NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Oct 03 19:01:10 2013 +0200 (2013-10-03)
changeset 54055 5bf55a713232
parent 54049 566b769c3477
child 54227 63b441f49645
permissions -rw-r--r--
back to post-release mode -- after fork point;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 
     8 
     9 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    10 -------------------------------------
    11 
    12 *** General ***
    13 
    14 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    15 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    16 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    17 
    18 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    19 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    20 
    21 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    22 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    23 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    24 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    25 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    26 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    27 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    28 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    29 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    30 syntax.
    31 
    32 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    33 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    36 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    37 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    38 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    39 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    40 
    41 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    45 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    46 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    47 
    48 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    49 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    50 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    51 
    52 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    53 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    54 
    55 
    56 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    57 
    58 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    59 Documentation panel.
    60 
    61 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    62 documentation.
    63 
    64 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    65 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    66 
    67 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    68 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    69 normal editing and checking process.
    70 
    71 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    72 timing information.
    73 
    74 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    75 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    76 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    77 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    78 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    79 
    80 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
    81 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    82 such command executions while editing.
    83 
    84 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    85 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    86 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    87 
    88 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    89 document content.
    90 
    91 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    92 toplevel theorem statements.
    93 
    94 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    95 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
    96 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
    97 
    98 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
    99 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
   100 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   101 
   102 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   103 / Global Options / Appearance".
   104 
   105 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   106 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   107 
   108 
   109 *** Pure ***
   110 
   111 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   112 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   113 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   114 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   115 details.
   116 
   117 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   118 
   119 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   120 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   121 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   122 
   123 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   127 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   128 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   129 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   130 
   131 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   132 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   133 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   136 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   137 
   138 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   139 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   140 situations.
   141 
   142 
   143 *** HOL ***
   144 
   145 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   146 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   150 
   151 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   152 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   153 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   154 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   155 
   156   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   157 
   158 * Code generator:
   159   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   160     'code_instance'.
   161   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   162     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   163 
   164 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   165 examples.
   166 
   167 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   168 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   169 to distinguish both when desired.
   170 
   171 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   172 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   173 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   174 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   177 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   178 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   179 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   180 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   181 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   184 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   185 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   186 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   187 
   188 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   189 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   190 
   191 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   192 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   193 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   194 
   195 * Lifting:
   196   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   197     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in 
   198       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   199       transfer rules
   200     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   201       correspondence relation can be generated
   202     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   203       parametricity
   204     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   205   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   206   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   207     copies
   208   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   209     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   210     anonymous context)
   211   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in 
   212     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   213   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   214     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   215   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps. 
   216     INCOMPATIBILITY
   217 
   218 * Transfer:
   219   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T 
   220     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   221   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   222   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   223     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   224   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   225 
   226 * Reification and reflection:
   227   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   228     "Reification".
   229   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   230   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   234   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   235     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   236     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   237   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   238     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   239   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   240     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   241     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   242     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   243     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   244     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   245     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   246     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   247   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   248     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   249   - Fact renames:
   250       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   251       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253 
   254 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   255 
   256 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   257 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   258 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   262 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   263 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   264 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   265 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   266 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   267 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   268 lemmas.
   269 
   270 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   271 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   272 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   275 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   276 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   277 
   278 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   279 top and bottom elements.
   280 
   281 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   282 
   283 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   284 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   285 
   286  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   287    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   288    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   289 
   290  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   291    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   292    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   293 
   294    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   295    arbitrary filter.
   296 
   297  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   298    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   299    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   300    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   301    on a compact set.
   302 
   303  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   304    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   305    linear_continuum_topology).
   306 
   307  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   308    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   309    on all sequences converging to x.
   310 
   311  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   312    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   313    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   314    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   315    left or right.
   316 
   317  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   318 
   319      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   320 
   321  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   322    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   323 
   324  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   325    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   326    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   327    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   328    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   329    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   330 
   331  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   332 
   333    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   334 
   335    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   336      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   337 
   338    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   339 
   340    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   341      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   342 
   343    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   344 
   345    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   346 
   347  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   348 
   349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   350 
   351 * Nitpick:
   352   - Added option "spy"
   353   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   354 
   355 * Sledgehammer:
   356   - Renamed option:
   357       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   358     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   359   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   360   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   361   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   362 
   363 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   364 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   365 
   366 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   367   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   368   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   369     generated code.
   370   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   371   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   372   - Fact renames:
   373     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   374     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   375     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   376 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   377 
   378 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   379 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   380 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   381 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   382 
   383 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   384 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   385 
   386 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   389 
   390     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   391     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   392 
   393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   394 
   395 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   396 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   397 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   398 
   399 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   400 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   401 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   402 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   403 
   404 * HOL-BNF:
   405   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   406     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   407     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   408     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   409   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   410     coinduct).
   411   - Renamed keywords:
   412     data ~> datatype_new
   413     codata ~> codatatype
   414     bnf_def ~> bnf
   415   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   416     discs ~> disc
   417     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   418     map_id' ~> map_id
   419     sels ~> sel
   420     set_map' ~> set_map
   421     sets ~> set
   422 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424 
   425 *** ML ***
   426 
   427 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   428 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   429 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   430 Examples.thy in particular.
   431 
   432 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   433 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   434 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   435 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   436 
   437 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   438 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   439 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   440 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   442 
   443 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   444 
   445     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   446     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   447 
   448 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   451 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   452 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   453 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   454 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   455 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   456 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   457 
   458 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   459 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   460 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   461 clasets separately from the context.
   462 
   463 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   464 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   465 
   466 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   467 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   468 
   469 
   470 *** System ***
   471 
   472 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   473 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   474 
   475 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   476 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   479 settings variable.
   480 
   481 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   482 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   483 always pdf.
   484 
   485 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   486 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   487 
   488 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   489 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   490 
   491 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   492 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   493 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   494 
   495 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   496 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   497 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   498 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   499 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   500 for HTML presentation of theories.
   501 
   502 
   503 
   504 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   505 -----------------------------------
   506 
   507 *** General ***
   508 
   509 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   510 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   511 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   512 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   513 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   514 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   515 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   516 
   517 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   518 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   519 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   520 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   521 
   522 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   523 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   524 
   525 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   526 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   527 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   528 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   529 dependencies properly.
   530 
   531 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   532 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   533 
   534 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   535 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   536 
   537 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   538 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   539 and "class ... context ...".
   540 
   541 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   542 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   543 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   544 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   545 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   546 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   547 
   548 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   549 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   550 
   551 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   552 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   553 
   554 
   555 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   556 
   557 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   558 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   559 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   560 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   561 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   562 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   563 
   564 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   565 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   566 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   567 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   568 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   569 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   570 
   571 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   572 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   573 browser on demand.
   574 
   575 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   576 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   577 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   578 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   579 
   580 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   581 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   582 
   583 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   584 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   585 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   586 potentially infinite message streams.
   587 
   588 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   589 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   590 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   591 schemes.
   592 
   593 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   594 symbols.
   595 
   596 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   597 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   598 
   599 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   600 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   601 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   602 
   603 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   604 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   605 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   606 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   607 
   608 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   609 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   610 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   611 
   612 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   613 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   614 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   615 Isabelle distribution.
   616 
   617 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   618 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   619 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   620 
   621 
   622 *** Pure ***
   623 
   624 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   625 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   626 
   627 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   628 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   629 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   632 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   633 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   634 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   635 with some care where this is really required.
   636 
   637 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   638 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   639 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   640 
   641   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   642 
   643 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   644 a Hasse diagram.
   645 
   646 
   647 *** HOL ***
   648 
   649 * Sledgehammer:
   650 
   651   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   652     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   653   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   654   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   655   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   656   - Renamed options:
   657       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   658       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   659       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   660       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   661 
   662 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   663 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   664 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   665 
   666 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   668 
   669 * Lifting:
   670   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   671   - quot_del attribute
   672   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   673 
   674 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   675 expressions.
   676 
   677 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   678 pointfree expressions.
   679 
   680 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   681 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   682 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   683 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685 
   686 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   687 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   688 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   689 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   690 accordingly.
   691 
   692 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   693 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   696 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   697 
   698 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   701 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   702 
   703 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   704 
   705 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   706 
   707   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   708   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   709 
   710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   713 
   714   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   715   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   716 
   717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   720 
   721   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   722     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   723     output f x converges to G.
   724 
   725   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   726     infinity (at_bot).
   727 
   728   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   729     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   730 
   731   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   732     at_top".
   733 
   734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   737 lattice type classes.
   738 
   739 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   740 
   741     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   742     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   743 
   744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   745 
   746 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   747 changes as follows.
   748 
   749   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   750 
   751       prefix ~> prefixeq
   752       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   753 
   754   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   755     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   756     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   757     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   758 
   759   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   760     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   761     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   762 
   763   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   764     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   765     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   766     Library/Prefix_Order.
