name:
  6132 
  6133   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6134   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6135   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6136   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6137   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6138   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6139   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6140   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6141   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6142   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6143   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6144   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6145   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6146   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6147   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6148   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6149   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6150   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6151   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6152   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6153   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6154   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6155   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6156   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6157 
  6158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6159 
  6160 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6161 and corresponding theorem names:
  6162 
  6163   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6164 
  6165   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6166 
  6167   - Renamed theorems:
  6168 
  6169     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6170     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6171     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6172     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6173     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6174     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6175     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6176     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6177     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6178     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6179     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6180     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6181     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6182     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6183     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6184     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6185     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6186     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6187     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6188     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6189     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6190     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6191     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6192 
  6193     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6194 
  6195     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6196 
  6197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6198 
  6199 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6200 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6201 
  6202   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6203   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6204   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6205   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6206   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6207   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6208   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6209   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6210   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6211   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6212   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6213   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6214   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6215   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6216   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6217   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6218   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6219   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6220   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6221   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6222   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6223 
  6224 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6225 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6226 
  6227 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6228 
  6229 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6230 
  6231   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6232   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6233   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6234   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6235   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6236   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6237   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6238   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6239   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6240   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6241   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6242   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6243   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6244   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6245   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6246   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6247   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6248   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6249 
  6250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6251 
  6252 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6253 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6254 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6255 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6256 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6257 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6258 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6259 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6260 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6261 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6262 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6263 
  6264 * Dropped