NEWS
author nipkow
Sun Dec 23 19:54:15 2012 +0100 (2012-12-23)
changeset 50616 5b6cf0fbc329
parent 50592 a39250169636
child 50634 009a9fdabbad
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed and added lemmas
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    65 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    66 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    67 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    68 
    69 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    70 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    71 
    72 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    73 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    74 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    75 potentially infinite message streams.
    76 
    77 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    78 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    79 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    80 schemes.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    83 symbols.
    84 
    85 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    86 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    87 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    88 
    89 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    90 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    91 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    92 
    93 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
    94 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
    95 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
    96 Isabelle distribution.
    97 
    98 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    99 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   100 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   101 
   102 
   103 *** Pure ***
   104 
   105 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   106 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.  Dropped
   107 legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   110 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   111 
   112 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
   113 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
   114 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
   115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   118 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   119 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   120 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   121 with some care where this is really required.
   122 
   123 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   124 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   125 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   126 
   127   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   128 
   129 
   130 *** HOL ***
   131 
   132 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   133 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   136 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   139 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   140 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   141 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   142 accordingly.
   143 
   144 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   145 
   146   - Renamed constants
   147       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   148 
   149   - Renamed facts
   150       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   151 
   152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   153 
   154 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   157 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   158 
   159 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   160 to lattice type classes.
   161 
   162 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   163 
   164 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   165 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   166 
   167   - Renamed constants:
   168 
   169       prefix ~> prefixeq
   170       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   171 
   172     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   173 
   174   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   175     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   176     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   177     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179   - New constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   180     abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case "list_hembeq (op =)".
   181 
   182   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   183     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   184     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   185     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   188     "Sublist.sublisteq". Replaced lemmas:
   189 
   190       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   191       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   192       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   193       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   194       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   195       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   196       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   197       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   198       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   199       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   200       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   201       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   202       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   203       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   204       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   205       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   206 
   207     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Further generalized the definition of limits:
   210 
   211   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which expresses that
   212     when the input values x converge to F then the output f x converges to G.
   213 
   214   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative infinity (at_bot).
   215     Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   216 
   217   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :> at_top".
   218     INCOMPATIBILITY
   219 
   220 * HOL/Transitive_Closure: renamed lemmas
   221   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   222   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   223 
   224 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   225 
   226 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   227 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   228 
   229 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   230 
   231 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   232 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   233 non-free datatypes.
   234 
   235 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   236 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   237 
   238 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis:
   239   Replaced "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real" and
   240   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space" on euclidean spaces by
   241   using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with vectors from the Basis set.
   242   "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is replaced by "SUM i : Basis. f i *r i".
   243 
   244   With this change the following constants are also chanegd or removed:
   245 
   246     DIM('a) :: nat   ~>   card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   247     a $$ i    ~>    inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   248     cart_base i     removed
   249     \<pi>, \<pi>'   removed
   250 
   251   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   252 
   253   Renamed lemmas:
   254 
   255     component_le_norm   ~>   Basis_le_norm
   256     euclidean_eq   ~>   euclidean_eq_iff
   257     differential_zero_maxmin_component   ~>   differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   258     euclidean_simps   ~>   inner_simps
   259     independent_basis   ~>   independent_Basis
   260     span_basis   ~>   span_Basis
   261     in_span_basis   ~>   in_span_Basis
   262     norm_bound_component_le   ~>   norm_boound_Basis_le
   263     norm_bound_component_lt   ~>   norm_boound_Basis_lt
   264     component_le_infnorm   ~>   Basis_le_infnorm
   265 
   266   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * HOL/Probability:
   269   - Add simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability
   270 
   271   - Add induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint)
   272     and for Borel-measurable functions (borel_measurable_induct).
   273 
   274   - The Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a projective family)
   275 
   276 * Library/Countable_Set.thy: Theory of countable sets.
   277 
   278 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   279 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   280 
   281 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   282 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   283 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   284 
   285       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   286       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   287       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   288       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   289       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   290       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   291       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   292       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   293       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   294       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   295 
   296   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   299 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   300 
   301 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   302 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   303 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   304 
   305 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   306 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   307 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   310 
   311 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   312 expressions.
   313 
   314 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   315 pointfree expressions.
   316 
   317 * Quickcheck:
   318 
   319   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   320     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   321     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   322 
   323 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   324 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   325 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   326 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   327 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * Sledgehammer:
   330 
   331   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   332     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   333   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   334   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   335   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   336   - Renamed options:
   337       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   338       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   339       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   340       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   341 
   342 
   343 *** Document preparation ***
   344 
   345 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   346 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   347 
   348 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   349 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   350 document/root.tex.
   351 
   352 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   353 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   354 
   355 
   356 *** ML ***
   357 
   358 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   359 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   360 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   361 
   362 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   363 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   364 necessarily printing visible text.
   365 
   366 
   367 *** System ***
   368 
   369 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   370 instead of 4.
   371 
   372 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   373 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   374 for home-made configurations.
   375 
   376 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   377 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   378 
   379 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   380 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   381 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   382 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   383 
   384 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   385 
   386 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   387 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   388 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   389 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   390 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   391 
   392 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   393 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   394 
   395   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   396 
   397 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   398 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   399 
   400 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   401 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   402 "isabelle usedir".
   403 
   404 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   405 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   406 version of Isabelle.
   407 
   408 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   412 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   413 configuration.
   414 
   415 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   416 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   417 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   418 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   419 bundled as Isabelle component.
   420 
   421 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   422 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   423 
   424 
   425 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   426 ------------------------------
   427 
   428 *** General ***
   429 
   430 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   431 
   432   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   433     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   434   - markup for bound variables
   435   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   436   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   437   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   438     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   439 
   440 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   441 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   442 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   443 
   444 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   445 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   446 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   447 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   448 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   449 
   450   context
   451     fixes x y z :: 'a
   452     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   453   begin
   454 
   455   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   456 
   457   end
   458 
   459   thm my_trans
   460 
   461 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   462 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   463 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   464 
   465 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   466 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   467 
   468 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   469 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   470 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   471 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   472 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   473 
   474 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   475 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   476 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   477 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   478 indices of schematic variables.
   479 
   480 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   481 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   482 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   483 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   484 etc. was exploited.
   485 
   486 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   487 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   488 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   489 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   490 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   491 of the material of that old tutorial.
   492 
   493 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   494 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   495 manual.
   496 
   497 
   498 *** Pure ***
   499 
   500 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   501 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   502 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   503 
   504 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   505 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   506 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   507 undocumented feature.)
   508 
   509 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   510 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   511 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   512 
   513   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   514 
   515   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   516     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   517 
   518 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   519 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   520 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   521 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   522 
   523 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   524 
   525     num ~> num_token
   526     xnum ~> xnum_token
   527     xstr ~> str_token
   528 
   529 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   530 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   531 position information via constraints).
   532 
   533 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   534 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   535 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   538 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   539 
   540 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   541 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   542 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   543 
   544 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   545 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   546 
   547 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   548 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   549 
   550   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   551 
   552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   553 
   554 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   555 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   558 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   559 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   560 
   561 
   562 *** HOL ***
   563 
   564 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   565 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   566 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   567 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   568 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   569 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   570 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   571 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   572 possible.
   573 
   574 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   575 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   576 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   577 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   578 
   579 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   580 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   581 
   582 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   583 
   584 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   585 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   586 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   587 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   588 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   589 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   590 
   591   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   592     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   593 
   594   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   595     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   596     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   597 
   598   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   599     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   600 
   601   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   602     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   603     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   604 
   605   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   606     Redefine using other integer operations.
   607 
   608 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   609 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   610 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   611 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   612 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   613 
   614   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   615     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   616     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   617     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   618     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   619 
   620     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   621     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   622 
   623   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   624     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   625     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   626     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   627     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   628     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   629     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   630     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   631 
   632   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   633     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   634     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   635     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   636 
   637   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   638     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   639     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   640     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   641 
   642   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   643     from type nat to type int.
   644 
   645 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   646 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   647 
   648   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   649     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   650     type.  Example syntax:
   651 
   652     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   653       is List.insert
   654 
   655     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   656     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   657     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   658     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   659     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   660     by the package.
   661 
   662   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   663     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   664     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   665     code generation for each constant.
   666 
   667   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   668     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   669     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   670     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   671     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   672 
   673   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   674     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   675     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   676 
   677 * Quotient package:
   678 
   679   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   680     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   681 
   682   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   683     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   684 
   685   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   686     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   687     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688 
   689   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   690     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   693 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   694 
   695 * Quickcheck:
   696 
   697   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   698     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   699     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   700     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   701     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   702 
   703     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   704     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   705     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   706 
   707     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   708     continues searching for genuine ones.
   709 
   710     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   711     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   712     show genuine counterexamples.
   713 
   714   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   715     value generators for a given type and operations.
   716 
   717     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   718     constructors of that type.
   719 
   720   - Support for multisets.
   721 
   722   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   723 
   724   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   725     conjectures in a locale context.
