NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Nov 18 16:04:13 2012 +0100 (2012-11-18)
changeset 50119 5c370a036de7
parent 50118 89a14e495526
child 50126 3dec88149176
permissions -rw-r--r--
more generous tracing_limit, with explicit system option;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    10 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    11 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    12 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    13 
    14 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    15 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    16 
    17 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    18 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    19 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    20 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    21 dependencies properly.
    22 
    23 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    24 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    25 
    26 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    27 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    28 
    29 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    30 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    31 and "class ... context ...".
    32 
    33 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    34 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    35 
    36 
    37 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    38 
    39 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    40 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    41 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    42 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    43 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    44 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    45 
    46 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    47 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    48 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    49 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    50 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    51 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    52 
    53 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    54 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    55 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    56 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    57 
    58 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    59 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    60 
    61 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    62 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    63 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. system option
    64 "editor_tracing_limit").  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    65 potentially infinite message streams.
    66 
    67 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    68 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    69 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    70 schemes.
    71 
    72 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    73 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    74 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    75 
    76 
    77 *** Pure ***
    78 
    79 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    80 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    81 
    82 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    83 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    84 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    85 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    86 
    87 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    88 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    89 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    90 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    91 with some care where this is really required.
    92 
    93 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    94 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    95 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    96 
    97   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    98 
    99 
   100 *** HOL ***
   101 
   102 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   103 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   104 
   105 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   106 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   109 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   110 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   111 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   112 accordingly.
   113 
   114 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   115 
   116   - Renamed constants
   117       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   118 
   119   - Renamed facts
   120       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   121 
   122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   127 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   128 
   129 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   130 to lattice type classes.
   131 
   132 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   133 
   134 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   135 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   136 
   137   - Renamed constants:
   138 
   139       prefix ~> prefixeq
   140       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   141 
   142     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   145     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   146     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   147     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   150     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   151 
   152   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   153     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   154     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   155     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   158     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   159 
   160       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   161       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   162       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   163       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   164       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   165       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   166       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   167       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   168       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   169       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   170       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   171       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   172       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   173       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   174       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   175       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   176 
   177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   180 
   181 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   182 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   183 
   184 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   187 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   188 non-free datatypes.
   189 
   190 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   191 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   192 
   193 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   194 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   195 
   196 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   197 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   198 
   199 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   200 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   201 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   202 
   203 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   204 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   205 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   208 expressions.
   209 
   210 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   211 pointfree expressions.
   212 
   213 * Quickcheck:
   214 
   215   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   216     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   217     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   218 
   219 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   220 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   221 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   222 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   223 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 * Sledgehammer:
   226 
   227   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   228     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   229   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   230   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   231   - Renamed options:
   232       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   233       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   234       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   235       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   236 
   237 
   238 *** Document preparation ***
   239 
   240 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   241 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   242 
   243 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   244 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   245 document/root.tex.
   246 
   247 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   248 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   249 
   250 
   251 *** ML ***
   252 
   253 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   254 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   255 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   256 
   257 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   258 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   259 necessarily printing visible text.
   260 
   261 
   262 *** System ***
   263 
   264 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   265 instead of 4.
   266 
   267 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   268 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   269 for home-made configurations.
   270 
   271 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   272 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   273 
   274 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   275 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   276 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   277 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   278 
   279 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   280 
   281 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   282 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   283 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   284 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   285 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   286 
   287 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   288 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   289 
   290   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   291 
   292 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   293 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   294 
   295 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   296 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   297 "isabelle usedir".
   298 
   299 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   300 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   301 version of Isabelle.
   302 
   303 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   304 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   305 configuration.
   306 
   307 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   308 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   309 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   310 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   311 bundled as Isabelle component.
   312 
   313 
   314 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   315 ------------------------------
   316 
   317 *** General ***
   318 
   319 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   320 
   321   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   322     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   323   - markup for bound variables
   324   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   325   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   326   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   327     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   328 
   329 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   330 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   331 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   332 
   333 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   334 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   335 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   336 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   337 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   338 
   339   context
   340     fixes x y z :: 'a
   341     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   342   begin
   343 
   344   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   345 
   346   end
   347 
   348   thm my_trans
   349 
   350 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   351 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   352 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   353 
   354 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   355 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   356 
   357 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   358 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   359 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   360 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   361 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   362 
   363 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   364 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   365 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   366 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   367 indices of schematic variables.
   368 
   369 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   370 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   371 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   372 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   373 etc. was exploited.
   374 
   375 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   376 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   377 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   378 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   379 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   380 of the material of that old tutorial.
   381 
   382 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   383 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   384 manual.
   385 
   386 
   387 *** Pure ***
   388 
   389 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   390 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   391 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   392 
   393 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   394 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   395 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   396 undocumented feature.)
   397 
   398 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   399 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   400 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   401 
   402   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   403 
   404   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   405     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   406 
   407 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   408 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   409 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   410 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   411 
   412 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   413 
   414     num ~> num_token
   415     xnum ~> xnum_token
   416     xstr ~> str_token
   417 
   418 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   419 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   420 position information via constraints).
   421 
   422 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   423 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   424 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 
   426 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   427 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   428 
   429 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   430 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   431 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   432 
   433 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   434 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   437 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   438 
   439   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   440 
   441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   442 
   443 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   444 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   447 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   448 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   449 
   450 
   451 *** HOL ***
   452 
   453 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   454 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   455 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   456 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   457 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   458 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   459 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   460 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   461 possible.
   462 
   463 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   464 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   465 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   466 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   467 
   468 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   469 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   472 
   473 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   474 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   475 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   476 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   477 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   478 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   479 
   480   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   481     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   482 
   483   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   484     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   485     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   486 
   487   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   488     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   489 
   490   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   491     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   492     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   493 
   494   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   495     Redefine using other integer operations.
   496 
   497 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   498 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   499 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   500 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   501 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   502 
   503   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   504     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   505     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   506     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   507     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   508 
   509     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   510     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   511 
   512   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   513     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   514     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   515     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   516     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   517     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   518     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   519     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   520 
   521   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   522     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   523     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   524     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   525 
   526   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   527     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   528     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   529     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   530 
   531   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   532     from type nat to type int.
   533 
   534 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   535 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   536 
   537   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   538     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   539     type.  Example syntax:
   540 
   541     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   542       is List.insert
   543 
   544     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   545     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   546     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   547     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   548     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   549     by the package.
   550 
   551   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   552     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   553     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   554     code generation for each constant.
   555 
   556   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   557     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   558     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   559     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   560     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   561 
   562   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   563     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   564     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   565 
   566 * Quotient package:
   567 
   568   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   569     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   570 
   571   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   572     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   573 
   574   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   575     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   576     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   579     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   582 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   583 
   584 * Quickcheck:
   585 
   586   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   587     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   588     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   589     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   590     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   591 
   592     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   593     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   594     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   595 
   596     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   597     continues searching for genuine ones.
   598 
   599     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   600     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   601     show genuine counterexamples.
   602 
   603   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   604     value generators for a given type and operations.
   605 
   606     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   607     constructors of that type.
   608 
   609   - Support for multisets.
   610 
   611   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   612 
   613   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   614     conjectures in a locale context.
   615 
   616 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   617 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   618 
   619 * Sledgehammer:
   620   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   621     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   622   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   623   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   624     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   625   - Sped up the minimizer.
   626   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   627   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   628   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   629 
   630 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   631 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   632 
   633 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   634 
   635 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   638 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   639 
   640   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   641 
   642 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   643 a list and a nat.
   644 
   645 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   646 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   647 
   648 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   649 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   650 default.
   651 
   652 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   653 
   654   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   655 
   656 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   657 
   658 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   659 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   660 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   661 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   662 one_case.
   663 
   664 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   665 the result of the fact expression.
   666 
   667 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   668 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   669 of some relation theorems:
   670 
   671   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   672   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   673   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   674   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   675   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   676   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   677 
   678 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   679 
   680 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   681 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   682 
   683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   684 
   685 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   686 to match the constant's name:
   687 
   688   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   689   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   690   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   691   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   692   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   693   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   694   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   695   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   696   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   697   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   698   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   699   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   700   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   701   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   702   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   703   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   704   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   705   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   706   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   707   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   708   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   709   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   710   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   711   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   712 
   713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   716 and corresponding theorem names:
   717 
   718   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   719 
   720   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   721 
   722   - Renamed theorems:
   723 
   724     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   725     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   726     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   727     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   728     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   729     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   730     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   731     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   732     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   733     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   734     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   735     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   736     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   737     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   738     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   739     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   740     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   741     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   742     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   743     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   744     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   745     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   746     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   747 
   748     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   749 
   750     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   751 
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   755 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   756 
   757   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   758   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   759   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   760   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   761   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   762   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   763   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   764   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   765   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   766   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   767   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   768   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   769   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   770   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   771   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   772   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   773   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   774   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   775   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   776   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   777   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   778 
   779 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   780 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   781 
   782 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   785 
   786   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   787   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   788   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   789   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   790   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   791   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   792   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   793   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   794   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   795   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   796   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   797   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   798   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   799   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   800   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   801   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   802   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   803   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   804 
   805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   808 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   809 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   810 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   811 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   812 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   813 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   814 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   815 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   816 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   817 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   818 
   819 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   820 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   821 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   822 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   823 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   824 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   825 
   826 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   827 through option types.
