NEWS
author huffman
Tue Mar 27 10:20:31 2012 +0200 (2012-03-27)
changeset 47136 5b6c5641498a
parent 47113 b5a5662528fb
child 47142 d64fa2ca54b8
permissions -rw-r--r--
simplify some proofs
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - markup for bound variables
    12   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    13   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    14 
    15 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    16 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    17 
    18 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    19 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    20 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    21 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    22 etc. was exploited.
    23 
    24 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    25 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    26 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    27 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    28 indices of schematic variables.
    29 
    30 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    31 
    32     num ~> num_token
    33     xnum ~> xnum_token
    34     xstr ~> str_token
    35 
    36 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    37 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    38 position information via constraints).
    39 
    40 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    41 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    42 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    45 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    46 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    47 
    48 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
    49 (not just JRE), derived from JAVA_HOME from the shell environment or
    50 java.home of the running JVM.
    51 
    52 
    53 *** Pure ***
    54 
    55 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    56 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    57 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    58 
    59 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    60 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    61 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    62 undocumented feature.)
    63 
    64 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
    65 collection of foundational premises in the context (marked as legacy
    66 since Isabelle2011).
    67 
    68 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
    69 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    70 
    71 * Ancient code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
    72 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
    73 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    74 
    75 * Redundant attribute 'code_inline' has been discontinued. Use
    76 'code_unfold' instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77 
    78 * Dropped attribute 'code_unfold_post' in favor of the its dual
    79 'code_abbrev', which yields a common pattern in definitions like
    80 
    81   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
    82 
    83 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    84 
    85 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
    86 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    87 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
    88 
    89   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
    90 
    91   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
    92     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurence (!)"
    93 
    94 
    95 *** HOL ***
    96 
    97 * The representation of numerals has changed. We now have a datatype
    98 "num" representing strictly positive binary numerals, along with
    99 functions "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to
   100 represent positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See
   101 definitions in Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY; some user theories
   102 may require adaptations:
   103 
   104   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   105     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   106 
   107   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   108     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   109     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   110 
   111   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   112     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   113 
   114   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   115     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   116     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   117 
   118   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   119     Redefine using other integer operations.
   120 
   121 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   122 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   123 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   124 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   125 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   126 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   127 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and
   128 Collect_def as far as possible.
   129 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and
   130 sets, a planning step is necessary to determine what should become a
   131 predicate and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   132 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   133 
   134 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   135 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   138 
   139 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   140 and predicates.  Consolidation of some relation theorems:
   141 
   142   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   143   rel_comp_def ~> rel_comp_unfold
   144   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   145   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   146   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   147   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   148 
   149 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   150 
   151 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set conversions
   152 by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   153 
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Consolidated various theorem names relating to Finite_Set.fold
   157 combinator:
   158 
   159   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   160   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   161   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   162   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   163   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   164   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   165 
   166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   169 
   170   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   171   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   172   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   173   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   174   foldr.simps ~> foldr_Nil foldr_Cons (in point-free formulation)
   175   foldl.simps ~> foldl_Nil foldl_Cons
   176   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_def
   177   foldl_fold ~> foldl_def
   178 
   179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   182 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   183 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   184 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   185 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   186 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 Prefer "List.fold" with canonical argument order, or boil down
   188 "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by unfolding "foldr_def"
   189 and "foldl_def".  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   190 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".
   191 
   192 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   193 through option types.
   194 
   195 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   196 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   197 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   198 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   199 one_case.
   200 
   201 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   202 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   203 
   204 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Renamed some facts on canonical fold on lists, in order to avoid
   207 problems with interpretation involving corresponding facts on foldl
   208 with the same base names:
   209 
   210   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   211   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   212   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   213 
   214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   217   to match the constant's name:
   218   
   219   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   220   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   221   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   222   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   223   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   224   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   225   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   226   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   227   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2 
   228   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   229   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   230   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   231   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   232   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   233   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   234   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   235   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   236   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   237   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   238   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   239   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   240   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   241   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   242   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   243  
   244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for association
   247   lists with distinct keys.
   248 
   249 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   250 
   251 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   252 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   253 
   254 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   255 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   256 instead.
   257 
   258   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   259   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   260   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   261   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   262   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   263   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   264   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   265   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   266   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   267   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   268   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   269   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   270   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   271   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   272   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   273   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   274   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   275   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   276   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   277   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   278   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   279   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   280   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   281   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   282   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   283   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   284   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   285   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   286   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   287   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   288   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   289   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   290   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   291   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   292   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   293   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   294   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   295   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   296   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   297   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   298   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   299 
   300 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   301 the result of the fact expression.
   302 
   303 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   304 relations.
   305 
   306 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307 
   308 * "sublists" moved to theory More_List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309 
   310 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   311 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   312 
   313   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   314   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   315   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   316   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   317   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   318   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   319   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   320   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   321   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   322   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   323   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   324   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   325   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   326   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   327   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   328   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   329   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   330   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   331   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   332   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   333   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   334   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   335   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   336   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   337   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   338   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   339   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   340   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   341   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   342   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   343   zless_le ~> less_le
   344   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   345   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   346   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   347 
   348 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   349 
   350   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   351 
   352 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   353 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   354 
   355   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   356 
   357 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   358 a list and a nat.
   359 
   360 * Improved code generation of multisets.
   361 
   362 * New diagnostic command find_unused_assms to find potentially superfluous
   363   assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   364 
   365 * Quickcheck:
   366   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   367     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   368     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   369     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   370     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   371     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   372     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   373     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   374     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   375     continues searching for genuine ones.
   376     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   377     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to
   378     only show genuine counterexamples.
   379 
   380   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   381     value generators for a given type and operations.
   382     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   383     constructors of that type. 
   384 
   385   - Support for multisets.
   386 
   387   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   388  
   389 * Nitpick:
   390   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   391     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   392 
   393 * Sledgehammer:
   394   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   395   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   396   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   397 
   398 * Metis:
   399   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   400     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   401 
   402 * Command 'try0':
   403   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404 
   405 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   406   eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   407 
   408 
   409 *** FOL ***
   410 
   411 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   412 
   413 
   414 *** ML ***
   415 
   416 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   417 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   418 
   419 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   420 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   421 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   422 
   423 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   424 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   425 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   426 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   427 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   428 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   429 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   430 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   431 
   432 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   433 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   434 
   435 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   436 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   437 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   438 
   439 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   440 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   441 
   442 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   443 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   444 context as well.
   445 
   446 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   447 
   448   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   449   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   450   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   451   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   452   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   453   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   454   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   455   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   456   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   457   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   458   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   459   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   460 
   461 
   462 
   463 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   464 ------------------------------------
   465 
   466 *** General ***
   467 
   468 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   469 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   470 
   471   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   472     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   473     files for checking).
   474 
   475   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   476     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   477     positions.
   478 
   479   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   480     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   481     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   482 
   483   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   484     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   485     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   486 
   487   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   488     cores.
   489 
   490   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   491     versions (garbage collection).
   492 
   493 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   494 including some remaining limitations.
   495 
   496 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   497 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   498 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   499 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   500 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   504 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   505 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   506 
   507 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   508 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   509 usedir option -Q.
   510 
   511 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   512 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   513 
   514   long_names   ~> names_long
   515   short_names  ~> names_short
   516   unique_names ~> names_unique
   517 
   518 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   519 
   520   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   521 
   522 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   523 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   524 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   525 
   526 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   527 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   528 
   529 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   530   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   531   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   532   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   533     "Classical Reasoner".
   534 
   535 
   536 *** HOL ***
   537 
   538 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   539 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   542 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   543 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   544 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   545 class complete_linorder.
   546 
   547 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   548 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   549 
   550 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   551 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   552 
   553   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   554   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   555   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   556   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   557   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   558   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   559   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   560   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   561   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   562   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   563   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   564 
   565 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   566 
   567   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   568   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   569   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   570   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   571   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   572   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   573   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   574   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   575   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   576   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   577   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   578   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   579   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   580   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   581   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   582   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   583 
   584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   590 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   591 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   592 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   595 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   596 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598 
   599 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   600 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   601 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   602 
   603 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   604 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   605 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   608 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   609 
   610 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   611 
   612     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   613     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   614 
   615 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   616 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   619 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   622 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   623 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   624 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   625 
   626   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   627   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   628   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   629   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   630   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   631   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   632   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   633 
   634 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   635 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   638   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   639   real_less_def ~> less_le
   640   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   641   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   642   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   643   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   644   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   645   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   646   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   647   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   648   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   649   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   650   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   651   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   652   real_le_linear ~> linear
   653   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   654   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   655   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   656   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   657   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   658   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   659   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   660   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   661   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   662   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   663   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   664   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   665   expi_add ~> exp_add
   666   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   667   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   668   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   669   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   670   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   671   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   672   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   673   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   674   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   675   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   676   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   677   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   678   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   679   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   680   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   681   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   682   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   683   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   684   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   685   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   686   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   687   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   688   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   689   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   690   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   691   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   692   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   693   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   694   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   695   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   696   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   697   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   698   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   699   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   700   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   701   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   702   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   703   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   704   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   705   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   706   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   707   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   708   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   709   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   710   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   711   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   712   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   713   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   714   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   715   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   716   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   717   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   718   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   719 
   720 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   721 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   722 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   723 
   724 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   725 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   726 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   727 
   728 * Code generation:
   729 
   730   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   731     characters in the target language.