   726 
   727 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   728 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   729 
   730 * Sledgehammer:
   731   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   732     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   733   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   734   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   735     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   736   - Sped up the minimizer.
   737   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   738   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   739   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   740 
   741 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   742 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   743 
   744 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   745 
   746 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   749 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   750 
   751   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   752 
   753 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   754 a list and a nat.
   755 
   756 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   757 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   758 
   759 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   760 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   761 default.
   762 
   763 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   764 
   765   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   766 
   767 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   768 
   769 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   770 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   771 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   772 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   773 one_case.
   774 
   775 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   776 the result of the fact expression.
   777 
   778 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   779 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   780 of some relation theorems:
   781 
   782   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   783   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   784   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   785   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   786   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   787   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   788 
   789 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   790 
   791 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   792 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   793 
   794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   797 to match the constant's name:
   798 
   799   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   800   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   801   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   802   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   803   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   804   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   805   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   806   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   807   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   808   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   809   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   810   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   811   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   812   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   813   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   814   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   815   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   816   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   817   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   818   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   819   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   820   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   821   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   822   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   823 
   824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   825 
   826 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   827 and corresponding theorem names:
   828 
   829   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   830 
   831   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   832 
   833   - Renamed theorems:
   834 
   835     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   836     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   837     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   838     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   839     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   840     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   841     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   842     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   843     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   844     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   845     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   846     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   847     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   848     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   849     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   850     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   851     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   852     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   853     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   854     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   855     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   856     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   857     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   858 
   859     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   860 
   861     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   862 
   863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   866 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   867 
   868   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   869   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   870   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   871   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   872   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   873   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   874   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   875   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   876   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   877   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   878   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   879   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   880   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   881   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   882   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   883   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   884   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   885   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   886   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   887   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   888   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   889 
   890 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   891 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   896 
   897   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   898   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   899   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   900   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   901   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   902   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   903   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   904   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   905   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   906   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   907   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   908   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   909   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   910   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   911   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   912   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   913   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   914   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   915 
   916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   919 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   920 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   921 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   922 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   923 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   924 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   925 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   926 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   927 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   928 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   929 
   930 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   931 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   932 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   933 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   934 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   935 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   936 
   937 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   938 through option types.
   939 
   940 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   941 relations.
   942 
   943 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   946 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   947 
   948   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   949   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   950   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   951   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   952   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   953   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   954   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   955   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   956   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   957   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   958   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   959   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   960   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   961   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   962   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   963   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   964   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   965   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   966   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   967   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   968   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   969   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   970   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   971   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   972   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   973   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   974   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   975   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   976   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   977   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   978   zless_le ~> less_le
   979   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   980   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   981   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   982 
   983 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   984 
   985   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   986 
   987 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   988 
   989 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   990 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   991 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   992 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   994 
   995 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   996 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   997 
   998 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   999 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1000 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1001 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1002 follows:
  1003 
  1004   Operations:
  1005   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1006   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1007   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1008   del -> rbt_del
  1009   delete -> rbt_delete
  1010   ins -> rbt_ins
  1011   insert -> rbt_insert
  1012   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1013   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1014   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1015   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1016   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1017   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1018   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1019   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1020   union -> rbt_union
  1021   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1022   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1023 
  1024   Lemmas:
  1025   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1026   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1027   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1028   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1029   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1030   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1031   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1032   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1033   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1034   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1035   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1036   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1037   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1038   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1039   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1040   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1041   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1042   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1043   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1044   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1045   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1046   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1047   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1048   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1049   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1050   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1051   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1052   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1053   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1054   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1055   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1056   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1057   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1058   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1059   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1060   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1061   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1062   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1063   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1064   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1065   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1066   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1067   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1068   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1069   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1070   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1071   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1072   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1073   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1074   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1075   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1076   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1077   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1078   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1079   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1080   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1081   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1082   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1083   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1084   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1085   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1086   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1087   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1088   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1089   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1090   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1091   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1092   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1093   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1094   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1095   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1096   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1097   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1098   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1099   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1100   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1101   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1102   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1103   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1104   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1105   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1106   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1107   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1108 
  1109 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1110 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1111 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1112 
  1113   Changed Operations:
  1114   float_abs -> abs
  1115   float_nprt -> nprt
  1116   float_pprt -> pprt
  1117   pow2 -> use powr
  1118   round_down -> float_round_down
  1119   round_up -> float_round_up
  1120   scale -> exponent
  1121 
  1122   Removed Operations:
  1123   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1124 
  1125   Renamed Lemmas:
  1126   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1127   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1128   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1129   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1130   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1131   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1132   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1133   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1134   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1135   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1136   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1137   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1138   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1139   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1140   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1141   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1142   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1143   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1144   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1145   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1146   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1147   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1148   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1149   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1150   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1151   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1152   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1153   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1154   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1155   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1156   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1157   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1158   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1159   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1160   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1161   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1162 
  1163   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1164   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1165   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1166   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1167   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1168   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1169   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1170   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1171   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1172   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1173 
  1174 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1175 association lists with distinct keys.
  1176 
  1177 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1178 annotated commands.
  1179 
  1180 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1181 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1182 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1183 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1186 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1187 instead.
  1188 
  1189   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1190   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1191   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1192   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1193   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1194   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1195   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1196   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1197   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1198   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1199   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1200   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1201   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1202   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1203   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1204   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1205   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1206   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1207   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1208   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1209   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1210   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1211   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1212   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1213   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1214   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1215   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1216   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1217   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1218   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1219   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1220   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1221   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1222   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1223   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1224   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1225   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1226   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1227   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1228   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1229   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1230 
  1231 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1232 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1233 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1234 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1235 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1236 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1237 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1238 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1239 
  1240 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1241 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1242 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1243 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1244 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1245 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1246 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1247 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1248 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1249 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1250 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1251 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1252 
  1253   Renamed constants:
  1254   measure -> emeasure
  1255   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1256   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1257   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1258   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1259 
  1260   Removed locales:
  1261   completeable_measure_space
  1262   finite_measure_space
  1263   finite_prob_space
  1264   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1265   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1266   finite_sigma_algebra
  1267   measure_space
  1268   pair_finite_prob_space
  1269   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1270   pair_finite_space
  1271   pair_sigma_algebra
  1272   product_sigma_algebra
  1273 
  1274   Removed constants:
  1275   conditional_space
  1276   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1277   image_space
  1278   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1279   pair_measure_generator
  1280   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1281   subvimage
  1282 
  1283   Replacement theorems:
  1284   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1285   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1286   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1287   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1288   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1289   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1290   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1291   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1292   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1293   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1294   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1295   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1296   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1297   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1298   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1299   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1300   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1301   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1302   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1303   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1304   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1305   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1306   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1307   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1308   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1309   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1310   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1311   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1312   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1313   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1314   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1315   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1316   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1317   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1318   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1319   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1320   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1321   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1322   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1323   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1324   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1325   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1326   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1327   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1328   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1329   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1330   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1331   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1332   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1333   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1334   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1335   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1336   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1337   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1338   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1339   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1340   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1341   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1342   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1343   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1344   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1345   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1346   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1347   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1348   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1349   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1350   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1351   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1352   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1353   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1354   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1355   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1356   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1357   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1358   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1359   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1360   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1361   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1362   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1363   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1364   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1365   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1366   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1367   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1368   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1369   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1370   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1371   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1372   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1373   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1374   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1375   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1376   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1377   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1378   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1379   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1380   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1381   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1382   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1383   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1384   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1385   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1386   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1387   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1388   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1389   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1390   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1391   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1392   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1393   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1394   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1395   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1396   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1397   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1398   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1399   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1400   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1401   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1402   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1403   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1404   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1405   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1406   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1407   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1408   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1409   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1410   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1411   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1412 
  1413 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1414 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1415 
  1416 
  1417 *** FOL ***
  1418 
  1419 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1420 
  1421 
  1422 *** ZF ***
  1423 
  1424 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1425 analysis.
  1426 
  1427 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1428 
  1429 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431 
  1432 *** ML ***
  1433 
  1434 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1435 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1436 
  1437 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1438 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1439 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1440 
  1441 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1442 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1443 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1444 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1445 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1446 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1447 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1448 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1449 
  1450 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1451 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1452 
  1453 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1454 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1455 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1456 
  1457 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1458 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1461 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1462 context as well.
  1463 
  1464 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1465 
  1466   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1467   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1468   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1469   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1470   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1471   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1472   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1473   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1474   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1475   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1476   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1477   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1478 
  1479 
  1480 *** System ***
  1481 
  1482 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1483 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1484 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1485 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1486 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1487 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1488 the generic user home was intended.
  1489 
  1490 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1491 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1492 
  1493 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1494 (not just JRE).
  1495 
  1496 
  1497 
  1498 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1499 ------------------------------------
  1500 
  1501 *** General ***
  1502 
  1503 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1504 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1505 
  1506   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1507     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1508     files for checking).
  1509 
  1510   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1511     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1512     positions.
