NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Nov 05 18:16:16 2013 +0100 (2013-11-05)
changeset 54365 5d45c985974a
parent 54351 5cbe32533cdb
child 54378 72254819befd
permissions -rw-r--r--
no default shortcut for isabelle.reset-font-size -- avoid conflict with unsplit-current;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    14 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    17 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    18 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    19 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    20 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    21 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    22 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    23 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    24 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    25 syntax.
    26 
    27 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    28 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    31 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    32 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    34 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    35 
    36 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    40 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    41 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    44 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    45 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    46 
    47 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    48 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    52 
    53 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    54 Documentation panel.
    55 
    56 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    57 documentation.
    58 
    59 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    60 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    61 
    62 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    63 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    64 normal editing and checking process.
    65 
    66 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    67 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
    68 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
    69 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
    70 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
    71 
    72 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    73 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    74 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    75 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    76 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    77 
    78 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    79 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    80 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    81 
    82 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
    83 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
    84 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
    85 to resolve conflict.
    86 
    87 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
    88 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
    89 
    90 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
    91 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    92 such command executions while editing.
    93 
    94 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    95 document content.
    96 
    97 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    98 toplevel theorem statements.
    99 
   100 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   101 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   102 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   103 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   104 
   105 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   106 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   107 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   110 / Global Options / Appearance".
   111 
   112 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   113 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   114 
   115 
   116 *** Pure ***
   117 
   118 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   119 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   120 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   121 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   122 details.
   123 
   124 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   125 
   126 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   127 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   128 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   129 
   130 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132 
   133 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   134 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   135 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   136 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   139 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   140 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141 
   142 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   143 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   144 
   145 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   146 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   147 situations.
   148 
   149 
   150 *** HOL ***
   151 
   152 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   153 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   157 
   158 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   159 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   160 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   161 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   162 
   163   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   164 
   165 * Code generator:
   166   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   167     'code_instance'.
   168   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   169     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   170 
   171 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   172 examples.
   173 
   174 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   175 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   176 to distinguish both when desired.
   177 
   178 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   179 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   180 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   181 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   184 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   185 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   186 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   187 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   188 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   189 
   190 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   191 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   192 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   193 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   194 
   195 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   196 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   197 
   198 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   199 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   200 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   201 
   202 * Lifting:
   203   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   204     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in 
   205       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   206       transfer rules
   207     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   208       correspondence relation can be generated
   209     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   210       parametricity
   211     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   212   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   213   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   214     copies
   215   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   216     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   217     anonymous context)
   218   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in 
   219     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   220   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   221     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   222   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps. 
   223     INCOMPATIBILITY
   224 
   225 * Transfer:
   226   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T 
   227     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   228   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   229   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   230     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   231   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   232 
   233 * Reification and reflection:
   234   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   235     "Reification".
   236   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   237   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   241   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   242     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   243     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   244   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   245     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   246   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   247     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   248     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   249     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   250     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   251     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   252     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   253     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   254   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   255     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   256   - Fact renames:
   257       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   258       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   262 
   263 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   264 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   265 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   269 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   270 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   271 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   272 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   273 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   274 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   275 lemmas.
   276 
   277 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   278 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   279 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   282 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   283 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   284 
   285 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   286 top and bottom elements.
   287 
   288 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   289 
   290 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   291 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   292 
   293  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   294    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   295    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   296 
   297  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   298    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   299    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   300 
   301    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   302    arbitrary filter.
   303 
   304  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   305    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   306    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   307    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   308    on a compact set.
   309 
   310  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   311    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   312    linear_continuum_topology).
   313 
   314  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   315    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   316    on all sequences converging to x.
   317 
   318  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   319    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   320    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   321    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   322    left or right.
   323 
   324  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   325 
   326      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   327 
   328  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   329    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   330 
   331  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   332    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   333    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   334    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   335    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   336    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   337 
   338  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   339 
   340    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   341 
   342    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   343      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   344 
   345    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   346 
   347    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   348      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   349 
   350    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   351 
   352    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   353 
   354  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   355 
   356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   357 
   358 * Nitpick:
   359   - Added option "spy"
   360   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   361 
   362 * Sledgehammer:
   363   - Renamed option:
   364       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   367   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   368   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   369 
   370 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   371 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   372 
   373 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   374   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   375   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   376     generated code.
   377   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   378   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   379   - Fact renames:
   380     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   381     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   382     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   383 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   384 
   385 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   386 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   387 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   388 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   389 
   390 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   391 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   392 
   393 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   394 
   395 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   396 
   397     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   398     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   399 
   400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   401 
   402 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   403 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   404 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   405 
   406 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   407 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   408 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   409 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 * HOL-BNF:
   412   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   413     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   414     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   415     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   416   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   417     coinduct).
   418   - Renamed keywords:
   419     data ~> datatype_new
   420     codata ~> codatatype
   421     bnf_def ~> bnf
   422   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   423     discs ~> disc
   424     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   425     map_id' ~> map_id
   426     sels ~> sel
   427     set_map' ~> set_map
   428     sets ~> set
   429 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   430 
   431 
   432 *** ML ***
   433 
   434 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   435 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   436 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   437 Examples.thy in particular.
   438 
   439 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   440 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   441 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   442 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   443 
   444 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   445 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   446 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   447 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   451 
   452     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   453     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   454 
   455 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   458 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   459 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   460 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   461 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   462 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   463 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   464 
   465 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   466 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   467 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   468 clasets separately from the context.
   469 
   470 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   472 
   473 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   474 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   475 
   476 
   477 *** System ***
   478 
   479 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   480 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   481 
   482 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   483 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   486 settings variable.
   487 
   488 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   489 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   490 always pdf.
   491 
   492 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   493 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   494 
   495 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   496 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   497 
   498 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   499 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   500 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   501 
   502 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   503 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   504 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   505 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   506 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   507 for HTML presentation of theories.
   508 
   509 
   510 
   511 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   512 -----------------------------------
   513 
   514 *** General ***
   515 
   516 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   517 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   518 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   519 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   520 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   521 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   522 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   523 
   524 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   525 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   526 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   527 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   528 
   529 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   530 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   531 
   532 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   533 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   534 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   535 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   536 dependencies properly.
   537 
   538 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   539 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   540 
   541 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   542 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   543 
   544 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   545 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   546 and "class ... context ...".
   547 
   548 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   549 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   550 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   551 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   552 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   553 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   554 
   555 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   556 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   557 
   558 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   559 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   560 
   561 
   562 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   563 
   564 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   565 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   566 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   567 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   568 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   569 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   570 
   571 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   572 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   573 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   574 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   575 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   576 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   577 
   578 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   579 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   580 browser on demand.
   581 
   582 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   583 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   584 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   585 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   586 
   587 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   588 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   589 
   590 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   591 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   592 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   593 potentially infinite message streams.
   594 
   595 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   596 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   597 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   598 schemes.
   599 
   600 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   601 symbols.
   602 
   603 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   604 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   605 
   606 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   607 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   608 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   609 
   610 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   611 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   612 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   613 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   614 
   615 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   616 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   617 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   618 
   619 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   620 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   621 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   622 Isabelle distribution.
   623 
   624 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   625 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   626 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   627 
   628 
   629 *** Pure ***
   630 
   631 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   632 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   633 
   634 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   635 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   636 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   637 
   638 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   639 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   640 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   641 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   642 with some care where this is really required.
   643 
   644 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   645 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   646 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   647 
   648   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   649 
   650 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   651 a Hasse diagram.
   652 
   653 
   654 *** HOL ***
   655 
   656 * Sledgehammer:
   657 
   658   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   659     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   660   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   661   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   662   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   663   - Renamed options:
   664       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   665       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   666       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   667       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   668 
   669 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   670 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   671 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   672 
   673 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   675 
   676 * Lifting:
   677   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   678   - quot_del attribute
   679   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   680 
   681 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   682 expressions.
   683 
   684 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   685 pointfree expressions.
   686 
   687 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   688 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   689 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   690 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   694 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   695 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   696 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   697 accordingly.
   698 
   699 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   700 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   703 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   706 
   707 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   708 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   709 
   710 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   711 
   712 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   713 
   714   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   715   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   716 
   717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   720 
   721   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   722   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   723 
   724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   725 
   726 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   727 
   728   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   729     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   730     output f x converges to G.
   731 
   732   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   733     infinity (at_bot).
   734 
   735   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   736     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   737 
   738   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   739     at_top".
   740 
   741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   742 
   743 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   744 lattice type classes.
   745 
   746 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   747 
   748     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   749     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   750 
   751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   754 changes as follows.
   755 
   756   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   757 
   758       prefix ~> prefixeq
   759       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   760 
   761   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   762     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   763     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   764     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   765 
   766   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   767     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   768     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   769 
   770   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   771     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   772     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   773     Library/Prefix_Order.