   732 
   733   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   734     instead.
   735 
   736   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   737 
   738   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   739     reactivated by the following theory command:
   740 
   741       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   742 
   743 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   744 
   745 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
   746 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
   747 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
   748 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
   749 syntax.
   750 
   751 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   752 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   753 
   754 * Nitpick:
   755   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   756   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   757   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   758     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * Sledgehammer:
   761   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   762   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   763     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   764   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   765     this can be done within reasonable time.
   766   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   767     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   769     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   770   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   771     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 * Metis:
   774   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   776     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   777 
   778 * Command 'try':
   779   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   780     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   781   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   782     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   783 
   784 * Quickcheck:
   785   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   786     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   787   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   788     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   789   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   790     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   791     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   792     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   793   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   794     (formly in HOL/Library).
   795 
   796 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   797 use 'partial_function' instead.
   798 
   799 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   800 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   801 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   802 
   803 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   804 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   808 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809 
   810 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   811 arithmetic.
   812 
   813 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   814 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   815 and lattice type classes.
   816 
   817 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   818 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   819 
   820 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   821 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   822 
   823 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   824 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   825 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   828   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   829   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   830   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   831 
   832 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   833 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   834 constants:
   835 
   836   type inat   ~> type enat
   837   Fin         ~> enat
   838   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   839   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   840   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   841 
   842 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   843 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   846 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   847 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   848 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   849 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   850 
   851 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   852 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   853 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   854 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   855 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   856 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   857 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   858 
   859   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   860   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   861   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   862   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   863 
   864 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   865 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   866 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   869   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   870   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   871   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   872   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   873   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   874   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   875   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   876   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   877   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   878   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   879   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   880   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   881   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   882   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   883   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   884   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   885   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   886   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   887   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   888   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   889   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   890   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   891   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   892   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   893   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   894   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   895   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   896   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   897   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   898   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   899   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   900   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   901   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   902   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   903   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   904   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   905   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   906   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   907   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   908   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   909   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   910   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   911   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   912   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   913   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   914   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   915   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   916   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   917   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   918   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   919 
   920 * Session HOL-Probability:
   921   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   922   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   923   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   924   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   925     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   926 
   927 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   928 
   929   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
   930   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
   931   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
   932   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
   933   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
   934   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
   935   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
   936   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
   937   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
   938   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
   939   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   940   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
   941   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
   942   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
   943   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
   944   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
   945   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
   946   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
   947   UU_I ~> bottomI
   948   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
   949   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
   950   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
   951   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
   952   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
   953   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
   954 
   955 
   956 *** Document preparation ***
   957 
   958 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   959 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   960 same.
   961 
   962 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   963 result.
   964 
   965 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   966 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   967 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   968 
   969 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   970 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   971 
   972 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   973 like this:
   974 
   975   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   976   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   977 
   978 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   979 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   980 layouts.
   981 
   982 
   983 *** ML ***
   984 
   985 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   986 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   987 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   988 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   989 under external program control.
   990 
   991 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   992 data, which requires explicit setup.
   993 
   994 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   995 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   996 (better known as Proof General).
   997 
   998 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   999 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1000 
  1001 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1002 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1003 
  1004 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1005 (including quotes etc.).
  1006 
  1007 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1008 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1009 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1010 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1011 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1012 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1013 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1014 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1015 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1016 
  1017 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1018 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1019 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1020 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1021 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1022 
  1023 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1024 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1025 
  1026 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1027 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1028 
  1029 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1030 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1031 
  1032 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1033 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1034 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1035 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1036 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1037 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1038 proper Proof.context.
  1039 
  1040 
  1041 *** System ***
  1042 
  1043 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1044 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1045 
  1046 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1047 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1048 
  1049 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1050 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1051 
  1052   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1053   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1054   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1055   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1056   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1057 
  1058 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1059 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1062 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1063 example:
  1064 
  1065   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1066 
  1067 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1068 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1069 
  1070 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1071 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1072 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1073 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1074 
  1075 
  1076 
  1077 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1078 ----------------------------------
  1079 
  1080 *** General ***
  1081 
  1082 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1083 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1084 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1085 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1086 like this:
  1087 
  1088   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1089 
  1090 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1091 
  1092 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1093 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1094 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1095 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1096 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1097 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1098 
  1099 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1100 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1101 the following package declarations:
  1102 
  1103   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1104   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1105 
  1106 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1107 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1108 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1109 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1110 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1111 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1112 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1113 
  1114 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1115 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1116 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1117 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1118 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1119 
  1120 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1121 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1122 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1123 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1124 
  1125 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1126 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1127 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1128 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1129 
  1130   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1131 
  1132   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1133   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1134   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1135   show_types                    show_types
  1136   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1137   show_consts                   show_consts
  1138   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1139 
  1140   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1141   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1142   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1143 
  1144   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1145   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1146 
  1147   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1148 
  1149   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1150   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1151   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1152   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1153   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1154 
  1155 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1156 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1157 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1158 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1159 
  1160 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1164   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1165 
  1166 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1167 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1168 float_token.
  1169 
  1170 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1171 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1173 
  1174 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1175 DejaVu Sans.
  1176 
  1177 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1178 
  1179 
  1180 *** Pure ***
  1181 
  1182 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1183 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1184 time.
  1185 
  1186 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1187 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1188 
  1189 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1190 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1193 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1194 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1195 command already provided this functionality.
  1196 
  1197 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1198 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1199 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1200 without interpretations.
  1201 
  1202 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1203 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1204 
  1205 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1206 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1207 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1208 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1209 
  1210 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1211 'definition' instead.
  1212 
  1213 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1214 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1215 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1216 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1217 
  1218 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1219 constructors.
  1220 
  1221 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1222 the local file system.
  1223 
  1224 
  1225 *** HOL ***
  1226 
  1227 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1228 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1229 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1230 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1231 
  1232   declare [[coercion f]]
  1233 
  1234 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1235 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1236 
  1237   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1238 
  1239 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1240 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1241 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1242 other theories like this:
  1243 
  1244   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1245 
  1246 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1247 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1248 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1249 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1250 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1251 for examples.
  1252 
  1253 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1254 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1257 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1258 
  1259 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1260 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1261 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1262 
  1263 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1264 functorial structure of types.
  1265 
  1266 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1267 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1268 
  1269 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1270 languages.
  1271 
  1272 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1273 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1275 
  1276 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1277 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1278 
  1279 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1280 combinators any longer.
  1281 
  1282 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1283 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1284 
  1285 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1286 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1287 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1288 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1289 
  1290   record 'a foo = ...
  1291   ...
  1292   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1293 
  1294 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1295 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1297 
  1298 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1299 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1300 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1301 
  1302 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1303 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1304 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1305 
  1306 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1307 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1308 
  1309 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1310 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1311 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1312 independently.
  1313 
  1314 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1315 counter example search.
  1316 
  1317 * Sledgehammer:
  1318   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1319     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1320     sledgehammer").
  1321   - Renamed commands:
  1322     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1323     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1324     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1326   - Renamed options:
  1327     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1328     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1329     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1330     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1331     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1332 
  1333 * Nitpick:
  1334   - Renamed options:
  1335     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1336     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1337     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1338   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1339   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1340   - Added "whack" option.
  1341   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1342   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1343   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1344   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1345     higher cardinalities.
  1346   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1347 
  1348 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1349 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1350 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1351 
  1352     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1353 
  1354 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1355 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1356 
  1357 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1358 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1359 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1360 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1361 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1362 "smt_solver".
  1363 
  1364 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1365 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1366 
  1367 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1368 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1369 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1370 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1371 
  1372 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1373   - Renamed:
  1374     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1375     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1376     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1377   - Added:
  1378     smt_verbose
  1379     smt_random_seed
  1380     smt_datatypes
  1381     smt_infer_triggers
  1382     smt_monomorph_limit
  1383     cvc3_options
  1384     remote_cvc3_options
  1385     remote_z3_options
  1386     yices_options
  1387 
  1388 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1389 header.
  1390 
  1391 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1392 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1393 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1394 
  1395   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1396 
  1397 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1398 
  1399 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1400 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1401 
  1402 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1403 
  1404 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1405 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1406 
  1407 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1408 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1409 
  1410 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1411 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1412 
  1413 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1414 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1415 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1416 
  1417 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1418 
  1419 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1421 
  1422 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1423 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1424 
  1425 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1426 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1427 for congruent(2)).
  1428 
  1429 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1430 
  1431   types
  1432     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1433     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1434 
  1435   constants
  1436     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1437     True ~> HOL.True
  1438     False ~> HOL.False
  1439     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1440     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1441     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1442     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1443     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1444     The ~> HOL.The
  1445     All ~> HOL.All
  1446     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1447     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1448     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1449     If ~> HOL.If
  1450     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1451     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1452     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1453     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1454     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1455     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1456     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1457     op : ~> Set.member
  1458     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1459 
  1460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1463 
  1464     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1465     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1466     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1467     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1468     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1469     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1470     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1471     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1472 
  1473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1474 
  1475 * More stylized fact names:
  1476 
  1477   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1478   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1479   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1480   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1481 
  1482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1485 
  1486   constants
  1487     null ~> List.null
  1488 
  1489   facts
  1490     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1491     null_empty ~> null_def
  1492 
  1493 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1494 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1495 generation.