  1513 
  1514   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1515     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1516     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1517 
  1518   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1519     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1520     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1521 
  1522   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1523     cores.
  1524 
  1525   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1526     versions (garbage collection).
  1527 
  1528 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1529 including some remaining limitations.
  1530 
  1531 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1532 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1533 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1534 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1535 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1537 
  1538 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1539 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1540 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1541 
  1542 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1543 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1544 usedir option -Q.
  1545 
  1546 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1547 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1548 
  1549   long_names   ~> names_long
  1550   short_names  ~> names_short
  1551   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1552 
  1553 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1554 
  1555   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1556 
  1557 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1558 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1559 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1560 
  1561 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1562 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1563 
  1564 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1565   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1566   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1567   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1568     "Classical Reasoner".
  1569 
  1570 
  1571 *** HOL ***
  1572 
  1573 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1574 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575 
  1576 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1577 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1578 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1579 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1580 class complete_linorder.
  1581 
  1582 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1583 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1584 
  1585 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1586 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1587 
  1588   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1589   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1590   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1591   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1592   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1593   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1594   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1595   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1596   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1597   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1598   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1599 
  1600 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1601 
  1602   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1603   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1604   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1605   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1606   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1607   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1608   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1609   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1610   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1611   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1612   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1613   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1614   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1615   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1616   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1617   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1618 
  1619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1620 
  1621 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1625 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1626 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1627 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1630 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1631 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1635 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1636 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1637 
  1638 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1639 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1640 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1643 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1644 
  1645 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1646 
  1647     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1648     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1649 
  1650 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1651 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1654 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1655 
  1656 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1657 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1658 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1659 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1660 
  1661   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1662   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1663   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1664   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1665   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1666   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1667   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1668 
  1669 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1670 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 
  1672   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1673   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1674   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1675   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1676   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1677   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1678   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1679   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1680   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1681   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1682   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1683   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1684   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1685   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1686   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1687   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1688   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1689   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1690   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1691   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1692   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1693   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1694   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1695   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1696   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1697   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1698   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1699   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1700   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1701   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1702   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1703   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1704   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1705   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1706   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1707   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1708   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1709   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1710   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1711   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1712   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1713   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1714   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1715   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1716   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1717   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1718   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1719   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1720   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1721   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1722   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1723   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1724   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1725   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1726   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1727   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1728   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1729   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1730   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1731   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1732   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1733   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1734   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1735   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1736   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1737   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1738   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1739   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1740   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1741   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1742   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1743   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1744   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1745   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1746   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1747   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1748   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1749   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1750   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1751   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1752   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1753   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1754 
  1755 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1756 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1757 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1758 
  1759 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1760 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1761 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1762 
  1763 * Code generation:
  1764 
  1765   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1766     characters in the target language.
  1767 
  1768   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1769     instead.
  1770 
  1771   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1772 
  1773   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1774     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1775 
  1776       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1777 
  1778 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1779 
  1780 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1781 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1782 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1783 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1784 syntax.
  1785 
  1786 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1787 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1788 
  1789 * Nitpick:
  1790   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1791   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1792   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1793     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795 * Sledgehammer:
  1796   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1797   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1798     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1799   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1800     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1801   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1802     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1803   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1804     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1805   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1806     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1807 
  1808 * Metis:
  1809   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1810   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1811     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812 
  1813 * Command 'try':
  1814   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1815     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1816   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1817     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1818 
  1819 * Quickcheck:
  1820   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1821     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1822   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1823     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1824   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1825     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1826     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1827     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1828   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1829     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1830 
  1831 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1832 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1833 
  1834 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1835 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1836 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1837 
  1838 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1839 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1843 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844 
  1845 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1846 arithmetic.
  1847 
  1848 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1849 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1850 and lattice type classes.
  1851 
  1852 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1853 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1854 
  1855 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1856 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1857 
  1858 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1859 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1860 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1861 
  1862   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1863   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1864   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1865   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1866 
  1867 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1868 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1869 constants:
  1870 
  1871   type inat   ~> type enat
  1872   Fin         ~> enat
  1873   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1874   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1875   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1876 
  1877 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1878 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1879 
  1880 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1881 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1882 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1883 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1884 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1885 
  1886 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1887 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1888 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1889 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1890 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1891 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1892 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1893 
  1894   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1895   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1896   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1897   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1898 
  1899 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1900 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1901 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1902 
  1903   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1904   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1905   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1906   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1907   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1908   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1909   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1910   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1911   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1912   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1913   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1914   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1915   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1916   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1917   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1918   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1919   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1920   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1921   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1922   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1923   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1924   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1925   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1926   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1927   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1928   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1929   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1930   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1931   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1932   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1933   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1934   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1935   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1936   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1937   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1938   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1939   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1940   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1941   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1942   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1943   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1944   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1945   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1946   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1947   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1948   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1949   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1950   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1951   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1952   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1953   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1954 
  1955 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1956   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1957   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1958   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1959   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1960     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1965   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1966   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1967   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1968   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1969   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1970   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1971   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1972   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1973   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1974   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1975   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1976   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1977   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1978   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1979   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1980   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1981   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1982   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1983   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1984   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1985   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1986   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1987   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1988   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1989 
  1990 
  1991 *** Document preparation ***
  1992 
  1993 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1994 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1995 same.
  1996 
  1997 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1998 result.
  1999 
  2000 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2001 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2002 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2003 
  2004 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2005 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2006 
  2007 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2008 like this:
  2009 
  2010   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2011   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2012 
  2013 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2014 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2015 layouts.
  2016 
  2017 
  2018 *** ML ***
  2019 
  2020 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2021 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2022 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2023 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2024 under external program control.
  2025 
  2026 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2027 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2028 
  2029 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2030 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2031 (better known as Proof General).
  2032 
  2033 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2034 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2035 
  2036 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2037 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2038 
  2039 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2040 (including quotes etc.).
  2041 
  2042 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2043 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2044 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2045 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2046 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2047 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2048 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2049 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2050 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2051 
  2052 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2053 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2054 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2055 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2056 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2057 
  2058 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2059 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2060 
  2061 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2062 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2063 
  2064 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2065 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2066 
  2067 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2068 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2069 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2070 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2071 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2072 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2073 proper Proof.context.
  2074 
  2075 
  2076 *** System ***
  2077 
  2078 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2079 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2080 
  2081 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2082 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2083 
  2084 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2085 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2086 
  2087   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2088   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2089   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2090   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2091   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2092 
  2093 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2094 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095 
  2096 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2097 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2098 example:
  2099 
  2100   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2101 
  2102 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2103 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2104 
  2105 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2106 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2107 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2108 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2109 
  2110 
  2111 
  2112 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2113 ----------------------------------
  2114 
  2115 *** General ***
  2116 
  2117 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2118 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2119 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2120 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2121 like this:
  2122 
  2123   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2124 
  2125 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2126 
  2127 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2128 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2129 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2130 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2131 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2132 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2133 
  2134 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2135 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2136 the following package declarations:
  2137 
  2138   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2139   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2140 
  2141 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2142 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2143 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2144 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2145 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2146 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2147 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2148 
  2149 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2150 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2151 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2152 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2153 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2154 
  2155 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2156 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2157 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2158 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2159 
  2160 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2161 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2162 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2163 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2164 
  2165   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2166 
  2167   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2168   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2169   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2170   show_types                    show_types
  2171   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2172   show_consts                   show_consts
  2173   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2174 
  2175   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2176   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2177   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2178 
  2179   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2180   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2181 
  2182   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2183 
  2184   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2185   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2186   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2187   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2188   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2189 
  2190 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2191 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2192 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2193 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2194 
  2195 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2197 
  2198   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2199   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2200 
  2201 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2202 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2203 float_token.
  2204 
  2205 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2206 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2210 DejaVu Sans.
  2211 
  2212 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2213 
  2214 
  2215 *** Pure ***
  2216 
  2217 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2218 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2219 time.
  2220 
  2221 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2222 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2225 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2228 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2229 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2230 command already provided this functionality.
  2231 
  2232 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2233 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2234 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2235 without interpretations.
  2236 
  2237 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2238 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2239 
  2240 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2241 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2242 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2243 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2244 
  2245 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2246 'definition' instead.
  2247 
  2248 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2249 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2250 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2251 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2252 
  2253 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2254 constructors.
  2255 
  2256 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2257 the local file system.
  2258 
  2259 
  2260 *** HOL ***
  2261 
  2262 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2263 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2264 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2265 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2266 
  2267   declare [[coercion f]]
  2268 
  2269 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2270 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2271 
  2272   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2273 
  2274 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2275 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2276 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2277 other theories like this:
  2278 
  2279   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2280 
  2281 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2282 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2283 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2284 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2285 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2286 for examples.
  2287 
  2288 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2289 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2292 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2293 
  2294 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2295 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2296 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2297 
  2298 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2299 functorial structure of types.
  2300 
  2301 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2302 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2303 
  2304 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2305 languages.