   774 
   775   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   776     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   777 
   778       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   779       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   780       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   781       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   782       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   783       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   784       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   785       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   786       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   787       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   788       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   789       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   790       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   791       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   792       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   793       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   794 
   795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   798 
   799 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   800 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   801 
   802 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   803 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   804 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   805 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   806 
   807   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   808   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   809   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   810   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   811   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   812   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   813   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   814   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   815   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   816   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   817 
   818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   821 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   822 Data").
   823 
   824 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   825 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   826 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   827 code.
   828 
   829 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   830 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   831 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   835 
   836 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   837 
   838 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   839 
   840   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   841   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   842 
   843 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   844 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   845 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   846 
   847   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   848 
   849     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   850     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   851     cart_base i  removed
   852     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   853 
   854   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   855 
   856   Renamed lemmas:
   857 
   858     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   859     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   860     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   861     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   862     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   863     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   864     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   865     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   866     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   867     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   868 
   869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * HOL/Probability:
   872 
   873   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   874 
   875   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   876     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   877     (borel_measurable_induct).
   878 
   879   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   880     projective family).
   881 
   882 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   883 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   884 
   885 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   886 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   887 datatypes.
   888 
   889 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   890 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   891 
   892 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   893 trees for the code generator.
   894 
   895 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   896 Lifting/Transfer.
   897 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   898 
   899 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   901 
   902 
   903 *** Document preparation ***
   904 
   905 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   906 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   907 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   908 
   909 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   910 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   911 
   912 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   913 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   914 document/root.tex.
   915 
   916 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   917 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 
   920 *** ML ***
   921 
   922 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   923 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   924 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   925 
   926 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   927 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   928 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   929 
   930 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   931 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   932 necessarily printing visible text.
   933 
   934 
   935 *** System ***
   936 
   937 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   938 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   939 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   940 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   941 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   942 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   943 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   944 
   945 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   946 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   947 
   948   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   949 
   950 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   951 
   952 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   953 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   954 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   955 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   956 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   957 
   958 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   959 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   960 
   961 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   962 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   963 
   964 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   966 
   967 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   968 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   969 version of Isabelle.
   970 
   971 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   972 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   973 
   974 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   975 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   976 for home-made settings.
   977 
   978 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   979 
   980 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   981 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   982 configuration.
   983 
   984 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   985 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   986 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   987 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   988 bundled as Isabelle component.
   989 
   990 
   991 
   992 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   993 ------------------------------
   994 
   995 *** General ***
   996 
   997 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   998 
   999   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1000     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1001   - markup for bound variables
  1002   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1003   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1004   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1005     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1006 
  1007 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1008 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1009 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1010 
  1011 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1012 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1013 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1014 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1015 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1016 
  1017   context
  1018     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1019     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1020   begin
  1021 
  1022   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1023 
  1024   end
  1025 
  1026   thm my_trans
  1027 
  1028 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1029 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1030 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1031 
  1032 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1033 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1034 
  1035 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1036 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1037 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1038 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1039 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1040 
  1041 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1042 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1043 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1044 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1045 indices of schematic variables.
  1046 
  1047 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1048 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1049 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1050 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1051 etc. was exploited.
  1052 
  1053 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1054 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1055 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1056 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1057 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1058 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1059 
  1060 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1061 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1062 manual.
  1063 
  1064 
  1065 *** Pure ***
  1066 
  1067 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1068 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1069 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1070 
  1071 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1072 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1073 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1074 undocumented feature.)
  1075 
  1076 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1077 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1078 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1079 
  1080   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1081 
  1082   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1083     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1084 
  1085 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1086 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1087 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1088 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1089 
  1090 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1091 
  1092     num ~> num_token
  1093     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1094     xstr ~> str_token
  1095 
  1096 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1097 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1098 position information via constraints).
  1099 
  1100 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1101 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1102 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1105 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1106 
  1107 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1108 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1109 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1112 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113 
  1114 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1115 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1116 
  1117   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1118 
  1119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1122 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1125 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1126 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1127 
  1128 
  1129 *** HOL ***
  1130 
  1131 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1132 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1133 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1134 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1135 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1136 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1137 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1138 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1139 possible.
  1140 
  1141 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1142 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1143 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1144 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1145 
  1146 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1147 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1150 
  1151 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1152 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1153 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1154 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1155 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1156 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1157 
  1158   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1159     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1160 
  1161   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1162     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1163     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1164 
  1165   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1166     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1167 
  1168   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1169     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1170     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1171 
  1172   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1173     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1174 
  1175 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1176 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1177 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1178 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1179 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1180 
  1181   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1182     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1183     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1184     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1185     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1186 
  1187     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1188     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1189 
  1190   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1191     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1192     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1193     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1194     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1195     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1196     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1197     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1198 
  1199   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1200     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1201     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1202     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1203 
  1204   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1205     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1206     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1207     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1208 
  1209   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1210     from type nat to type int.
  1211 
  1212 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1213 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1214 
  1215   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1216     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1217     type.  Example syntax:
  1218 
  1219     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1220       is List.insert
  1221 
  1222     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1223     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1224     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1225     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1226     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1227     by the package.
  1228 
  1229   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1230     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1231     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1232     code generation for each constant.
  1233 
  1234   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1235     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1236     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1237     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1238     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1239 
  1240   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1241     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1242     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1243 
  1244 * Quotient package:
  1245 
  1246   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1247     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1248 
  1249   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1250     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1251 
  1252   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1253     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1254     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1257     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1258 
  1259 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1260 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1261 
  1262 * Quickcheck:
  1263 
  1264   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1265     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1266     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1267     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1268     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1269 
  1270     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1271     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1272     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1273 
  1274     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1275     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1276 
  1277     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1278     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1279     show genuine counterexamples.
  1280 
  1281   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1282     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1283 
  1284     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1285     constructors of that type.
  1286 
  1287   - Support for multisets.
  1288 
  1289   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1290 
  1291   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1292     conjectures in a locale context.
  1293 
  1294 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1295 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1296 
  1297 * Sledgehammer:
  1298   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1299     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1300   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1301   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1302     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1303   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1304   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1305   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1306   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1307 
  1308 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1309 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1310 
  1311 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1312 
  1313 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1314 
  1315 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1316 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1317 
  1318   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1319 
  1320 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1321 a list and a nat.
  1322 
  1323 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1324 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1325 
  1326 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1327 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1328 default.
  1329 
  1330 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1331 
  1332   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1333 
  1334 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1335 
  1336 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1337 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1338 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1339 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1340 one_case.
  1341 
  1342 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1343 the result of the fact expression.
  1344 
  1345 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1346 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1347 of some relation theorems:
  1348 
  1349   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1350   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1351   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1352   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1353   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1354   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1355 
  1356 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1357 
  1358 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1359 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1360 
  1361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1364 to match the constant's name:
  1365 
  1366   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1367   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1368   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1369   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1370   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1371   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1372   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1373   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1374   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1375   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1376   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1377   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1378   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1379   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1380   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1381   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1382   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1383   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1384   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1385   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1386   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1387   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1388   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1389   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1390 
  1391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1392 
  1393 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1394 and corresponding theorem names:
  1395 
  1396   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1397 
  1398   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1399 
  1400   - Renamed theorems:
  1401 
  1402     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1403     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1404     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1405     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1406     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1407     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1408     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1409     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1410     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1411     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1412     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1413     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1414     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1415     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1416     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1417     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1418     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1419     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1420     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1421     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1422     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1423     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1424     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1425 
  1426     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1427 
  1428     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1429 
  1430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1431 
  1432 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1433 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1434 
  1435   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1436   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1437   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1438   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1439   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1440   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1441   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1442   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1443   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1444   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1445   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1446   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1447   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1448   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1449   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1450   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1451   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1452   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1453   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1454   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1455   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1456 
  1457 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1458 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1463 
  1464   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1465   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1466   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1467   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1468   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1469   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1470   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1471   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1472   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1473   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1474   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1475   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1476   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1477   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1478   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1479   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1480   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1481   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1482 
  1483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 
  1485 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1486 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1487 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1488 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1489 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1490 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1491 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1492 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1493 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1494 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1495 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1496 
  1497 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1498 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1499 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1500 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1501 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1502 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1503 
  1504 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1505 through option types.
  1506 
  1507 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1508 relations.