  1496 
  1497 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1498 Haskell code.
  1499 
  1500 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1501 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1502 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503 
  1504 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1505 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1508 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1509 
  1510 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1511 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1512 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1513 
  1514 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1515 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1521 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1522 referred to by its qualified name.
  1523 
  1524   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1525   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1526   product ~>  Enum.product
  1527 
  1528 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1529 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1533 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1534 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1536 
  1537 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1538 sort_key.
  1539 
  1540 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1542 
  1543 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1544 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1545 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1546 
  1547   types
  1548     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1549               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1550               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1551         (depends on your needs)
  1552 
  1553   constants
  1554      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1555      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1556      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1557 
  1558 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1559 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1560 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1561 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1564 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1565 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1566 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1567 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1573 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1574 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1575 
  1576 
  1577 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1578 
  1579 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1580 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1581 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1582 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1583 compatibility.
  1584 
  1585 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1586 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1587 
  1588 
  1589 *** HOLCF ***
  1590 
  1591 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1592 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1593 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1597 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1598 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1601   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1602   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1603 
  1604 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1605 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1606 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1609 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1610 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1611 domain definition now works:
  1612 
  1613   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1614 
  1615 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1616 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1617 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1618 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1619 
  1620   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1621     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1622 
  1623   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1624 
  1625 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1626 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1627 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1630 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1633 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1634 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1635 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1636 
  1637 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1638 
  1639 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1642 
  1643 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1647 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1648 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1649 
  1650 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1651 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1652 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1653 
  1654 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1655 still supported as an input translation.
  1656 
  1657 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1658 
  1659   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1660   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1661   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1662   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1663   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1664   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1665   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1666 
  1667 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1668 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1669 
  1670   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1671   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1672   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1673   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1674   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1675   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1676 
  1677 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1678 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1681 
  1682   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1683   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1684   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1685   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1686 
  1687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1690 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1693 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1696   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1697   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1698   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1699   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1700   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1701   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1702   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1703   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1704   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1705   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1706   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1707   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1708   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1709   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1710   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1711   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1712   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1713   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1714   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1715 
  1716 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1719   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1720   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1721   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1722   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1723   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1724   box_less             ~> box_below
  1725   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1726   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1727   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1728   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1729   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1730   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1731   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1732   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1733   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1734   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1735   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1736   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1737   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1738   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1739   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1740   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1741   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1742   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1743   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1744   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1745   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1746   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1747   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1748   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1749   up_less              ~> up_below
  1750   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1751   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1752   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1753   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1754   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1755   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1756   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1757   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1758   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1759   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1760   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1761   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1762   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1763 
  1764 
  1765 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1766 
  1767 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1768 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1769 
  1770 *** ZF ***
  1771 
  1772 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case analysis.
  1773 
  1774 * Much greater use of special symbols.
  1775 
  1776 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778 *** ML ***
  1779 
  1780 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1781 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1782 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1783 
  1784 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1785 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1786 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1787 
  1788 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1789 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1790 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1791 
  1792 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1793 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1794 
  1795 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1796 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1797 
  1798 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1799 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1800 
  1801 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1802 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1803 
  1804 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1805 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1806 almost all situations.
  1807 
  1808 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1809 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1810 Isabelle/ML.
  1811 
  1812 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1813 meaning.
  1814 
  1815 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1816 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1817 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1818 
  1819 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1820 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1821 
  1822 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1823 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1824 
  1825 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1826 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1827 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1828 
  1829 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1830 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1831 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1832 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1833 configuration options.
  1834 
  1835 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1836 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1837 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1838 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1839 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1840 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1841 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1842 
  1843 
  1844 
  1845 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1846 ---------------------------------
  1847 
  1848 *** General ***
  1849 
  1850 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1851 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1852 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1853 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1854 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1855 their full internal name.
  1856 
  1857 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1858 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1859 Some hints on upgrading:
  1860 
  1861   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1862     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1863     which are independent of this issue.
  1864 
  1865   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1866     provides the following special forms:
  1867 
  1868       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1869       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1870       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1871 
  1872     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1873     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1874     extra variables".
  1875 
  1876     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1877     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1878     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1879     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1880     "logic".
  1881 
  1882   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1883     antiquotations:
  1884 
  1885       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1886       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1887       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1888       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1889 
  1890   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1891     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1892     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1893     antiquotations.
  1894 
  1895 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1896 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1897 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1898 diagnose syntax problems.
  1899 
  1900 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1901 
  1902 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1903 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1904 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1905 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1906 
  1907 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1908 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1909 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1910 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1911 
  1912 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1913 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1914 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1915 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1916 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1919 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1920 
  1921 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1922 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1923 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1924 
  1925   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1926 
  1927 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1928 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1929 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1930 
  1931 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1932 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1934 
  1935 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1936 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1937 
  1938 
  1939 *** Pure ***
  1940 
  1941 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1942 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1943 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1944 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1945 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1946 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1947 inspect proof terms.
  1948 
  1949 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1950 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1951 are added internally.  For example:
  1952 
  1953   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1954 
  1955 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1956 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1957 
  1958 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1959 
  1960 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1961 'class' instead.
  1962 
  1963 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1964 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1966 
  1967 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1968 invariants.
  1969 
  1970 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1971 user space functionality any longer.
  1972 
  1973 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1974 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1978 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1979 
  1980 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1981 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1982 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1983 
  1984 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1985 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1986 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1987 
  1988 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1989 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1990 
  1991 
  1992 *** HOL ***
  1993 
  1994 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1995 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1996 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1997 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1998 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1999 
  2000 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2001 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2002 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2003 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2004 
  2005   fun
  2006     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2007   where
  2008     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2009 
  2010   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2011     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2012 
  2013   quotient_definition
  2014     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2015 
  2016 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2017 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2018 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2019 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2020 
  2021 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2022 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2023 
  2024 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2025 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2026 
  2027 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2031 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2032 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2033 
  2034 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2035 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2036 
  2037 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2044 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2045 
  2046 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2047 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2048 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2049 
  2050   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2051   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2052   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2053   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2054   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2055   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2056   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2057   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2058   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2059   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2060   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2061   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2062   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2063   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2064   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2065   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2066   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2067   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2068   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2069   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2070   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2071   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2072   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2073   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2074   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2075   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2076   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2077   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2078   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2079   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2080 
  2081 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2082 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2083 
  2084 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2085 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2086 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2087 
  2088 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2089 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2090 
  2091 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2092 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2093 
  2094 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2095 
  2096 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2097 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2100 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2101 
  2102 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2105 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2106 
  2107 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2108 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2109 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2110 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2113   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2114   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2115   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2119 lattices):
  2120 
  2121     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2122     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2123 
  2124     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2125 
  2126     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2127     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2128     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2129     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2130     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2131     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2132     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2133     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2134     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2135     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2136     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2137     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2138     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2139 
  2140     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2141     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2142     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2143     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2144     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2145     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2146     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2147     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2148     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2149     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2150     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2151     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2152     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2153     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2154     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2155     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2156     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2157     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2158 
  2159   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2160   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2161 
  2162     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2163     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2164     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2165     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2166     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2167 
  2168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Refined field classes:
  2171   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2172     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2173     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2174   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2178   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2179   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2180   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2181     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2182   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2183     equal_neg_zero.
  2184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2187 sets to lattices:
  2188 
  2189   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2190   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2191   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2192   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2193   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2194   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2195   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2196   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2197   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2198   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2199 
  2200 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2201 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2202 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2203 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2204 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2205 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2208 multiset order:
  2209 
  2210   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2211     <= and <;
  2212   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2213     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2214     multiset_order;
  2215   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2216     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2217     generation;
  2218   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2219     if needed.
  2220 
  2221 Renamed:
  2222 
  2223   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2224   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2225   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2226 
  2227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2230 
  2231 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2232 
  2233 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2234 
  2235 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2236 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2237 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239   Constants:
  2240   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2241   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2242   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2243   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2244   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2245   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2246   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2247   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2248   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2249   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2250   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2251   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2252   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2253 
  2254   Lemmas:
  2255   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2256   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2257   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2258   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2259   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2260   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2261   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2262   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2263   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2264   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2265   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2266   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2267   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2268 
  2269 * Sledgehammer:
  2270   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2271     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2272     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2273     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2274     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2275     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2276     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2278   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2279     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2280   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2281     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2282     is still experimental.)
  2283   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2284     full-typed mode.
  2285   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2286 
  2287 * Nitpick:
  2288   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2289   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2290   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2291     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2292   - Added support for quotient types.
  2293   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2294     constructs.
  2295   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2296     "termination" proofs).
  2297   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2298   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2299   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2300   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2301     record getters.
  2302   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2303   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2304   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2305   - Added "atoms" option.
  2306   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2307     problems.