  2306 
  2307 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2308 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2310 
  2311 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2312 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2315 combinators any longer.
  2316 
  2317 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2318 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2319 
  2320 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2321 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2322 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2323 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2324 
  2325   record 'a foo = ...
  2326   ...
  2327   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2328 
  2329 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2330 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2334 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2335 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2336 
  2337 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2338 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2339 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2340 
  2341 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2342 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2345 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2346 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2347 independently.
  2348 
  2349 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2350 counter example search.
  2351 
  2352 * Sledgehammer:
  2353   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2354     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2355     sledgehammer").
  2356   - Renamed commands:
  2357     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2358     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2359     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2360     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361   - Renamed options:
  2362     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2363     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2364     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2365     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2366     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 * Nitpick:
  2369   - Renamed options:
  2370     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2371     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2372     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2374   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2375   - Added "whack" option.
  2376   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2377   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2378   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2379   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2380     higher cardinalities.
  2381   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2382 
  2383 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2384 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2385 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2386 
  2387     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2388 
  2389 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2390 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2391 
  2392 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2393 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2394 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2395 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2396 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2397 "smt_solver".
  2398 
  2399 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2400 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2401 
  2402 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2403 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2404 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2405 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2408   - Renamed:
  2409     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2410     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2411     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2412   - Added:
  2413     smt_verbose
  2414     smt_random_seed
  2415     smt_datatypes
  2416     smt_infer_triggers
  2417     smt_monomorph_limit
  2418     cvc3_options
  2419     remote_cvc3_options
  2420     remote_z3_options
  2421     yices_options
  2422 
  2423 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2424 header.
  2425 
  2426 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2427 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2428 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2429 
  2430   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2431 
  2432 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2435 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2436 
  2437 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2440 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2443 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2444 
  2445 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2446 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2449 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2450 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451 
  2452 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453 
  2454 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2458 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2461 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2462 for congruent(2)).
  2463 
  2464 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2465 
  2466   types
  2467     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2468     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2469 
  2470   constants
  2471     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2472     True ~> HOL.True
  2473     False ~> HOL.False
  2474     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2475     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2476     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2477     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2478     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2479     The ~> HOL.The
  2480     All ~> HOL.All
  2481     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2482     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2483     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2484     If ~> HOL.If
  2485     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2486     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2487     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2488     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2489     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2490     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2491     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2492     op : ~> Set.member
  2493     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2494 
  2495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496 
  2497 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2498 
  2499     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2500     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2501     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2502     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2503     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2504     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2505     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2506     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2507 
  2508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 * More stylized fact names:
  2511 
  2512   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2513   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2514   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2515   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2516 
  2517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2518 
  2519 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2520 
  2521   constants
  2522     null ~> List.null
  2523 
  2524   facts
  2525     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2526     null_empty ~> null_def
  2527 
  2528 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2529 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2530 generation.
  2531 
  2532 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2533 Haskell code.
  2534 
  2535 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2536 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2537 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2540 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2543 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2544 
  2545 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2546 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2547 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2548 
  2549 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2550 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2551 
  2552 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2554 
  2555 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2556 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2557 referred to by its qualified name.
  2558 
  2559   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2560   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2561   product ~>  Enum.product
  2562 
  2563 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2564 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2568 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2569 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2573 sort_key.
  2574 
  2575 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2579 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2580 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2581 
  2582   types
  2583     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2584               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2585               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2586         (depends on your needs)
  2587 
  2588   constants
  2589      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2590      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2591      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2592 
  2593 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2594 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2595 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2596 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2599 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2600 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2601 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2602 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2608 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2609 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2610 
  2611 
  2612 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2613 
  2614 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2615 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2616 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2617 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2618 compatibility.
  2619 
  2620 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2621 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2622 
  2623 
  2624 *** HOLCF ***
  2625 
  2626 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2627 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2628 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2632 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2633 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2636   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2637   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2638 
  2639 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2640 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2641 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2644 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2645 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2646 domain definition now works:
  2647 
  2648   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2649 
  2650 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2651 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2652 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2653 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2654 
  2655   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2656     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2657 
  2658   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2659 
  2660 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2661 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2662 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2665 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2668 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2669 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2670 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2671 
  2672 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2673 
  2674 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2675 
  2676 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2677 
  2678 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2682 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2683 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2684 
  2685 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2686 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2687 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2688 
  2689 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2690 still supported as an input translation.
  2691 
  2692 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2693 
  2694   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2695   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2696   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2697   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2698   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2699   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2700   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2701 
  2702 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2703 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2704 
  2705   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2706   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2707   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2708   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2709   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2710   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2711 
  2712 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2713 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2714 
  2715 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2716 
  2717   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2718   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2719   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2720   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2721 
  2722 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2725 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2728 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2731   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2732   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2733   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2734   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2735   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2736   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2737   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2738   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2739   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2740   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2741   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2742   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2743   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2744   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2745   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2746   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2747   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2748   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2749   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2750 
  2751 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2752 
  2753   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2754   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2755   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2756   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2757   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2758   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2759   box_less             ~> box_below
  2760   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2761   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2762   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2763   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2764   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2765   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2766   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2767   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2768   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2769   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2770   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2771   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2772   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2773   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2774   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2775   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2776   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2777   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2778   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2779   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2780   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2781   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2782   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2783   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2784   up_less              ~> up_below
  2785   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2786   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2787   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2788   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2789   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2790   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2791   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2792   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2793   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2794   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2795   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2796   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2797   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2798 
  2799 
  2800 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2801 
  2802 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2803 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 
  2806 *** ML ***
  2807 
  2808 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2809 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2810 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2811 
  2812 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2813 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2814 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2815 
  2816 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2817 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2818 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2819 
  2820 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2821 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2822 
  2823 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2824 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2825 
  2826 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2827 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2828 
  2829 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2830 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2831 
  2832 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2833 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2834 almost all situations.
  2835 
  2836 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2837 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2838 Isabelle/ML.
  2839 
  2840 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2841 meaning.
  2842 
  2843 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2844 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2845 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2846 
  2847 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2848 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2849 
  2850 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2851 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2852 
  2853 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2854 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2855 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2856 
  2857 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2858 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2859 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2860 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2861 configuration options.
  2862 
  2863 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2864 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2865 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2866 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2867 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2868 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2869 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2870 
  2871 
  2872 
  2873 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2874 ---------------------------------
  2875 
  2876 *** General ***
  2877 
  2878 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2879 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2880 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2881 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2882 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2883 their full internal name.
  2884 
  2885 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2886 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2887 Some hints on upgrading:
  2888 
  2889   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2890     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2891     which are independent of this issue.
  2892 
  2893   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2894     provides the following special forms:
  2895 
  2896       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2897       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2898       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2899 
  2900     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2901     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2902     extra variables".
  2903 
  2904     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2905     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2906     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2907     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2908     "logic".
  2909 
  2910   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2911     antiquotations:
  2912 
  2913       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2914       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2915       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2916       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2917 
  2918   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2919     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2920     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2921     antiquotations.
  2922 
  2923 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2924 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2925 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2926 diagnose syntax problems.
  2927 
  2928 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2929 
  2930 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2931 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2932 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2933 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2934 
  2935 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2936 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2937 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2938 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2941 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2942 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2943 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2944 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2945 
  2946 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2947 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2948 
  2949 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2950 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2951 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2952 
  2953   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2954 
  2955 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2956 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2957 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2958 
  2959 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2960 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2962 
  2963 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2964 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2965 
  2966 
  2967 *** Pure ***
  2968 
  2969 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2970 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2971 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2972 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2973 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2974 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2975 inspect proof terms.
  2976 
  2977 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2978 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2979 are added internally.  For example:
  2980 
  2981   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2982 
  2983 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2984 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2989 'class' instead.
  2990 
  2991 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2992 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2996 invariants.
  2997 
  2998 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2999 user space functionality any longer.
  3000 
  3001 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3002 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3006 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3007 
  3008 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3009 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3010 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3011 
  3012 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3013 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3014 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3015 
  3016 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3017 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 
  3020 *** HOL ***
  3021 
  3022 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3023 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3024 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3025 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3026 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3027 
  3028 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3029 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3030 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3031 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3032 
  3033   fun
  3034     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3035   where
  3036     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3037 
  3038   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3039     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3040 
  3041   quotient_definition
  3042     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3043 
  3044 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3045 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3046 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3047 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3048 
  3049 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3050 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3051 
  3052 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3053 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3054 
  3055 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057 
  3058 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3059 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3060 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3061 
  3062 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3063 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3067 
  3068 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3072 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3075 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3076 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3079   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3080   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3081   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3082   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3083   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3084   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3085   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3086   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3087   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3088   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3089   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3090   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3091   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3092   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3093   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3094   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3095   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3096   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3097   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3098   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3099   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3100   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3101   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3102   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3103   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3104   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3105   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3106   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3107   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3108 
  3109 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3110 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3111 
  3112 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3113 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3114 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3115 
  3116 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3117 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3118 
  3119 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3120 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3123 
  3124 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3125 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3128 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3133 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3134 
  3135 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3136 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3137 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3138 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3141   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3142   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3143   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3147 lattices):
  3148 
  3149     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3150     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3151 
  3152     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3153 
  3154     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3155     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3156     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3157     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3158     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3159     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3160     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3161     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3162     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3163     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3164     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3165     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3166     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3167 
  3168     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3169     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3170     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3171     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3172     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3173     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3174     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3175     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3176     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3177     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3178     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3179     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3180     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3181     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3182     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3183     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3184     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3185     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3186 
  3187   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3188   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3189 
  3190     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3191     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3192     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3193     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3194     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3195 
  3196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3197 
  3198 * Refined field classes:
  3199   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3200     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3201     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3202   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3204 
  3205 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3206   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3207   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3208   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3209     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3210   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3211     equal_neg_zero.