  1509 
  1510 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1513 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1514 
  1515   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1516   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1517   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1518   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1519   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1520   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1521   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1522   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1523   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1524   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1525   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1526   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1527   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1528   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1529   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1530   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1531   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1532   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1533   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1534   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1535   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1536   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1537   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1538   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1539   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1540   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1541   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1542   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1543   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1544   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1545   zless_le ~> less_le
  1546   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1547   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1548   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1549 
  1550 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1551 
  1552   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1553 
  1554 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1555 
  1556 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1557 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1558 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1559 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1563 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1564 
  1565 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1566 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1567 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1568 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1569 follows:
  1570 
  1571   Operations:
  1572   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1573   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1574   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1575   del -> rbt_del
  1576   delete -> rbt_delete
  1577   ins -> rbt_ins
  1578   insert -> rbt_insert
  1579   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1580   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1581   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1582   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1583   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1584   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1585   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1586   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1587   union -> rbt_union
  1588   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1589   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1590 
  1591   Lemmas:
  1592   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1593   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1594   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1595   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1596   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1597   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1598   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1599   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1600   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1601   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1602   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1603   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1604   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1605   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1606   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1607   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1608   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1609   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1610   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1611   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1612   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1613   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1614   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1615   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1616   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1617   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1618   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1619   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1620   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1621   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1622   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1623   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1624   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1625   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1626   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1627   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1628   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1629   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1630   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1631   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1632   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1633   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1634   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1635   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1636   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1637   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1638   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1639   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1640   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1641   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1642   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1643   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1644   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1645   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1646   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1647   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1648   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1649   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1650   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1651   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1652   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1653   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1654   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1655   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1656   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1657   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1658   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1659   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1660   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1661   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1662   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1663   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1664   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1665   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1666   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1667   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1668   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1669   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1670   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1671   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1672   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1673   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1674   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1675 
  1676 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1677 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1678 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680   Changed Operations:
  1681   float_abs -> abs
  1682   float_nprt -> nprt
  1683   float_pprt -> pprt
  1684   pow2 -> use powr
  1685   round_down -> float_round_down
  1686   round_up -> float_round_up
  1687   scale -> exponent
  1688 
  1689   Removed Operations:
  1690   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1691 
  1692   Renamed Lemmas:
  1693   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1694   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1695   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1696   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1697   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1698   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1699   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1700   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1701   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1702   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1703   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1704   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1705   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1706   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1707   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1708   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1709   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1710   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1711   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1712   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1713   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1714   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1715   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1716   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1717   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1718   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1719   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1720   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1721   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1722   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1723   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1724   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1725   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1726   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1727   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1728   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1729 
  1730   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1731   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1732   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1733   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1734   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1735   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1736   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1737   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1738   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1739   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1740 
  1741 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1742 association lists with distinct keys.
  1743 
  1744 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1745 annotated commands.
  1746 
  1747 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1748 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1749 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1750 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751 
  1752 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1753 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1754 instead.
  1755 
  1756   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1757   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1758   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1759   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1760   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1761   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1762   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1763   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1764   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1765   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1766   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1767   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1768   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1769   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1770   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1771   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1772   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1773   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1774   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1775   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1776   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1777   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1778   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1779   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1780   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1781   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1782   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1783   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1784   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1785   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1786   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1787   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1788   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1789   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1790   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1791   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1792   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1793   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1794   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1795   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1796   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1797 
  1798 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1799 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1800 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1801 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1802 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1803 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1804 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1805 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1806 
  1807 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1808 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1809 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1810 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1811 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1812 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1813 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1814 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1815 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1816 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1817 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1818 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1819 
  1820   Renamed constants:
  1821   measure -> emeasure
  1822   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1823   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1824   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1825   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1826 
  1827   Removed locales:
  1828   completeable_measure_space
  1829   finite_measure_space
  1830   finite_prob_space
  1831   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1832   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1833   finite_sigma_algebra
  1834   measure_space
  1835   pair_finite_prob_space
  1836   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1837   pair_finite_space
  1838   pair_sigma_algebra
  1839   product_sigma_algebra
  1840 
  1841   Removed constants:
  1842   conditional_space
  1843   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1844   image_space
  1845   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1846   pair_measure_generator
  1847   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1848   subvimage
  1849 
  1850   Replacement theorems:
  1851   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1852   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1853   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1854   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1855   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1856   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1857   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1858   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1859   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1860   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1861   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1862   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1863   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1864   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1865   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1866   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1867   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1868   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1869   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1870   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1871   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1872   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1873   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1874   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1875   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1876   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1877   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1878   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1879   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1880   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1881   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1882   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1883   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1884   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1885   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1886   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1887   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1888   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1889   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1890   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1891   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1892   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1893   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1894   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1895   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1896   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1897   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1898   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1899   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1900   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1901   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1902   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1903   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1904   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1905   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1906   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1907   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1908   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1909   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1910   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1911   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1912   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1913   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1914   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1915   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1916   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1917   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1918   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1919   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1920   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1921   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1922   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1923   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1924   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1925   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1926   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1927   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1928   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1929   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1930   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1931   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1932   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1933   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1934   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1935   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1936   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1937   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1938   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1939   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1940   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1941   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1942   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1943   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1944   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1945   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1946   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1947   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1948   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1949   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1950   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1951   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1952   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1953   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1954   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1955   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1956   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1957   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1958   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1959   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1960   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1961   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1962   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1963   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1964   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1965   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1966   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1967   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1968   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1969   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1970   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1971   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1972   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1973   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1974   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1975   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1976   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1977   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1978   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1979 
  1980 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1981 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1982 
  1983 
  1984 *** FOL ***
  1985 
  1986 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1987 
  1988 
  1989 *** ZF ***
  1990 
  1991 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1992 analysis.
  1993 
  1994 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1995 
  1996 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997 
  1998 
  1999 *** ML ***
  2000 
  2001 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2002 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2003 
  2004 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2005 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2006 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2007 
  2008 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2009 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2010 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2011 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2012 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2013 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2014 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2015 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2016 
  2017 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2018 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2019 
  2020 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2021 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2022 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2023 
  2024 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2025 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026 
  2027 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2028 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2029 context as well.
  2030 
  2031 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2032 
  2033   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2034   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2035   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2036   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2037   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2038   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2039   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2040   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2041   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2042   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2043   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2044   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2045 
  2046 
  2047 *** System ***
  2048 
  2049 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2050 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2051 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2052 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2053 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2054 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2055 the generic user home was intended.
  2056 
  2057 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2058 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2059 
  2060 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2061 (not just JRE).
  2062 
  2063 
  2064 
  2065 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2066 ------------------------------------
  2067 
  2068 *** General ***
  2069 
  2070 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2071 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2072 
  2073   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2074     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2075     files for checking).
  2076 
  2077   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2078     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2079     positions.
  2080 
  2081   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2082     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2083     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2084 
  2085   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2086     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2087     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2088 
  2089   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2090     cores.
  2091 
  2092   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2093     versions (garbage collection).
  2094 
  2095 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2096 including some remaining limitations.
  2097 
  2098 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2099 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2100 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2101 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2102 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2104 
  2105 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2106 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2107 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2108 
  2109 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2110 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2111 usedir option -Q.
  2112 
  2113 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2114 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2115 
  2116   long_names   ~> names_long
  2117   short_names  ~> names_short
  2118   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2119 
  2120 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2121 
  2122   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2123 
  2124 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2125 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2126 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2127 
  2128 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2129 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2130 
  2131 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2132   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2133   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2134   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2135     "Classical Reasoner".
  2136 
  2137 
  2138 *** HOL ***
  2139 
  2140 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2141 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2144 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2145 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2146 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2147 class complete_linorder.
  2148 
  2149 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2150 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2151 
  2152 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2153 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2154 
  2155   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2156   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2157   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2158   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2159   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2160   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2161   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2162   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2163   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2164   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2165   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2166 
  2167 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2168 
  2169   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2170   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2171   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2172   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2173   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2174   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2175   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2176   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2177   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2178   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2179   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2180   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2181   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2182   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2183   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2184   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2185 
  2186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2190 
  2191 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2192 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2193 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2194 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2195 
  2196 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2197 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2198 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2202 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2203 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2204 
  2205 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2206 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2207 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2210 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2211 
  2212 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2213 
  2214     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2215     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2216 
  2217 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2218 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2221 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2224 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2225 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2226 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2227 
  2228   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2229   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2230   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2231   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2232   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2233   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2234   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2235 
  2236 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2237 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2240   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2241   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2242   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2243   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2244   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2245   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2246   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2247   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2248   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2249   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2250   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2251   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2252   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2253   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2254   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2255   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2256   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2257   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2258   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2259   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2260   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2261   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2262   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2263   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2264   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2265   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2266   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2267   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2268   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2269   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2270   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2271   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2272   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2273   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2274   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2275   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2276   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2277   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2278   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2279   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2280   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2281   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2282   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2283   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2284   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2285   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2286   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2287   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2288   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2289   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2290   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2291   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2292   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2293   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2294   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2295   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2296   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2297   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2298   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2299   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2300   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2301   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2302   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2303   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2304   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2305   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2306   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2307   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2308   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2309   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2310   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2311   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2312   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2313   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2314   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2315   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2316   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2317   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2318   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2319   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2320   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2321 
  2322 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2323 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2324 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2325 
  2326 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2327 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2328 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2329 
  2330 * Code generation:
  2331 
  2332   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2333     characters in the target language.
  2334 
  2335   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2336     instead.
  2337 
  2338   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2339 
  2340   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2341     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2342 
  2343       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2344 
  2345 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2346 
  2347 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2348 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2349 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2350 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2351 syntax.