  2308   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2309     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2310     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2312     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2316   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2317   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2318   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2319   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2320   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2321   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2322   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2323   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2324   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 
  2327 *** HOLCF ***
  2328 
  2329 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2330 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2331 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2334 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2335 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2336 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2339 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2340 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2341 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2342 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2345 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2346 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2349 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2352   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2353 
  2354 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2355 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2358   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2359   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2360   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2361   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2362 
  2363 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2364 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2367   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2368   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2369 
  2370 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2371 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2375 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2380 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382 
  2383 *** ML ***
  2384 
  2385 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2386 
  2387     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2388     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2389 
  2390     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2391     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2392     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2393     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2394 
  2395     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2396     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2397     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2398 
  2399 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2400 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2401 
  2402 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2403 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2404 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2405 
  2406 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2407 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2408 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2409 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2410 
  2411 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2412 the context or even global references.
  2413 
  2414 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2415 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2416 
  2417 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2418 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2419 
  2420   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2421   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2422   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2423   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2424   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2425   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2426   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2427   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2428   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2429   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2430 
  2431 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2432 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2433 
  2434 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2435 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2436 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2437 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2438 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2439 
  2440 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2441 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2442 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2443 Theory_Data version.
  2444 
  2445 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2446 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2447 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2448 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2449 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2450 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2451 explicitly in rare situations.
  2452 
  2453 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2454 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2458 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2461 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2462 quite rare).
  2463 
  2464 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2465 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2468 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2469 terms.
  2470 
  2471 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2472 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2473 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2474 
  2475 
  2476 *** System ***
  2477 
  2478 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2479 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2480 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2481 
  2482 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2483 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2484 respectively.
  2485 
  2486 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2487 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2488 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2489 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2490 
  2491   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2492 
  2493 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2494 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2495 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2496 component.
  2497 
  2498 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2499 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2500 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2501 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2502 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2503 the user for manual installation.
  2504 
  2505 
  2506 
  2507 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2508 -------------------------------------
  2509 
  2510 *** General ***
  2511 
  2512 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2513 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2514 
  2515 
  2516 *** Pure ***
  2517 
  2518 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2519 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2520 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2521 
  2522 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2523 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2524 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2525 
  2526 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2527 interpretation.
  2528 
  2529 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2530 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532 
  2533 *** Document preparation ***
  2534 
  2535 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2536 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2537 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2538 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2539 
  2540 
  2541 *** HOL ***
  2542 
  2543 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2544 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2545 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2546 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2547 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2548 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2549 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2550 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2551 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2552 
  2553 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2554 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2555 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2556 
  2557 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2558 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2559 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2560 
  2561 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2562 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2563 
  2564 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2565 
  2566 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2567 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2568 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2569 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2570 
  2571 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2572 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2573 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2574 "mirabelle" utility.
  2575 
  2576 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2577 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2578 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2579 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2580 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2581 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2582 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2583 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2584 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2585 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2586 
  2587 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2588 procedure only.
  2589 
  2590 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2591 
  2592 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2593 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2594 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2595 that fail later.
  2596 
  2597 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2598 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2599 
  2600 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2601 the same method as the approximation method.
  2602 
  2603 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2604 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2605 series expansion.
  2606 
  2607 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2608 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2609 
  2610 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2611 reals.
  2612 
  2613 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2614 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2615 
  2616 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2617 fixpoint theorem.
  2618 
  2619 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2620   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2621     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2622   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2623     accordingly
  2624   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2625     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2626   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2627     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2628 
  2629 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2630 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2631 lattice.
  2632 
  2633 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2634 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2635 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2636 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2637 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2638 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2642   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2643     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2644   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2645     le_inf_iff
  2646   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2647     sup_aci)
  2648   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2649   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2650   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2651     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2652     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2653     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2654     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2655     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2656     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2657     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2658     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2659     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2660     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2661   - authentic syntax for
  2662     Set.Pow
  2663     Set.image
  2664   - mere abbreviations:
  2665     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2666     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2667     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2668     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2669     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2670     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2671     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2672     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2673   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2674 
  2675 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2676 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2677 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2678 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2679 
  2680 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2681 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2682 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2685 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2686 
  2687 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2688 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2689 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2690 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2693 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2694 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2695 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2696 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2697 
  2698 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2699 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2703 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2704 
  2705 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2706 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2707 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2708 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2709 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2710 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2711 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2715     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2716     code_post       replaces    code post
  2717     etc.
  2718   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2719 
  2720 * Renamed methods:
  2721     sizechange -> size_change
  2722     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2723   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2726 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2727 
  2728 * Renamed theorems:
  2729     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2730     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2731     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2732     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2733     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2734   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 
  2743 *** HOLCF ***
  2744 
  2745 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2746 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2747 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2748 
  2749 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2750 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2751 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2752 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2753 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2754 
  2755 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2756 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2757 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2758 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2759 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2760 
  2761 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2762 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2763 constructor are pre-configured.
  2764 
  2765 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2766 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2767 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2768 
  2769 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2770 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2771 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2772 as well.)
  2773 
  2774 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2775 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2776 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2777 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2778 examples.
  2779 
  2780 
  2781 *** ML ***
  2782 
  2783 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2784 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2785 
  2786 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2787 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2788 position, logical grouping etc.
  2789 
  2790 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2791 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2792 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2793 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2794 
  2795 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2796 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2797 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2798 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2799 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2800 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2801 
  2802 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2803 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2804 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2805 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2806 experiments with references.
  2807 
  2808 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2809 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2810 
  2811 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2812 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2813 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2814 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2815 
  2816 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2817 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2818 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2819 
  2820 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2821 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2822 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2830 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2831 
  2832 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2833 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2834 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2835 
  2836 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2837 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2838 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2841 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2842 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2846 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2847 instead of global theory.
  2848 
  2849 
  2850 *** System ***
  2851 
  2852 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2853 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2854 usedir option -q.
  2855 
  2856 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2857 also the system manual.
  2858 
  2859 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2860 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2861 
  2862 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2863 this is always enabled.
  2864 
  2865 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2866 
  2867 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2868 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2869 currently supported on Linux only.
  2870 
  2871 
  2872 
  2873 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2874 --------------------------------
  2875 
  2876 *** General ***
  2877 
  2878 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2879 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2880 
  2881   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2882     "isatool."
  2883 
  2884   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2885     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2886 
  2887   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2888     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2889 
  2890 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2891 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2892 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2893 
  2894 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2895 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2896 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2897 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2898 via "isabelle emacs".
  2899 
  2900 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2901 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2902 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2903 
  2904 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2905 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2906 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2907 
  2908 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2909 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2910 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2911 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2912 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2913 
  2914 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2915 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2916 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2917 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2918 
  2919 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2920 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2921 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2922 
  2923 
  2924 *** Pure ***
  2925 
  2926 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2927 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2928 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2929 
  2930 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2931 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2932 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2933 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2934 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2935 
  2936 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2937 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2938 useful in locale declarations.
  2939 
  2940 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2941 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2942 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2943 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2944 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2945 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2946 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2947 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2948 no longer generated.
  2949 
  2950 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2951 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2952 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2953 
  2954 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2955 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2956 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2957 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2958 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2959 
  2960 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2962 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2963 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2964 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2965 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2966 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2967 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2968 
  2969 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2970 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2971 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2972 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2973 
  2974 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975 
  2976 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2977 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2978 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2979 
  2980 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2981 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2982 
  2983 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2984 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2985 in HOL, write
  2986 
  2987     class foo = ...
  2988 
  2989 instead of
  2990 
  2991     class foo = type + ...
  2992 
  2993 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2994 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2997 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2998 
  2999 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3000 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3001 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3002 
  3003 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3004 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3005 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3006 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3007 directly in regular applications.
  3008 
  3009 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3010 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3011 
  3012 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3013 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3014 
  3015 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3016 theory context.
  3017 
  3018 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3019 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3022 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3023 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3024 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3025 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3026 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3027 
  3028   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3029 
  3030 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3031 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3032 normalization.
  3033 
  3034 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3035 addressing etc.
  3036 
  3037 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3038 
  3039   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3040   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3041 
  3042 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3043 
  3044   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3045      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3046      parts of the code generator framework).
  3047 
  3048   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3049      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3050      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3051 
  3052 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3055 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3058 patterns, e.g.
  3059 
  3060     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3061 
  3062 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3063 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3064 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3065 hyphen:
  3066 
  3067     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3068 
  3069 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3070 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3071 
  3072 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3073 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3074 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3075 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3076 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3077 higher-order unification.
  3078 
  3079 
  3080 *** Document preparation ***
  3081 
  3082 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3083 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3084 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3085 
  3086 
  3087 *** HOL ***
  3088 
  3089 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3090 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3091 
  3092 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3093 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3094 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3095 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3096 Main, as before.
  3097 
  3098 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3099 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3100 
  3101 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3102 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3103 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3104 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3105 
  3106 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3107 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3108 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3109 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3110 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3111 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3112 
  3113 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3114 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3115 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3116 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3117 
  3118 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3119 menu.
  3120 
  3121 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3122 (contains the empty clause).