   767 
   768   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   769     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   770 
   771       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   772       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   773       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   774       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   775       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   776       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   777       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   778       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   779       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   780       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   781       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   782       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   783       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   784       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   785       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   786       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   787 
   788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 
   790 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   791 
   792 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   793 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   794 
   795 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   796 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   797 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   798 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   799 
   800   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   801   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   802   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   803   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   804   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   805   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   806   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   807   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   808   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   809   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   810 
   811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   814 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   815 Data").
   816 
   817 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   818 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   819 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   820 code.
   821 
   822 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   823 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   824 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   828 
   829 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   830 
   831 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   832 
   833   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   834   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   835 
   836 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   837 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   838 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   839 
   840   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   841 
   842     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   843     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   844     cart_base i  removed
   845     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   846 
   847   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   848 
   849   Renamed lemmas:
   850 
   851     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   852     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   853     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   854     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   855     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   856     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   857     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   858     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   859     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   860     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   861 
   862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   863 
   864 * HOL/Probability:
   865 
   866   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   867 
   868   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   869     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   870     (borel_measurable_induct).
   871 
   872   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   873     projective family).
   874 
   875 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   876 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   877 
   878 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   879 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   880 datatypes.
   881 
   882 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   883 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   884 
   885 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   886 trees for the code generator.
   887 
   888 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   889 Lifting/Transfer.
   890 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 
   896 *** Document preparation ***
   897 
   898 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   899 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   900 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   901 
   902 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   903 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   904 
   905 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   906 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   907 document/root.tex.
   908 
   909 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   910 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911 
   912 
   913 *** ML ***
   914 
   915 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   916 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   917 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   918 
   919 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   920 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   921 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   922 
   923 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   924 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   925 necessarily printing visible text.
   926 
   927 
   928 *** System ***
   929 
   930 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   931 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   932 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   933 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   934 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   935 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   936 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   937 
   938 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   939 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   940 
   941   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   942 
   943 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   944 
   945 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   946 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   947 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   948 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   949 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   950 
   951 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   952 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   953 
   954 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   955 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   956 
   957 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   961 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   962 version of Isabelle.
   963 
   964 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   965 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   966 
   967 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   968 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   969 for home-made settings.
   970 
   971 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   972 
   973 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   974 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   975 configuration.
   976 
   977 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   978 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   979 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   980 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   981 bundled as Isabelle component.
   982 
   983 
   984 
   985 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   986 ------------------------------
   987 
   988 *** General ***
   989 
   990 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   991 
   992   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   993     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   994   - markup for bound variables
   995   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   996   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   997   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   998     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   999 
  1000 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1001 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1002 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1003 
  1004 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1005 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1006 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1007 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1008 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1009 
  1010   context
  1011     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1012     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1013   begin
  1014 
  1015   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1016 
  1017   end
  1018 
  1019   thm my_trans
  1020 
  1021 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1022 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1023 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1024 
  1025 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1026 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1027 
  1028 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1029 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1030 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1031 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1032 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1033 
  1034 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1035 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1036 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1037 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1038 indices of schematic variables.
  1039 
  1040 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1041 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1042 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1043 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1044 etc. was exploited.
  1045 
  1046 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1047 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1048 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1049 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1050 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1051 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1052 
  1053 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1054 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1055 manual.
  1056 
  1057 
  1058 *** Pure ***
  1059 
  1060 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1061 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1062 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1063 
  1064 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1065 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1066 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1067 undocumented feature.)
  1068 
  1069 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1070 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1071 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1072 
  1073   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1074 
  1075   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1076     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1077 
  1078 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1079 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1080 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1081 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1082 
  1083 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1084 
  1085     num ~> num_token
  1086     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1087     xstr ~> str_token
  1088 
  1089 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1090 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1091 position information via constraints).
  1092 
  1093 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1094 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1095 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1096 
  1097 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1098 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1099 
  1100 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1101 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1102 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1105 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1108 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1109 
  1110   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1111 
  1112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113 
  1114 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1115 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1118 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1119 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1120 
  1121 
  1122 *** HOL ***
  1123 
  1124 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1125 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1126 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1127 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1128 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1129 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1130 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1131 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1132 possible.
  1133 
  1134 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1135 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1136 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1137 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1138 
  1139 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1140 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141 
  1142 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1143 
  1144 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1145 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1146 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1147 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1148 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1149 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1150 
  1151   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1152     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1153 
  1154   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1155     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1156     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1157 
  1158   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1159     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1160 
  1161   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1162     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1163     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1164 
  1165   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1166     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1167 
  1168 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1169 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1170 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1171 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1172 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1173 
  1174   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1175     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1176     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1177     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1178     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1179 
  1180     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1181     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1182 
  1183   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1184     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1185     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1186     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1187     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1188     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1189     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1190     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1191 
  1192   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1193     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1194     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1195     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1196 
  1197   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1198     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1199     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1200     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1201 
  1202   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1203     from type nat to type int.
  1204 
  1205 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1206 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1207 
  1208   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1209     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1210     type.  Example syntax:
  1211 
  1212     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1213       is List.insert
  1214 
  1215     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1216     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1217     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1218     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1219     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1220     by the package.
  1221 
  1222   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1223     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1224     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1225     code generation for each constant.
  1226 
  1227   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1228     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1229     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1230     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1231     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1232 
  1233   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1234     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1235     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1236 
  1237 * Quotient package:
  1238 
  1239   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1240     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1241 
  1242   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1243     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1244 
  1245   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1246     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1247     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1248 
  1249   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1250     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1253 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1254 
  1255 * Quickcheck:
  1256 
  1257   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1258     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1259     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1260     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1261     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1262 
  1263     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1264     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1265     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1266 
  1267     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1268     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1269 
  1270     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1271     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1272     show genuine counterexamples.
  1273 
  1274   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1275     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1276 
  1277     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1278     constructors of that type.
  1279 
  1280   - Support for multisets.
  1281 
  1282   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1283 
  1284   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1285     conjectures in a locale context.
  1286 
  1287 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1288 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1289 
  1290 * Sledgehammer:
  1291   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1292     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1293   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1294   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1295     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1296   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1297   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1298   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1299   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1300 
  1301 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1302 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1303 
  1304 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1305 
  1306 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1307 
  1308 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1309 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1310 
  1311   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1312 
  1313 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1314 a list and a nat.
  1315 
  1316 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1317 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1318 
  1319 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1320 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1321 default.
  1322 
  1323 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1324 
  1325   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1326 
  1327 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1328 
  1329 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1330 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1331 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1332 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1333 one_case.
  1334 
  1335 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1336 the result of the fact expression.
  1337 
  1338 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1339 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1340 of some relation theorems:
  1341 
  1342   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1343   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1344   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1345   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1346   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1347   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1348 
  1349 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1350 
  1351 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1352 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1353 
  1354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1355 
  1356 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1357 to match the constant's name:
  1358 
  1359   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1360   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1361   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1362   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1363   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1364   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1365   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1366   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1367   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1368   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1369   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1370   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1371   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1372   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1373   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1374   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1375   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1376   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1377   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1378   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1379   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1380   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1381   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1382   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1383 
  1384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1385 
  1386 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1387 and corresponding theorem names:
  1388 
  1389   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1390 
  1391   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1392 
  1393   - Renamed theorems:
  1394 
  1395     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1396     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1397     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1398     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1399     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1400     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1401     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1402     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1403     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1404     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1405     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1406     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1407     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1408     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1409     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1410     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1411     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1412     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1413     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1414     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1415     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1416     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1417     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1418 
  1419     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1420 
  1421     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1422 
  1423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1424 
  1425 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1426 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1427 
  1428   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1429   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1430   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1431   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1432   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1433   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1434   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1435   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1436   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1437   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1438   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1439   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1440   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1441   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1442   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1443   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1444   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1445   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1446   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1447   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1448   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1449 
  1450 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1451 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1452 
  1453 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1454 
  1455 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1456 
  1457   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1458   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1459   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1460   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1461   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1462   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1463   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1464   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1465   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1466   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1467   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1468   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1469   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1470   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1471   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1472   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1473   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1474   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1475 
  1476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1479 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1480 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1481 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1482 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1483 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1484 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1485 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1486 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1487 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1488 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1489 
  1490 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1491 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1492 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1493 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1494 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1495 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1496 
  1497 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1498 through option types.
  1499 
  1500 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1501 relations.