  3212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3215 sets to lattices:
  3216 
  3217   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3218   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3219   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3220   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3221   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3222   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3223   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3224   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3225   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3226   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3227 
  3228 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3229 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3230 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3231 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3232 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3233 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3236 multiset order:
  3237 
  3238   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3239     <= and <;
  3240   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3241     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3242     multiset_order;
  3243   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3244     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3245     generation;
  3246   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3247     if needed.
  3248 
  3249 Renamed:
  3250 
  3251   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3252   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3253   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3254 
  3255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3258 
  3259 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3260 
  3261 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3262 
  3263 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3264 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3265 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267   Constants:
  3268   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3269   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3270   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3271   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3272   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3273   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3274   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3275   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3276   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3277   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3278   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3279   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3280   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3281 
  3282   Lemmas:
  3283   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3284   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3285   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3286   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3287   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3288   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3289   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3290   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3291   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3292   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3293   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3294   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3295   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3296 
  3297 * Sledgehammer:
  3298   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3299     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3300     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3301     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3302     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3303     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3304     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3306   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3307     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3308   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3309     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3310     is still experimental.)
  3311   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3312     full-typed mode.
  3313   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3314 
  3315 * Nitpick:
  3316   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3317   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3318   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3319     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3320   - Added support for quotient types.
  3321   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3322     constructs.
  3323   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3324     "termination" proofs).
  3325   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3326   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3327   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3328   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3329     record getters.
  3330   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3331   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3332   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3333   - Added "atoms" option.
  3334   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3335     problems.
  3336   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3337     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3338     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3340     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3344   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3345   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3346   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3347   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3348   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3349   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3350   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3351   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3352   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3353 
  3354 
  3355 *** HOLCF ***
  3356 
  3357 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3358 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3359 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3362 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3363 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3364 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3365 
  3366 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3367 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3368 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3369 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3370 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3373 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3374 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3377 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3380   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3381 
  3382 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3383 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3386   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3387   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3388   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3389   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3390 
  3391 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3392 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3395   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3396   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3397 
  3398 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3399 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3403 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3408 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 
  3411 *** ML ***
  3412 
  3413 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3414 
  3415     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3416     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3417 
  3418     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3419     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3420     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3421     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3422 
  3423     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3424     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3425     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3426 
  3427 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3428 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3429 
  3430 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3431 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3432 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3433 
  3434 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3435 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3436 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3437 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3438 
  3439 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3440 the context or even global references.
  3441 
  3442 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3443 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3444 
  3445 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3446 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3447 
  3448   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3449   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3450   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3451   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3452   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3453   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3454   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3455   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3456   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3457   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3458 
  3459 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3460 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3461 
  3462 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3463 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3464 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3465 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3466 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3467 
  3468 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3469 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3470 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3471 Theory_Data version.
  3472 
  3473 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3474 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3475 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3476 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3477 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3478 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3479 explicitly in rare situations.
  3480 
  3481 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3482 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3486 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3489 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3490 quite rare).
  3491 
  3492 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3493 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3496 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3497 terms.
  3498 
  3499 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3500 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3501 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3502 
  3503 
  3504 *** System ***
  3505 
  3506 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3507 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3508 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3509 
  3510 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3511 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3512 respectively.
  3513 
  3514 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3515 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3516 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3517 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3518 
  3519   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3520 
  3521 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3522 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3523 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3524 component.
  3525 
  3526 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3527 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3528 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3529 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3530 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3531 the user for manual installation.
  3532 
  3533 
  3534 
  3535 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3536 -------------------------------------
  3537 
  3538 *** General ***
  3539 
  3540 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3541 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3542 
  3543 
  3544 *** Pure ***
  3545 
  3546 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3547 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3548 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3549 
  3550 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3551 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3552 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3553 
  3554 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3555 interpretation.
  3556 
  3557 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3558 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 
  3561 *** Document preparation ***
  3562 
  3563 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3564 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3565 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3566 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3567 
  3568 
  3569 *** HOL ***
  3570 
  3571 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3572 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3573 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3574 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3575 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3576 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3577 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3578 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3579 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3580 
  3581 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3582 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3583 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3584 
  3585 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3586 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3587 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3588 
  3589 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3590 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3591 
  3592 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3593 
  3594 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3595 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3596 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3597 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3598 
  3599 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3600 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3601 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3602 "mirabelle" utility.
  3603 
  3604 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3605 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3606 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3607 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3608 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3609 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3610 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3611 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3612 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3613 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3614 
  3615 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3616 procedure only.
  3617 
  3618 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3619 
  3620 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3621 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3622 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3623 that fail later.
  3624 
  3625 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3626 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3627 
  3628 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3629 the same method as the approximation method.
  3630 
  3631 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3632 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3633 series expansion.
  3634 
  3635 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3636 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3637 
  3638 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3639 reals.
  3640 
  3641 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3642 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3643 
  3644 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3645 fixpoint theorem.
  3646 
  3647 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3648   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3649     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3650   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3651     accordingly
  3652   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3653     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3654   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3655     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3656 
  3657 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3658 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3659 lattice.
  3660 
  3661 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3662 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3663 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3664 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3665 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3666 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668 
  3669 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3670   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3671     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3672   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3673     le_inf_iff
  3674   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3675     sup_aci)
  3676   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3677   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3678   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3679     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3680     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3681     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3682     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3683     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3684     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3685     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3686     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3687     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3688     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3689   - authentic syntax for
  3690     Set.Pow
  3691     Set.image
  3692   - mere abbreviations:
  3693     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3694     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3695     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3696     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3697     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3698     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3699     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3700     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3701   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3702 
  3703 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3704 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3705 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3706 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3707 
  3708 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3709 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3710 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3713 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3716 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3717 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3718 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3721 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3722 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3723 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3724 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3725 
  3726 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3727 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3729 
  3730 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3731 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3734 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3735 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3736 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3737 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3738 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3739 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3743     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3744     code_post       replaces    code post
  3745     etc.
  3746   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3747 
  3748 * Renamed methods:
  3749     sizechange -> size_change
  3750     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3751   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3754 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3755 
  3756 * Renamed theorems:
  3757     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3758     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3759     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3760     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3761     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3762   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 
  3771 *** HOLCF ***
  3772 
  3773 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3774 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3775 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3776 
  3777 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3778 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3779 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3780 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3781 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3782 
  3783 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3784 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3785 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3786 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3787 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3788 
  3789 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3790 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3791 constructor are pre-configured.
  3792 
  3793 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3794 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3795 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3796 
  3797 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3798 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3799 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3800 as well.)
  3801 
  3802 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3803 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3804 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3805 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3806 examples.
  3807 
  3808 
  3809 *** ML ***
  3810 
  3811 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3812 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3813 
  3814 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3815 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3816 position, logical grouping etc.
  3817 
  3818 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3819 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3820 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3821 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3822 
  3823 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3824 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3825 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3826 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3827 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3828 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3829 
  3830 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3831 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3832 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3833 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3834 experiments with references.
  3835 
  3836 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3837 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3838 
  3839 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3840 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3841 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3842 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3843 
  3844 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3845 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3846 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3847 
  3848 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3849 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3850 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3858 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3859 
  3860 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3861 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3862 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3863 
  3864 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3865 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3866 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3867 
  3868 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3869 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3870 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872 
  3873 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3874 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3875 instead of global theory.
  3876 
  3877 
  3878 *** System ***
  3879 
  3880 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3881 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3882 usedir option -q.
  3883 
  3884 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3885 also the system manual.
  3886 
  3887 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3888 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3889 
  3890 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3891 this is always enabled.
  3892 
  3893 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3894 
  3895 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3896 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3897 currently supported on Linux only.
  3898 
  3899 
  3900 
  3901 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3902 --------------------------------
  3903 
  3904 *** General ***
  3905 
  3906 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3907 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3908 
  3909   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3910     "isatool."
  3911 
  3912   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3913     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3914 
  3915   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3916     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3917 
  3918 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3919 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3920 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3921 
  3922 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3923 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3924 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3925 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3926 via "isabelle emacs".