   828 
   829 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   830 relations.
   831 
   832 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   835 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   836 
   837   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   838   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   839   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   840   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   841   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   842   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   843   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   844   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   845   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   846   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   847   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   848   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   849   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   850   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   851   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   852   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   853   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   854   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   855   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   856   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   857   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   858   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   859   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   860   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   861   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   862   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   863   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   864   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   865   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   866   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   867   zless_le ~> less_le
   868   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   869   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   870   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   871 
   872 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   873 
   874   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   875 
   876 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   877 
   878 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   879 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   880 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   881 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   883 
   884 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   885 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   886 
   887 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   888 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   889 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   890 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   891 follows:
   892 
   893   Operations:
   894   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   895   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   896   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   897   del -> rbt_del
   898   delete -> rbt_delete
   899   ins -> rbt_ins
   900   insert -> rbt_insert
   901   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   902   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   903   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   904   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   905   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   906   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   907   tree_less -> rbt_less
   908   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   909   union -> rbt_union
   910   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   911   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   912 
   913   Lemmas:
   914   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   915   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   916   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   917   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   918   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   919   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   920   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   921   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   922   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   923   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   924   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   925   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   926   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   927   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   928   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   929   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   930   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   931   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   932   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   933   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   934   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   935   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   936   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   937   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   938   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   939   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   940   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   941   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   942   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   943   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   944   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   945   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   946   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   947   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   948   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   949   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   950   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   951   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   952   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   953   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   954   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   955   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   956   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   957   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   958   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   959   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   960   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   961   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   962   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   963   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   964   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   965   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   966   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   967   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   968   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   969   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   970   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   971   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   972   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   973   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   974   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   975   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   976   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   977   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   978   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   979   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   980   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   981   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   982   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   983   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   984   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   985   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   986   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   987   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   988   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   989   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   990   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   991   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   992   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   993   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   994   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   995   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   996   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   997 
   998 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   999 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1000 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1001 
  1002   Changed Operations:
  1003   float_abs -> abs
  1004   float_nprt -> nprt
  1005   float_pprt -> pprt
  1006   pow2 -> use powr
  1007   round_down -> float_round_down
  1008   round_up -> float_round_up
  1009   scale -> exponent
  1010 
  1011   Removed Operations:
  1012   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1013 
  1014   Renamed Lemmas:
  1015   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1016   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1017   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1018   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1019   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1020   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1021   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1022   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1023   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1024   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1025   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1026   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1027   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1028   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1029   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1030   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1031   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1032   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1033   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1034   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1035   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1036   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1037   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1038   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1039   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1040   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1041   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1042   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1043   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1044   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1045   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1046   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1047   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1048   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1049   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1050   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1051 
  1052   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1053   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1054   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1055   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1056   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1057   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1058   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1059   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1060   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1061   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1062 
  1063 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1064 association lists with distinct keys.
  1065 
  1066 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1067 annotated commands.
  1068 
  1069 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1070 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1071 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1072 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1075 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1076 instead.
  1077 
  1078   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1079   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1080   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1081   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1082   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1083   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1084   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1085   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1086   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1087   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1088   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1089   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1090   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1091   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1092   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1093   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1094   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1095   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1096   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1097   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1098   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1099   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1100   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1101   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1102   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1103   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1104   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1105   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1106   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1107   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1108   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1109   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1110   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1111   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1112   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1113   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1114   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1115   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1116   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1117   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1118   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1119 
  1120 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1121 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1122 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1123 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1124 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1125 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1126 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1127 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1128 
  1129 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1130 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1131 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1132 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1133 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1134 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1135 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1136 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1137 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1138 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1139 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1140 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141 
  1142   Renamed constants:
  1143   measure -> emeasure
  1144   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1145   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1146   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1147   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1148 
  1149   Removed locales:
  1150   completeable_measure_space
  1151   finite_measure_space
  1152   finite_prob_space
  1153   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1154   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1155   finite_sigma_algebra
  1156   measure_space
  1157   pair_finite_prob_space
  1158   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1159   pair_finite_space
  1160   pair_sigma_algebra
  1161   product_sigma_algebra
  1162 
  1163   Removed constants:
  1164   conditional_space
  1165   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1166   image_space
  1167   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1168   pair_measure_generator
  1169   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1170   subvimage
  1171 
  1172   Replacement theorems:
  1173   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1174   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1175   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1176   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1177   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1178   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1179   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1180   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1181   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1182   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1183   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1184   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1185   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1186   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1187   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1188   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1189   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1190   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1191   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1192   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1193   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1194   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1195   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1196   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1197   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1198   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1199   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1200   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1201   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1202   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1203   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1204   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1205   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1206   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1207   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1208   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1209   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1210   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1211   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1212   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1213   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1214   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1215   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1216   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1217   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1218   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1219   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1220   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1221   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1222   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1223   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1224   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1225   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1226   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1227   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1228   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1229   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1230   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1231   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1232   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1233   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1234   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1235   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1236   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1237   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1238   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1239   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1240   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1241   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1242   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1243   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1244   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1245   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1246   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1247   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1248   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1249   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1250   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1251   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1252   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1253   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1254   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1255   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1256   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1257   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1258   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1259   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1260   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1261   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1262   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1263   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1264   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1265   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1266   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1267   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1268   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1269   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1270   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1271   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1272   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1273   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1274   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1275   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1276   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1277   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1278   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1279   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1280   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1281   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1282   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1283   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1284   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1285   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1286   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1287   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1288   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1289   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1290   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1291   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1292   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1293   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1294   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1295   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1296   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1297   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1298   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1299   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1300   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1301 
  1302 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1303 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1304 
  1305 
  1306 *** FOL ***
  1307 
  1308 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1309 
  1310 
  1311 *** ZF ***
  1312 
  1313 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1314 analysis.
  1315 
  1316 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1317 
  1318 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 
  1321 *** ML ***
  1322 
  1323 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1324 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1325 
  1326 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1327 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1328 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1329 
  1330 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1331 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1332 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1333 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1334 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1335 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1336 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1337 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1338 
  1339 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1340 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1341 
  1342 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1343 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1344 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1345 
  1346 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1347 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1348 
  1349 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1350 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1351 context as well.
  1352 
  1353 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1354 
  1355   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1356   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1357   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1358   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1359   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1360   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1361   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1362   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1363   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1364   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1365   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1366   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1367 
  1368 
  1369 *** System ***
  1370 
  1371 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1372 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1373 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1374 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1375 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1376 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1377 the generic user home was intended.
  1378 
  1379 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1380 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1381 
  1382 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1383 (not just JRE).
  1384 
  1385 
  1386 
  1387 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1388 ------------------------------------
  1389 
  1390 *** General ***
  1391 
  1392 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1393 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1394 
  1395   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1396     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1397     files for checking).
  1398 
  1399   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1400     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1401     positions.
  1402 
  1403   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1404     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1405     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1406 
  1407   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1408     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1409     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1410 
  1411   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1412     cores.
  1413 
  1414   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1415     versions (garbage collection).
  1416 
  1417 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1418 including some remaining limitations.
  1419 
  1420 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1421 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1422 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1423 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1424 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1426 
  1427 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1428 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1429 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1430 
  1431 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1432 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1433 usedir option -Q.
  1434 
  1435 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1436 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1437 
  1438   long_names   ~> names_long
  1439   short_names  ~> names_short
  1440   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1441 
  1442 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1443 
  1444   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1445 
  1446 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1447 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1448 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1449 
  1450 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1451 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1452 
  1453 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1454   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1455   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1456   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1457     "Classical Reasoner".
  1458 
  1459 
  1460 *** HOL ***
  1461 
  1462 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1463 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1464 
  1465 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1466 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1467 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1468 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1469 class complete_linorder.