  1502 
  1503 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1504 
  1505 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1506 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1507 
  1508   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1509   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1510   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1511   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1512   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1513   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1514   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1515   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1516   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1517   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1518   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1519   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1520   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1521   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1522   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1523   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1524   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1525   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1526   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1527   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1528   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1529   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1530   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1531   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1532   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1533   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1534   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1535   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1536   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1537   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1538   zless_le ~> less_le
  1539   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1540   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1541   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1542 
  1543 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1544 
  1545   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1546 
  1547 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1548 
  1549 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1550 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1551 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1552 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1556 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1557 
  1558 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1559 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1560 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1561 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1562 follows:
  1563 
  1564   Operations:
  1565   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1566   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1567   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1568   del -> rbt_del
  1569   delete -> rbt_delete
  1570   ins -> rbt_ins
  1571   insert -> rbt_insert
  1572   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1573   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1574   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1575   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1576   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1577   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1578   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1579   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1580   union -> rbt_union
  1581   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1582   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1583 
  1584   Lemmas:
  1585   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1586   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1587   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1588   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1589   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1590   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1591   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1592   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1593   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1594   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1595   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1596   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1597   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1598   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1599   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1600   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1601   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1602   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1603   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1604   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1605   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1606   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1607   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1608   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1609   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1610   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1611   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1612   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1613   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1614   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1615   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1616   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1617   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1618   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1619   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1620   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1621   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1622   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1623   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1624   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1625   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1626   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1627   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1628   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1629   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1630   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1631   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1632   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1633   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1634   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1635   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1636   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1637   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1638   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1639   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1640   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1641   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1642   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1643   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1644   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1645   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1646   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1647   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1648   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1649   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1650   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1651   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1652   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1653   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1654   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1655   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1656   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1657   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1658   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1659   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1660   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1661   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1662   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1663   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1664   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1665   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1666   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1667   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1668 
  1669 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1670 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1671 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673   Changed Operations:
  1674   float_abs -> abs
  1675   float_nprt -> nprt
  1676   float_pprt -> pprt
  1677   pow2 -> use powr
  1678   round_down -> float_round_down
  1679   round_up -> float_round_up
  1680   scale -> exponent
  1681 
  1682   Removed Operations:
  1683   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1684 
  1685   Renamed Lemmas:
  1686   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1687   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1688   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1689   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1690   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1691   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1692   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1693   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1694   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1695   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1696   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1697   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1698   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1699   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1700   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1701   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1702   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1703   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1704   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1705   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1706   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1707   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1708   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1709   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1710   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1711   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1712   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1713   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1714   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1715   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1716   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1717   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1718   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1719   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1720   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1721   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1722 
  1723   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1724   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1725   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1726   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1727   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1728   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1729   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1730   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1731   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1732   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1733 
  1734 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1735 association lists with distinct keys.
  1736 
  1737 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1738 annotated commands.
  1739 
  1740 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1741 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1742 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1743 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1746 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1747 instead.
  1748 
  1749   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1750   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1751   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1752   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1753   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1754   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1755   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1756   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1757   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1758   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1759   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1760   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1761   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1762   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1763   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1764   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1765   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1766   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1767   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1768   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1769   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1770   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1771   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1772   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1773   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1774   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1775   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1776   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1777   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1778   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1779   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1780   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1781   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1782   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1783   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1784   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1785   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1786   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1787   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1788   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1789   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1790 
  1791 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1792 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1793 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1794 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1795 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1796 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1797 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1798 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1799 
  1800 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1801 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1802 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1803 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1804 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1805 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1806 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1807 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1808 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1809 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1810 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1811 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812 
  1813   Renamed constants:
  1814   measure -> emeasure
  1815   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1816   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1817   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1818   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1819 
  1820   Removed locales:
  1821   completeable_measure_space
  1822   finite_measure_space
  1823   finite_prob_space
  1824   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1825   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1826   finite_sigma_algebra
  1827   measure_space
  1828   pair_finite_prob_space
  1829   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1830   pair_finite_space
  1831   pair_sigma_algebra
  1832   product_sigma_algebra
  1833 
  1834   Removed constants:
  1835   conditional_space
  1836   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1837   image_space
  1838   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1839   pair_measure_generator
  1840   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1841   subvimage
  1842 
  1843   Replacement theorems:
  1844   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1845   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1846   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1847   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1848   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1849   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1850   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1851   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1852   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1853   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1854   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1855   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1856   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1857   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1858   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1859   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1860   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1861   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1862   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1863   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1864   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1865   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1866   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1867   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1868   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1869   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1870   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1871   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1872   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1873   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1874   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1875   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1876   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1877   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1878   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1879   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1880   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1881   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1882   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1883   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1884   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1885   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1886   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1887   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1888   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1889   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1890   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1891   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1892   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1893   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1894   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1895   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1896   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1897   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1898   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1899   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1900   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1901   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1902   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1903   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1904   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1905   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1906   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1907   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1908   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1909   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1910   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1911   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1912   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1913   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1914   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1915   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1916   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1917   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1918   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1919   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1920   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1921   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1922   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1923   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1924   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1925   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1926   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1927   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1928   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1929   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1930   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1931   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1932   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1933   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1934   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1935   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1936   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1937   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1938   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1939   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1940   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1941   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1942   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1943   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1944   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1945   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1946   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1947   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1948   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1949   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1950   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1951   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1952   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1953   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1954   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1955   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1956   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1957   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1958   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1959   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1960   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1961   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1962   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1963   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1964   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1965   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1966   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1967   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1968   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1969   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1970   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1971   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1972 
  1973 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1974 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1975 
  1976 
  1977 *** FOL ***
  1978 
  1979 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1980 
  1981 
  1982 *** ZF ***
  1983 
  1984 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1985 analysis.
  1986 
  1987 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1988 
  1989 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1990 
  1991 
  1992 *** ML ***
  1993 
  1994 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1995 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1996 
  1997 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1998 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1999 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2000 
  2001 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2002 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2003 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2004 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2005 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2006 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2007 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2008 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2009 
  2010 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2011 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2012 
  2013 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2014 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2015 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2016 
  2017 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2018 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2019 
  2020 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2021 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2022 context as well.
  2023 
  2024 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2025 
  2026   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2027   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2028   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2029   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2030   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2031   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2032   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2033   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2034   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2035   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2036   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2037   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2038 
  2039 
  2040 *** System ***
  2041 
  2042 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2043 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2044 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2045 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2046 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2047 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2048 the generic user home was intended.
  2049 
  2050 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2051 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2052 
  2053 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2054 (not just JRE).
  2055 
  2056 
  2057 
  2058 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2059 ------------------------------------
  2060 
  2061 *** General ***
  2062 
  2063 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2064 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2065 
  2066   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2067     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2068     files for checking).
  2069 
  2070   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2071     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2072     positions.
  2073 
  2074   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2075     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2076     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2077 
  2078   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2079     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2080     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2081 
  2082   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2083     cores.
  2084 
  2085   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2086     versions (garbage collection).
  2087 
  2088 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2089 including some remaining limitations.
  2090 
  2091 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2092 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2093 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2094 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2095 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2097 
  2098 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2099 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2100 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2101 
  2102 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2103 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2104 usedir option -Q.
  2105 
  2106 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2107 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2108 
  2109   long_names   ~> names_long
  2110   short_names  ~> names_short
  2111   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2112 
  2113 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2114 
  2115   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2116 
  2117 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2118 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2119 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2120 
  2121 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2122 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2123 
  2124 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2125   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2126   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2127   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2128     "Classical Reasoner".
  2129 
  2130 
  2131 *** HOL ***
  2132 
  2133 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2134 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2135 
  2136 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2137 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2138 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2139 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2140 class complete_linorder.
  2141 
  2142 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2143 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2144 
  2145 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2146 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2147 
  2148   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2149   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2150   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2151   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2152   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2153   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2154   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2155   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2156   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2157   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2158   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2159 
  2160 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2161 
  2162   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2163   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2164   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2165   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2166   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2167   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2168   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2169   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2170   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2171   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2172   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2173   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2174   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2175   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2176   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2177   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2178 
  2179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2185 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2186 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2187 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2190 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2191 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2193 
  2194 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2195 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2196 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2197 
  2198 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2199 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2200 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2201 
  2202 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2203 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2204 
  2205 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2206 
  2207     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2208     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2209 
  2210 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2211 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2214 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2217 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2218 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2219 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2222   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2223   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2224   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2225   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2226   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2227   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2228 
  2229 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2230 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2233   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2234   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2235   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2236   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2237   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2238   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2239   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2240   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2241   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2242   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2243   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2244   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2245   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2246   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2247   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2248   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2249   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2250   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2251   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2252   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2253   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2254   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2255   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2256   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2257   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2258   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2259   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2260   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2261   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2262   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2263   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2264   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2265   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2266   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2267   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2268   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2269   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2270   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2271   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2272   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2273   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2274   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2275   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2276   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2277   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2278   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2279   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2280   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2281   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2282   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2283   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2284   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2285   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2286   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2287   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2288   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2289   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2290   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2291   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2292   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2293   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2294   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2295   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2296   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2297   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2298   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2299   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2300   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2301   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2302   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2303   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2304   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2305   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2306   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2307   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2308   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2309   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2310   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2311   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2312   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2313   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2314 
  2315 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2316 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2317 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2318 
  2319 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2320 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2321 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2322 
  2323 * Code generation:
  2324 
  2325   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2326     characters in the target language.
  2327 
  2328   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2329     instead.
  2330 
  2331   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2332 
  2333   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2334     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2335 
  2336       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2337 
  2338 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339 
  2340 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2341 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2342 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2343 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2344 syntax.