  3927 
  3928 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3929 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3930 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3931 
  3932 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3933 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3934 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3935 
  3936 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3937 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3938 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3939 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3940 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3941 
  3942 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3943 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3944 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3945 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3946 
  3947 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3948 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3949 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3950 
  3951 
  3952 *** Pure ***
  3953 
  3954 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3955 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3956 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3957 
  3958 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3959 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3960 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3961 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3962 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3963 
  3964 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3965 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3966 useful in locale declarations.
  3967 
  3968 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3969 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3970 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3971 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3972 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3973 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3974 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3975 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3976 no longer generated.
  3977 
  3978 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3979 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3980 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3981 
  3982 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3983 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3984 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3985 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3986 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3987 
  3988 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3990 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3991 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3992 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3993 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3994 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3995 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3996 
  3997 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3998 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3999 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4000 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4001 
  4002 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4005 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4006 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4007 
  4008 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4009 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4012 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4013 in HOL, write
  4014 
  4015     class foo = ...
  4016 
  4017 instead of
  4018 
  4019     class foo = type + ...
  4020 
  4021 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4022 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4025 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4026 
  4027 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4028 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4029 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4030 
  4031 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4032 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4033 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4034 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4035 directly in regular applications.
  4036 
  4037 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4038 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4039 
  4040 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4041 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4042 
  4043 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4044 theory context.
  4045 
  4046 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4047 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4050 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4051 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4052 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4053 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4054 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4055 
  4056   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4057 
  4058 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4059 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4060 normalization.
  4061 
  4062 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4063 addressing etc.
  4064 
  4065 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4066 
  4067   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4068   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4069 
  4070 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4071 
  4072   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4073      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4074      parts of the code generator framework).
  4075 
  4076   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4077      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4078      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4079 
  4080 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4083 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4086 patterns, e.g.
  4087 
  4088     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4089 
  4090 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4091 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4092 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4093 hyphen:
  4094 
  4095     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4096 
  4097 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4098 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4099 
  4100 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4101 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4102 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4103 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4104 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4105 higher-order unification.
  4106 
  4107 
  4108 *** Document preparation ***
  4109 
  4110 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4111 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4112 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4113 
  4114 
  4115 *** HOL ***
  4116 
  4117 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4118 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4119 
  4120 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4121 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4122 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4123 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4124 Main, as before.
  4125 
  4126 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4127 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4128 
  4129 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4130 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4131 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4132 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4133 
  4134 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4135 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4136 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4137 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4138 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4139 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4140 
  4141 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4142 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4143 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4144 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4145 
  4146 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4147 menu.
  4148 
  4149 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4150 (contains the empty clause).
  4151 
  4152 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4153 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4154 
  4155 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4156 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4157 
  4158 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4159 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4160 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4161 
  4162 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4163 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4164 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4165 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4166 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4167 
  4168 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4169 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4170 
  4171 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4172 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4173 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4174 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4175 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4176 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4177 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4178 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4179 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4180 
  4181 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4182 
  4183 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4184 
  4185 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4186 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4189 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4190 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4191 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4192 
  4193 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4194 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4195 
  4196     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4197     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4198     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4199     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4200     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4201     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4202     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4203     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4204 
  4205 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4206 theory Set.
  4207 
  4208 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4209 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4210 
  4211 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4212 
  4213 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4214 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4215 
  4216 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4217 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4218 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4219 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4220 allowed. For examples see
  4221 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4222 
  4223 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4224 
  4225 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227 
  4228 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4229 structure:
  4230 
  4231     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4232     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4233     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4234     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4235     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4236     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4237     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4238     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4239     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4240     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4241     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4242     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4243     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4244     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4245     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4246     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4247     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4248     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4249     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4250     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4251     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4252     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4253     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4254     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4255     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4256     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4257     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4258     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4259     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4260     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4261     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4262     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4263     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4264 
  4265     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4266     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4267     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4268     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4269     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4270     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4271     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4272     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4273     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4274     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4275 
  4276     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4277     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4278     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4279     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4280     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4281     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4282 
  4283 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4284 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4285 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4286 
  4287 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4288 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4289 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4290 
  4291 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4292 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4293 
  4294 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4295 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4296 
  4297 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4298 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4299 proofs, e.g.
  4300 
  4301   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4302 
  4303 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4304 
  4305 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4306 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4307 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4308 
  4309 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4310 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4314 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4315 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4319 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4320 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4321 preorder_class.*.
  4322 
  4323 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4324 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4325 
  4326 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4327 
  4328   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4329 
  4330 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4331 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4332 fold_image.
  4333 
  4334 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4335 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4336 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4337 the former will disappear at some point.
  4338 
  4339 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4340 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4341 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4342 
  4343 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4344 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4345 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4346 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4347 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4348 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4349 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4350 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4351 
  4352 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4353 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4354 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4355 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4356 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4357 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4358 
  4359     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4360     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4361     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4362     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4363     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4364     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4365     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4366 
  4367 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4368 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4369 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4370 
  4371 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4372 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4373 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4374 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4375 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4376 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4377 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4378 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4379 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4380 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4381 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4382 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4383 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4384 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4385 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4386 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4387 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4388 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4389 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4390 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4391 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4392 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4393 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4394 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4395 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4396 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4397 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4398 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4399 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4400 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4401 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4402 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4403 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4404 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4405 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4406 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4407 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4408 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4409 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4410 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4411 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4412 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4413 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4414 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4415 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4416 
  4417 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4418 
  4419 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4420 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4421 
  4422 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4423 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4424 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4425 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4426 
  4427 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4428 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4429 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4430 theory RealVector.
  4431 
  4432 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4433 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4434 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4435 and inner products are included.
  4436 
  4437 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4438 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4439 supported.
  4440 
  4441 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4442 first diagonalization argument.
  4443 
  4444 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4445 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4446 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4447 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4448 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4449 
  4450     hide (open) const gcd
  4451     abbreviation gcd where
  4452       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4453     notation (output)
  4454       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4455 
  4456 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4457 
  4458 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4459 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4460 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4461 
  4462 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4463 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4464 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4465 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4466 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4467 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4468 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4469 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4470 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4471 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4472 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4473 cases.
  4474 
  4475 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4476 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4477 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4478 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4479 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4480 
  4481     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4482     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4483     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4484     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4485     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4486 
  4487 
  4488 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4489 
  4490 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4491 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4492 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4493 
  4494 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4495 
  4496 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4497 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4498 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4499 
  4500 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4501 
  4502 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4503 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4504 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4505 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4506 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4507 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4508 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4509 
  4510 
  4511 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4512 
  4513 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4514 
  4515 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4516 theory targets.
  4517 
  4518 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4519 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4520 'inductive' etc.
  4521 
  4522 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4523 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4524 
  4525 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4526 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4527 
  4528 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4529 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4530 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4531 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4532 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4533 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4534 the algorithm W:
  4535 
  4536  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4537  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4538          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4539 
  4540 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4541 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4542 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4543 
  4544 
  4545 *** HOLCF ***
  4546 
  4547 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4548 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4549 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4550 
  4551 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4552 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4553 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4554 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4555 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4558 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4559 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 
  4562 *** ZF ***
  4563 
  4564 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4565 
  4566 
  4567 *** ML ***
  4568 
  4569 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4570 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4571 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4572 5.2.1!
  4573 
  4574 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4575 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4576 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4577 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4578 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4579 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4580 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4581 
  4582 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4583 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4584 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4585 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4587 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4588 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4589 
  4590 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4591 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4592 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4593 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4594 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4595 
  4596 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4597 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4598 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4599 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4600 Method.add_method.
  4601 
  4602 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4603 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4604 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4605 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4606 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4607 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4608 
  4609 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4610 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4611 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4612 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4613 examples.
  4614 
  4615 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4616 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4617 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4618 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4619 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4620 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4621 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4622 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4623 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4624 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4625 
  4626 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4627 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4628 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4629 
  4630 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4631 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4632 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4633 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4634 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4635 resort for legacy applications.
  4636 
  4637 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4638 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4639 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4640 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4641 explicit runtime argument.
  4642 
  4643 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4644 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4645 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4646 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4647 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4650 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4651 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4652 theory state.
  4653 
  4654 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4655 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4656 
  4657   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4658   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4659   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4660   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4661   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4662   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4663   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4664   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4665   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4666   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4667 
  4668 
  4669 *** System ***
  4670 
  4671 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4672 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4673 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4674 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4675 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4676 
  4677 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4678 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4679 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4680 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4681 
  4682 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4683 
  4684 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4685 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4686 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4687 prover operations.
  4688 
  4689 
  4690 
  4691 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4692 -------------------------------
  4693 
  4694 *** General ***
  4695 
  4696 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4697 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4698 
  4699 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4700 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4701 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4702 provides a proper context already.
  4703 
  4704 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4705 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4706 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4707 
  4708 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4709 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4710 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4711 swap theory imports.
  4712 
  4713 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4714 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4715 
  4716 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4717 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4718 white space without escapes.
  4719 
  4720 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4721 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4722 "foo_bar".