  3123 
  3124 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3125 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3126 
  3127 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3128 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3129 
  3130 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3131 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3132 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133 
  3134 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3135 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3136 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3137 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3138 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3139 
  3140 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3141 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3142 
  3143 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3144 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3145 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3146 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3147 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3148 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3149 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3150 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3151 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3152 
  3153 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3154 
  3155 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3156 
  3157 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3158 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3161 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3162 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3163 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3164 
  3165 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3166 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3167 
  3168     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3169     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3170     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3171     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3172     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3173     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3174     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3175     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3176 
  3177 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3178 theory Set.
  3179 
  3180 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3181 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3182 
  3183 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3184 
  3185 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3186 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3187 
  3188 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3189 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3190 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3191 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3192 allowed. For examples see
  3193 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3194 
  3195 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3196 
  3197 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3201 structure:
  3202 
  3203     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3204     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3205     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3206     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3207     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3208     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3209     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3210     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3211     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3212     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3213     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3214     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3215     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3216     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3217     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3218     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3219     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3220     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3221     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3222     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3223     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3224     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3225     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3226     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3227     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3228     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3229     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3230     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3231     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3232     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3233     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3234     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3235     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3236 
  3237     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3238     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3239     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3240     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3241     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3242     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3243     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3244     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3245     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3246     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3247 
  3248     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3249     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3250     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3251     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3252     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3253     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3254 
  3255 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3256 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3257 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3258 
  3259 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3260 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3261 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3262 
  3263 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3264 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265 
  3266 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3267 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3268 
  3269 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3270 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3271 proofs, e.g.
  3272 
  3273   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3274 
  3275 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3276 
  3277 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3278 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3279 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3282 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3286 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3287 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3291 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3292 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3293 preorder_class.*.
  3294 
  3295 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3296 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3297 
  3298 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3299 
  3300   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3301 
  3302 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3303 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3304 fold_image.
  3305 
  3306 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3307 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3308 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3309 the former will disappear at some point.
  3310 
  3311 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3312 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3313 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3314 
  3315 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3316 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3317 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3318 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3319 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3320 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3321 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3322 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3323 
  3324 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3325 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3326 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3327 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3328 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3329 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3330 
  3331     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3332     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3333     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3334     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3335     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3336     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3337     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3338 
  3339 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3340 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3341 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3342 
  3343 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3344 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3345 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3346 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3347 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3348 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3349 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3350 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3351 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3352 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3353 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3354 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3355 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3356 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3357 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3358 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3359 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3360 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3361 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3362 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3363 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3364 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3365 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3366 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3367 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3368 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3369 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3370 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3371 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3372 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3373 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3374 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3375 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3376 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3377 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3378 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3379 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3380 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3381 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3382 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3383 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3384 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3385 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3386 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3387 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3388 
  3389 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3390 
  3391 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3392 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3393 
  3394 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3395 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3396 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3397 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3398 
  3399 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3400 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3401 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3402 theory RealVector.
  3403 
  3404 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3405 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3406 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3407 and inner products are included.
  3408 
  3409 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3410 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3411 supported.
  3412 
  3413 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3414 first diagonalization argument.
  3415 
  3416 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3417 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3418 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3419 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3420 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3421 
  3422     hide (open) const gcd
  3423     abbreviation gcd where
  3424       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3425     notation (output)
  3426       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3427 
  3428 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3429 
  3430 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3431 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3432 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3435 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3436 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3437 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3438 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3439 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3440 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3441 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3442 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3443 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3444 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3445 cases.
  3446 
  3447 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3448 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3449 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3450 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3451 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3452 
  3453     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3454     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3455     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3456     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3457     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3458 
  3459 
  3460 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3461 
  3462 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3463 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3464 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3465 
  3466 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3467 
  3468 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3469 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3470 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3471 
  3472 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3473 
  3474 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3475 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3476 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3477 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3478 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3479 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3480 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3481 
  3482 
  3483 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3484 
  3485 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3486 
  3487 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3488 theory targets.
  3489 
  3490 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3491 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3492 'inductive' etc.
  3493 
  3494 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3495 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3496 
  3497 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3498 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3499 
  3500 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3501 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3502 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3503 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3504 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3505 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3506 the algorithm W:
  3507 
  3508  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3509  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3510          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3511 
  3512 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3513 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3514 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3515 
  3516 
  3517 *** HOLCF ***
  3518 
  3519 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3520 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3521 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3522 
  3523 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3524 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3525 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3526 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3527 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3530 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3531 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 
  3534 *** ZF ***
  3535 
  3536 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3537 
  3538 
  3539 *** ML ***
  3540 
  3541 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3542 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3543 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3544 5.2.1!
  3545 
  3546 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3547 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3548 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3549 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3550 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3551 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3552 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3553 
  3554 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3555 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3556 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3557 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3558 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3559 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3560 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3561 
  3562 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3563 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3564 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3565 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3566 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3567 
  3568 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3569 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3570 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3571 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3572 Method.add_method.
  3573 
  3574 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3575 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3576 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3577 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3578 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3579 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3580 
  3581 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3582 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3583 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3584 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3585 examples.
  3586 
  3587 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3588 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3589 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3590 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3591 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3592 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3593 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3594 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3595 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3596 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3597 
  3598 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3599 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3600 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3601 
  3602 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3603 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3604 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3605 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3606 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3607 resort for legacy applications.
  3608 
  3609 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3610 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3611 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3612 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3613 explicit runtime argument.
  3614 
  3615 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3616 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3617 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3618 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3619 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3622 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3623 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3624 theory state.
  3625 
  3626 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3627 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3628 
  3629   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3630   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3631   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3632   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3633   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3634   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3635   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3636   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3637   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3638   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3639 
  3640 
  3641 *** System ***
  3642 
  3643 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3644 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3645 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3646 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3647 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3648 
  3649 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3650 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3651 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3652 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3653 
  3654 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3655 
  3656 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3657 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3658 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3659 prover operations.
  3660 
  3661 
  3662 
  3663 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3664 -------------------------------
  3665 
  3666 *** General ***
  3667 
  3668 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3669 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3670 
  3671 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3672 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3673 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3674 provides a proper context already.
  3675 
  3676 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3677 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3678 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3679 
  3680 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3681 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3682 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3683 swap theory imports.
  3684 
  3685 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3687 
  3688 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3689 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3690 white space without escapes.
  3691 
  3692 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3693 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3694 "foo_bar".
  3695 
  3696 
  3697 *** Pure ***
  3698 
  3699 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3700 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3701 
  3702 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3703 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3704 
  3705 (1) unused_thms
  3706      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3707 
  3708 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3709      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3710      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3711 
  3712 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3713      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3714      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3715      their ancestors.
  3716 
  3717 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3718 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3719 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3720 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3721 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3722 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3723 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3724 
  3725 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3726 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3727 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3728 
  3729 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3730 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3731 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3732 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3733 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3734 
  3735 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3736 
  3737 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3738 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3739 update of theories within ML code.
  3740 
  3741 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3742 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3743 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3744 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3745 
  3746 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3747 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3748 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3752 
  3753 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3754 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3755 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3756 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3757 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3758 
  3759 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3760 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3761 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3762 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3763 situations.
  3764 
  3765 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3766 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3767 proof text.
  3768 
  3769 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3770 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3771 
  3772 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3773 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3774 predicates.
  3775 
  3776 
  3777 *** Document preparation ***
  3778 
  3779 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3780 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3781 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3782 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3783 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3784 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3785 
  3786 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3787 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3788 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3789 
  3790 
  3791 *** HOL ***
  3792 
  3793 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3794 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3795 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3796 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3797 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3798 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3799 
  3800 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3801 with multithreading.
  3802 
  3803 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3804 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3805 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3806 
  3807 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3808 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3809 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3810 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3813 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3814 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3815 and makes them available separately.  See
  3816 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3817 
  3818 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3819 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3820 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3821 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3822 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3823 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3824 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3825 the declared rules.
  3826 
  3827 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3828 
  3829   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3830 
  3831 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3832 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3833 
  3834 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3835 
  3836   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3837 
  3838   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3839     definitions on => and bool.
  3840 
  3841   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3842     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3843     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3844 
  3845       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3846       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3847       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3848       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3849       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3850       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3851       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3852       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3853 
  3854   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3855     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3856     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3857 
  3858   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3859     The proof pattern
  3860 
  3861       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3862       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3863 
  3864     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3865     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3866 
  3867       have "EX S. P S"
  3868       proof
  3869         show "P S" <...>
  3870       qed
  3871 
  3872   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3873     The proof pattern
  3874 
  3875       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3876       also have "S = T" <...>
  3877       finally have "P T" .
  3878 
  3879     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3880     must be replaced by something like
  3881 
  3882       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3883       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3884       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3885 
  3886   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3887     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3888 
  3889       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3890 
  3891     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3892     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3893     type of the form
  3894 
  3895       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3896 
  3897     rather than
  3898 
  3899       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3900 
  3901 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3902 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3903 
  3904 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3907 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3911 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3914 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3915 
  3916 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3917 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3918 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3921 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3922 
  3923   less_trans
  3924   less_linear
  3925   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3926   le_less_trans
  3927   less_le_trans
  3928   less_not_sym
  3929   less_asym
  3930 
  3931 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3932 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3933 and different variable names.
  3934 
  3935 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3936 
  3937 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3938 finite maps.