  2352 
  2353 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2354 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2355 
  2356 * Nitpick:
  2357   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2358   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2359   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2360     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Sledgehammer:
  2363   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2364   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2365     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2366   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2367     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2368   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2369     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2371     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2372   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2373     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2374 
  2375 * Metis:
  2376   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2378     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * Command 'try':
  2381   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2382     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2384     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2385 
  2386 * Quickcheck:
  2387   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2388     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2389   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2390     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2391   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2392     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2393     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2394     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2395   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2396     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2397 
  2398 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2399 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2400 
  2401 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2402 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2403 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2404 
  2405 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2406 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2410 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2411 
  2412 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2413 arithmetic.
  2414 
  2415 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2416 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2417 and lattice type classes.
  2418 
  2419 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2420 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2421 
  2422 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2423 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2424 
  2425 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2426 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2427 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2430   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2431   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2432   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2433 
  2434 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2435 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2436 constants:
  2437 
  2438   type inat   ~> type enat
  2439   Fin         ~> enat
  2440   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2441   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2442   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2443 
  2444 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2445 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2446 
  2447 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2448 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2449 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2450 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2451 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2452 
  2453 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2454 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2455 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2456 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2457 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2458 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2459 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2460 
  2461   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2462   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2463   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2464   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2465 
  2466 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2467 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2468 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2469 
  2470   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2471   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2472   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2473   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2474   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2475   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2476   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2477   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2478   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2479   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2480   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2481   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2482   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2483   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2484   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2485   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2486   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2487   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2488   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2489   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2490   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2491   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2492   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2493   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2494   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2495   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2496   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2497   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2498   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2499   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2500   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2501   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2502   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2503   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2504   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2505   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2506   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2507   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2508   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2509   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2510   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2511   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2512   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2513   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2514   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2515   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2516   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2517   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2518   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2519   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2520   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2521 
  2522 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2523   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2524   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2525   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2526   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2527     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2532   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2533   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2534   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2535   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2536   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2537   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2538   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2539   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2540   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2541   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2542   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2543   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2544   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2545   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2546   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2547   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2548   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2549   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2550   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2551   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2552   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2553   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2554   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2555   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2556 
  2557 
  2558 *** Document preparation ***
  2559 
  2560 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2561 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2562 same.
  2563 
  2564 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2565 result.
  2566 
  2567 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2568 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2569 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2570 
  2571 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2572 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2573 
  2574 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2575 like this:
  2576 
  2577   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2578   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2579 
  2580 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2581 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2582 layouts.
  2583 
  2584 
  2585 *** ML ***
  2586 
  2587 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2588 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2589 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2590 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2591 under external program control.
  2592 
  2593 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2594 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2595 
  2596 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2597 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2598 (better known as Proof General).
  2599 
  2600 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2601 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2602 
  2603 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2604 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2605 
  2606 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2607 (including quotes etc.).
  2608 
  2609 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2610 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2611 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2612 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2613 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2614 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2615 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2616 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2617 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2618 
  2619 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2620 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2621 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2622 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2623 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2624 
  2625 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2626 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2627 
  2628 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2629 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2630 
  2631 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2632 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2633 
  2634 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2635 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2636 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2637 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2638 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2639 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2640 proper Proof.context.
  2641 
  2642 
  2643 *** System ***
  2644 
  2645 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2646 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2647 
  2648 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2649 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2650 
  2651 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2652 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2653 
  2654   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2655   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2656   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2657   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2658   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2659 
  2660 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2661 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2662 
  2663 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2664 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2665 example:
  2666 
  2667   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2668 
  2669 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2670 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2671 
  2672 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2673 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2674 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2675 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2676 
  2677 
  2678 
  2679 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2680 ----------------------------------
  2681 
  2682 *** General ***
  2683 
  2684 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2685 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2686 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2687 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2688 like this:
  2689 
  2690   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2691 
  2692 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2693 
  2694 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2695 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2696 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2697 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2698 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2699 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2700 
  2701 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2702 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2703 the following package declarations:
  2704 
  2705   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2706   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2707 
  2708 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2709 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2710 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2711 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2712 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2713 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2714 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2715 
  2716 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2717 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2718 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2719 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2720 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2721 
  2722 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2723 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2724 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2725 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2726 
  2727 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2728 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2729 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2730 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2731 
  2732   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2733 
  2734   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2735   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2736   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2737   show_types                    show_types
  2738   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2739   show_consts                   show_consts
  2740   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2741 
  2742   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2743   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2744   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2745 
  2746   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2747   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2748 
  2749   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2750 
  2751   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2752   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2753   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2754   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2755   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2756 
  2757 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2758 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2759 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2760 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2761 
  2762 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2766   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2767 
  2768 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2769 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2770 float_token.
  2771 
  2772 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2773 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2777 DejaVu Sans.
  2778 
  2779 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2780 
  2781 
  2782 *** Pure ***
  2783 
  2784 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2785 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2786 time.
  2787 
  2788 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2789 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2792 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2795 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2796 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2797 command already provided this functionality.
  2798 
  2799 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2800 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2801 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2802 without interpretations.
  2803 
  2804 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2805 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2806 
  2807 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2808 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2809 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2810 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2811 
  2812 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2813 'definition' instead.
  2814 
  2815 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2816 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2817 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2818 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2819 
  2820 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2821 constructors.
  2822 
  2823 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2824 the local file system.
  2825 
  2826 
  2827 *** HOL ***
  2828 
  2829 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2830 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2831 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2832 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2833 
  2834   declare [[coercion f]]
  2835 
  2836 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2837 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2838 
  2839   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2840 
  2841 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2842 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2843 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2844 other theories like this:
  2845 
  2846   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2847 
  2848 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2849 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2850 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2851 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2852 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2853 for examples.
  2854 
  2855 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2856 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2859 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2860 
  2861 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2862 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2863 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2864 
  2865 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2866 functorial structure of types.
  2867 
  2868 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2869 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2870 
  2871 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2872 languages.
  2873 
  2874 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2875 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2879 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2882 combinators any longer.
  2883 
  2884 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2885 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2886 
  2887 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2888 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2889 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2890 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2891 
  2892   record 'a foo = ...
  2893   ...
  2894   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2895 
  2896 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2897 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2899 
  2900 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2901 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2902 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2903 
  2904 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2905 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2906 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2907 
  2908 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2909 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2910 
  2911 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2912 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2913 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2914 independently.
  2915 
  2916 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2917 counter example search.
  2918 
  2919 * Sledgehammer:
  2920   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2921     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2922     sledgehammer").
  2923   - Renamed commands:
  2924     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2925     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2926     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2927     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928   - Renamed options:
  2929     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2930     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2931     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2932     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2933     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2934 
  2935 * Nitpick:
  2936   - Renamed options:
  2937     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2938     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2939     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2941   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2942   - Added "whack" option.
  2943   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2944   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2945   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2946   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2947     higher cardinalities.
  2948   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2949 
  2950 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2951 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2952 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2953 
  2954     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2955 
  2956 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2957 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2958 
  2959 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2960 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2961 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2962 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2963 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2964 "smt_solver".
  2965 
  2966 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2967 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2968 
  2969 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2970 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2971 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2972 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2975   - Renamed:
  2976     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2977     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2978     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979   - Added:
  2980     smt_verbose
  2981     smt_random_seed
  2982     smt_datatypes
  2983     smt_infer_triggers
  2984     smt_monomorph_limit
  2985     cvc3_options
  2986     remote_cvc3_options
  2987     remote_z3_options
  2988     yices_options
  2989 
  2990 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2991 header.
  2992 
  2993 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2994 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2995 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2996 
  2997   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2998 
  2999 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3000 
  3001 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3002 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3007 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3010 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3011 
  3012 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3013 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3016 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3017 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3025 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3028 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3029 for congruent(2)).
  3030 
  3031 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3032 
  3033   types
  3034     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3035     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3036 
  3037   constants
  3038     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3039     True ~> HOL.True
  3040     False ~> HOL.False
  3041     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3042     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3043     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3044     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3045     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3046     The ~> HOL.The
  3047     All ~> HOL.All
  3048     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3049     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3050     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3051     If ~> HOL.If
  3052     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3053     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3054     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3055     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3056     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3057     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3058     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3059     op : ~> Set.member
  3060     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3061 
  3062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3065 
  3066     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3067     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3068     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3069     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3070     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3071     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3072     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3073     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3074 
  3075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * More stylized fact names:
  3078 
  3079   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3080   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3081   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3082   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3083 
  3084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3087 
  3088   constants
  3089     null ~> List.null
  3090 
  3091   facts
  3092     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3093     null_empty ~> null_def
  3094 
  3095 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3096 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3097 generation.
  3098 
  3099 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3100 Haskell code.
  3101 
  3102 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3103 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3104 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3107 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3110 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3111 
  3112 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3113 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3114 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3117 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3124 referred to by its qualified name.