  1470 
  1471 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1472 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1473 
  1474 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1475 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1476 
  1477   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1478   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1479   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1480   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1481   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1482   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1483   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1484   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1485   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1486   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1487   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1488 
  1489 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1490 
  1491   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1492   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1493   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1494   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1495   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1496   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1497   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1498   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1499   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1500   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1501   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1502   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1503   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1504   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1505   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1506   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1507 
  1508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1514 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1515 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1516 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1517 
  1518 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1519 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1520 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1522 
  1523 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1524 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1525 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1526 
  1527 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1528 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1529 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1532 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1533 
  1534 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1535 
  1536     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1537     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1538 
  1539 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1540 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1543 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1546 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1547 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1548 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1549 
  1550   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1551   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1552   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1553   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1554   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1555   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1556   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1557 
  1558 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1559 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1562   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1563   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1564   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1565   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1566   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1567   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1568   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1569   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1570   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1571   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1572   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1573   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1574   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1575   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1576   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1577   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1578   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1579   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1580   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1581   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1582   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1583   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1584   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1585   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1586   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1587   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1588   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1589   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1590   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1591   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1592   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1593   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1594   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1595   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1596   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1597   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1598   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1599   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1600   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1601   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1602   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1603   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1604   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1605   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1606   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1607   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1608   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1609   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1610   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1611   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1612   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1613   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1614   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1615   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1616   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1617   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1618   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1619   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1620   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1621   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1622   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1623   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1624   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1625   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1626   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1627   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1628   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1629   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1630   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1631   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1632   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1633   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1634   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1635   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1636   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1637   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1638   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1639   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1640   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1641   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1642   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1643 
  1644 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1645 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1646 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1647 
  1648 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1649 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1650 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1651 
  1652 * Code generation:
  1653 
  1654   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1655     characters in the target language.
  1656 
  1657   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1658     instead.
  1659 
  1660   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1661 
  1662   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1663     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1664 
  1665       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1666 
  1667 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1668 
  1669 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1670 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1671 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1672 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1673 syntax.
  1674 
  1675 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1676 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1677 
  1678 * Nitpick:
  1679   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1680   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1681   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1682     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Sledgehammer:
  1685   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1686   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1687     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1688   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1689     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1690   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1691     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1693     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1694   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1695     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1696 
  1697 * Metis:
  1698   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1699   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1700     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1701 
  1702 * Command 'try':
  1703   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1704     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1705   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1706     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1707 
  1708 * Quickcheck:
  1709   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1710     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1711   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1712     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1713   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1714     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1715     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1716     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1717   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1718     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1719 
  1720 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1721 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1722 
  1723 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1724 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1725 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1726 
  1727 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1728 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1732 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1733 
  1734 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1735 arithmetic.
  1736 
  1737 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1738 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1739 and lattice type classes.
  1740 
  1741 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1742 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1743 
  1744 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1745 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1746 
  1747 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1748 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1749 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1750 
  1751   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1752   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1753   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1754   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1755 
  1756 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1757 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1758 constants:
  1759 
  1760   type inat   ~> type enat
  1761   Fin         ~> enat
  1762   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1763   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1764   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1765 
  1766 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1767 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1768 
  1769 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1770 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1771 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1772 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1773 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1774 
  1775 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1776 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1777 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1778 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1779 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1780 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1781 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1782 
  1783   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1784   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1785   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1786   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1787 
  1788 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1789 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1790 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1791 
  1792   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1793   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1794   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1795   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1796   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1797   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1798   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1799   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1800   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1801   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1802   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1803   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1804   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1805   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1806   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1807   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1808   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1809   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1810   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1811   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1812   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1813   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1814   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1815   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1816   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1817   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1818   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1819   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1820   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1821   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1822   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1823   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1824   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1825   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1826   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1827   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1828   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1829   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1830   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1831   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1832   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1833   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1834   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1835   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1836   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1837   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1838   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1839   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1840   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1841   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1842   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1843 
  1844 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1845   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1846   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1847   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1848   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1849     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1850 
  1851 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1852 
  1853   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1854   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1855   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1856   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1857   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1858   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1859   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1860   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1861   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1862   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1863   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1864   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1865   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1866   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1867   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1868   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1869   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1870   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1871   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1872   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1873   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1874   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1875   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1876   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1877   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1878 
  1879 
  1880 *** Document preparation ***
  1881 
  1882 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1883 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1884 same.
  1885 
  1886 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1887 result.
  1888 
  1889 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1890 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1891 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1892 
  1893 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1894 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1895 
  1896 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1897 like this:
  1898 
  1899   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1900   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1901 
  1902 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1903 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1904 layouts.
  1905 
  1906 
  1907 *** ML ***
  1908 
  1909 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1910 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1911 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1912 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1913 under external program control.
  1914 
  1915 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1916 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1917 
  1918 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1919 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1920 (better known as Proof General).
  1921 
  1922 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1923 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1924 
  1925 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1926 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1927 
  1928 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1929 (including quotes etc.).
  1930 
  1931 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1932 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1933 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1934 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1935 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1936 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1937 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1938 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1939 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1940 
  1941 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1942 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1943 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1944 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1945 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1946 
  1947 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1948 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1949 
  1950 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1951 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1952 
  1953 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1954 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1955 
  1956 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1957 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1958 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1959 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1960 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1961 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1962 proper Proof.context.
  1963 
  1964 
  1965 *** System ***
  1966 
  1967 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1968 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1969 
  1970 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1971 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1972 
  1973 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1974 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1975 
  1976   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1977   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1978   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1979   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1980   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1981 
  1982 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1983 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1986 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1987 example:
  1988 
  1989   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1990 
  1991 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1992 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1993 
  1994 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1995 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1996 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1997 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1998 
  1999 
  2000 
  2001 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2002 ----------------------------------
  2003 
  2004 *** General ***
  2005 
  2006 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2007 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2008 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2009 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2010 like this:
  2011 
  2012   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2013 
  2014 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2015 
  2016 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2017 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2018 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2019 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2020 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2021 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2022 
  2023 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2024 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2025 the following package declarations:
  2026 
  2027   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2028   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2029 
  2030 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2031 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2032 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2033 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2034 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2035 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2036 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2037 
  2038 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2039 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2040 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2041 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2042 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2043 
  2044 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2045 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2046 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2047 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2048 
  2049 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2050 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2051 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2052 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2053 
  2054   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2055 
  2056   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2057   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2058   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2059   show_types                    show_types
  2060   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2061   show_consts                   show_consts
  2062   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2063 
  2064   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2065   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2066   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2067 
  2068   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2069   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2070 
  2071   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2072 
  2073   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2074   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2075   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2076   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2077   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2078 
  2079 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2080 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2081 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2082 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2083 
  2084 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2086 
  2087   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2088   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2089 
  2090 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2091 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2092 float_token.
  2093 
  2094 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2095 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2097 
  2098 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2099 DejaVu Sans.
  2100 
  2101 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2102 
  2103 
  2104 *** Pure ***
  2105 
  2106 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2107 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2108 time.
  2109 
  2110 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2111 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2112 
  2113 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2114 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2115 
  2116 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2117 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2118 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2119 command already provided this functionality.
  2120 
  2121 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2122 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2123 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2124 without interpretations.
  2125 
  2126 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2127 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2128 
  2129 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2130 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2131 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2132 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2133 
  2134 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2135 'definition' instead.
  2136 
  2137 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2138 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2139 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2140 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2141 
  2142 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2143 constructors.
  2144 
  2145 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2146 the local file system.
  2147 
  2148 
  2149 *** HOL ***
  2150 
  2151 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2152 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2153 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2154 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2155 
  2156   declare [[coercion f]]
  2157 
  2158 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2159 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2160 
  2161   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2162 
  2163 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2164 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2165 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2166 other theories like this:
  2167 
  2168   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2169 
  2170 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2171 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2172 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2173 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2174 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2175 for examples.
  2176 
  2177 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2178 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2181 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2182 
  2183 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2184 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2185 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2186 
  2187 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2188 functorial structure of types.
  2189 
  2190 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2191 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2192 
  2193 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2194 languages.
  2195 
  2196 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2197 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2201 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2202 
  2203 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2204 combinators any longer.
  2205 
  2206 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2207 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2208 
  2209 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2210 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2211 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2212 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2213 
  2214   record 'a foo = ...
  2215   ...
  2216   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2217 
  2218 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2219 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2223 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2224 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2225 
  2226 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2227 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2228 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2229 
  2230 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2231 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2234 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2235 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2236 independently.
  2237 
  2238 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2239 counter example search.
  2240 
  2241 * Sledgehammer:
  2242   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2243     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2244     sledgehammer").
  2245   - Renamed commands:
  2246     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2247     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2248     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250   - Renamed options:
  2251     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2252     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2253     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2254     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * Nitpick:
  2258   - Renamed options:
  2259     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2260     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2261     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2262   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2263   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2264   - Added "whack" option.
  2265   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2266   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2267   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2268   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2269     higher cardinalities.
  2270   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2271 
  2272 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2273 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2274 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2275 
  2276     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2277 
  2278 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2279 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2280 
  2281 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2282 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2283 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2284 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2285 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2286 "smt_solver".
  2287 
  2288 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2289 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2290 
  2291 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2292 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2293 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2294 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2295 
  2296 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2297   - Renamed:
  2298     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2299     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2300     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301   - Added:
  2302     smt_verbose
  2303     smt_random_seed
  2304     smt_datatypes
  2305     smt_infer_triggers
  2306     smt_monomorph_limit
  2307     cvc3_options
  2308     remote_cvc3_options
  2309     remote_z3_options
  2310     yices_options
  2311 
  2312 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2313 header.