  3939 
  3940 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3941 
  3942 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3943 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3944 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3945 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3946 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3947 accordingly.
  3948 
  3949 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3950 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3951 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3952 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3953 
  3954 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3955 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3956 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3957 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3958 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3962 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3965 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3966 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3967 
  3968 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3972 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3973 
  3974 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3975 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3978 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3979 
  3980 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3981 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3985 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3988 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3989 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3990 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3991 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3992 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3995 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3996 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3997 
  3998 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3999 
  4000 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4001 
  4002 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4003 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4004 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4005 
  4006 
  4007 *** ZF ***
  4008 
  4009 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4010 same session:
  4011 
  4012   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4013   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4014   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4015   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4016   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4017   List      -> List_ZF
  4018   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4019 
  4020 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4021 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4022 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4023 
  4024 
  4025 *** ML ***
  4026 
  4027 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4028 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4029 
  4030 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4031 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4032 
  4033 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4034 
  4035 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4036 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4037 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4038 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4039 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4042 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4043 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4044 
  4045 
  4046 *** System ***
  4047 
  4048 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4049 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4050 
  4051 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4052 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4053 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4054 
  4055 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4056 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4057 
  4058 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4059 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4060 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4061 
  4062 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4063 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4064 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4065 
  4066 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4067 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4068 
  4069 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4070 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4071 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4072 script.
  4073 
  4074 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4075 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4076 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4077 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4078 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4079 
  4080 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4081 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4082 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4083 
  4084 
  4085 
  4086 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4087 -----------------------------------
  4088 
  4089 *** General ***
  4090 
  4091 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4092 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4093 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4094 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4095 
  4096 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4097 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4098 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4101 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4102 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4103 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4106 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4107 quotes.
  4108 
  4109 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4110 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4111 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4112 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4113 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4114 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4115 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4116 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4117 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4118 
  4119 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4120 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4121 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4122 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4123 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4124 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4125 
  4126 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4127 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4128 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4129 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4130 
  4131 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4132 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4133 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4134 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4135 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4136 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4137 
  4138 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4139 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4140 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4141 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4142 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4143 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4144 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4145 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4146 
  4147 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4148 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4149 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4150 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4151 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4152 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4153 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4154 
  4155 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4156 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4157 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4158 
  4159 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4160 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4161 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4162 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4163 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4164 limit is imposed.
  4165 
  4166 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4167 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4168 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4169 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4170 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4171 and scalability.
  4172 
  4173 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4174 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4175 
  4176 
  4177 *** Document preparation ***
  4178 
  4179 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4180 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4181 current context.
  4182 
  4183 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4184 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4185 
  4186 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4187 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4188 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4189 
  4190 
  4191 *** Pure ***
  4192 
  4193 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4194 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4195 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4196 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4197 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4198 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4199 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4200 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4201 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4202 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4203 
  4204 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4205 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4206 sketch:
  4207 
  4208     internal compilation:
  4209         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4210     writing SML code to a file:
  4211         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4212     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4213         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4214     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4215         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4216 
  4217     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4218         method ``eval''
  4219 
  4220 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4221 
  4222 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4223 
  4224     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4225     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4226     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4227     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4228 
  4229 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4230 
  4231     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4232       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4233 
  4234     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4235       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4236 
  4237     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4238       {(target)}+
  4239         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4240 
  4241     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4242       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4243         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4244 
  4245 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4246 
  4247 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4248 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4249 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4250 codegen".
  4251 
  4252 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4253 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4254 annotations).
  4255 
  4256 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4257 syntax.
  4258 
  4259 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4260 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4261 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4262 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4264 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4265 
  4266 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4267 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4268 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4269 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4270 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4271 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4272 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4273 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4274 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4275 equations, see section "definitions".
  4276 
  4277 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4278 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4279 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4280 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4281 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4282 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4283 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4284 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4285 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4286 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4287 
  4288 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4289 configuration options:
  4290 
  4291   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4292   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4293   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4294   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4295   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4296   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4297   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4298   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4299   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4300 
  4301 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4302 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4303 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4304 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4305 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4306 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4307 order.
  4308 
  4309 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4310 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4311 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4312 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4313 context encountered later on.
  4314 
  4315 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4316 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4317 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4318 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4319 
  4320 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4321 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4322 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4323 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4324 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4325 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4326 
  4327 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4328 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4329 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4330 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4331 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4332 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4333 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4334 more permissive.
  4335 
  4336 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4337 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4338 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4339 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4340 maintainability of proof texts.
  4341 
  4342 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4343 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4344 
  4345   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4346   then guess x and y by clarify
  4347 
  4348 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4349 proof tools being involved here.
  4350 
  4351 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4352 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4353 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4354 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4355 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4356 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4357 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4358 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4359 
  4360 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4361 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4362 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4363 
  4364   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4365   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4366   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4367   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4368 
  4369 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4370 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4371 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4372 
  4373 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4374 both named and unnamed ones.
  4375 
  4376 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4377 
  4378   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4379 
  4380 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4381 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4382 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4383 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4384 
  4385 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4386 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4387 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4388 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4389 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4390 
  4391 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4392 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4393 
  4394 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4395 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4396 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4397 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4398 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4399 originally first one.
  4400 
  4401 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4402 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4403 expected.
  4404 
  4405 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4406 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4407 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4408 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4409 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4410 
  4411   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4412     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4413     obtains x where "P x"
  4414 
  4415   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4416     assumes "A & B"
  4417     obtains A and B
  4418 
  4419   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4420     assumes "A | B"
  4421     obtains
  4422       A
  4423     | B
  4424 
  4425 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4426 explicitly:
  4427 
  4428   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4429     obtains "~ thesis"
  4430 
  4431   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4432     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4433 
  4434 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4435 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4436 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4437 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4438 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4439 case_names).
  4440 
  4441 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4442 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4443 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4444 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4445 
  4446 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4447 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4448 top-level lemma.
  4449 
  4450 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4451 introduction rule (default "that").
  4452 
  4453 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4454 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4455 to occur.
  4456 
  4457 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4458 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4459 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4460 representations independently of name spaces.
  4461 
  4462 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4463 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4464 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4465 
  4466 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4467 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4468 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4469 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4470 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4471 current context.
  4472 
  4473 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4474 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4475 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4476 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4477 
  4478   axiomatization
  4479     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4480     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4481 
  4482   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4483   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4484 
  4485   abbreviation
  4486     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4487     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4488 
  4489 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4490 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4491 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4492 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4493 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4494 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4495 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4496 
  4497 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4498 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4499 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4500 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4501 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4502 
  4503 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4504 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4505 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4506 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4507 
  4508 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4509 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4510 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4511 
  4512   definition "K x _ = x"
  4513 
  4514   inductive conj for A B
  4515   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4516 
  4517 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4518 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4519 abbreviations on output.
  4520 
  4521 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4522 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4523 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4524 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4525 
  4526 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4527 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4528 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4529 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4530 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4531 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4532 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4533 
  4534 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4535 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4536 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4537 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4538 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4539 
  4540 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4541 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4542 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4543 
  4544 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4545 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4546 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4547 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4548 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4549 
  4550   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4551     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4552 
  4553 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4554 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4555 partial_order.
  4556 
  4557 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4558 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4559 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4560 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4561 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4562 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4563 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4564 examples.
  4565 
  4566 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4567 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4568 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4569 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4570 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4571 
  4572 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4573 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4574 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4575 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4576 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4577 
  4578   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4579   (induct set: foo bar)
  4580   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4581   (induct type: foo bar)
  4582 
  4583 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4584 new format.
  4585 
  4586 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4587 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4588 
  4589 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4590 considered a legacy feature.
  4591 
  4592 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4593 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4596 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4597 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4598 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4599   
  4600 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4601 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4602 manipulating the claset.
  4603 
  4604 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4605 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4606 least one premise.
  4607 
  4608 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4609 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4610 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4611 rule steps.
  4612 
  4613 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4614 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4615 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4616 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4617 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4618 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4619 
  4620 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4621 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4622 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4623 
  4624 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4625 the graph browser tool.
  4626 
  4627 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4628 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4629 
  4630 
  4631 *** HOL ***
  4632 
  4633 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4634 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4635 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4636 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4637 multi-threading.
  4638   
  4639 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4640 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4641 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4642 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4643 work with multi-threading.
  4644 
  4645 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4646 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4647 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4648 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4649 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4650 
  4651 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4652 
  4653 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4654 equality.
  4655 
  4656 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4657 the new 'class' package:
  4658 
  4659     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4660     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4661     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4662     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4663     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4664     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4665     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4666     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4667     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4668     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4669     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4670     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4671     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4672     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4673     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4674     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4675     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4676     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4677     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4678     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4679 
  4680 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4681 
  4682 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4683 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4684 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4685 names.
  4686 
  4687 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4688 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4689 
  4690 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4691 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4692 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4693 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4694 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4695 
  4696 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4697 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4698 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4699 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4700 
  4701 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4702 
  4703 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4704 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4705 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4706 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4710 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4711 
  4712 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4713 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4714 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4717 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4718 
  4719 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4720 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4721 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4722 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4723 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4724 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4725 in the current context.