  3125 
  3126   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3127   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3128   product ~>  Enum.product
  3129 
  3130 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3131 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133 
  3134 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3135 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3136 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3140 sort_key.
  3141 
  3142 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3146 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3147 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3148 
  3149   types
  3150     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3151               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3152               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3153         (depends on your needs)
  3154 
  3155   constants
  3156      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3157      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3158      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3159 
  3160 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3161 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3162 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3163 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3164 
  3165 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3166 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3167 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3168 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3169 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3170 
  3171 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173 
  3174 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3175 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3176 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3177 
  3178 
  3179 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3180 
  3181 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3182 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3183 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3184 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3185 compatibility.
  3186 
  3187 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3188 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3189 
  3190 
  3191 *** HOLCF ***
  3192 
  3193 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3194 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3195 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3197 
  3198 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3199 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3200 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3203   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3204   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3205 
  3206 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3207 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3208 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3211 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3212 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3213 domain definition now works:
  3214 
  3215   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3216 
  3217 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3218 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3219 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3220 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3221 
  3222   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3223     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3224 
  3225   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3226 
  3227 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3228 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3229 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3232 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3235 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3236 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3237 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3238 
  3239 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3240 
  3241 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3249 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3250 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3251 
  3252 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3253 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3254 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3257 still supported as an input translation.
  3258 
  3259 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3260 
  3261   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3262   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3263   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3264   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3265   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3266   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3267   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3268 
  3269 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3270 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271 
  3272   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3273   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3274   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3275   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3276   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3277   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3278 
  3279 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3280 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3283 
  3284   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3285   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3286   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3287   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3288 
  3289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3292 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3295 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3298   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3299   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3300   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3301   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3302   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3303   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3304   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3305   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3306   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3307   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3308   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3309   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3310   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3311   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3312   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3313   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3314   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3315   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3316   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3317 
  3318 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3319 
  3320   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3321   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3322   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3323   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3324   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3325   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3326   box_less             ~> box_below
  3327   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3328   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3329   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3330   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3331   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3332   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3333   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3334   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3335   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3336   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3337   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3338   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3339   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3340   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3341   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3342   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3343   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3344   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3345   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3346   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3347   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3348   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3349   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3350   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3351   up_less              ~> up_below
  3352   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3353   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3354   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3355   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3356   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3357   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3358   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3359   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3360   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3361   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3362   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3363   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3364   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3365 
  3366 
  3367 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3368 
  3369 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3370 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 
  3373 *** ML ***
  3374 
  3375 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3376 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3377 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3378 
  3379 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3380 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3381 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3382 
  3383 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3384 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3385 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3386 
  3387 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3388 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3389 
  3390 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3391 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3392 
  3393 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3394 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3395 
  3396 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3397 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3398 
  3399 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3400 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3401 almost all situations.
  3402 
  3403 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3404 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3405 Isabelle/ML.
  3406 
  3407 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3408 meaning.
  3409 
  3410 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3411 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3412 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3413 
  3414 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3415 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3416 
  3417 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3418 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3419 
  3420 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3421 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3422 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3423 
  3424 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3425 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3426 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3427 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3428 configuration options.
  3429 
  3430 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3431 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3432 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3433 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3434 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3435 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3436 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3437 
  3438 
  3439 
  3440 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3441 ---------------------------------
  3442 
  3443 *** General ***
  3444 
  3445 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3446 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3447 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3448 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3449 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3450 their full internal name.
  3451 
  3452 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3453 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3454 Some hints on upgrading:
  3455 
  3456   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3457     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3458     which are independent of this issue.
  3459 
  3460   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3461     provides the following special forms:
  3462 
  3463       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3464       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3465       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3466 
  3467     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3468     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3469     extra variables".
  3470 
  3471     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3472     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3473     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3474     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3475     "logic".
  3476 
  3477   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3478     antiquotations:
  3479 
  3480       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3481       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3482       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3483       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3484 
  3485   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3486     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3487     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3488     antiquotations.
  3489 
  3490 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3491 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3492 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3493 diagnose syntax problems.
  3494 
  3495 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3496 
  3497 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3498 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3499 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3500 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3501 
  3502 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3503 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3504 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3505 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3508 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3509 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3510 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3511 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3514 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3515 
  3516 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3517 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3518 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3519 
  3520   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3521 
  3522 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3523 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3524 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3525 
  3526 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3527 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3531 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3532 
  3533 
  3534 *** Pure ***
  3535 
  3536 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3537 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3538 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3539 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3540 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3541 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3542 inspect proof terms.
  3543 
  3544 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3545 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3546 are added internally.  For example:
  3547 
  3548   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3549 
  3550 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3551 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3556 'class' instead.
  3557 
  3558 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3559 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3563 invariants.
  3564 
  3565 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3566 user space functionality any longer.
  3567 
  3568 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3569 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3573 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3574 
  3575 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3576 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3577 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3578 
  3579 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3580 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3581 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3582 
  3583 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3584 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 
  3587 *** HOL ***
  3588 
  3589 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3590 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3591 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3592 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3593 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3594 
  3595 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3596 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3597 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3598 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3599 
  3600   fun
  3601     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3602   where
  3603     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3604 
  3605   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3606     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3607 
  3608   quotient_definition
  3609     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3610 
  3611 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3612 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3613 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3614 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3615 
  3616 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3617 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3618 
  3619 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3620 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3621 
  3622 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3626 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3627 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3628 
  3629 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3630 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3639 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3642 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3643 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3646   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3647   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3648   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3649   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3650   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3651   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3652   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3653   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3654   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3655   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3656   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3657   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3658   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3659   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3660   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3661   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3662   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3663   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3664   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3665   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3666   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3667   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3668   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3669   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3670   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3671   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3672   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3673   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3674   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3675 
  3676 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3677 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3678 
  3679 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3680 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3681 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3682 
  3683 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3684 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3685 
  3686 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3687 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688 
  3689 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3690 
  3691 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3692 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3695 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3700 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3701 
  3702 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3703 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3704 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3705 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3708   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3709   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3710   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3714 lattices):
  3715 
  3716     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3717     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3718 
  3719     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3720 
  3721     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3722     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3723     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3724     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3725     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3726     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3727     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3728     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3729     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3730     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3731     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3732     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3733     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3734 
  3735     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3736     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3737     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3738     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3739     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3740     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3741     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3742     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3743     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3744     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3745     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3746     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3747     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3748     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3749     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3750     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3751     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3752     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3753 
  3754   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3755   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3756 
  3757     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3758     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3759     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3760     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3761     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3762 
  3763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Refined field classes:
  3766   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3767     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3768     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3769   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3773   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3774   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3775   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3776     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3777   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3778     equal_neg_zero.
  3779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3782 sets to lattices:
  3783 
  3784   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3785   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3786   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3787   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3788   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3789   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3790   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3791   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3792   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3793   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3794 
  3795 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3796 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3797 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3798 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3799 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3800 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3803 multiset order:
  3804 
  3805   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3806     <= and <;
  3807   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3808     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3809     multiset_order;
  3810   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3811     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3812     generation;
  3813   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3814     if needed.
  3815 
  3816 Renamed:
  3817 
  3818   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3819   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3820   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3821 
  3822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3825 
  3826 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3827 
  3828 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3829 
  3830 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3831 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3832 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834   Constants:
  3835   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3836   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3837   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3838   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3839   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3840   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3841   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3842   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3843   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3844   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3845   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3846   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3847   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3848 
  3849   Lemmas:
  3850   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3851   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3852   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3853   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3854   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3855   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3856   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3857   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3858   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3859   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3860   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3861   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3862   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3863 
  3864 * Sledgehammer:
  3865   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3866     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3867     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3868     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3869     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3870     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3871     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3873   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3874     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3875   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3876     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3877     is still experimental.)
  3878   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3879     full-typed mode.
  3880   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3881 
  3882 * Nitpick:
  3883   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3884   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3885   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3886     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3887   - Added support for quotient types.
  3888   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3889     constructs.
  3890   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3891     "termination" proofs).
  3892   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3893   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3894   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3895   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3896     record getters.
  3897   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3898   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3899   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3900   - Added "atoms" option.
  3901   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3902     problems.
  3903   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3904     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3905     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3907     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3911   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3912   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3913   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3914   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3915   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3916   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3917   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3918   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3919   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921 
  3922 *** HOLCF ***
  3923 
  3924 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3925 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3926 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3929 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3930 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3931 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3934 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3935 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3936 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3937 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3940 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3941 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3944 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3947   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3948 
  3949 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3950 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3953   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3954   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3955   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3956   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3957 
  3958 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3959 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3962   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3963   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3964 
  3965 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3966 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3968 
  3969 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3970 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3975 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 
  3978 *** ML ***
  3979 
  3980 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3981 
  3982     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3983     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3984 
  3985     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3986     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3987     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3988     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3989 
  3990     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3991     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3992     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3993 
  3994 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3995 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3996 
  3997 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3998 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3999 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4000 
  4001 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4002 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4003 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4004 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4005 
  4006 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4007 the context or even global references.