  2314 
  2315 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2316 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2317 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2318 
  2319   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2320 
  2321 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2322 
  2323 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2324 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2329 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2332 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2333 
  2334 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2335 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2336 
  2337 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2338 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2339 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2340 
  2341 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2347 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2350 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2351 for congruent(2)).
  2352 
  2353 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2354 
  2355   types
  2356     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2357     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2358 
  2359   constants
  2360     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2361     True ~> HOL.True
  2362     False ~> HOL.False
  2363     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2364     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2365     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2366     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2367     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2368     The ~> HOL.The
  2369     All ~> HOL.All
  2370     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2371     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2372     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2373     If ~> HOL.If
  2374     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2375     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2376     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2377     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2378     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2379     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2380     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2381     op : ~> Set.member
  2382     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2383 
  2384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2387 
  2388     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2389     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2390     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2391     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2392     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2393     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2394     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2395     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2396 
  2397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399 * More stylized fact names:
  2400 
  2401   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2402   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2403   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2404   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2405 
  2406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2409 
  2410   constants
  2411     null ~> List.null
  2412 
  2413   facts
  2414     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2415     null_empty ~> null_def
  2416 
  2417 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2418 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2419 generation.
  2420 
  2421 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2422 Haskell code.
  2423 
  2424 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2425 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2426 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2429 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2432 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2433 
  2434 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2435 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2436 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2439 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440 
  2441 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2445 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2446 referred to by its qualified name.
  2447 
  2448   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2449   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2450   product ~>  Enum.product
  2451 
  2452 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2453 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2457 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2458 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2462 sort_key.
  2463 
  2464 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2468 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2469 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2470 
  2471   types
  2472     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2473               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2474               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2475         (depends on your needs)
  2476 
  2477   constants
  2478      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2479      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2480      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2481 
  2482 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2483 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2484 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2485 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2488 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2489 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2490 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2491 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2492 
  2493 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2495 
  2496 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2497 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2498 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2499 
  2500 
  2501 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2502 
  2503 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2504 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2505 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2506 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2507 compatibility.
  2508 
  2509 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2510 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2511 
  2512 
  2513 *** HOLCF ***
  2514 
  2515 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2516 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2517 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2521 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2522 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2525   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2526   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2527 
  2528 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2529 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2530 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2533 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2534 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2535 domain definition now works:
  2536 
  2537   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2538 
  2539 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2540 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2541 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2542 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2543 
  2544   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2545     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2546 
  2547   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2548 
  2549 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2550 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2551 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552 
  2553 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2554 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2557 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2558 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2559 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2560 
  2561 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2562 
  2563 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2564 
  2565 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2569 
  2570 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2571 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2572 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2573 
  2574 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2575 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2576 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2579 still supported as an input translation.
  2580 
  2581 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2582 
  2583   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2584   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2585   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2586   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2587   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2588   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2589   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2590 
  2591 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2592 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2593 
  2594   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2595   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2596   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2597   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2598   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2599   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2600 
  2601 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2602 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2605 
  2606   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2607   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2608   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2609   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2610 
  2611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2614 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615 
  2616 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2617 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2620   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2621   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2622   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2623   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2624   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2625   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2626   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2627   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2628   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2629   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2630   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2631   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2632   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2633   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2634   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2635   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2636   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2637   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2638   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2639 
  2640 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2643   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2644   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2645   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2646   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2647   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2648   box_less             ~> box_below
  2649   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2650   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2651   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2652   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2653   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2654   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2655   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2656   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2657   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2658   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2659   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2660   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2661   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2662   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2663   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2664   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2665   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2666   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2667   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2668   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2669   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2670   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2671   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2672   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2673   up_less              ~> up_below
  2674   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2675   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2676   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2677   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2678   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2679   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2680   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2681   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2682   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2683   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2684   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2685   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2686   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2687 
  2688 
  2689 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2690 
  2691 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2692 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 
  2695 *** ML ***
  2696 
  2697 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2698 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2699 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2700 
  2701 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2702 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2703 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2704 
  2705 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2706 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2707 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2708 
  2709 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2710 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2711 
  2712 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2713 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2714 
  2715 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2716 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2717 
  2718 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2719 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2720 
  2721 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2722 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2723 almost all situations.
  2724 
  2725 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2726 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2727 Isabelle/ML.
  2728 
  2729 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2730 meaning.
  2731 
  2732 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2733 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2734 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2735 
  2736 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2737 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2738 
  2739 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2740 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2741 
  2742 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2743 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2744 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2745 
  2746 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2747 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2748 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2749 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2750 configuration options.
  2751 
  2752 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2753 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2754 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2755 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2756 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2757 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2758 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2759 
  2760 
  2761 
  2762 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2763 ---------------------------------
  2764 
  2765 *** General ***
  2766 
  2767 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2768 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2769 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2770 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2771 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2772 their full internal name.
  2773 
  2774 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2775 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2776 Some hints on upgrading:
  2777 
  2778   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2779     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2780     which are independent of this issue.
  2781 
  2782   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2783     provides the following special forms:
  2784 
  2785       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2786       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2787       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2788 
  2789     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2790     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2791     extra variables".
  2792 
  2793     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2794     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2795     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2796     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2797     "logic".
  2798 
  2799   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2800     antiquotations:
  2801 
  2802       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2803       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2804       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2805       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2806 
  2807   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2808     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2809     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2810     antiquotations.
  2811 
  2812 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2813 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2814 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2815 diagnose syntax problems.
  2816 
  2817 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2818 
  2819 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2820 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2821 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2822 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2823 
  2824 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2825 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2826 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2827 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2830 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2831 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2832 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2833 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2836 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2837 
  2838 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2839 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2840 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2841 
  2842   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2843 
  2844 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2845 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2846 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2847 
  2848 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2849 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851 
  2852 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2853 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2854 
  2855 
  2856 *** Pure ***
  2857 
  2858 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2859 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2860 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2861 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2862 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2863 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2864 inspect proof terms.
  2865 
  2866 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2867 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2868 are added internally.  For example:
  2869 
  2870   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2871 
  2872 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2873 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874 
  2875 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2876 
  2877 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2878 'class' instead.
  2879 
  2880 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2881 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2883 
  2884 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2885 invariants.
  2886 
  2887 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2888 user space functionality any longer.
  2889 
  2890 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2891 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893 
  2894 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2895 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2896 
  2897 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2898 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2899 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2900 
  2901 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2902 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2903 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2904 
  2905 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2906 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2907 
  2908 
  2909 *** HOL ***
  2910 
  2911 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2912 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2913 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2914 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2915 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2916 
  2917 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2918 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2919 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2920 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2921 
  2922   fun
  2923     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2924   where
  2925     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2926 
  2927   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2928     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2929 
  2930   quotient_definition
  2931     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2932 
  2933 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2934 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2935 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2936 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2937 
  2938 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2939 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2940 
  2941 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2942 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2943 
  2944 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2948 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2949 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2950 
  2951 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2952 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959 
  2960 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2961 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2962 
  2963 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2964 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2965 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2968   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2969   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2970   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2971   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2972   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2973   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2974   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2975   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2976   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2977   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2978   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2979   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2980   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2981   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2982   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2983   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2984   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2985   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2986   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2987   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2988   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2989   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2990   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2991   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2992   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2993   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2994   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2995   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2996   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2997 
  2998 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2999 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3000 
  3001 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3002 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3003 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3004 
  3005 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3006 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3007 
  3008 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3009 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3012 
  3013 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3014 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3017 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3022 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3023 
  3024 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3025 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3026 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3027 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3030   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3031   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3032   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3036 lattices):
  3037 
  3038     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3039     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3040 
  3041     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3042 
  3043     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3044     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3045     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3046     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3047     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3048     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3049     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3050     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3051     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3052     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3053     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3054     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3055     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3056 
  3057     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3058     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3059     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3060     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3061     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3062     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3063     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3064     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3065     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3066     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3067     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3068     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3069     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3070     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3071     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3072     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3073     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3074     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3075 
  3076   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3077   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3078 
  3079     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3080     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3081     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3082     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3083     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3084 
  3085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * Refined field classes:
  3088   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3089     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3090     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3091   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3095   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3096   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3097   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3098     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3099   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3100     equal_neg_zero.
  3101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3104 sets to lattices:
  3105 
  3106   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3107   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3108   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3109   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3110   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3111   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3112   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3113   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3114   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3115   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3116 
  3117 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3118 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3119 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3120 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3121 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3122 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3125 multiset order:
  3126 
  3127   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3128     <= and <;
  3129   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3130     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3131     multiset_order;
  3132   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3133     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3134     generation;
  3135   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3136     if needed.