  4726 
  4727 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4728 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4732 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4733 
  4734 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4735 
  4736     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4737     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4738 
  4739     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4740       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4741     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4742     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4743 
  4744     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4745     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4746 
  4747   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4748 
  4749     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4750     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4751     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4752     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4753     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4754     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4755     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4756     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4757     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4758     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4759     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4760     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4761     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4762     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4763     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4764     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4765     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4766     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4767     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4768     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4769     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4770     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4771     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4772     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4773     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4774     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4775     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4776     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4777     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4778     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4779     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4780     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4781     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4782     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4783     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4784 
  4785     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4786     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4787     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4788     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4789     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4790     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4791     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4792     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4793     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4794     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4795     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4796     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4797     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4798     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4799     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4800     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4801     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4802 
  4803     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4804     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4805     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4806     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4807     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4808     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4809     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4810     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4811     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4812     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4813     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4814     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4815     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4816     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4817     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4818     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4819     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4820     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4821     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4822     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4823     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4824     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4825     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4826     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4827     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4828     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4829     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4830     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4831 
  4832     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4833     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4834     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4835     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4836     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4837     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4838 
  4839     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4840     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4841     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4842     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4843 
  4844     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4845     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4846 
  4847     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4848     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4849 
  4850 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4851 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4852 
  4853 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4854 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4855 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4856 "*.size".
  4857 
  4858 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4860 
  4861 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4862 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4863 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4864 
  4865 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4868 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4869 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4870 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4871 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4872 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4873 numerals on all operations.
  4874 
  4875 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4876 
  4877 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4878 
  4879 * Code generator library theories:
  4880   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4881     languages.
  4882   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4883     languages.
  4884   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4885     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4886   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4887   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4888     denominator).
  4889   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4890     representable by rational numbers.
  4891   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4892     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4893     includes Code_Integer.
  4894   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4895     target-language built-in integers.
  4896   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4897     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4898 
  4899 * New package for inductive predicates
  4900 
  4901   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4902 
  4903     inductive
  4904       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4905       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4906     where
  4907       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4908     | ...
  4909 
  4910   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4911 
  4912     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4913 
  4914     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4915     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4916 
  4917     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4918     intros
  4919       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4920       ...
  4921 
  4922   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4923   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4924 
  4925     inductive_set
  4926       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4927       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4928     where
  4929       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4930     | ...
  4931 
  4932   or
  4933 
  4934     inductive_set
  4935       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4936       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4937       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4938     where
  4939       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4940     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4941     | ...
  4942 
  4943   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4944 
  4945   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4946   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4947 
  4948   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4949 
  4950   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4951     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4952     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4953     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4954     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4955 
  4956   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4957     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4958     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4959     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4960     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4961     statements of the form
  4962 
  4963       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4964 
  4965     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4966     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4967 
  4968       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4969 
  4970   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4971 
  4972       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4973         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4974         ==> ... ==> P
  4975 
  4976     for predicates and
  4977 
  4978       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4979         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4980         ==> ... ==> P
  4981 
  4982     for sets rather than
  4983 
  4984       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4985         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4986         ==> ... ==> P
  4987 
  4988     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4989     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4990     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4991 
  4992   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4993     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4994     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4995 
  4996 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4997 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4998 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4999 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5000 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5001 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5002 
  5003 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5004 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5005 
  5006 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5007 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5008 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5009 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5010 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5011 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5012 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5013 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5014 variable.
  5015 
  5016 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5017 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5018 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5019 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5020   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5021   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5022 
  5023 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5024 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5025 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5026 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5027 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5028 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5029 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5030 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5031 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5032 
  5033 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5034 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5035 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5036 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5037 rat, etc.
  5038 
  5039 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5040 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5041 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5042 
  5043 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5044 
  5045 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5046 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5047 
  5048 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5049 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5050 
  5051 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5052 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5053 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5054 
  5055 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5056 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5060 
  5061 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5062 
  5063 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5064 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5065 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5066 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5067 
  5068 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5069 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5070 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5071 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 
  5073 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5074 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5075 algebraic operations.
  5076 
  5077 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5079 
  5080 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5084 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5085 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5086 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5087 adapted.
  5088  
  5089 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5090 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5091 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5092 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5093 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5094 
  5095 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5096 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5097 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5098 
  5099 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5100 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5101 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5102 
  5103 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5104 
  5105 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5106 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5107 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5108   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5109       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5110   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5111   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5112   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5113 
  5114 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5115 
  5116 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5117 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5118 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5119 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5120 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5121 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5122 
  5123 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5124 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5125 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5126 
  5127 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5128 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5129 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5131 
  5132 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5133 
  5134 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5135 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5138 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5139 
  5140 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5141 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5142 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5143 
  5144 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5145 True/False.
  5146 
  5147 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5148 
  5149 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5150 
  5151 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5152 ``rule'' method.
  5153 
  5154 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5155 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5156 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5157 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5158 
  5159 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5160 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5161 
  5162 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5163 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5164 
  5165 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5166 Library.
  5167 
  5168 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5169 
  5170 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5171 as greatest fixed-point.
  5172 
  5173 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5174 association lists.
  5175 
  5176 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5177 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5178 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5179 
  5180 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5181 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5182 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5183 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5184 behavior.
  5185 
  5186 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5187 
  5188 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5189 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5190 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5191 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5192 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5193 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5194 
  5195 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5196 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5197 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5198 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5199 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5200 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5201 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5202 
  5203 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5204 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5205 
  5206 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5207 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5208 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5209 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5210 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5211 
  5212 
  5213 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5214 
  5215 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5216 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5217 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5218 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5220 
  5221 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5222 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5223 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5224 
  5225 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5226 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5227 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5228 
  5229 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5230 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5231 
  5232 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5233 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5234 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5236 
  5237   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5238   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5239   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5240   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5241   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5242   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5243   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5244   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5245   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5246   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5247   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5248   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5249   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5250   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5251   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5252 
  5253 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5254 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5255 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5256 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5257 
  5258   approx        <-- capprox
  5259   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5260   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5261   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5262   monad         <-- cmonad
  5263   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5264   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5265   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5266   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5267 
  5268 
  5269 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5270 
  5271 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5272 
  5273 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5275 
  5276 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5277 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5278 
  5279 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5280 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5281 of algebraic structures.
  5282 
  5283 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5284 
  5285 
  5286 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5287 
  5288 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5289 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5290 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5291 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5292 
  5293 
  5294 *** ML ***
  5295 
  5296 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5297 (even on SML/NJ).
  5298 
  5299 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5300 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5301 compile-time.  For example:
  5302 
  5303 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5304 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5305 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5306 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5307 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5308 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5309 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5310 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5311 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5312 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5313 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5314 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5315 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5316 ML {* @{context} *}
  5317 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5318 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5319 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5320 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5321 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5322 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5323 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5324 
  5325 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5326 
  5327 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5328 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5329 
  5330 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5331 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5332 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5333 
  5334 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5335 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5336 
  5337 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5338 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5339 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5340 
  5341 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5342 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5343 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5344 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5345 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5346 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5347 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5348 declarations and definitions.
  5349 
  5350 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5351 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5352 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5353 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5354 
  5355 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5356 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5357 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5358 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5359 
  5360 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5361 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5362 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5363 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5364 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5365 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5366 
  5367 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5368 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5369 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5370 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5371 attributes, methods, etc.
  5372 
  5373 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5374 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5375 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5376 fold_map combinators.
  5377 
  5378 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5379 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5380 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5381 derivation.
  5382 
  5383 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5384 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5385 achieve the old behaviour.
  5386 
  5387 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5388 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5389 statements.
  5390 
  5391 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5392 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5393 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5394 
  5395 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5396 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5397 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5398 
  5399   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5400   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5401   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5402 
  5403 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5404 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5405 
  5406 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5407 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5408 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5409 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5410 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5411 
  5412 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5413 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5414 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5415 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5416 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5417 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5418 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5419 in a locale context).
  5420 
  5421 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5422 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5423 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5424 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5425 
  5426 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5427 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5428 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5429 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5430 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5431 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5432 
  5433 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5434 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5435 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5436 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5437 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5438 
  5439   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5440 
  5441 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5442 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5443 this:
  5444 
  5445   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5446 
  5447 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5448 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5449 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5450 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5451 
  5452 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5453 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5454 
  5455 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5456 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5457 
  5458 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5459 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5460 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5461 batch mode.
  5462 
  5463 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5464 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5465 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5466 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5467 
  5468 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5469 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5470 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5471 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5472 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5473 
  5474 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5475 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5476 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5477 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5478 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5479 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5480 
  5481 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5482 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5483 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5485 
  5486 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5487 "Trueprop" etc.
  5488 
  5489 
  5490 *** System ***
  5491 
  5492 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5493 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5494 Isabelle installations.
  5495 
  5496 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5497 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5498 code.
  5499 
  5500 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5501 
  5502 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5503 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5504 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5505 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5506 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5507 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5508 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5509 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5510 Implementation manual.
  5511 
  5512 
  5513 
  5514 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5515 ----------------------------------
  5516 
  5517 *** General ***
  5518 
  5519 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5520 
  5521   theory <name>
  5522   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5523   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5524   begin
  5525 
  5526 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5527 
  5528   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5529 
  5530 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5531 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5532 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5533 
  5534 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5535 relative and absolute paths.