  4008 
  4009 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4010 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4011 
  4012 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4013 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4014 
  4015   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4016   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4017   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4018   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4019   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4020   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4021   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4022   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4023   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4024   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4025 
  4026 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4027 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4028 
  4029 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4030 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4031 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4032 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4033 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4034 
  4035 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4036 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4037 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4038 Theory_Data version.
  4039 
  4040 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4041 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4042 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4043 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4044 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4045 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4046 explicitly in rare situations.
  4047 
  4048 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4049 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4053 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4056 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4057 quite rare).
  4058 
  4059 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4060 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4063 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4064 terms.
  4065 
  4066 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4067 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4068 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4069 
  4070 
  4071 *** System ***
  4072 
  4073 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4074 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4075 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4076 
  4077 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4078 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4079 respectively.
  4080 
  4081 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4082 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4083 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4084 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4085 
  4086   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4087 
  4088 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4089 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4090 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4091 component.
  4092 
  4093 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4094 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4095 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4096 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4097 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4098 the user for manual installation.
  4099 
  4100 
  4101 
  4102 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4103 -------------------------------------
  4104 
  4105 *** General ***
  4106 
  4107 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4108 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4109 
  4110 
  4111 *** Pure ***
  4112 
  4113 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4114 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4115 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4116 
  4117 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4118 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4119 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4120 
  4121 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4122 interpretation.
  4123 
  4124 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4125 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4126 
  4127 
  4128 *** Document preparation ***
  4129 
  4130 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4131 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4132 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4133 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4134 
  4135 
  4136 *** HOL ***
  4137 
  4138 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4139 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4140 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4141 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4142 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4143 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4144 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4145 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4146 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4147 
  4148 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4149 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4150 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4151 
  4152 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4153 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4154 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4155 
  4156 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4157 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4158 
  4159 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4160 
  4161 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4162 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4163 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4164 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4165 
  4166 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4167 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4168 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4169 "mirabelle" utility.
  4170 
  4171 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4172 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4173 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4174 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4175 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4176 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4177 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4178 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4179 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4180 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4181 
  4182 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4183 procedure only.
  4184 
  4185 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4186 
  4187 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4188 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4189 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4190 that fail later.
  4191 
  4192 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4193 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4194 
  4195 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4196 the same method as the approximation method.
  4197 
  4198 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4199 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4200 series expansion.
  4201 
  4202 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4203 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4204 
  4205 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4206 reals.
  4207 
  4208 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4209 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4210 
  4211 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4212 fixpoint theorem.
  4213 
  4214 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4215   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4216     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4217   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4218     accordingly
  4219   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4220     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4221   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4222     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4223 
  4224 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4225 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4226 lattice.
  4227 
  4228 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4229 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4230 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4231 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4232 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4233 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4237   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4238     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4239   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4240     le_inf_iff
  4241   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4242     sup_aci)
  4243   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4244   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4245   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4246     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4247     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4248     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4249     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4250     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4251     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4252     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4253     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4254     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4255     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4256   - authentic syntax for
  4257     Set.Pow
  4258     Set.image
  4259   - mere abbreviations:
  4260     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4261     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4262     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4263     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4264     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4265     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4266     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4267     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4268   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4269 
  4270 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4271 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4272 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4273 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4274 
  4275 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4276 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4277 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4278 
  4279 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4280 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4281 
  4282 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4283 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4284 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4285 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4288 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4289 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4290 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4291 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4292 
  4293 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4294 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4296 
  4297 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4298 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4299 
  4300 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4301 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4302 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4303 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4304 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4305 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4306 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4308 
  4309 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4310     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4311     code_post       replaces    code post
  4312     etc.
  4313   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * Renamed methods:
  4316     sizechange -> size_change
  4317     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4318   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4321 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4322 
  4323 * Renamed theorems:
  4324     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4325     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4326     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4327     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4328     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4329   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4330 
  4331 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4333 
  4334 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336 
  4337 
  4338 *** HOLCF ***
  4339 
  4340 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4341 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4342 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4343 
  4344 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4345 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4346 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4347 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4348 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4349 
  4350 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4351 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4352 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4353 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4354 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4355 
  4356 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4357 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4358 constructor are pre-configured.
  4359 
  4360 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4361 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4362 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4363 
  4364 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4365 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4366 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4367 as well.)
  4368 
  4369 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4370 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4371 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4372 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4373 examples.
  4374 
  4375 
  4376 *** ML ***
  4377 
  4378 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4379 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4380 
  4381 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4382 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4383 position, logical grouping etc.
  4384 
  4385 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4386 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4387 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4388 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4389 
  4390 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4391 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4392 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4393 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4394 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4395 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4396 
  4397 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4398 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4399 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4400 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4401 experiments with references.
  4402 
  4403 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4404 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4405 
  4406 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4407 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4408 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4409 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4410 
  4411 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4412 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4413 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4414 
  4415 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4416 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4417 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4418 
  4419 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4425 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4426 
  4427 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4428 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4429 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4430 
  4431 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4432 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4433 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4436 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4437 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4439 
  4440 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4441 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4442 instead of global theory.
  4443 
  4444 
  4445 *** System ***
  4446 
  4447 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4448 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4449 usedir option -q.
  4450 
  4451 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4452 also the system manual.
  4453 
  4454 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4455 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4456 
  4457 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4458 this is always enabled.
  4459 
  4460 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4461 
  4462 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4463 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4464 currently supported on Linux only.
  4465 
  4466 
  4467 
  4468 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4469 --------------------------------
  4470 
  4471 *** General ***
  4472 
  4473 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4474 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4475 
  4476   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4477     "isatool."
  4478 
  4479   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4480     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4481 
  4482   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4483     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4484 
  4485 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4486 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4487 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4488 
  4489 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4490 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4491 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4492 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4493 via "isabelle emacs".
  4494 
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4496 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4497 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4498 
  4499 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4500 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4501 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4502 
  4503 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4504 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4505 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4506 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4507 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4508 
  4509 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4510 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4511 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4512 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4513 
  4514 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4515 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4516 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4517 
  4518 
  4519 *** Pure ***
  4520 
  4521 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4522 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4523 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4524 
  4525 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4526 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4527 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4528 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4529 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4530 
  4531 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4532 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4533 useful in locale declarations.
  4534 
  4535 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4536 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4537 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4538 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4539 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4540 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4541 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4542 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4543 no longer generated.
  4544 
  4545 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4546 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4547 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4548 
  4549 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4550 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4551 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4552 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4553 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4554 
  4555 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4557 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4558 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4559 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4560 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4561 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4562 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4563 
  4564 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4565 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4566 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4567 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4568 
  4569 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4570 
  4571 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4572 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4573 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4574 
  4575 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4576 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4579 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4580 in HOL, write
  4581 
  4582     class foo = ...
  4583 
  4584 instead of
  4585 
  4586     class foo = type + ...
  4587 
  4588 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4589 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4592 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4593 
  4594 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4595 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4596 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4597 
  4598 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4599 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4600 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4601 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4602 directly in regular applications.
  4603 
  4604 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4605 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4606 
  4607 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4608 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4609 
  4610 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4611 theory context.
  4612 
  4613 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4614 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4617 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4618 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4619 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4620 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4621 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4622 
  4623   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4624 
  4625 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4626 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4627 normalization.
  4628 
  4629 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4630 addressing etc.
  4631 
  4632 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4633 
  4634   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4635   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4636 
  4637 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4638 
  4639   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4640      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4641      parts of the code generator framework).
  4642 
  4643   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4644      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4645      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4646 
  4647 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4650 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4653 patterns, e.g.
  4654 
  4655     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4656 
  4657 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4658 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4659 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4660 hyphen:
  4661 
  4662     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4663 
  4664 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4665 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4666 
  4667 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4668 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4669 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4670 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4671 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4672 higher-order unification.
  4673 
  4674 
  4675 *** Document preparation ***
  4676 
  4677 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4678 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4679 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4680 
  4681 
  4682 *** HOL ***
  4683 
  4684 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4685 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4686 
  4687 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4688 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4689 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4690 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4691 Main, as before.
  4692 
  4693 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4694 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4695 
  4696 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4697 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4698 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4699 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4700 
  4701 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4702 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4703 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4704 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4705 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4706 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4707 
  4708 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4709 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4710 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4711 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4712 
  4713 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4714 menu.
  4715 
  4716 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4717 (contains the empty clause).
  4718 
  4719 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4720 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4721 
  4722 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4723 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4724 
  4725 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4726 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4727 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4730 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4731 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4732 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4733 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4734 
  4735 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4736 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4737 
  4738 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4739 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4740 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4741 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4742 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4743 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4744 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4745 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4746 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4747 
  4748 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4749 
  4750 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4751 
  4752 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4753 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4756 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4757 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4758 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4759 
  4760 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4761 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4762 
  4763     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4764     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4765     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4766     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4767     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4768     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4769     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4770     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4771 
  4772 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4773 theory Set.