  3137 
  3138 Renamed:
  3139 
  3140   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3141   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3142   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3143 
  3144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3147 
  3148 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3149 
  3150 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3151 
  3152 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3153 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3154 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3155 
  3156   Constants:
  3157   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3158   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3159   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3160   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3161   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3162   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3163   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3164   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3165   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3166   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3167   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3168   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3169   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3170 
  3171   Lemmas:
  3172   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3173   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3174   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3175   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3176   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3177   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3178   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3179   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3180   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3181   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3182   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3183   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3184   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3185 
  3186 * Sledgehammer:
  3187   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3188     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3189     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3190     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3191     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3192     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3193     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3195   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3196     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3197   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3198     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3199     is still experimental.)
  3200   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3201     full-typed mode.
  3202   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3203 
  3204 * Nitpick:
  3205   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3206   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3207   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3208     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3209   - Added support for quotient types.
  3210   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3211     constructs.
  3212   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3213     "termination" proofs).
  3214   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3215   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3216   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3217   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3218     record getters.
  3219   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3220   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3221   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3222   - Added "atoms" option.
  3223   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3224     problems.
  3225   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3226     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3227     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3229     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231 
  3232 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3233   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3234   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3235   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3236   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3237   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3238   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3239   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3240   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3241   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 
  3244 *** HOLCF ***
  3245 
  3246 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3247 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3248 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3251 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3252 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3253 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3256 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3257 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3258 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3259 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3262 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3263 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3266 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3269   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3270 
  3271 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3272 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3275   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3276   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3277   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3278   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3279 
  3280 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3281 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282 
  3283   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3284   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3285   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3286 
  3287 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3288 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3292 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3297 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 
  3300 *** ML ***
  3301 
  3302 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3303 
  3304     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3305     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3306 
  3307     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3308     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3309     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3310     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3311 
  3312     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3313     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3314     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3315 
  3316 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3317 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3318 
  3319 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3320 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3321 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3322 
  3323 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3324 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3325 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3326 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3327 
  3328 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3329 the context or even global references.
  3330 
  3331 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3332 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3333 
  3334 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3335 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3336 
  3337   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3338   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3339   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3340   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3341   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3342   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3343   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3344   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3345   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3346   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3347 
  3348 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3349 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3350 
  3351 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3352 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3353 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3354 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3355 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3356 
  3357 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3358 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3359 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3360 Theory_Data version.
  3361 
  3362 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3363 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3364 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3365 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3366 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3367 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3368 explicitly in rare situations.
  3369 
  3370 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3371 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3375 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3378 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3379 quite rare).
  3380 
  3381 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3382 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3385 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3386 terms.
  3387 
  3388 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3389 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3390 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3391 
  3392 
  3393 *** System ***
  3394 
  3395 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3396 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3397 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3398 
  3399 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3400 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3401 respectively.
  3402 
  3403 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3404 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3405 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3406 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3407 
  3408   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3409 
  3410 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3411 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3412 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3413 component.
  3414 
  3415 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3416 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3417 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3418 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3419 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3420 the user for manual installation.
  3421 
  3422 
  3423 
  3424 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3425 -------------------------------------
  3426 
  3427 *** General ***
  3428 
  3429 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3430 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3431 
  3432 
  3433 *** Pure ***
  3434 
  3435 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3436 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3437 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3438 
  3439 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3440 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3441 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3442 
  3443 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3444 interpretation.
  3445 
  3446 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3447 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 
  3450 *** Document preparation ***
  3451 
  3452 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3453 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3454 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3455 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3456 
  3457 
  3458 *** HOL ***
  3459 
  3460 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3461 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3462 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3463 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3464 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3465 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3466 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3467 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3468 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3469 
  3470 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3471 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3472 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3473 
  3474 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3475 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3476 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3477 
  3478 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3479 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3480 
  3481 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3482 
  3483 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3484 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3485 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3486 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3487 
  3488 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3489 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3490 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3491 "mirabelle" utility.
  3492 
  3493 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3494 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3495 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3496 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3497 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3498 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3499 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3500 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3501 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3502 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3503 
  3504 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3505 procedure only.
  3506 
  3507 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3508 
  3509 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3510 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3511 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3512 that fail later.
  3513 
  3514 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3515 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3516 
  3517 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3518 the same method as the approximation method.
  3519 
  3520 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3521 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3522 series expansion.
  3523 
  3524 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3525 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3526 
  3527 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3528 reals.
  3529 
  3530 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3531 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3532 
  3533 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3534 fixpoint theorem.
  3535 
  3536 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3537   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3538     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3539   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3540     accordingly
  3541   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3542     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3543   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3544     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3545 
  3546 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3547 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3548 lattice.
  3549 
  3550 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3551 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3552 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3553 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3554 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3555 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3559   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3560     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3561   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3562     le_inf_iff
  3563   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3564     sup_aci)
  3565   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3566   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3567   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3568     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3569     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3570     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3571     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3572     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3573     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3574     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3575     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3576     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3577     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3578   - authentic syntax for
  3579     Set.Pow
  3580     Set.image
  3581   - mere abbreviations:
  3582     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3583     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3584     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3585     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3586     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3587     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3588     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3589     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3590   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3591 
  3592 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3593 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3594 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3595 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3596 
  3597 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3598 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3599 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3602 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3605 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3606 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3607 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3610 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3611 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3612 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3613 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3614 
  3615 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3616 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3620 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3621 
  3622 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3623 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3624 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3625 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3626 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3627 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3628 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3632     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3633     code_post       replaces    code post
  3634     etc.
  3635   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Renamed methods:
  3638     sizechange -> size_change
  3639     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3640   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3643 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3644 
  3645 * Renamed theorems:
  3646     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3647     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3648     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3649     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3650     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3651   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3652 
  3653 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3658 
  3659 
  3660 *** HOLCF ***
  3661 
  3662 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3663 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3664 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3665 
  3666 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3667 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3668 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3669 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3670 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3671 
  3672 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3673 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3674 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3675 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3676 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3677 
  3678 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3679 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3680 constructor are pre-configured.
  3681 
  3682 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3683 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3684 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3685 
  3686 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3687 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3688 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3689 as well.)
  3690 
  3691 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3692 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3693 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3694 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3695 examples.
  3696 
  3697 
  3698 *** ML ***
  3699 
  3700 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3701 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3702 
  3703 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3704 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3705 position, logical grouping etc.
  3706 
  3707 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3708 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3709 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3710 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3711 
  3712 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3713 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3714 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3715 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3716 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3717 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3718 
  3719 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3720 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3721 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3722 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3723 experiments with references.
  3724 
  3725 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3726 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3727 
  3728 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3729 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3730 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3731 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3732 
  3733 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3734 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3735 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3736 
  3737 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3738 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3739 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3740 
  3741 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3747 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3748 
  3749 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3750 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3751 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3752 
  3753 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3754 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3755 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3758 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3759 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3763 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3764 instead of global theory.
  3765 
  3766 
  3767 *** System ***
  3768 
  3769 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3770 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3771 usedir option -q.
  3772 
  3773 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3774 also the system manual.
  3775 
  3776 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3777 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3778 
  3779 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3780 this is always enabled.
  3781 
  3782 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3783 
  3784 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3785 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3786 currently supported on Linux only.
  3787 
  3788 
  3789 
  3790 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3791 --------------------------------
  3792 
  3793 *** General ***
  3794 
  3795 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3796 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3797 
  3798   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3799     "isatool."
  3800 
  3801   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3802     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3803 
  3804   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3805     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3806 
  3807 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3808 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3809 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3810 
  3811 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3812 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3813 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3814 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3815 via "isabelle emacs".
  3816 
  3817 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3818 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3819 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3820 
  3821 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3822 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3823 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3824 
  3825 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3826 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3827 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3828 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3829 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3830 
  3831 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3832 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3833 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3834 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3835 
  3836 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3837 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3838 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3839 
  3840 
  3841 *** Pure ***
  3842 
  3843 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3844 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3845 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3846 
  3847 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3848 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3849 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3850 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3851 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3852 
  3853 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3854 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3855 useful in locale declarations.
  3856 
  3857 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3858 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3859 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3860 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3861 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3862 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3863 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3864 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3865 no longer generated.
  3866 
  3867 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3868 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3869 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3870 
  3871 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3872 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3873 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3874 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3875 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3876 
  3877 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3879 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3880 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3881 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3882 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3883 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3884 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3885 
  3886 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3887 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3888 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3889 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3890 
  3891 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3894 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3895 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3896 
  3897 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3898 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899 
  3900 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3901 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3902 in HOL, write
  3903 
  3904     class foo = ...
  3905 
  3906 instead of
  3907 
  3908     class foo = type + ...
  3909 
  3910 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3911 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3914 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3915 
  3916 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3917 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3918 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3919 
  3920 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3921 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3922 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3923 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3924 directly in regular applications.
  3925 
  3926 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3927 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3928 
  3929 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3930 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3931 
  3932 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3933 theory context.
  3934 
  3935 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3936 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3939 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3940 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3941 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3942 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3943 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3944 
  3945   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3946 
  3947 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3948 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3949 normalization.