  2345 
  2346 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2347 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2348 
  2349 * Nitpick:
  2350   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2351   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2352   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2353     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2354 
  2355 * Sledgehammer:
  2356   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2357   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2358     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2359   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2360     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2361   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2362     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2363   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2364     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2365   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2366     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 * Metis:
  2369   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2371     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2372 
  2373 * Command 'try':
  2374   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2375     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2377     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2378 
  2379 * Quickcheck:
  2380   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2381     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2382   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2383     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2384   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2385     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2386     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2387     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2388   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2389     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2390 
  2391 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2392 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2393 
  2394 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2395 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2396 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2397 
  2398 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2399 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401 
  2402 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2403 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2406 arithmetic.
  2407 
  2408 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2409 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2410 and lattice type classes.
  2411 
  2412 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2413 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2414 
  2415 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2416 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2417 
  2418 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2419 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2420 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2421 
  2422   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2423   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2424   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2425   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2426 
  2427 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2428 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2429 constants:
  2430 
  2431   type inat   ~> type enat
  2432   Fin         ~> enat
  2433   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2434   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2435   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2436 
  2437 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2438 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2441 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2442 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2443 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2444 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2445 
  2446 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2447 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2448 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2449 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2450 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2451 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2452 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2453 
  2454   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2455   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2456   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2457   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2458 
  2459 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2460 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2461 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462 
  2463   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2464   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2465   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2466   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2467   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2468   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2469   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2470   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2471   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2472   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2473   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2474   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2475   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2476   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2477   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2478   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2479   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2480   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2481   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2482   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2483   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2484   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2485   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2486   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2487   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2488   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2489   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2490   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2491   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2492   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2493   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2494   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2495   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2496   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2497   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2498   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2499   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2500   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2501   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2502   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2503   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2504   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2505   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2506   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2507   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2508   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2509   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2510   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2511   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2512   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2513   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2514 
  2515 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2516   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2517   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2518   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2519   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2520     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2525   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2526   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2527   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2528   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2529   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2530   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2531   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2532   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2533   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2534   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2535   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2536   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2537   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2538   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2539   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2540   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2541   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2542   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2543   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2544   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2545   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2546   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2547   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2548   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2549 
  2550 
  2551 *** Document preparation ***
  2552 
  2553 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2554 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2555 same.
  2556 
  2557 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2558 result.
  2559 
  2560 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2561 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2562 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2563 
  2564 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2565 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2566 
  2567 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2568 like this:
  2569 
  2570   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2571   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2572 
  2573 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2574 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2575 layouts.
  2576 
  2577 
  2578 *** ML ***
  2579 
  2580 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2581 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2582 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2583 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2584 under external program control.
  2585 
  2586 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2587 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2588 
  2589 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2590 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2591 (better known as Proof General).
  2592 
  2593 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2594 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2595 
  2596 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2597 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2598 
  2599 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2600 (including quotes etc.).
  2601 
  2602 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2603 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2604 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2605 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2606 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2607 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2608 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2609 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2610 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2611 
  2612 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2613 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2614 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2615 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2616 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2617 
  2618 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2619 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2620 
  2621 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2622 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2623 
  2624 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2625 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2626 
  2627 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2628 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2629 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2630 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2631 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2632 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2633 proper Proof.context.
  2634 
  2635 
  2636 *** System ***
  2637 
  2638 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2639 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2640 
  2641 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2642 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2643 
  2644 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2645 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2646 
  2647   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2648   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2649   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2650   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2651   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2652 
  2653 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2654 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2657 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2658 example:
  2659 
  2660   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2661 
  2662 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2663 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2664 
  2665 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2666 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2667 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2668 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2669 
  2670 
  2671 
  2672 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2673 ----------------------------------
  2674 
  2675 *** General ***
  2676 
  2677 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2678 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2679 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2680 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2681 like this:
  2682 
  2683   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2684 
  2685 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2686 
  2687 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2688 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2689 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2690 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2691 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2692 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2693 
  2694 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2695 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2696 the following package declarations:
  2697 
  2698   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2699   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2700 
  2701 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2702 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2703 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2704 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2705 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2706 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2707 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2708 
  2709 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2710 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2711 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2712 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2713 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2714 
  2715 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2716 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2717 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2718 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2719 
  2720 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2721 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2722 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2723 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2724 
  2725   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2726 
  2727   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2728   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2729   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2730   show_types                    show_types
  2731   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2732   show_consts                   show_consts
  2733   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2734 
  2735   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2736   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2737   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2738 
  2739   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2740   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2741 
  2742   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2743 
  2744   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2745   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2746   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2747   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2748   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2749 
  2750 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2751 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2752 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2753 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2754 
  2755 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2759   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2760 
  2761 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2762 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2763 float_token.
  2764 
  2765 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2766 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2770 DejaVu Sans.
  2771 
  2772 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2773 
  2774 
  2775 *** Pure ***
  2776 
  2777 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2778 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2779 time.
  2780 
  2781 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2782 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2785 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2788 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2789 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2790 command already provided this functionality.
  2791 
  2792 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2793 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2794 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2795 without interpretations.
  2796 
  2797 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2798 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2799 
  2800 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2801 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2802 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2803 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2804 
  2805 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2806 'definition' instead.
  2807 
  2808 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2809 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2810 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2811 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2812 
  2813 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2814 constructors.
  2815 
  2816 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2817 the local file system.
  2818 
  2819 
  2820 *** HOL ***
  2821 
  2822 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2823 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2824 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2825 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2826 
  2827   declare [[coercion f]]
  2828 
  2829 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2830 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2831 
  2832   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2833 
  2834 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2835 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2836 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2837 other theories like this:
  2838 
  2839   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2840 
  2841 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2842 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2843 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2844 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2845 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2846 for examples.
  2847 
  2848 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2849 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2850 
  2851 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2852 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2853 
  2854 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2855 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2856 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2857 
  2858 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2859 functorial structure of types.
  2860 
  2861 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2862 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2863 
  2864 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2865 languages.
  2866 
  2867 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2868 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2872 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873 
  2874 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2875 combinators any longer.
  2876 
  2877 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2878 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2879 
  2880 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2881 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2882 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2883 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2884 
  2885   record 'a foo = ...
  2886   ...
  2887   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2888 
  2889 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2890 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2892 
  2893 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2894 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2895 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2896 
  2897 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2898 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2899 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2900 
  2901 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2902 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2905 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2906 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2907 independently.
  2908 
  2909 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2910 counter example search.
  2911 
  2912 * Sledgehammer:
  2913   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2914     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2915     sledgehammer").
  2916   - Renamed commands:
  2917     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2918     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2919     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2920     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921   - Renamed options:
  2922     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2923     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2924     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2925     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2926     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928 * Nitpick:
  2929   - Renamed options:
  2930     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2931     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2932     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2934   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2935   - Added "whack" option.
  2936   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2937   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2938   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2939   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2940     higher cardinalities.
  2941   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2942 
  2943 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2944 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2945 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2946 
  2947     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2948 
  2949 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2950 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2951 
  2952 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2953 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2954 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2955 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2956 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2957 "smt_solver".
  2958 
  2959 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2960 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2961 
  2962 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2963 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2964 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2965 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2968   - Renamed:
  2969     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2970     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2971     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972   - Added:
  2973     smt_verbose
  2974     smt_random_seed
  2975     smt_datatypes
  2976     smt_infer_triggers
  2977     smt_monomorph_limit
  2978     cvc3_options
  2979     remote_cvc3_options
  2980     remote_z3_options
  2981     yices_options
  2982 
  2983 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2984 header.
  2985 
  2986 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2987 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2988 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2989 
  2990   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2991 
  2992 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2993 
  2994 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2995 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3000 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3003 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3004 
  3005 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3006 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007 
  3008 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3009 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3010 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3011 
  3012 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3018 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3021 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3022 for congruent(2)).
  3023 
  3024 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3025 
  3026   types
  3027     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3028     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3029 
  3030   constants
  3031     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3032     True ~> HOL.True
  3033     False ~> HOL.False
  3034     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3035     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3036     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3037     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3038     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3039     The ~> HOL.The
  3040     All ~> HOL.All
  3041     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3042     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3043     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3044     If ~> HOL.If
  3045     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3046     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3047     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3048     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3049     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3050     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3051     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3052     op : ~> Set.member
  3053     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3054 
  3055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3058 
  3059     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3060     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3061     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3062     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3063     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3064     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3065     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3066     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3067 
  3068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * More stylized fact names:
  3071 
  3072   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3073   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3074   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3075   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3076 
  3077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3080 
  3081   constants
  3082     null ~> List.null
  3083 
  3084   facts
  3085     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3086     null_empty ~> null_def
  3087 
  3088 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3089 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3090 generation.
  3091 
  3092 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3093 Haskell code.
  3094 
  3095 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3096 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3097 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3100 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3103 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3104 
  3105 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3106 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3107 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3110 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3114 
  3115 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3116 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3117 referred to by its qualified name.