  5536 
  5537 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5538 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5539 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5540 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5541 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5542 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5543 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5544 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5545 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5546 
  5547   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5548 
  5549 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5550 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5551 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5552 
  5553 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5554 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5555 
  5556 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5557 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5558 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5559 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5560 
  5561   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5562   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5563 
  5564 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5565 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5566 faster.
  5567 
  5568 
  5569 *** Document preparation ***
  5570 
  5571 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5572 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5573 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5574 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5575 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5576 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5577 
  5578 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5579 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5580 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5581 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5582 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5583 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5584 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5585 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5586 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5587 \isadroptag.
  5588 
  5589 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5590 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5591 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5592 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5593 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5594 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5595 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5596 specified above.
  5597 
  5598 * Several new antiquotations:
  5599 
  5600   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5601 
  5602   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5603 
  5604   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5605   argument is a known logical constant;
  5606 
  5607   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5608   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5609 
  5610   @{ML text}
  5611 
  5612 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5613 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5614 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5615 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5616 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5617 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5618 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5619 
  5620 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5621 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5622 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5623 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5624 
  5625 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5626 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5627 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5628 
  5629 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5630 a proof context.
  5631 
  5632 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5633 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5634 
  5635 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5636 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5637 
  5638 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5639 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5640 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5641 
  5642 
  5643 *** Pure ***
  5644 
  5645 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5646 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5647 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5648 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5649 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5650 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5651 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5652 
  5653 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5654 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5655 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5656 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5657 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5658 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5659 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5660 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5661 
  5662 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5663 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5664 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5665 
  5666 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5667 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5668 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5669 
  5670 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5671 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5672 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5673 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5675 
  5676 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5677 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5678 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5679 axclasses vs. locales.
  5680 
  5681 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5682 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5683 
  5684 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5685 marks in schematic variable names.
  5686 
  5687 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5688 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5689 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5690 
  5691   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5692     by simp
  5693 
  5694 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5695 
  5696 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5697 annotations as "(00...)".
  5698 
  5699 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5700 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5701 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5702 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5703 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5704 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5705 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5706 
  5707 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5708 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5709 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5710 specifications.
  5711 
  5712 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5713 locally fixed variables as well.
  5714 
  5715 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5716 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5717 Limit.
  5718 
  5719 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5720 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5721 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5722 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5723 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5724 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5725 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5726 
  5727 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5728 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5729 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5730 
  5731 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5732 
  5733 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5734 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5735 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5736 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5737 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5738 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5739 
  5740 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5741 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5742 
  5743 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5744 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5745 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5746 
  5747 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5748 
  5749 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5750 theory development.
  5751 
  5752 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5753 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5754 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5755 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5756 
  5757 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5758 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5759 quoted when used as identifier.
  5760 
  5761 
  5762 *** Locales ***
  5763 
  5764 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5765 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5766 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5767 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5768 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5769 commands is a follows:
  5770 
  5771   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5772   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5773   (3) interpret expr inst
  5774 
  5775 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5776 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5777 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5778 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5779 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5780 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5781 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5782 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5783 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5784 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5785 
  5786 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5787 'interpret' instead.
  5788 
  5789 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5790 parameters.
  5791 
  5792 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5793 redeclaration.
  5794 
  5795 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5796 
  5797 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5798 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5799 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5800 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5801 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5802 
  5803 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5804 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5805 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5806 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5807 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5808 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5809 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5810 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5811 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5812 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5813 
  5814 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5815 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5816 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5817 
  5818 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5819 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5820 
  5821 
  5822 *** Provers ***
  5823 
  5824 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5825 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5826 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5827 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5828 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5829 
  5830 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5831 and quasi orders.
  5832 
  5833 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5834 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5835 
  5836 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5837 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5838 
  5839 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5840 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5841 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5842 
  5843 
  5844 *** HOL ***
  5845 
  5846 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5847 
  5848   syntax (epsilon)
  5849     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5850 
  5851 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5852 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5853 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5854 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5855 
  5856 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5857 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5858 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5859 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5860 
  5861 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5862 instead of ":".
  5863 
  5864 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5865 
  5866   Old       New
  5867   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5868   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5869   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5870   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5871   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5872 
  5873 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5874 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5875 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5876 
  5877   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5878   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5879 
  5880 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5881 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5882 interface.
  5883 
  5884 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5885 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5886 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5887 be a tuple pattern.
  5888 
  5889 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5890 
  5891   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5892   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5893   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5894   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5895 
  5896 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5897 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5898 
  5899 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5900 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5901 (insert F x)'.
  5902 
  5903 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5904 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5905 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5906 
  5907 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5908 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5909 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5910 
  5911 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5912 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5913 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5914 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5915 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5916 
  5917 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5918 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5919 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5920 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5921 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5922 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5923 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5924 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5925 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5926 
  5927 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5928 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5929 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5930 quite long.
  5931 
  5932 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5933 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5934 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5935 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5936 
  5937 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5938 type-variables in the term.
  5939 
  5940 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5941 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5942 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5943 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5944 goals than previously.
  5945 
  5946 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5947 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5948 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5949 just like y <= x.
  5950 
  5951 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5952 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5953 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5954 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5955 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5956 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5957 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5958 
  5959 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5960 
  5961 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5962 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5963 
  5964 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5965 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5966 inequalities.
  5967 
  5968 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5969 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5970 
  5971   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5972   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5973   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5974   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5975   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5976   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5977   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5978   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5979   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5980   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5981   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5982 
  5983 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5984      
  5985      zero_le_square
  5986      not_square_less_zero 
  5987 
  5988   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5989   
  5990      realpow_zero_zero
  5991      realpow_two
  5992      realpow_less
  5993      zero_le_power
  5994      realpow_two_le
  5995      abs_realpow_two
  5996      realpow_two_abs     
  5997 
  5998 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5999 
  6000 * Theory List:
  6001 
  6002 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6003 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6004 
  6005   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  6006   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  6007   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  6008   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  6009 
  6010 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  6011 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  6012 
  6013 
  6014 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6015 
  6016 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  6017 integers in the reals.
  6018 
  6019 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6020 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6021 
  6022   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  6023   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6024   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6025   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6026   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6027 
  6028 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  6029 
  6030 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  6031 
  6032 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  6033 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  6034 
  6035   hypreal = real star
  6036   hypnat = nat star
  6037   hcomplex = complex star
  6038 
  6039 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  6040 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6041 
  6042   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  6043 
  6044   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  6045   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  6046   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  6047   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  6048   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  6049 
  6050   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6051   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  6052   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  6053   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  6054   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  6055 
  6056 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  6057 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6058 
  6059   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  6060   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  6061   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  6062   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  6063   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  6064   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  6065   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  6066   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  6067   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  6068   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  6069   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  6070   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  6071   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  6072   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  6073   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  6074   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  6075   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  6076   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  6077   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  6078   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  6079   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  6080   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  6081   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  6082   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  6083 
  6084 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  6085 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  6086 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6087 
  6088   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  6089   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  6090   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  6091   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  6092   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  6093   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  6094   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  6095   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  6096   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  6097   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  6098     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  6099   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  6100   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  6101   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  6102   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  6103   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  6104   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  6105   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  6106   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  6107   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  6108   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  6109   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  6110   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  6111   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6112   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6113   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  6114   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  6115   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  6116   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  6117   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  6118   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  6119   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  6120   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  6121   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  6122   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  6123   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  6124   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  6125   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  6126   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  6127   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  6128   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  6129   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  6130   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  6131   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  6132   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  6133   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  6134   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  6135   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  6136   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  6137   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  6138   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  6139   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  6140   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  6141   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  6142 
  6143   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  6144   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  6145   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  6146   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  6147   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  6148   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  6149   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  6150   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  6151   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  6152   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  6153   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  6154 
  6155   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  6156   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  6157   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  6158   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  6159   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  6160   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  6161   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  6162   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  6163   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  6164   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  6165   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  6166   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  6167   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  6168   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  6169   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  6170   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  6171   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  6172   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  6173   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  6174   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  6175   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  6176 
  6177 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  6178 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  6179 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  6180 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  6181 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  6182 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  6183 
  6184 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  6185 
  6186 
  6187 *** HOLCF ***
  6188 
  6189 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  6190 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  6191 type-inference.
  6192 
  6193 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  6194 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  6195 instead of exponential time).
  6196 
  6197 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  6198 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  6199 
  6200   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  6201 
  6202 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  6203 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  6204 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  6205 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  6206 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6207 syntax and examples.
  6208 
  6209 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  6210 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  6211 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  6212 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  6213 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  6214 
  6215 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  6216 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6217 
  6218   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  6219   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  6220   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  6221   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  6222   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  6223   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  6224 
  6225 
  6226 *** ZF ***
  6227 
  6228 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  6229 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  6230 of a homomorphism).
  6231 
  6232 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  6233 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  6234 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  6235 
  6236 
  6237 *** Cube ***
  6238 
  6239 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  6240 theories.
  6241 
  6242 
  6243 *** ML ***
  6244 
  6245 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  6246 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  6247 
  6248 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  6249 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  6250 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  6251