  4774 
  4775 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4776 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4777 
  4778 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4779 
  4780 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4781 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4782 
  4783 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4784 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4785 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4786 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4787 allowed. For examples see
  4788 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4789 
  4790 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4791 
  4792 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4796 structure:
  4797 
  4798     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4799     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4800     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4801     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4802     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4803     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4804     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4805     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4806     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4807     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4808     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4809     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4810     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4811     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4812     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4813     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4814     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4815     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4816     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4817     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4818     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4819     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4820     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4821     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4822     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4823     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4824     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4825     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4826     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4827     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4828     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4829     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4830     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4831 
  4832     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4833     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4834     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4835     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4836     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4837     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4838     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4839     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4840     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4841     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4842 
  4843     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4844     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4845     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4846     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4847     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4848     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4849 
  4850 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4851 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4852 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4853 
  4854 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4855 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4856 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4857 
  4858 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4859 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4860 
  4861 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4862 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4863 
  4864 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4865 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4866 proofs, e.g.
  4867 
  4868   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4869 
  4870 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4871 
  4872 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4873 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4874 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4875 
  4876 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4877 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4879 
  4880 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4881 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4882 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4886 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4887 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4888 preorder_class.*.
  4889 
  4890 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4891 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4892 
  4893 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4894 
  4895   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4896 
  4897 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4898 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4899 fold_image.
  4900 
  4901 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4902 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4903 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4904 the former will disappear at some point.
  4905 
  4906 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4907 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4908 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4909 
  4910 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4911 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4912 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4913 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4914 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4915 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4916 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4917 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4918 
  4919 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4920 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4921 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4922 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4923 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4924 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4925 
  4926     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4927     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4928     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4929     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4930     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4931     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4932     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4933 
  4934 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4935 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4936 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4937 
  4938 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4939 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4940 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4941 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4942 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4943 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4944 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4945 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4946 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4947 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4948 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4949 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4950 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4951 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4952 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4953 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4954 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4955 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4956 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4957 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4958 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4959 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4960 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4961 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4962 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4963 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4964 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4965 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4966 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4967 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4968 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4969 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4970 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4971 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4972 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4973 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4974 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4975 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4976 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4977 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4978 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4979 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4980 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4981 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4982 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4983 
  4984 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4985 
  4986 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4987 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4988 
  4989 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4990 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4991 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4992 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4993 
  4994 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4995 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4996 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4997 theory RealVector.
  4998 
  4999 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5000 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5001 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5002 and inner products are included.
  5003 
  5004 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5005 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5006 supported.
  5007 
  5008 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5009 first diagonalization argument.
  5010 
  5011 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5012 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5013 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5014 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5015 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5016 
  5017     hide (open) const gcd
  5018     abbreviation gcd where
  5019       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5020     notation (output)
  5021       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5022 
  5023 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5024 
  5025 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5026 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5027 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5028 
  5029 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5030 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5031 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5032 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5033 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5034 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5035 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5036 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5037 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5038 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5039 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5040 cases.
  5041 
  5042 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5043 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5044 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5045 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5046 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5047 
  5048     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5049     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5050     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5051     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5052     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5053 
  5054 
  5055 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5056 
  5057 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5058 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5059 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5060 
  5061 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5062 
  5063 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5064 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5065 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5066 
  5067 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5068 
  5069 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5070 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5071 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5072 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5073 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5074 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5075 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5076 
  5077 
  5078 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5079 
  5080 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5081 
  5082 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5083 theory targets.
  5084 
  5085 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5086 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5087 'inductive' etc.
  5088 
  5089 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5090 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5091 
  5092 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5093 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5094 
  5095 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5096 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5097 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5098 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5099 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5100 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5101 the algorithm W:
  5102 
  5103  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5104  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5105          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5106 
  5107 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5108 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5109 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5110 
  5111 
  5112 *** HOLCF ***
  5113 
  5114 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5115 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5116 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5117 
  5118 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5119 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5120 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5121 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5122 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5123 
  5124 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5125 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5126 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 
  5129 *** ZF ***
  5130 
  5131 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5132 
  5133 
  5134 *** ML ***
  5135 
  5136 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5137 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5138 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5139 5.2.1!
  5140 
  5141 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5142 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5143 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5144 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5145 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5146 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5147 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5148 
  5149 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5150 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5151 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5152 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5153 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5154 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5155 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5156 
  5157 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5158 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5159 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5160 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5161 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5162 
  5163 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5164 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5165 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5166 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5167 Method.add_method.
  5168 
  5169 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5170 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5171 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5172 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5173 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5174 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5175 
  5176 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5177 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5178 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5179 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5180 examples.
  5181 
  5182 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5183 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5184 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5185 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5186 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5187 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5188 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5189 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5190 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5191 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5192 
  5193 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5194 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5195 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5196 
  5197 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5198 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5199 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5200 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5201 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5202 resort for legacy applications.
  5203 
  5204 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5205 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5206 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5207 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5208 explicit runtime argument.
  5209 
  5210 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5211 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5212 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5213 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5214 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5215 
  5216 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5217 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5218 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5219 theory state.
  5220 
  5221 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5222 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5223 
  5224   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5225   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5226   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5227   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5228   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5229   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5230   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5231   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5232   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5233   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5234 
  5235 
  5236 *** System ***
  5237 
  5238 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5239 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5240 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5241 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5242 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5243 
  5244 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5245 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5246 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5247 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5248 
  5249 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5250 
  5251 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5252 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5253 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5254 prover operations.
  5255 
  5256 
  5257 
  5258 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5259 -------------------------------
  5260 
  5261 *** General ***
  5262 
  5263 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5264 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5265 
  5266 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5267 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5268 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5269 provides a proper context already.
  5270 
  5271 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5272 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5273 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5274 
  5275 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5276 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5277 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5278 swap theory imports.
  5279 
  5280 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5281 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5282 
  5283 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5284 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5285 white space without escapes.
  5286 
  5287 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5288 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5289 "foo_bar".
  5290 
  5291 
  5292 *** Pure ***
  5293 
  5294 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5295 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5296 
  5297 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5298 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5299 
  5300 (1) unused_thms
  5301      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5302 
  5303 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5304      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5305      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5306 
  5307 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5308      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5309      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5310      their ancestors.
  5311 
  5312 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5313 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5314 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5315 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5316 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5317 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5318 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5319 
  5320 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5321 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5322 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5323 
  5324 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5325 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5326 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5327 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5328 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5329 
  5330 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5331 
  5332 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5333 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5334 update of theories within ML code.
  5335 
  5336 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5337 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5338 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5339 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5340 
  5341 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5342 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5343 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5345 
  5346 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5347 
  5348 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5349 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5350 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5351 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5352 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5353 
  5354 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5355 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5356 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5357 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5358 situations.
  5359 
  5360 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5361 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5362 proof text.
  5363 
  5364 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5365 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5366 
  5367 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5368 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5369 predicates.
  5370 
  5371 
  5372 *** Document preparation ***
  5373 
  5374 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5375 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5376 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5377 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5378 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5379 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5380 
  5381 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5382 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5383 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5384 
  5385 
  5386 *** HOL ***
  5387 
  5388 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5389 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5390 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5391 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5392 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5393 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5394 
  5395 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5396 with multithreading.
  5397 
  5398 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5399 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5400 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5401 
  5402 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5403 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5404 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5405 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5408 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5409 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5410 and makes them available separately.  See
  5411 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5412 
  5413 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5414 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5415 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5416 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5417 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5418 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5419 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5420 the declared rules.
  5421 
  5422 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5423 
  5424   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5425 
  5426 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5427 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5428 
  5429 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5430 
  5431   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5432 
  5433   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5434     definitions on => and bool.
  5435 
  5436   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5437     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5438     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5439 
  5440       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5441       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5442       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5443       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5444       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5445       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5446       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5447       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5448 
  5449   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5450     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5451     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5452 
  5453   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5454     The proof pattern
  5455 
  5456       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5457       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5458 
  5459     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5460     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5461 
  5462       have "EX S. P S"
  5463       proof
  5464         show "P S" <...>
  5465       qed
  5466 
  5467   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5468     The proof pattern
  5469 
  5470       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5471       also have "S = T" <...>
  5472       finally have "P T" .
  5473 
  5474     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5475     must be replaced by something like
  5476 
  5477       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5478       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5479       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5480 
  5481   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5482     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5483 
  5484       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5485 
  5486     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5487     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5488     type of the form
  5489 
  5490       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5491 
  5492     rather than
  5493 
  5494       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5495 
  5496 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5497 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5498 
  5499 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5502 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5504 
  5505 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5506 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5507 
  5508 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5509 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5512 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5513 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5516 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5517 
  5518   less_trans
  5519   less_linear
  5520   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5521   le_less_trans
  5522   less_le_trans
  5523   less_not_sym
  5524   less_asym
  5525 
  5526 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5527 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5528 and different variable names.