  3118 
  3119   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3120   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3121   product ~>  Enum.product
  3122 
  3123 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3124 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3128 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3129 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3133 sort_key.
  3134 
  3135 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3137 
  3138 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3139 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3140 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3141 
  3142   types
  3143     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3144               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3145               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3146         (depends on your needs)
  3147 
  3148   constants
  3149      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3150      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3151      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3152 
  3153 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3154 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3155 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3156 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3159 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3160 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3161 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3162 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3168 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3169 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3170 
  3171 
  3172 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3173 
  3174 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3175 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3176 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3177 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3178 compatibility.
  3179 
  3180 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3181 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3182 
  3183 
  3184 *** HOLCF ***
  3185 
  3186 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3187 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3188 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3190 
  3191 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3192 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3193 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3196   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3197   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3198 
  3199 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3200 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3201 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3204 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3205 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3206 domain definition now works:
  3207 
  3208   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3209 
  3210 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3211 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3212 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3213 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3214 
  3215   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3216     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3217 
  3218   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3219 
  3220 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3221 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3222 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3223 
  3224 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3225 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 
  3227 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3228 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3229 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3230 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3231 
  3232 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3233 
  3234 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3235 
  3236 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3237 
  3238 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3242 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3243 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3244 
  3245 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3246 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3247 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3250 still supported as an input translation.
  3251 
  3252 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3253 
  3254   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3255   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3256   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3257   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3258   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3259   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3260   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3261 
  3262 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3263 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3266   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3267   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3268   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3269   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3270   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3271 
  3272 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3273 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3276 
  3277   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3278   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3279   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3280   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3281 
  3282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3285 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3288 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3291   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3292   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3293   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3294   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3295   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3296   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3297   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3298   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3299   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3300   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3301   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3302   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3303   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3304   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3305   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3306   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3307   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3308   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3309   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3310 
  3311 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3314   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3315   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3316   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3317   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3318   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3319   box_less             ~> box_below
  3320   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3321   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3322   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3323   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3324   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3325   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3326   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3327   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3328   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3329   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3330   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3331   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3332   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3333   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3334   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3335   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3336   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3337   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3338   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3339   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3340   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3341   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3342   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3343   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3344   up_less              ~> up_below
  3345   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3346   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3347   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3348   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3349   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3350   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3351   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3352   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3353   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3354   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3355   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3356   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3357   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3358 
  3359 
  3360 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3361 
  3362 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3363 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 
  3366 *** ML ***
  3367 
  3368 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3369 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3370 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3371 
  3372 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3373 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3374 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3375 
  3376 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3377 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3378 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3379 
  3380 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3381 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3382 
  3383 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3384 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3385 
  3386 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3387 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3388 
  3389 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3390 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3391 
  3392 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3393 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3394 almost all situations.
  3395 
  3396 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3397 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3398 Isabelle/ML.
  3399 
  3400 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3401 meaning.
  3402 
  3403 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3404 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3405 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3406 
  3407 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3408 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3409 
  3410 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3411 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3412 
  3413 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3414 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3415 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3416 
  3417 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3418 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3419 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3420 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3421 configuration options.
  3422 
  3423 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3424 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3425 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3426 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3427 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3428 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3429 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3430 
  3431 
  3432 
  3433 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3434 ---------------------------------
  3435 
  3436 *** General ***
  3437 
  3438 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3439 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3440 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3441 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3442 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3443 their full internal name.
  3444 
  3445 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3446 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3447 Some hints on upgrading:
  3448 
  3449   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3450     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3451     which are independent of this issue.
  3452 
  3453   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3454     provides the following special forms:
  3455 
  3456       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3457       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3458       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3459 
  3460     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3461     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3462     extra variables".
  3463 
  3464     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3465     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3466     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3467     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3468     "logic".
  3469 
  3470   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3471     antiquotations:
  3472 
  3473       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3474       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3475       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3476       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3477 
  3478   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3479     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3480     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3481     antiquotations.
  3482 
  3483 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3484 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3485 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3486 diagnose syntax problems.
  3487 
  3488 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3489 
  3490 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3491 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3492 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3493 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3494 
  3495 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3496 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3497 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3498 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3501 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3502 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3503 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3504 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3507 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3508 
  3509 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3510 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3511 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3512 
  3513   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3514 
  3515 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3516 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3517 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3518 
  3519 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3520 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3524 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3525 
  3526 
  3527 *** Pure ***
  3528 
  3529 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3530 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3531 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3532 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3533 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3534 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3535 inspect proof terms.
  3536 
  3537 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3538 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3539 are added internally.  For example:
  3540 
  3541   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3542 
  3543 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3544 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3549 'class' instead.
  3550 
  3551 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3552 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3556 invariants.
  3557 
  3558 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3559 user space functionality any longer.
  3560 
  3561 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3562 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564 
  3565 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3566 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3567 
  3568 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3569 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3570 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3571 
  3572 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3573 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3574 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3575 
  3576 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3577 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3578 
  3579 
  3580 *** HOL ***
  3581 
  3582 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3583 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3584 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3585 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3586 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3587 
  3588 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3589 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3590 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3591 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3592 
  3593   fun
  3594     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3595   where
  3596     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3597 
  3598   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3599     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3600 
  3601   quotient_definition
  3602     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3603 
  3604 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3605 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3606 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3607 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3608 
  3609 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3610 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3611 
  3612 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3613 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3614 
  3615 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3619 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3620 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3621 
  3622 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3623 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3632 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3635 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3636 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3639   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3640   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3641   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3642   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3643   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3644   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3645   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3646   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3647   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3648   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3649   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3650   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3651   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3652   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3653   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3654   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3655   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3656   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3657   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3658   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3659   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3660   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3661   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3662   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3663   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3664   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3665   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3666   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3667   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3668 
  3669 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3670 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3671 
  3672 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3673 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3674 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3675 
  3676 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3677 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3678 
  3679 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3680 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3683 
  3684 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3685 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686 
  3687 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3688 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3693 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3694 
  3695 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3696 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3697 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3698 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3699 
  3700 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3701   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3702   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3703   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3707 lattices):
  3708 
  3709     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3710     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3711 
  3712     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3713 
  3714     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3715     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3716     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3717     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3718     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3719     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3720     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3721     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3722     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3723     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3724     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3725     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3726     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3727 
  3728     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3729     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3730     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3731     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3732     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3733     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3734     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3735     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3736     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3737     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3738     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3739     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3740     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3741     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3742     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3743     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3744     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3745     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3746 
  3747   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3748   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3749 
  3750     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3751     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3752     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3753     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3754     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3755 
  3756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Refined field classes:
  3759   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3760     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3761     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3762   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3766   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3767   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3768   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3769     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3770   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3771     equal_neg_zero.
  3772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3775 sets to lattices:
  3776 
  3777   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3778   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3779   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3780   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3781   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3782   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3783   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3784   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3785   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3786   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3787 
  3788 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3789 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3790 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3791 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3792 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3793 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3796 multiset order:
  3797 
  3798   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3799     <= and <;
  3800   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3801     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3802     multiset_order;
  3803   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3804     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3805     generation;
  3806   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3807     if needed.
  3808 
  3809 Renamed:
  3810 
  3811   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3812   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3813   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3814 
  3815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3816 
  3817 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3818 
  3819 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3820 
  3821 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3822 
  3823 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3824 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3825 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3826 
  3827   Constants:
  3828   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3829   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3830   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3831   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3832   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3833   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3834   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3835   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3836   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3837   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3838   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3839   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3840   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3841 
  3842   Lemmas:
  3843   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3844   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3845   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3846   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3847   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3848   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3849   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3850   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3851   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3852   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3853   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3854   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3855   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3856 
  3857 * Sledgehammer:
  3858   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3859     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3860     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3861     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3862     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3863     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3864     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3866   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3867     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3868   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3869     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3870     is still experimental.)
  3871   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3872     full-typed mode.
  3873   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3874 
  3875 * Nitpick:
  3876   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3877   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3878   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3879     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3880   - Added support for quotient types.
  3881   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3882     constructs.
  3883   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3884     "termination" proofs).
  3885   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3886   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3887   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3888   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3889     record getters.
  3890   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3891   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3892   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3893   - Added "atoms" option.
  3894   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3895     problems.
  3896   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3897     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3898     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3900     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3904   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3905   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3906   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3907   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3908   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3909   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3910   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3911   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3912   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 
  3915 *** HOLCF ***
  3916 
  3917 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3918 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3919 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3922 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3923 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3924 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3927 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3928 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3929 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3930 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3933 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3934 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3937 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3940   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3941 
  3942 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3943 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3944 
  3945   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3946   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3947   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3948   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3949   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3950 
  3951 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3952 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3955   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3956   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3957 
  3958 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3959 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3963 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3968 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 
  3971 *** ML ***
  3972 
  3973 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3974 
  3975     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3976     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3977 
  3978     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3979     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3980     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3981     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3982 
  3983     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3984     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3985     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3986 
  3987 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3988 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3989 
  3990 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3991 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3992 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3993 
  3994 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3995 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3996 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3997 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3998 
  3999 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4000 the context or even global references.