  3950 
  3951 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3952 addressing etc.
  3953 
  3954 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3955 
  3956   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3957   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3958 
  3959 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3960 
  3961   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3962      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3963      parts of the code generator framework).
  3964 
  3965   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3966      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3967      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3968 
  3969 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3972 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3975 patterns, e.g.
  3976 
  3977     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3978 
  3979 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3980 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3981 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3982 hyphen:
  3983 
  3984     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3985 
  3986 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3987 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3988 
  3989 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3990 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3991 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3992 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3993 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3994 higher-order unification.
  3995 
  3996 
  3997 *** Document preparation ***
  3998 
  3999 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4000 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4001 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4002 
  4003 
  4004 *** HOL ***
  4005 
  4006 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4007 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4008 
  4009 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4010 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4011 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4012 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4013 Main, as before.
  4014 
  4015 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4016 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4017 
  4018 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4019 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4020 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4021 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4022 
  4023 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4024 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4025 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4026 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4027 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4028 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4029 
  4030 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4031 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4032 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4033 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4034 
  4035 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4036 menu.
  4037 
  4038 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4039 (contains the empty clause).
  4040 
  4041 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4042 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4043 
  4044 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4045 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4046 
  4047 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4048 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4049 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4052 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4053 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4054 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4055 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4056 
  4057 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4058 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4059 
  4060 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4061 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4062 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4063 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4064 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4065 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4066 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4067 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4068 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4069 
  4070 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4071 
  4072 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4073 
  4074 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4075 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4078 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4079 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4080 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4081 
  4082 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4083 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4084 
  4085     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4086     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4087     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4088     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4089     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4090     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4091     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4092     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4093 
  4094 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4095 theory Set.
  4096 
  4097 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4098 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4099 
  4100 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4101 
  4102 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4103 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4104 
  4105 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4106 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4107 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4108 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4109 allowed. For examples see
  4110 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4111 
  4112 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4113 
  4114 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4118 structure:
  4119 
  4120     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4121     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4122     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4123     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4124     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4125     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4126     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4127     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4128     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4129     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4130     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4131     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4132     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4133     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4134     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4135     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4136     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4137     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4138     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4139     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4140     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4141     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4142     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4143     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4144     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4145     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4146     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4147     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4148     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4149     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4150     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4151     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4152     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4153 
  4154     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4155     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4156     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4157     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4158     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4159     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4160     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4161     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4162     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4163     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4164 
  4165     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4166     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4167     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4168     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4169     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4170     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4171 
  4172 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4173 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4174 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4175 
  4176 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4177 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4178 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4179 
  4180 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4181 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4184 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4185 
  4186 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4187 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4188 proofs, e.g.
  4189 
  4190   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4191 
  4192 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4193 
  4194 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4195 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4196 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4199 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4201 
  4202 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4203 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4204 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4206 
  4207 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4208 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4209 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4210 preorder_class.*.
  4211 
  4212 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4213 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4214 
  4215 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4216 
  4217   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4218 
  4219 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4220 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4221 fold_image.
  4222 
  4223 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4224 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4225 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4226 the former will disappear at some point.
  4227 
  4228 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4229 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4230 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4231 
  4232 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4233 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4234 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4235 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4236 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4237 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4238 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4239 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4240 
  4241 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4242 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4243 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4244 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4245 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4246 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4247 
  4248     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4249     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4250     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4251     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4252     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4253     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4254     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4255 
  4256 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4257 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4258 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4259 
  4260 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4261 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4262 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4263 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4264 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4265 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4266 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4267 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4268 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4269 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4270 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4271 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4272 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4273 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4274 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4275 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4276 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4277 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4278 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4279 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4280 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4281 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4282 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4283 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4284 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4285 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4286 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4287 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4288 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4289 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4290 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4291 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4292 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4293 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4294 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4295 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4296 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4297 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4298 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4299 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4300 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4301 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4302 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4303 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4304 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4305 
  4306 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4309 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4310 
  4311 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4312 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4313 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4314 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4315 
  4316 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4317 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4318 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4319 theory RealVector.
  4320 
  4321 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4322 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4323 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4324 and inner products are included.
  4325 
  4326 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4327 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4328 supported.
  4329 
  4330 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4331 first diagonalization argument.
  4332 
  4333 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4334 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4335 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4336 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4337 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4338 
  4339     hide (open) const gcd
  4340     abbreviation gcd where
  4341       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4342     notation (output)
  4343       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4344 
  4345 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4346 
  4347 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4348 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4349 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4352 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4353 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4354 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4355 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4356 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4357 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4358 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4359 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4360 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4361 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4362 cases.
  4363 
  4364 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4365 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4366 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4367 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4368 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4369 
  4370     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4371     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4372     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4373     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4374     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4375 
  4376 
  4377 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4378 
  4379 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4380 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4381 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4382 
  4383 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4384 
  4385 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4386 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4387 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4388 
  4389 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4390 
  4391 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4392 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4393 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4394 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4395 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4396 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4397 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4398 
  4399 
  4400 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4401 
  4402 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4403 
  4404 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4405 theory targets.
  4406 
  4407 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4408 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4409 'inductive' etc.
  4410 
  4411 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4412 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4413 
  4414 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4415 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4416 
  4417 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4418 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4419 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4420 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4421 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4422 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4423 the algorithm W:
  4424 
  4425  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4426  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4427          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4428 
  4429 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4430 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4431 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4432 
  4433 
  4434 *** HOLCF ***
  4435 
  4436 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4437 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4438 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4439 
  4440 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4441 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4442 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4443 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4444 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4447 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4448 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 
  4451 *** ZF ***
  4452 
  4453 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4454 
  4455 
  4456 *** ML ***
  4457 
  4458 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4459 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4460 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4461 5.2.1!
  4462 
  4463 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4464 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4465 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4466 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4467 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4468 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4469 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4470 
  4471 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4472 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4473 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4474 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4475 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4476 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4477 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4478 
  4479 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4480 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4481 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4482 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4483 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4484 
  4485 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4486 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4487 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4488 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4489 Method.add_method.
  4490 
  4491 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4492 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4493 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4494 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4495 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4496 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4497 
  4498 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4499 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4500 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4501 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4502 examples.
  4503 
  4504 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4505 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4506 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4507 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4508 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4509 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4510 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4511 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4512 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4513 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4514 
  4515 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4516 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4517 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4518 
  4519 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4520 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4521 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4522 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4523 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4524 resort for legacy applications.
  4525 
  4526 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4527 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4528 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4529 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4530 explicit runtime argument.
  4531 
  4532 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4533 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4534 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4535 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4536 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4537 
  4538 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4539 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4540 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4541 theory state.
  4542 
  4543 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4544 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4545 
  4546   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4547   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4548   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4549   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4550   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4551   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4552   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4553   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4554   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4555   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4556 
  4557 
  4558 *** System ***
  4559 
  4560 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4561 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4562 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4563 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4564 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4565 
  4566 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4567 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4568 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4569 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4570 
  4571 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4572 
  4573 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4574 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4575 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4576 prover operations.
  4577 
  4578 
  4579 
  4580 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4581 -------------------------------
  4582 
  4583 *** General ***
  4584 
  4585 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4586 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4587 
  4588 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4589 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4590 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4591 provides a proper context already.
  4592 
  4593 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4594 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4595 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4596 
  4597 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4598 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4599 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4600 swap theory imports.
  4601 
  4602 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4603 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4604 
  4605 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4606 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4607 white space without escapes.
  4608 
  4609 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4610 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4611 "foo_bar".
  4612 
  4613 
  4614 *** Pure ***
  4615 
  4616 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4617 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4618 
  4619 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4620 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4621 
  4622 (1) unused_thms
  4623      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4624 
  4625 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4626      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4627      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4628 
  4629 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4630      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4631      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4632      their ancestors.
  4633 
  4634 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4635 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4636 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4637 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4638 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4639 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4640 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4641 
  4642 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4643 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4644 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4645 
  4646 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4647 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4648 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4649 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4650 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4651 
  4652 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4653 
  4654 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4655 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4656 update of theories within ML code.
  4657 
  4658 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4659 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4660 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4661 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4662 
  4663 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4664 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4665 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4667 
  4668 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4669 
  4670 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4671 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4672 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4673 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4674 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4675 
  4676 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4677 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4678 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4679 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4680 situations.
  4681 
  4682 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4683 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4684 proof text.
  4685 
  4686 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4687 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4688 
  4689 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4690 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4691 predicates.
  4692 
  4693 
  4694 *** Document preparation ***
  4695 
  4696 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4697 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4698 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4699 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4700 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4701 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4702 
  4703 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4704 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4705 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4706 
  4707 
  4708 *** HOL ***
  4709 
  4710 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4711 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4712 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4713 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4714 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4715 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4716 
  4717 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4718 with multithreading.