  5529 
  5530 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5531 
  5532 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5533 finite maps.
  5534 
  5535 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5536 
  5537 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5538 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5539 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5540 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5541 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5542 accordingly.
  5543 
  5544 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5545 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5546 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5547 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5548 
  5549 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5550 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5551 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5552 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5553 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5555 
  5556 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5557 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5558 
  5559 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5560 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5561 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5562 
  5563 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5567 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5568 
  5569 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5570 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5571 
  5572 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5573 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5574 
  5575 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5576 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5578 
  5579 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5580 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5583 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5584 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5585 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5586 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5587 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5590 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5591 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5592 
  5593 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5594 
  5595 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5596 
  5597 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5598 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5599 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5600 
  5601 
  5602 *** ZF ***
  5603 
  5604 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5605 same session:
  5606 
  5607   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5608   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5609   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5610   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5611   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5612   List      -> List_ZF
  5613   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5614 
  5615 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5616 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5617 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5618 
  5619 
  5620 *** ML ***
  5621 
  5622 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5623 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5624 
  5625 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5626 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5627 
  5628 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5629 
  5630 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5631 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5632 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5633 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5634 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5635 
  5636 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5637 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5638 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5639 
  5640 
  5641 *** System ***
  5642 
  5643 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5644 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5645 
  5646 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5647 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5648 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5649 
  5650 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5651 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5652 
  5653 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5654 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5655 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5656 
  5657 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5658 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5659 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5660 
  5661 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5662 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5663 
  5664 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5665 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5666 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5667 script.
  5668 
  5669 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5670 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5671 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5672 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5673 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5674 
  5675 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5676 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5677 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5678 
  5679 
  5680 
  5681 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5682 -----------------------------------
  5683 
  5684 *** General ***
  5685 
  5686 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5687 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5688 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5689 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5690 
  5691 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5692 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5693 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5694 
  5695 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5696 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5697 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5698 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5699 
  5700 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5701 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5702 quotes.
  5703 
  5704 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5705 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5706 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5707 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5708 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5709 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5710 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5711 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5712 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5713 
  5714 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5715 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5716 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5717 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5718 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5719 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5720 
  5721 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5722 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5723 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5724 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5725 
  5726 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5727 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5728 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5729 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5730 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5731 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5732 
  5733 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5734 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5735 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5736 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5737 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5738 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5739 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5740 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5741 
  5742 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5743 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5744 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5745 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5746 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5747 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5748 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5749 
  5750 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5751 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5752 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5753 
  5754 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5755 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5756 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5757 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5758 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5759 limit is imposed.
  5760 
  5761 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5762 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5763 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5764 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5765 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5766 and scalability.
  5767 
  5768 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5769 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5770 
  5771 
  5772 *** Document preparation ***
  5773 
  5774 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5775 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5776 current context.
  5777 
  5778 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5779 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5780 
  5781 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5782 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5783 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5784 
  5785 
  5786 *** Pure ***
  5787 
  5788 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5789 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5790 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5791 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5792 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5793 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5794 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5795 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5796 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5797 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5798 
  5799 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5800 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5801 sketch:
  5802 
  5803     internal compilation:
  5804         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5805     writing SML code to a file:
  5806         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5807     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5808         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5809     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5810         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5811 
  5812     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5813         method ``eval''
  5814 
  5815 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5816 
  5817 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5818 
  5819     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5820     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5821     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5822     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5823 
  5824 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5825 
  5826     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5827       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5828 
  5829     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5830       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5831 
  5832     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5833       {(target)}+
  5834         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5835 
  5836     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5837       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5838         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5839 
  5840 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5841 
  5842 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5843 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5844 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5845 codegen".
  5846 
  5847 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5848 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5849 annotations).
  5850 
  5851 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5852 syntax.
  5853 
  5854 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5855 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5856 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5857 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5858 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5859 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5860 
  5861 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5862 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5863 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5864 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5865 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5866 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5867 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5868 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5869 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5870 equations, see section "definitions".
  5871 
  5872 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5873 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5874 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5875 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5876 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5877 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5878 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5879 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5880 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5881 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5882 
  5883 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5884 configuration options:
  5885 
  5886   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5887   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5888   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5889   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5890   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5891   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5892   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5893   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5894   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5895 
  5896 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5897 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5898 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5899 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5900 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5901 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5902 order.
  5903 
  5904 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5905 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5906 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5907 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5908 context encountered later on.
  5909 
  5910 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5911 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5912 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5913 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5914 
  5915 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5916 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5917 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5918 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5919 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5920 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5921 
  5922 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5923 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5924 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5925 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5926 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5927 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5928 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5929 more permissive.
  5930 
  5931 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5932 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5933 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5934 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5935 maintainability of proof texts.
  5936 
  5937 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5938 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5939 
  5940   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5941   then guess x and y by clarify
  5942 
  5943 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5944 proof tools being involved here.
  5945 
  5946 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5947 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5948 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5949 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5950 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5951 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5952 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5953 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5954 
  5955 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5956 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5957 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5958 
  5959   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5960   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5961   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5962   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5963 
  5964 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5965 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5966 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5967 
  5968 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5969 both named and unnamed ones.
  5970 
  5971 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5972 
  5973   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5974 
  5975 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5976 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5977 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5978 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5979 
  5980 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5981 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5982 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5983 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5984 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5985 
  5986 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5987 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5988 
  5989 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5990 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5991 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5992 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5993 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5994 originally first one.
  5995 
  5996 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5997 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5998 expected.
  5999 
  6000 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6001 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6002 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6003 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6004 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6005 
  6006   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6007     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6008     obtains x where "P x"
  6009 
  6010   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6011     assumes "A & B"
  6012     obtains A and B
  6013 
  6014   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6015     assumes "A | B"
  6016     obtains
  6017       A
  6018     | B
  6019 
  6020 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6021 explicitly:
  6022 
  6023   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6024     obtains "~ thesis"
  6025 
  6026   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6027     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6028 
  6029 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6030 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6031 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6032 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6033 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6034 case_names).
  6035 
  6036 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6037 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6038 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6039 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6040 
  6041 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6042 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6043 top-level lemma.
  6044 
  6045 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6046 introduction rule (default "that").
  6047 
  6048 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6049 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6050 to occur.
  6051 
  6052 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6053 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6054 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6055 representations independently of name spaces.
  6056 
  6057 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6058 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6059 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6060 
  6061 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6062 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6063 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6064 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6065 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6066 current context.
  6067 
  6068 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6069 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6070 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6071 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6072 
  6073   axiomatization
  6074     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6075     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6076 
  6077   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6078   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6079 
  6080   abbreviation
  6081     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6082     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6083 
  6084 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6085 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6086 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6087 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6088 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6089 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6090 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6091 
  6092 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6093 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6094 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6095 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6096 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6097 
  6098 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6099 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6100 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6101 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6102 
  6103 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6104 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6105 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6106 
  6107   definition "K x _ = x"
  6108 
  6109   inductive conj for A B
  6110   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6111 
  6112 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6113 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6114 abbreviations on output.
  6115 
  6116 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6117 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6118 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6119 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6120 
  6121 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6122 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6123 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6124 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6125 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6126 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6127 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6128 
  6129 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6130 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6131 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6132 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6133 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6134 
  6135 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6136 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6137 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6138 
  6139 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6140 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6141 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6142 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6143 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6144 
  6145   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6146     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6147 
  6148 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6149 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6150 partial_order.
  6151 
  6152 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6153 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6154 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6155 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6156 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6157 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6158 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6159 examples.
  6160 
  6161 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6162 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6163 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6164 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6165 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6166 
  6167 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6168 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6169 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6170 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6171 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6172 
  6173   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6174   (induct set: foo bar)
  6175   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6176   (induct type: foo bar)
  6177 
  6178 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6179 new format.
  6180 
  6181 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6182 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6183 
  6184 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6185 considered a legacy feature.
  6186 
  6187 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6188 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6189 
  6190 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6191 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6192 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6193 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6194   
  6195 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6196 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6197 manipulating the claset.
  6198 
  6199 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6200 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6201 least one premise.
  6202 
  6203 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6204 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6205 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6206 rule steps.
  6207 
  6208 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6209 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6210 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6211 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6212 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6213 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6214 
  6215 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6216 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6217 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6218 
  6219 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6220 the graph browser tool.
  6221 
  6222 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6223 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6224 
  6225 
  6226 *** HOL ***
  6227 
  6228 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6229 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6230 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6231 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6232 multi-threading.
  6233   
  6234 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6235 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6236 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6237 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6238 work with multi-threading.
  6239 
  6240 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6241 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6242 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6243 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6244 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6245 
  6246 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6247 
  6248 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6249 equality.
  6250 
  6251 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6252 th