  4001 
  4002 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4003 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4004 
  4005 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4006 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4007 
  4008   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4009   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4010   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4011   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4012   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4013   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4014   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4015   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4016   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4017   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4018 
  4019 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4020 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4021 
  4022 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4023 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4024 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4025 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4026 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4027 
  4028 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4029 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4030 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4031 Theory_Data version.
  4032 
  4033 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4034 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4035 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4036 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4037 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4038 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4039 explicitly in rare situations.
  4040 
  4041 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4042 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4046 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047 
  4048 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4049 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4050 quite rare).
  4051 
  4052 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4053 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4056 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4057 terms.
  4058 
  4059 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4060 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4061 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4062 
  4063 
  4064 *** System ***
  4065 
  4066 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4067 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4068 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4069 
  4070 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4071 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4072 respectively.
  4073 
  4074 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4075 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4076 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4077 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4078 
  4079   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4080 
  4081 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4082 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4083 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4084 component.
  4085 
  4086 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4087 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4088 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4089 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4090 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4091 the user for manual installation.
  4092 
  4093 
  4094 
  4095 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4096 -------------------------------------
  4097 
  4098 *** General ***
  4099 
  4100 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4101 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4102 
  4103 
  4104 *** Pure ***
  4105 
  4106 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4107 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4108 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4109 
  4110 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4111 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4112 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4113 
  4114 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4115 interpretation.
  4116 
  4117 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4118 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 
  4121 *** Document preparation ***
  4122 
  4123 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4124 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4125 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4126 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4127 
  4128 
  4129 *** HOL ***
  4130 
  4131 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4132 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4133 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4134 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4135 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4136 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4137 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4138 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4139 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4140 
  4141 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4142 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4143 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4144 
  4145 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4146 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4147 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4148 
  4149 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4150 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4151 
  4152 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4153 
  4154 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4155 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4156 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4157 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4158 
  4159 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4160 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4161 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4162 "mirabelle" utility.
  4163 
  4164 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4165 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4166 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4167 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4168 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4169 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4170 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4171 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4172 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4173 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4174 
  4175 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4176 procedure only.
  4177 
  4178 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4179 
  4180 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4181 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4182 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4183 that fail later.
  4184 
  4185 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4186 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4187 
  4188 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4189 the same method as the approximation method.
  4190 
  4191 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4192 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4193 series expansion.
  4194 
  4195 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4196 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4197 
  4198 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4199 reals.
  4200 
  4201 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4202 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4203 
  4204 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4205 fixpoint theorem.
  4206 
  4207 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4208   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4209     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4210   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4211     accordingly
  4212   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4213     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4214   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4215     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4216 
  4217 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4218 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4219 lattice.
  4220 
  4221 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4222 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4223 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4224 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4225 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4226 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4230   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4231     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4232   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4233     le_inf_iff
  4234   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4235     sup_aci)
  4236   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4237   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4238   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4239     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4240     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4241     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4242     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4243     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4244     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4245     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4246     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4247     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4248     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4249   - authentic syntax for
  4250     Set.Pow
  4251     Set.image
  4252   - mere abbreviations:
  4253     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4254     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4255     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4256     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4257     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4258     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4259     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4260     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4261   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4262 
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4264 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4265 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4266 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4267 
  4268 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4269 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4270 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4271 
  4272 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4273 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4276 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4277 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4278 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4281 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4282 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4283 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4284 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4285 
  4286 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4287 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4289 
  4290 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4291 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4294 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4295 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4296 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4297 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4298 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4299 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4303     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4304     code_post       replaces    code post
  4305     etc.
  4306   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * Renamed methods:
  4309     sizechange -> size_change
  4310     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4311   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4314 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4315 
  4316 * Renamed theorems:
  4317     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4318     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4319     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4320     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4321     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4322   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 
  4331 *** HOLCF ***
  4332 
  4333 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4334 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4335 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4336 
  4337 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4338 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4339 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4340 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4341 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4342 
  4343 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4344 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4345 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4346 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4347 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4348 
  4349 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4350 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4351 constructor are pre-configured.
  4352 
  4353 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4354 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4355 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4356 
  4357 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4358 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4359 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4360 as well.)
  4361 
  4362 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4363 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4364 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4365 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4366 examples.
  4367 
  4368 
  4369 *** ML ***
  4370 
  4371 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4372 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4373 
  4374 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4375 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4376 position, logical grouping etc.
  4377 
  4378 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4379 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4380 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4381 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4382 
  4383 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4384 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4385 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4386 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4387 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4388 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4389 
  4390 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4391 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4392 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4393 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4394 experiments with references.
  4395 
  4396 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4397 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4398 
  4399 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4400 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4401 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4402 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4403 
  4404 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4405 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4406 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4407 
  4408 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4409 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4410 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411 
  4412 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4413 
  4414 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4418 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4419 
  4420 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4421 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4422 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4423 
  4424 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4425 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4426 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4429 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4430 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4434 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4435 instead of global theory.
  4436 
  4437 
  4438 *** System ***
  4439 
  4440 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4441 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4442 usedir option -q.
  4443 
  4444 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4445 also the system manual.
  4446 
  4447 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4448 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4449 
  4450 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4451 this is always enabled.
  4452 
  4453 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4454 
  4455 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4456 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4457 currently supported on Linux only.
  4458 
  4459 
  4460 
  4461 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4462 --------------------------------
  4463 
  4464 *** General ***
  4465 
  4466 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4467 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4468 
  4469   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4470     "isatool."
  4471 
  4472   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4473     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4474 
  4475   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4476     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4477 
  4478 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4479 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4480 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4481 
  4482 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4483 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4484 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4485 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4486 via "isabelle emacs".
  4487 
  4488 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4489 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4490 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4491 
  4492 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4493 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4494 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4495 
  4496 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4497 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4498 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4499 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4500 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4501 
  4502 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4503 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4504 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4505 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4506 
  4507 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4508 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4509 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4510 
  4511 
  4512 *** Pure ***
  4513 
  4514 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4515 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4516 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4517 
  4518 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4519 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4520 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4521 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4522 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4523 
  4524 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4525 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4526 useful in locale declarations.
  4527 
  4528 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4529 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4530 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4531 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4532 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4533 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4534 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4535 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4536 no longer generated.
  4537 
  4538 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4539 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4540 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4541 
  4542 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4543 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4544 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4545 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4546 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4547 
  4548 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4549 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4550 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4551 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4552 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4553 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4554 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4555 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4556 
  4557 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4558 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4559 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4560 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4561 
  4562 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4566 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4567 
  4568 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4569 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4570 
  4571 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4572 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4573 in HOL, write
  4574 
  4575     class foo = ...
  4576 
  4577 instead of
  4578 
  4579     class foo = type + ...
  4580 
  4581 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4582 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4585 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4586 
  4587 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4588 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4589 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4590 
  4591 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4592 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4593 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4594 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4595 directly in regular applications.
  4596 
  4597 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4598 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4599 
  4600 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4601 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4602 
  4603 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4604 theory context.
  4605 
  4606 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4607 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608 
  4609 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4610 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4611 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4612 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4613 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4614 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4615 
  4616   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4617 
  4618 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4619 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4620 normalization.
  4621 
  4622 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4623 addressing etc.
  4624 
  4625 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4626 
  4627   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4628   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4629 
  4630 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4631 
  4632   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4633      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4634      parts of the code generator framework).
  4635 
  4636   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4637      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4638      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4639 
  4640 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4641 
  4642 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4643 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4646 patterns, e.g.
  4647 
  4648     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4649 
  4650 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4651 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4652 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4653 hyphen:
  4654 
  4655     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4656 
  4657 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4658 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4659 
  4660 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4661 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4662 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4663 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4664 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4665 higher-order unification.
  4666 
  4667 
  4668 *** Document preparation ***
  4669 
  4670 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4671 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4672 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4673 
  4674 
  4675 *** HOL ***
  4676 
  4677 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4678 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4679 
  4680 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4681 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4682 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4683 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4684 Main, as before.
  4685 
  4686 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4687 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4688 
  4689 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4690 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4691 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4692 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4693 
  4694 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4695 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4696 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4697 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4698 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4699 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4700 
  4701 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4702 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4703 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4704 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4705 
  4706 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4707 menu.
  4708 
  4709 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4710 (contains the empty clause).
  4711 
  4712 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4713 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4714 
  4715 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4716 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4717 
  4718 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4719 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4720 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4723 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4724 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4725 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4726 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4727 
  4728 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4729 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4730 
  4731 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4732 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4733 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4734 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4735 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4736 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4737 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4738 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4739 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4740 
  4741 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4742 
  4743 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4744 
  4745 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4746 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4747 
  4748 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4749 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4750 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4751 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4752 
  4753 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4754 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4755 
  4756     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4757     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4758     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4759     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4760     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4761     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4762     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4763     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4764 
  4765 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4766 theory Set.