  4719 
  4720 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4721 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4722 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4723 
  4724 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4725 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4726 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4727 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4730 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4731 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4732 and makes them available separately.  See
  4733 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4734 
  4735 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4736 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4737 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4738 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4739 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4740 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4741 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4742 the declared rules.
  4743 
  4744 This setup also deals with rules like
  4745 
  4746   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4747 
  4748 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4749 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4750 
  4751 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4752 
  4753   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4754 
  4755   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4756     definitions on => and bool.
  4757 
  4758   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4759     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4760     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4761 
  4762       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4763       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4764       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4765       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4766       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4767       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4768       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4769       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4770 
  4771   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4772     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4773     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4774 
  4775   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4776     The proof pattern
  4777 
  4778       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4779       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4780 
  4781     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4782     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4783 
  4784       have "EX S. P S"
  4785       proof
  4786         show "P S" <...>
  4787       qed
  4788 
  4789   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4790     The proof pattern
  4791 
  4792       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4793       also have "S = T" <...>
  4794       finally have "P T" .
  4795 
  4796     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4797     must be replaced by something like
  4798 
  4799       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4800       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4801       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4802 
  4803   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4804     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4805 
  4806       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4807 
  4808     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4809     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4810     type of the form
  4811 
  4812       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4813 
  4814     rather than
  4815 
  4816       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4817 
  4818 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4819 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4820 
  4821 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4824 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4828 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4829 
  4830 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4831 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4832 
  4833 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4834 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4835 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4838 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4839 
  4840   less_trans
  4841   less_linear
  4842   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4843   le_less_trans
  4844   less_le_trans
  4845   less_not_sym
  4846   less_asym
  4847 
  4848 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4849 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4850 and different variable names.
  4851 
  4852 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4853 
  4854 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4855 finite maps.
  4856 
  4857 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4858 
  4859 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4860 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4861 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4862 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4863 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4864 accordingly.
  4865 
  4866 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4867 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4868 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4869 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4870 
  4871 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4872 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4873 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4874 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4875 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4879 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4880 
  4881 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4882 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4883 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4884 
  4885 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4887 
  4888 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4889 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4890 
  4891 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4892 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4895 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4896 
  4897 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4898 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4902 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4905 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4906 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4907 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4908 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4909 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4912 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4913 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4914 
  4915 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4916 
  4917 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4918 
  4919 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4920 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4921 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4922 
  4923 
  4924 *** ZF ***
  4925 
  4926 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4927 same session:
  4928 
  4929   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4930   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4931   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4932   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4933   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4934   List      -> List_ZF
  4935   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4936 
  4937 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4938 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4939 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4940 
  4941 
  4942 *** ML ***
  4943 
  4944 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4945 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4946 
  4947 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4948 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4949 
  4950 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4951 
  4952 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4953 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4954 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4955 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4956 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4959 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4960 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4961 
  4962 
  4963 *** System ***
  4964 
  4965 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4966 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4967 
  4968 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4969 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4970 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4971 
  4972 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4973 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4974 
  4975 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4976 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4977 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4978 
  4979 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4980 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4981 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4982 
  4983 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4984 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4985 
  4986 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4987 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4988 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4989 script.
  4990 
  4991 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4992 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4993 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4994 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4995 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4996 
  4997 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4998 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4999 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5000 
  5001 
  5002 
  5003 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5004 -----------------------------------
  5005 
  5006 *** General ***
  5007 
  5008 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5009 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5010 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5011 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5012 
  5013 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5014 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5015 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5018 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5019 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5020 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5023 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5024 quotes.
  5025 
  5026 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5027 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5028 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5029 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5030 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5031 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5032 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5033 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5034 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5035 
  5036 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5037 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5038 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5039 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5040 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5041 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5042 
  5043 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5044 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5045 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5046 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5047 
  5048 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5049 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5050 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5051 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5052 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5053 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5054 
  5055 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5056 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5057 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5058 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5059 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5060 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5061 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5062 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5063 
  5064 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5065 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5066 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5067 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5068 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5069 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5070 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5071 
  5072 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5073 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5074 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5075 
  5076 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5077 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5078 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5079 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5080 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5081 limit is imposed.
  5082 
  5083 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5084 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5085 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5086 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5087 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5088 and scalability.
  5089 
  5090 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5091 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5092 
  5093 
  5094 *** Document preparation ***
  5095 
  5096 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5097 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5098 current context.
  5099 
  5100 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5101 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5102 
  5103 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5104 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5105 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5106 
  5107 
  5108 *** Pure ***
  5109 
  5110 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5111 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5112 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5113 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5114 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5115 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5116 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5117 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5118 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5119 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5120 
  5121 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5122 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5123 sketch:
  5124 
  5125     internal compilation:
  5126         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5127     writing SML code to a file:
  5128         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5129     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5130         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5131     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5132         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5133 
  5134     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5135         method ``eval''
  5136 
  5137 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5138 
  5139 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5140 
  5141     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5142     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5143     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5144     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5145 
  5146 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5147 
  5148     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5149       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5150 
  5151     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5152       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5153 
  5154     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5155       {(target)}+
  5156         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5157 
  5158     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5159       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5160         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5161 
  5162 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5163 
  5164 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5165 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5166 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5167 codegen".
  5168 
  5169 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5170 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5171 annotations).
  5172 
  5173 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5174 syntax.
  5175 
  5176 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5177 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5178 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5179 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5180 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5181 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5182 
  5183 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5184 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5185 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5186 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5187 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5188 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5189 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5190 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5191 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5192 equations, see section "definitions".
  5193 
  5194 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5195 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5196 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5197 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5198 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5199 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5200 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5201 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5202 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5203 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5204 
  5205 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5206 configuration options:
  5207 
  5208   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5209   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5210   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5211   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5212   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5213   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5214   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5215   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5216   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5217 
  5218 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5219 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5220 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5221 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5222 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5223 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5224 order.
  5225 
  5226 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5227 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5228 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5229 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5230 context encountered later on.
  5231 
  5232 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5233 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5234 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5235 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5236 
  5237 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5238 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5239 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5240 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5241 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5242 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5243 
  5244 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5245 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5246 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5247 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5248 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5249 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5250 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5251 more permissive.
  5252 
  5253 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5254 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5255 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5256 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5257 maintainability of proof texts.
  5258 
  5259 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5260 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5261 
  5262   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5263   then guess x and y by clarify
  5264 
  5265 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5266 proof tools being involved here.
  5267 
  5268 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5269 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5270 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5271 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5272 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5273 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5274 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5275 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5276 
  5277 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5278 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5279 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5280 
  5281   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5282   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5283   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5284   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5285 
  5286 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5287 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5288 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5289 
  5290 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5291 both named and unnamed ones.
  5292 
  5293 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5294 
  5295   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5296 
  5297 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5298 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5299 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5300 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5301 
  5302 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5303 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5304 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5305 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5306 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5307 
  5308 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5309 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5310 
  5311 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5312 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5313 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5314 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5315 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5316 originally first one.
  5317 
  5318 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5319 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5320 expected.
  5321 
  5322 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5323 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5324 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5325 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5326 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5327 
  5328   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5329     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5330     obtains x where "P x"
  5331 
  5332   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5333     assumes "A & B"
  5334     obtains A and B
  5335 
  5336   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5337     assumes "A | B"
  5338     obtains
  5339       A
  5340     | B
  5341 
  5342 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5343 explicitly:
  5344 
  5345   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5346     obtains "~ thesis"
  5347 
  5348   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5349     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5350 
  5351 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5352 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5353 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5354 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5355 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5356 case_names).
  5357 
  5358 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5359 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5360 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5361 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5362 
  5363 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5364 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5365 top-level lemma.
  5366 
  5367 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5368 introduction rule (default "that").
  5369 
  5370 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5371 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5372 to occur.
  5373 
  5374 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5375 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5376 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5377 representations independently of name spaces.
  5378 
  5379 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5380 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5381 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5382 
  5383 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5384 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5385 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5386 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5387 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5388 current context.
  5389 
  5390 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5391 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5392 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5393 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5394 
  5395   axiomatization
  5396     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5397     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5398 
  5399   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5400   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5401 
  5402   abbreviation
  5403     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5404     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5405 
  5406 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5407 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5408 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5409 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5410 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5411 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5412 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5413 
  5414 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5415 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5416 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5417 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5418 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5419 
  5420 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5421 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5422 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5423 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5424 
  5425 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5426 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5427 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5428 
  5429   definition "K x _ = x"
  5430 
  5431   inductive conj for A B
  5432   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5433 
  5434 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5435 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5436 abbreviations on output.
  5437 
  5438 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5439 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5440 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5441 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5442 
  5443 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5444 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5445 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5446 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5447 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5448 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5449 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5450 
  5451 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5452 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5453 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5454 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5455 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5456 
  5457 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5458 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5459 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5460 
  5461 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5462 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5463 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5464 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5465 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5466 
  5467   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5468     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5469 
  5470 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5471 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5472 partial_order.