  4723 
  4724 
  4725 *** Pure ***
  4726 
  4727 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4728 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4729 
  4730 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4731 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4732 
  4733 (1) unused_thms
  4734      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4735 
  4736 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4737      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4738      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4739 
  4740 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4741      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4742      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4743      their ancestors.
  4744 
  4745 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4746 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4747 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4748 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4749 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4750 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4751 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4752 
  4753 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4754 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4755 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4756 
  4757 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4758 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4759 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4760 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4761 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4762 
  4763 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4764 
  4765 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4766 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4767 update of theories within ML code.
  4768 
  4769 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4770 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4771 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4772 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4773 
  4774 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4775 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4776 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4780 
  4781 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4782 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4783 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4784 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4785 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4786 
  4787 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4788 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4789 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4790 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4791 situations.
  4792 
  4793 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4794 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4795 proof text.
  4796 
  4797 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4798 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4799 
  4800 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4801 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4802 predicates.
  4803 
  4804 
  4805 *** Document preparation ***
  4806 
  4807 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4808 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4809 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4810 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4811 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4812 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4813 
  4814 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4815 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4816 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4817 
  4818 
  4819 *** HOL ***
  4820 
  4821 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4822 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4823 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4824 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4825 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4826 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4827 
  4828 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4829 with multithreading.
  4830 
  4831 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4832 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4833 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4834 
  4835 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4836 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4837 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4838 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4841 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4842 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4843 and makes them available separately.  See
  4844 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4845 
  4846 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4847 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4848 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4849 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4850 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4851 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4852 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4853 the declared rules.
  4854 
  4855 This setup also deals with rules like
  4856 
  4857   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4858 
  4859 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4860 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4861 
  4862 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4863 
  4864   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4865 
  4866   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4867     definitions on => and bool.
  4868 
  4869   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4870     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4871     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4872 
  4873       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4874       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4875       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4876       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4877       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4878       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4879       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4880       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4881 
  4882   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4883     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4884     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4885 
  4886   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4887     The proof pattern
  4888 
  4889       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4890       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4891 
  4892     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4893     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4894 
  4895       have "EX S. P S"
  4896       proof
  4897         show "P S" <...>
  4898       qed
  4899 
  4900   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4901     The proof pattern
  4902 
  4903       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4904       also have "S = T" <...>
  4905       finally have "P T" .
  4906 
  4907     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4908     must be replaced by something like
  4909 
  4910       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4911       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4912       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4913 
  4914   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4915     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4916 
  4917       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4918 
  4919     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4920     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4921     type of the form
  4922 
  4923       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4924 
  4925     rather than
  4926 
  4927       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4928 
  4929 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4930 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4931 
  4932 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4933 
  4934 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4935 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4937 
  4938 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4939 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4942 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4945 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4946 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4947 
  4948 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4949 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4950 
  4951   less_trans
  4952   less_linear
  4953   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4954   le_less_trans
  4955   less_le_trans
  4956   less_not_sym
  4957   less_asym
  4958 
  4959 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4960 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4961 and different variable names.
  4962 
  4963 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4964 
  4965 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4966 finite maps.
  4967 
  4968 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4969 
  4970 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4971 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4972 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4973 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4974 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4975 accordingly.
  4976 
  4977 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4978 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4979 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4980 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4981 
  4982 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4983 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4984 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4985 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4986 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4988 
  4989 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4990 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4991 
  4992 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4993 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4994 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4995 
  4996 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4998 
  4999 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5000 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5001 
  5002 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5003 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5006 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5007 
  5008 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5009 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5013 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5016 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5017 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5018 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5019 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5020 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5023 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5024 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5025 
  5026 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5027 
  5028 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5029 
  5030 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5031 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5032 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5033 
  5034 
  5035 *** ZF ***
  5036 
  5037 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5038 same session:
  5039 
  5040   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5041   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5042   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5043   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5044   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5045   List      -> List_ZF
  5046   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5047 
  5048 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5049 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5050 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5051 
  5052 
  5053 *** ML ***
  5054 
  5055 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5056 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5057 
  5058 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5059 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5060 
  5061 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5062 
  5063 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5064 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5065 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5066 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5067 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5068 
  5069 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5070 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5071 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5072 
  5073 
  5074 *** System ***
  5075 
  5076 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5077 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5078 
  5079 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5080 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5081 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5082 
  5083 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5084 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5085 
  5086 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5087 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5088 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5089 
  5090 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5091 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5092 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5093 
  5094 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5095 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5096 
  5097 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5098 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5099 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5100 script.
  5101 
  5102 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5103 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5104 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5105 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5106 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5107 
  5108 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5109 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5110 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5111 
  5112 
  5113 
  5114 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5115 -----------------------------------
  5116 
  5117 *** General ***
  5118 
  5119 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5120 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5121 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5122 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5123 
  5124 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5125 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5126 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5129 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5130 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5131 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5132 
  5133 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5134 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5135 quotes.
  5136 
  5137 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5138 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5139 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5140 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5141 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5142 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5143 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5144 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5145 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5146 
  5147 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5148 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5149 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5150 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5151 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5152 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5153 
  5154 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5155 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5156 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5157 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5158 
  5159 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5160 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5161 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5162 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5163 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5164 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5165 
  5166 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5167 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5168 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5169 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5170 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5171 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5172 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5173 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5174 
  5175 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5176 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5177 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5178 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5179 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5180 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5181 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5182 
  5183 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5184 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5185 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5186 
  5187 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5188 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5189 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5190 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5191 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5192 limit is imposed.
  5193 
  5194 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5195 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5196 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5197 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5198 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5199 and scalability.
  5200 
  5201 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5202 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5203 
  5204 
  5205 *** Document preparation ***
  5206 
  5207 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5208 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5209 current context.
  5210 
  5211 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5212 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5213 
  5214 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5215 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5216 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5217 
  5218 
  5219 *** Pure ***
  5220 
  5221 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5222 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5223 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5224 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5225 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5226 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5227 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5228 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5229 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5230 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5231 
  5232 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5233 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5234 sketch:
  5235 
  5236     internal compilation:
  5237         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5238     writing SML code to a file:
  5239         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5240     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5241         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5242     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5243         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5244 
  5245     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5246         method ``eval''
  5247 
  5248 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5249 
  5250 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5251 
  5252     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5253     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5254     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5255     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5256 
  5257 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5258 
  5259     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5260       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5261 
  5262     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5263       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5264 
  5265     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5266       {(target)}+
  5267         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5268 
  5269     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5270       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5271         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5272 
  5273 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5274 
  5275 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5276 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5277 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5278 codegen".
  5279 
  5280 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5281 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5282 annotations).
  5283 
  5284 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5285 syntax.
  5286 
  5287 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5288 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5289 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5290 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5291 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5292 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5293 
  5294 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5295 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5296 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5297 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5298 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5299 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5300 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5301 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5302 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5303 equations, see section "definitions".
  5304 
  5305 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5306 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5307 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5308 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5309 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5310 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5311 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5312 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5313 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5314 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5315 
  5316 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5317 configuration options:
  5318 
  5319   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5320   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5321   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5322   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5323   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5324   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5325   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5326   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5327   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5328 
  5329 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5330 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5331 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5332 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5333 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5334 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5335 order.
  5336 
  5337 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5338 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5339 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5340 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5341 context encountered later on.
  5342 
  5343 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5344 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5345 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5346 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5347 
  5348 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5349 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5350 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5351 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5352 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5353 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5354 
  5355 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5356 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5357 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5358 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5359 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5360 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5361 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5362 more permissive.
  5363 
  5364 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5365 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5366 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5367 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5368 maintainability of proof texts.
  5369 
  5370 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5371 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5372 
  5373   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5374   then guess x and y by clarify
  5375 
  5376 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5377 proof tools being involved here.
  5378 
  5379 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5380 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5381 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5382 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5383 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5384 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5385 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5386 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5387 
  5388 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5389 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5390 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5391 
  5392   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5393   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5394   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5395   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5396 
  5397 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5398 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5399 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5400 
  5401 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5402 both named and unnamed ones.
  5403 
  5404 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5405 
  5406   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5407 
  5408 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5409 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5410 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5411 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5412 
  5413 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5414 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5415 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5416 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5417 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5418 
  5419 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5420 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5421 
  5422 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5423 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5424 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5425 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5426 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5427 originally first one.
  5428 
  5429 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5430 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5431 expected.
  5432 
  5433 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5434 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5435 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5436 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5437 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5438 
  5439   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5440     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5441     obtains x where "P x"
  5442 
  5443   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5444     assumes "A & B"
  5445     obtains A and B
  5446 
  5447   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5448     assumes "A | B"
  5449     obtains
  5450       A
  5451     | B
  5452 
  5453 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5454 explicitly:
  5455 
  5456   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5457     obtains "~ thesis"
  5458 
  5459   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5460     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5461 
  5462 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5463 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5464 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5465 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5466 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5467 case_names).