  4767 
  4768 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4769 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4770 
  4771 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4772 
  4773 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4774 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4775 
  4776 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4777 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4778 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4779 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4780 allowed. For examples see
  4781 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4782 
  4783 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4784 
  4785 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4789 structure:
  4790 
  4791     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4792     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4793     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4794     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4795     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4796     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4797     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4798     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4799     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4800     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4801     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4802     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4803     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4804     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4805     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4806     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4807     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4808     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4809     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4810     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4811     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4812     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4813     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4814     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4815     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4816     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4817     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4818     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4819     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4820     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4821     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4822     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4823     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4824 
  4825     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4826     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4827     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4828     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4829     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4830     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4831     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4832     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4833     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4834     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4835 
  4836     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4837     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4838     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4839     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4840     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4841     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4842 
  4843 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4844 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4845 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4846 
  4847 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4848 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4849 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4850 
  4851 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4852 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4855 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4856 
  4857 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4858 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4859 proofs, e.g.
  4860 
  4861   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4862 
  4863 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4864 
  4865 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4866 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4867 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4870 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4872 
  4873 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4874 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4875 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4879 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4880 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4881 preorder_class.*.
  4882 
  4883 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4884 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4885 
  4886 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4887 
  4888   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4889 
  4890 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4891 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4892 fold_image.
  4893 
  4894 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4895 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4896 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4897 the former will disappear at some point.
  4898 
  4899 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4900 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4901 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4902 
  4903 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4904 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4905 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4906 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4907 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4908 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4909 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4910 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4911 
  4912 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4913 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4914 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4915 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4916 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4917 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4918 
  4919     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4920     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4921     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4922     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4923     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4924     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4925     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4926 
  4927 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4928 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4929 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4930 
  4931 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4932 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4933 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4934 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4935 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4936 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4937 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4938 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4939 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4940 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4941 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4942 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4943 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4944 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4945 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4946 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4947 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4948 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4949 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4950 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4951 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4952 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4953 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4954 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4955 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4956 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4957 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4958 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4959 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4960 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4961 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4962 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4963 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4964 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4965 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4966 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4967 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4968 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4969 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4970 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4971 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4972 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4973 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4974 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4975 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4976 
  4977 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4978 
  4979 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4980 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4981 
  4982 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4983 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4984 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4985 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4986 
  4987 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4988 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4989 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4990 theory RealVector.
  4991 
  4992 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4993 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4994 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4995 and inner products are included.
  4996 
  4997 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4998 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4999 supported.
  5000 
  5001 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5002 first diagonalization argument.
  5003 
  5004 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5005 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5006 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5007 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5008 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5009 
  5010     hide (open) const gcd
  5011     abbreviation gcd where
  5012       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5013     notation (output)
  5014       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5015 
  5016 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5017 
  5018 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5019 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5020 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5023 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5024 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5025 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5026 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5027 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5028 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5029 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5030 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5031 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5032 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5033 cases.
  5034 
  5035 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5036 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5037 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5038 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5039 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5040 
  5041     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5042     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5043     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5044     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5045     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5046 
  5047 
  5048 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5049 
  5050 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5051 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5052 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5053 
  5054 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5055 
  5056 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5057 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5058 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5059 
  5060 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5061 
  5062 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5063 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5064 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5065 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5066 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5067 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5068 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5069 
  5070 
  5071 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5072 
  5073 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5074 
  5075 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5076 theory targets.
  5077 
  5078 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5079 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5080 'inductive' etc.
  5081 
  5082 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5083 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5084 
  5085 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5086 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5087 
  5088 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5089 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5090 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5091 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5092 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5093 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5094 the algorithm W:
  5095 
  5096  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5097  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5098          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5099 
  5100 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5101 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5102 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5103 
  5104 
  5105 *** HOLCF ***
  5106 
  5107 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5108 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5109 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5110 
  5111 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5112 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5113 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5114 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5115 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5118 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5119 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5120 
  5121 
  5122 *** ZF ***
  5123 
  5124 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5125 
  5126 
  5127 *** ML ***
  5128 
  5129 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5130 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5131 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5132 5.2.1!
  5133 
  5134 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5135 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5136 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5137 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5138 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5139 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5140 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5141 
  5142 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5143 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5144 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5145 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5146 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5147 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5148 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5149 
  5150 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5151 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5152 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5153 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5154 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5155 
  5156 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5157 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5158 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5159 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5160 Method.add_method.
  5161 
  5162 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5163 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5164 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5165 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5166 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5167 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5168 
  5169 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5170 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5171 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5172 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5173 examples.
  5174 
  5175 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5176 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5177 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5178 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5179 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5180 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5181 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5182 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5183 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5184 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5185 
  5186 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5187 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5188 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5189 
  5190 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5191 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5192 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5193 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5194 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5195 resort for legacy applications.
  5196 
  5197 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5198 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5199 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5200 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5201 explicit runtime argument.
  5202 
  5203 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5204 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5205 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5206 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5207 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5208 
  5209 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5210 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5211 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5212 theory state.
  5213 
  5214 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5215 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5216 
  5217   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5218   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5219   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5220   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5221   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5222   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5223   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5224   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5225   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5226   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5227 
  5228 
  5229 *** System ***
  5230 
  5231 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5232 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5233 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5234 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5235 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5236 
  5237 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5238 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5239 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5240 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5241 
  5242 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5243 
  5244 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5245 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5246 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5247 prover operations.
  5248 
  5249 
  5250 
  5251 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5252 -------------------------------
  5253 
  5254 *** General ***
  5255 
  5256 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5257 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5258 
  5259 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5260 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5261 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5262 provides a proper context already.
  5263 
  5264 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5265 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5266 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5267 
  5268 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5269 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5270 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5271 swap theory imports.
  5272 
  5273 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5274 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5275 
  5276 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5277 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5278 white space without escapes.
  5279 
  5280 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5281 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5282 "foo_bar".
  5283 
  5284 
  5285 *** Pure ***
  5286 
  5287 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5288 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5289 
  5290 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5291 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5292 
  5293 (1) unused_thms
  5294      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5295 
  5296 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5297      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5298      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5299 
  5300 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5301      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5302      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5303      their ancestors.
  5304 
  5305 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5306 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5307 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5308 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5309 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5310 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5311 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5312 
  5313 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5314 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5315 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5316 
  5317 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5318 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5319 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5320 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5321 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5322 
  5323 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5324 
  5325 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5326 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5327 update of theories within ML code.
  5328 
  5329 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5330 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5331 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5332 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5333 
  5334 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5335 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5336 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5338 
  5339 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5340 
  5341 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5342 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5343 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5344 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5345 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5346 
  5347 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5348 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5349 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5350 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5351 situations.
  5352 
  5353 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5354 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5355 proof text.
  5356 
  5357 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5358 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5359 
  5360 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5361 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5362 predicates.
  5363 
  5364 
  5365 *** Document preparation ***
  5366 
  5367 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5368 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5369 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5370 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5371 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5372 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5373 
  5374 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5375 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5376 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5377 
  5378 
  5379 *** HOL ***
  5380 
  5381 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5382 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5383 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5384 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5385 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5386 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5387 
  5388 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5389 with multithreading.
  5390 
  5391 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5392 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5393 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5394 
  5395 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5396 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5397 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5398 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5399 
  5400 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5401 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5402 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5403 and makes them available separately.  See
  5404 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5405 
  5406 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5407 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5408 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5409 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5410 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5411 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5412 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5413 the declared rules.
  5414 
  5415 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5416 
  5417   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5418 
  5419 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5420 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5421 
  5422 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5423 
  5424   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5425 
  5426   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5427     definitions on => and bool.
  5428 
  5429   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5430     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5431     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5432 
  5433       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5434       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5435       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5436       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5437       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5438       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5439       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5440       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5441 
  5442   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5443     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5444     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5445 
  5446   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5447     The proof pattern
  5448 
  5449       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5450       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5451 
  5452     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5453     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5454 
  5455       have "EX S. P S"
  5456       proof
  5457         show "P S" <...>
  5458       qed
  5459 
  5460   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5461     The proof pattern
  5462 
  5463       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5464       also have "S = T" <...>
  5465       finally have "P T" .
  5466 
  5467     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5468     must be replaced by something like
  5469 
  5470       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5471       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5472       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5473 
  5474   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5475     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5476 
  5477       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5478 
  5479     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5480     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5481     type of the form
  5482 
  5483       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5484 
  5485     rather than
  5486 
  5487       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5488 
  5489 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5490 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5491 
  5492 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5495 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5499 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5502 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5503 
  5504 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5505 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5506 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5507 
  5508 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5509 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5510 
  5511   less_trans
  5512   less_linear
  5513   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5514   le_less_trans
  5515   less_le_trans
  5516   less_not_sym
  5517   less_asym
  5518 
  5519 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5520 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5521 and different variable names.