  5473 
  5474 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5475 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5476 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5477 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5478 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5479 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5480 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5481 examples.
  5482 
  5483 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5484 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5485 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5486 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5487 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5488 
  5489 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5490 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5491 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5492 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5493 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5494 
  5495   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5496   (induct set: foo bar)
  5497   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5498   (induct type: foo bar)
  5499 
  5500 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5501 new format.
  5502 
  5503 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5504 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5505 
  5506 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5507 considered a legacy feature.
  5508 
  5509 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5510 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5511 
  5512 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5513 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5514 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5515 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5516 
  5517 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5518 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5519 manipulating the claset.
  5520 
  5521 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5522 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5523 least one premise.
  5524 
  5525 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5526 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5527 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5528 rule steps.
  5529 
  5530 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5531 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5532 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5533 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5534 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5535 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5536 
  5537 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5538 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5539 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5540 
  5541 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5542 the graph browser tool.
  5543 
  5544 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5545 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5546 
  5547 
  5548 *** HOL ***
  5549 
  5550 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5551 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5552 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5553 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5554 multi-threading.
  5555 
  5556 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5557 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5558 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5559 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5560 work with multi-threading.
  5561 
  5562 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5563 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5564 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5565 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5566 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5567 
  5568 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5569 
  5570 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5571 equality.
  5572 
  5573 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5574 the new 'class' package:
  5575 
  5576     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5577     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5578     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5579     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5580     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5581     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5582     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5583     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5584     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5585     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5586     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5587     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5588     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5589     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5590     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5591     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5592     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5593     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5594     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5595     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5596 
  5597 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5598 
  5599 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5600 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5601 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5602 names.
  5603 
  5604 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5605 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5606 
  5607 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5608 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5609 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5610 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5611 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5612 
  5613 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5614 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5615 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5616 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5617 
  5618 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5619 
  5620 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5621 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5622 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5623 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5625 
  5626 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5627 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5628 
  5629 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5630 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5631 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5632 
  5633 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5634 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5635 
  5636 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5637 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5638 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5639 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5640 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5641 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5642 in the current context.
  5643 
  5644 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5645 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5647 
  5648 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5649 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5650 
  5651 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5652 
  5653     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5654     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5655 
  5656     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5657       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5658     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5659     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5660 
  5661     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5662     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5663 
  5664   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5665 
  5666     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5667     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5668     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5669     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5670     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5671     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5672     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5673     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5674     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5675     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5676     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5677     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5678     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5679     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5680     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5681     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5682     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5683     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5684     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5685     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5686     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5687     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5688     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5689     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5690     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5691     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5692     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5693     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5694     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5695     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5696     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5697     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5698     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5699     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5700     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5701 
  5702     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5703     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5704     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5705     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5706     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5707     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5708     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5709     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5710     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5711     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5712     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5713     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5714     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5715     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5716     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5717     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5718     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5719 
  5720     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5721     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5722     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5723     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5724     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5725     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5726     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5727     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5728     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5729     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5730     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5731     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5732     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5733     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5734     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5735     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5736     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5737     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5738     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5739     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5740     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5741     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5742     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5743     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5744     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5745     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5746     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5747     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5748 
  5749     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5750     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5751     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5752     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5753     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5754     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5755 
  5756     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5757     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5758     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5759     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5760 
  5761     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5762     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5763 
  5764     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5765     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5766 
  5767 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5768 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5769 
  5770 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5771 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5772 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5773 "*.size".
  5774 
  5775 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5779 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5780 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5781 
  5782 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5783 
  5784 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5785 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5786 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5787 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5788 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5789 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5790 numerals on all operations.
  5791 
  5792 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5793 
  5794 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5795 
  5796 * Code generator library theories:
  5797   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5798     languages.
  5799   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5800     languages.
  5801   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5802     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5803   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5804   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5805     denominator).
  5806   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5807     representable by rational numbers.
  5808   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5809     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5810     includes Code_Integer.
  5811   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5812     target-language built-in integers.
  5813   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5814     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5815 
  5816 * New package for inductive predicates
  5817 
  5818   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5819 
  5820     inductive
  5821       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5822       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5823     where
  5824       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5825     | ...
  5826 
  5827   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5828 
  5829     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5830 
  5831     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5832     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5833 
  5834     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5835     intros
  5836       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5837       ...
  5838 
  5839   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5840   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5841 
  5842     inductive_set
  5843       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5844       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5845     where
  5846       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5847     | ...
  5848 
  5849   or
  5850 
  5851     inductive_set
  5852       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5853       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5854       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5855     where
  5856       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5857     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5858     | ...
  5859 
  5860   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5861 
  5862   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5863   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5864 
  5865   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5866 
  5867   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5868     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5869     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5870     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5871     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5872 
  5873   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5874     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5875     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5876     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5877     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5878     statements of the form
  5879 
  5880       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5881 
  5882     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5883     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5884 
  5885       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5886 
  5887   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5888 
  5889       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5890         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5891         ==> ... ==> P
  5892 
  5893     for predicates and
  5894 
  5895       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5896         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5897         ==> ... ==> P
  5898 
  5899     for sets rather than
  5900 
  5901       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5902         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5903         ==> ... ==> P
  5904 
  5905     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5906     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5907     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5908 
  5909   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5910     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5911     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5912 
  5913 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5914 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5915 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5916 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5917 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5918 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5919 
  5920 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5921 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5922 
  5923 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5924 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5925 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5926 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5927 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5928 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5929 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5930 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5931 variable.
  5932 
  5933 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5934 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5935 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5936 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5937   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5938   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5939 
  5940 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5941 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5942 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5943 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5944 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5945 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5946 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5947 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5948 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5949 
  5950 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5951 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5952 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5953 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5954 rat, etc.
  5955 
  5956 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5957 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5958 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5959 
  5960 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5961 
  5962 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5963 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5964 
  5965 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5966 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5967 
  5968 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5969 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5970 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5971 
  5972 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5973 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5975 
  5976 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5977 
  5978 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5979 
  5980 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5981 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5982 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5983 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5984 
  5985 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5986 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5987 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5988 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5989 
  5990 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5991 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5992 algebraic operations.
  5993 
  5994 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5996 
  5997 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5999 
  6000 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6001 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6002 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6003 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6004 adapted.
  6005 
  6006 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6007 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6008 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6009 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6010 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6011 
  6012 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6013 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6014 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6015 
  6016 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6017 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6018 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6019 
  6020 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6021 
  6022 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6023 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6024 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6025   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6026       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6027   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6028   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6029   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6030 
  6031 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6032 
  6033 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6034 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6035 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6036 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6037 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6038 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6039 
  6040 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6041 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6042 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6043 
  6044 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6045 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6046 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6048 
  6049 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6050 
  6051 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6052 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6053 
  6054 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6055 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6056 
  6057 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6058 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6059 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6060 
  6061 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6062 True/False.
  6063 
  6064 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6065 
  6066 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6067 
  6068 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6069 ``rule'' method.
  6070 
  6071 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6072 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6073 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6074 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6075 
  6076 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6077 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6078 
  6079 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6080 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6081 
  6082 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6083 Library.
  6084 
  6085 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6086 
  6087 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6088 as greatest fixed-point.
  6089 
  6090 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6091 association lists.
  6092 
  6093 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6094 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6095 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6096 
  6097 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6098 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6099 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6100 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6101 behavior.
  6102 
  6103 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6104 
  6105 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6106 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6107 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6108 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6109 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6110 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6111 
  6112 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6113 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6114 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6115 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6116 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6117 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6118 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6119 
  6120 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6121 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6122 
  6123 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6124 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6125 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6126 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6127 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6128 
  6129 
  6130 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6131 
  6132 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6133 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6134 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6135 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6137 
  6138 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6139 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6140 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6141 
  6142 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6143 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6144 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6147 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6148 
  6149 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6150 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6151 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6153 
  6154   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6155   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6156   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6157   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6158   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6159   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6160   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6161   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6162   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6163   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6164   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6165   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6166   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6167   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6168   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6169 
  6170 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6171 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6172 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6173 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6174 
  6175   approx        <-- capprox
  6176   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6177   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6178   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6179   monad         <-- cmonad
  6180   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6181   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6182   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6183   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6184 
  6185 
  6186 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6187 
  6188 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6189 
  6190 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6194 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6195 
  6196 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6197 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6198 of algebraic structures.
  6199 
  6200 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6201 
  6202 
  6203 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6204 
  6205 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6206 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6207 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6208 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6209 
  6210 
  6211 *** ML ***
  6212 
  6213 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6214 (even on SML/NJ).
  6215 
  6216 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6217 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6218 compile-time.  For example:
  6219 
  6220 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6221 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6222 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6223 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6224 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6225 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6226 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6227 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6228 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6229 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6230 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6231 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6232 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6233 ML {* @{context} *}
  6234 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6235 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6236 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6237 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6238 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6239 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6240 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6241 
  6242 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.