  5468 
  5469 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5470 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5471 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5472 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5473 
  5474 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5475 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5476 top-level lemma.
  5477 
  5478 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5479 introduction rule (default "that").
  5480 
  5481 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5482 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5483 to occur.
  5484 
  5485 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5486 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5487 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5488 representations independently of name spaces.
  5489 
  5490 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5491 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5492 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5495 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5496 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5497 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5498 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5499 current context.
  5500 
  5501 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5502 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5503 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5504 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5505 
  5506   axiomatization
  5507     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5508     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5509 
  5510   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5511   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5512 
  5513   abbreviation
  5514     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5515     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5516 
  5517 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5518 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5519 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5520 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5521 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5522 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5523 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5524 
  5525 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5526 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5527 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5528 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5529 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5530 
  5531 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5532 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5533 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5534 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5535 
  5536 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5537 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5538 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5539 
  5540   definition "K x _ = x"
  5541 
  5542   inductive conj for A B
  5543   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5544 
  5545 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5546 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5547 abbreviations on output.
  5548 
  5549 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5550 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5551 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5552 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5553 
  5554 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5555 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5556 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5557 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5558 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5559 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5560 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5561 
  5562 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5563 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5564 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5565 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5566 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5567 
  5568 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5569 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5570 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5571 
  5572 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5573 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5574 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5575 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5576 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5577 
  5578   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5579     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5580 
  5581 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5582 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5583 partial_order.
  5584 
  5585 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5586 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5587 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5588 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5589 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5590 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5591 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5592 examples.
  5593 
  5594 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5595 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5596 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5597 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5598 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5599 
  5600 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5601 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5602 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5603 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5604 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5605 
  5606   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5607   (induct set: foo bar)
  5608   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5609   (induct type: foo bar)
  5610 
  5611 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5612 new format.
  5613 
  5614 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5615 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5616 
  5617 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5618 considered a legacy feature.
  5619 
  5620 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5621 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5622 
  5623 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5624 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5625 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5626 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5627 
  5628 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5629 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5630 manipulating the claset.
  5631 
  5632 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5633 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5634 least one premise.
  5635 
  5636 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5637 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5638 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5639 rule steps.
  5640 
  5641 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5642 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5643 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5644 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5645 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5646 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5647 
  5648 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5649 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5650 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5651 
  5652 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5653 the graph browser tool.
  5654 
  5655 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5656 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5657 
  5658 
  5659 *** HOL ***
  5660 
  5661 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5662 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5663 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5664 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5665 multi-threading.
  5666 
  5667 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5668 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5669 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5670 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5671 work with multi-threading.
  5672 
  5673 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5674 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5675 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5676 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5677 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5678 
  5679 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5680 
  5681 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5682 equality.
  5683 
  5684 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5685 the new 'class' package:
  5686 
  5687     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5688     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5689     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5690     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5691     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5692     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5693     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5694     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5695     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5696     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5697     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5698     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5699     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5700     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5701     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5702     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5703     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5704     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5705     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5706     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5707 
  5708 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5709 
  5710 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5711 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5712 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5713 names.
  5714 
  5715 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5716 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5717 
  5718 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5719 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5720 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5721 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5722 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5723 
  5724 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5725 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5726 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5727 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5728 
  5729 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5730 
  5731 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5732 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5733 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5734 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5736 
  5737 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5738 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5739 
  5740 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5741 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5742 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5743 
  5744 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5745 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5746 
  5747 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5748 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5749 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5750 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5751 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5752 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5753 in the current context.
  5754 
  5755 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5756 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5758 
  5759 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5760 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5761 
  5762 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5763 
  5764     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5765     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5766 
  5767     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5768       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5769     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5770     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5771 
  5772     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5773     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5774 
  5775   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5776 
  5777     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5778     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5779     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5780     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5781     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5782     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5783     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5784     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5785     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5786     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5787     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5788     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5789     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5790     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5791     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5792     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5793     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5794     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5795     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5796     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5797     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5798     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5799     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5800     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5801     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5802     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5803     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5804     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5805     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5806     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5807     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5808     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5809     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5810     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5811     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5812 
  5813     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5814     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5815     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5816     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5817     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5818     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5819     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5820     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5821     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5822     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5823     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5824     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5825     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5826     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5827     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5828     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5829     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5830 
  5831     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5832     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5833     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5834     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5835     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5836     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5837     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5838     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5839     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5840     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5841     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5842     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5843     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5844     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5845     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5846     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5847     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5848     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5849     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5850     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5851     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5852     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5853     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5854     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5855     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5856     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5857     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5858     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5859 
  5860     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5861     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5862     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5863     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5864     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5865     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5866 
  5867     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5868     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5869     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5870     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5871 
  5872     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5873     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5874 
  5875     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5876     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5877 
  5878 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5879 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5880 
  5881 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5882 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5883 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5884 "*.size".
  5885 
  5886 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5888 
  5889 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5890 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5891 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5892 
  5893 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5894 
  5895 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5896 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5897 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5898 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5899 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5900 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5901 numerals on all operations.
  5902 
  5903 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5904 
  5905 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5906 
  5907 * Code generator library theories:
  5908   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5909     languages.
  5910   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5911     languages.
  5912   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5913     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5914   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5915   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5916     denominator).
  5917   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5918     representable by rational numbers.
  5919   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5920     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5921     includes Code_Integer.
  5922   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5923     target-language built-in integers.
  5924   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5925     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5926 
  5927 * New package for inductive predicates
  5928 
  5929   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5930 
  5931     inductive
  5932       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5933       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5934     where
  5935       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5936     | ...
  5937 
  5938   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5939 
  5940     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5941 
  5942     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5943     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5944 
  5945     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5946     intros
  5947       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5948       ...
  5949 
  5950   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5951   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5952 
  5953     inductive_set
  5954       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5955       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5956     where
  5957       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5958     | ...
  5959 
  5960   or
  5961 
  5962     inductive_set
  5963       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5964       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5965       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5966     where
  5967       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5968     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5969     | ...
  5970 
  5971   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5972 
  5973   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5974   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5975 
  5976   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5977 
  5978   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5979     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5980     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5981     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5982     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5983 
  5984   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5985     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5986     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5987     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5988     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5989     statements of the form
  5990 
  5991       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5992 
  5993     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5994     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5995 
  5996       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5997 
  5998   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5999 
  6000       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6001         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6002         ==> ... ==> P
  6003 
  6004     for predicates and
  6005 
  6006       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6007         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6008         ==> ... ==> P
  6009 
  6010     for sets rather than
  6011 
  6012       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6013         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6014         ==> ... ==> P
  6015 
  6016     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6017     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6018     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6019 
  6020   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6021     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6022     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6023 
  6024 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6025 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6026 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6027 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6028 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6029 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6030 
  6031 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6032 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  6033 
  6034 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6035 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6036 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6037 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6038 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6039 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6040 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6041 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6042 variable.
  6043 
  6044 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6045 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6046 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6047 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6048   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6049   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6050 
  6051 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6052 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6053 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6054 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6055 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6056 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6057 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6058 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6059 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6060 
  6061 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6062 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6063 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6064 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6065 rat, etc.
  6066 
  6067 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6068 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6069 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6070 
  6071 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6072 
  6073 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6074 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6075 
  6076 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6077 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6078 
  6079 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6080 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6081 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6082 
  6083 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6084 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6086 
  6087 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6088 
  6089 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6090 
  6091 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6092 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6093 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6094 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6095 
  6096 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6097 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6098 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6099 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6100 
  6101 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6102 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6103 algebraic operations.
  6104 
  6105 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6107 
  6108 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6110 
  6111 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6112 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6113 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6114 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6115 adapted.
  6116 
  6117 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6118 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6119 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6120 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6121 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6122 
  6123 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6124 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6125 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6126 
  6127 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6128 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6129 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6130 
  6131 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6132 
  6133 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6134 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6135 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6136   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6137       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6138   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6139   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6140   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6141 
  6142 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6143 
  6144 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6145 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6146 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6147 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6148 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6149 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6150 
  6151 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6152 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6153 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6154 
  6155 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6156 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6157 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6159 
  6160 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6161 
  6162 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6163 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6164 
  6165 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6166 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6167 
  6168 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6169 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6170 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6171 
  6172 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6173 True/False.
  6174 
  6175 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6176 
  6177 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6178 
  6179 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6180 ``rule'' method.
  6181 
  6182 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6183 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6184 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6185 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6186 
  6187 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6188 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6189 
  6190 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6191 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6192 
  6193 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6194 Library.
  6195 
  6196 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6197 
  6198 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6199 as greatest fixed-point.
  6200 
  6201 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6202 association lists.
  6203 
  6204 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6205 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6206 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6207 
  6208 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6209 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6210 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6211 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6212 behavior.
  6213 
  6214 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6215 
  6216 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6217 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6218 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6219 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6220 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6221 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6222 
  6223 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6224 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6225 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6226 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6227 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6228 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6229 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6230 
  6231 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6232 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6233 
  6234 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6235 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6236 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6237 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state