  5522 
  5523 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5524 
  5525 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5526 finite maps.
  5527 
  5528 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5529 
  5530 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5531 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5532 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5533 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5534 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5535 accordingly.
  5536 
  5537 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5538 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5539 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5540 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5541 
  5542 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5543 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5544 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5545 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5546 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548 
  5549 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5550 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5553 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5554 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5555 
  5556 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5558 
  5559 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5560 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5561 
  5562 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5563 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5564 
  5565 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5566 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5567 
  5568 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5569 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5571 
  5572 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5573 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5574 
  5575 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5576 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5577 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5578 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5579 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5580 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5583 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5584 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5585 
  5586 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5587 
  5588 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5589 
  5590 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5591 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5592 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5593 
  5594 
  5595 *** ZF ***
  5596 
  5597 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5598 same session:
  5599 
  5600   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5601   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5602   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5603   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5604   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5605   List      -> List_ZF
  5606   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5607 
  5608 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5609 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5610 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5611 
  5612 
  5613 *** ML ***
  5614 
  5615 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5616 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5617 
  5618 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5619 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5620 
  5621 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5622 
  5623 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5624 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5625 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5626 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5627 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5628 
  5629 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5630 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5631 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5632 
  5633 
  5634 *** System ***
  5635 
  5636 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5637 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5638 
  5639 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5640 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5641 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5642 
  5643 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5644 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5645 
  5646 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5647 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5648 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5649 
  5650 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5651 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5652 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5653 
  5654 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5655 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5656 
  5657 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5658 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5659 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5660 script.
  5661 
  5662 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5663 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5664 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5665 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5666 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5667 
  5668 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5669 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5670 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5671 
  5672 
  5673 
  5674 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5675 -----------------------------------
  5676 
  5677 *** General ***
  5678 
  5679 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5680 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5681 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5682 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5683 
  5684 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5685 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5686 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5687 
  5688 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5689 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5690 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5691 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5692 
  5693 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5694 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5695 quotes.
  5696 
  5697 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5698 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5699 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5700 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5701 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5702 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5703 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5704 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5705 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5706 
  5707 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5708 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5709 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5710 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5711 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5712 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5713 
  5714 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5715 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5716 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5717 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5718 
  5719 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5720 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5721 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5722 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5723 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5724 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5725 
  5726 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5727 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5728 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5729 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5730 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5731 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5732 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5733 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5734 
  5735 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5736 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5737 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5738 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5739 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5740 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5741 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5742 
  5743 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5744 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5745 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5746 
  5747 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5748 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5749 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5750 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5751 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5752 limit is imposed.
  5753 
  5754 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5755 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5756 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5757 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5758 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5759 and scalability.
  5760 
  5761 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5762 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5763 
  5764 
  5765 *** Document preparation ***
  5766 
  5767 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5768 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5769 current context.
  5770 
  5771 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5772 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5773 
  5774 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5775 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5776 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5777 
  5778 
  5779 *** Pure ***
  5780 
  5781 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5782 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5783 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5784 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5785 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5786 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5787 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5788 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5789 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5790 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5791 
  5792 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5793 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5794 sketch:
  5795 
  5796     internal compilation:
  5797         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5798     writing SML code to a file:
  5799         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5800     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5801         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5802     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5803         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5804 
  5805     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5806         method ``eval''
  5807 
  5808 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5809 
  5810 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5811 
  5812     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5813     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5814     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5815     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5816 
  5817 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5818 
  5819     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5820       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5821 
  5822     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5823       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5824 
  5825     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5826       {(target)}+
  5827         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5828 
  5829     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5830       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5831         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5832 
  5833 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5834 
  5835 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5836 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5837 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5838 codegen".
  5839 
  5840 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5841 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5842 annotations).
  5843 
  5844 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5845 syntax.
  5846 
  5847 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5848 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5849 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5850 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5851 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5852 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5853 
  5854 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5855 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5856 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5857 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5858 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5859 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5860 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5861 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5862 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5863 equations, see section "definitions".
  5864 
  5865 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5866 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5867 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5868 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5869 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5870 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5871 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5872 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5873 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5874 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5875 
  5876 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5877 configuration options:
  5878 
  5879   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5880   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5881   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5882   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5883   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5884   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5885   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5886   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5887   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5888 
  5889 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5890 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5891 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5892 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5893 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5894 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5895 order.
  5896 
  5897 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5898 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5899 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5900 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5901 context encountered later on.
  5902 
  5903 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5904 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5905 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5906 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5907 
  5908 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5909 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5910 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5911 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5912 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5913 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5914 
  5915 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5916 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5917 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5918 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5919 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5920 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5921 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5922 more permissive.
  5923 
  5924 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5925 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5926 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5927 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5928 maintainability of proof texts.
  5929 
  5930 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5931 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5932 
  5933   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5934   then guess x and y by clarify
  5935 
  5936 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5937 proof tools being involved here.
  5938 
  5939 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5940 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5941 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5942 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5943 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5944 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5945 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5946 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5947 
  5948 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5949 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5950 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5951 
  5952   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5953   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5954   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5955   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5956 
  5957 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5958 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5959 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5960 
  5961 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5962 both named and unnamed ones.
  5963 
  5964 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5965 
  5966   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5967 
  5968 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5969 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5970 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5971 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5972 
  5973 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5974 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5975 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5976 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5977 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5978 
  5979 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5980 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5981 
  5982 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5983 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5984 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5985 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5986 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5987 originally first one.
  5988 
  5989 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5990 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5991 expected.
  5992 
  5993 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5994 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5995 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5996 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5997 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5998 
  5999   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6000     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6001     obtains x where "P x"
  6002 
  6003   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6004     assumes "A & B"
  6005     obtains A and B
  6006 
  6007   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6008     assumes "A | B"
  6009     obtains
  6010       A
  6011     | B
  6012 
  6013 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6014 explicitly:
  6015 
  6016   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6017     obtains "~ thesis"
  6018 
  6019   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6020     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6021 
  6022 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6023 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6024 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6025 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6026 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6027 case_names).
  6028 
  6029 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6030 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6031 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6032 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6033 
  6034 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6035 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6036 top-level lemma.
  6037 
  6038 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6039 introduction rule (default "that").
  6040 
  6041 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6042 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6043 to occur.
  6044 
  6045 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6046 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6047 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6048 representations independently of name spaces.
  6049 
  6050 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6051 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6052 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6053 
  6054 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6055 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6056 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6057 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6058 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6059 current context.
  6060 
  6061 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6062 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6063 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6064 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6065 
  6066   axiomatization
  6067     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6068     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6069 
  6070   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6071   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6072 
  6073   abbreviation
  6074     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6075     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6076 
  6077 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6078 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6079 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6080 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6081 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6082 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6083 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6084 
  6085 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6086 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6087 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6088 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6089 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6090 
  6091 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6092 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6093 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6094 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6095 
  6096 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6097 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6098 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6099 
  6100   definition "K x _ = x"
  6101 
  6102   inductive conj for A B
  6103   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6104 
  6105 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6106 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6107 abbreviations on output.
  6108 
  6109 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6110 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6111 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6112 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6113 
  6114 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6115 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6116 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6117 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6118 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6119 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6120 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6121 
  6122 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6123 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6124 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6125 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6126 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6127 
  6128 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6129 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6130 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6131 
  6132 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6133 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6134 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6135 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6136 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6137 
  6138   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6139     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6140 
  6141 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6142 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6143 partial_order.
  6144 
  6145 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6146 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6147 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6148 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6149 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6150 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6151 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6152 examples.
  6153 
  6154 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6155 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6156 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6157 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6158 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6159 
  6160 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6161 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6162 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6163 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6164 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6165 
  6166   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6167   (induct set: foo bar)
  6168   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6169   (induct type: foo bar)
  6170 
  6171 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6172 new format.
  6173 
  6174 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6175 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6176 
  6177 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6178 considered a legacy feature.
  6179 
  6180 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6181 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6182 
  6183 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6184 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6185 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6186 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6187   
  6188 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6189 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6190 manipulating the claset.
  6191 
  6192 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6193 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6194 least one premise.
  6195 
  6196 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6197 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6198 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6199 rule steps.
  6200 
  6201 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6202 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6203 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6204 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6205 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6206 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6207 
  6208 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6209 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6210 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6211 
  6212 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6213 the graph browser tool.
  6214 
  6215 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6216 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6217 
  6218 
  6219 *** HOL ***
  6220 
  6221 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6222 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6223 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6224 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6225 multi-threading.
  6226   
  6227 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6228 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6229 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6230 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6231 work with multi-threading.
  6232 
  6233 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6234 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6235 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6236 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6237 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6238 
  6239 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6240 
  6241 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6242 equality.
  6243 
  6244 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6245 the new 'class' package:
  6246 
  6247     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6248     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6249     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6250     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6251     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6252     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6253     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6254     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6255     op