NEWS
author krauss
Fri Sep 09 00:22:18 2011 +0200 (2011-09-09)
changeset 44845 5e51075cbd97
parent 44826 1120cba9bce4
child 44888 e099fc6f59be
permissions -rw-r--r--
added syntactic classes for "inf" and "sup"
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
     5 ------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
    10 "isabelle jedit" on the command line.
    11 
    12   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
    13     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
    14     files for checking).
    15 
    16   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
    17     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
    18     positions.
    19 
    20   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
    21     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
    22     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
    23 
    24   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
    25     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
    26     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
    27 
    28   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
    29     cores.
    30 
    31   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
    32     versions (garbage collection).
    33 
    34 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
    35 including some remaining limitations.
    36 
    37 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    38 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    39 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    40 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    41 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
    45 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
    46 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
    47 
    48 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
    49 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
    50 usedir option -Q.
    51 
    52 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
    53 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
    54 
    55 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
    56 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
    57 
    58 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
    59 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
    60 
    61   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
    62   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
    63   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
    64   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
    65   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
    66 
    67 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
    68 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    69 
    70 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
    71 configuration options, with more conventional names:
    72 
    73   long_names   ~> names_long
    74   short_names  ~> names_short
    75   unique_names ~> names_unique
    76 
    77 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
    78 
    79   declare [[names_unique = false]]
    80 
    81 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
    82 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
    83 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
    84 
    85 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
    86 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
    87 
    88 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual provides more formal references in
    89 syntax diagrams.
    90 
    91 
    92 *** HOL ***
    93 
    94 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
    95 arithmetic.
    96 
    97 * Classes bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
    98 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   101 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   102 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   103 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   104 class complete_linorder.
   105 
   106 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   107 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   108 
   109 Redundant lemmas Inf_singleton, Sup_singleton, Inf_binary, Sup_binary,
   110 INF_eq, SUP_eq, INF_UNIV_range, SUP_UNIV_range, Int_eq_Inter,
   111 INTER_eq_Inter_image, Inter_def, INT_eq, Un_eq_Union,
   112 UNION_eq_Union_image, Union_def, UN_singleton, UN_eq have been
   113 discarded.
   114 
   115 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   116 
   117   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   118   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   119   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   120   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   121   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   122   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   123   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   124   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   125   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   126   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   127   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   128   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   129   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   130   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   131 
   132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   135 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   136 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   137 
   138 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   139 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   140 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141 
   142 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   143 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   144 
   145 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   146 
   147     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   148     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   149 
   150 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   151 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   152 
   153 * Code generation:
   154 
   155   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   156     characters in the target language.
   157 
   158   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code instead.
   159 
   160   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   161 
   162   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   163     reactivated by the following theory command:
   164 
   165       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   166 
   167 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Nitpick:
   170   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   171   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   172   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   173     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174 
   175 * Sledgehammer:
   176   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   177     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178   - Added support for SNARK and ToFoF-E on SystemOnTPTP and for simply typed
   179     TPTP problems (TFF).
   180   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound", "max_mono_iters",
   181     and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   182   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full Types"
   183     Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Metis:
   186   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Command 'try':
   190   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   191     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192   - Introduced 'tryƄ that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   193     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   194 
   195 * Quickcheck:
   196 
   197   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   198     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   199 
   200   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   201     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   202 
   203   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   204     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   205     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   206     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   207 
   208   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   209     (formly in HOL/Library).
   210 
   211 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".
   212 INCOMPATIBILITY. Use 'partial_function' instead.
   213 
   214 * Session HOL-Probability:
   215   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   216   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   217   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   218     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   219 
   220 * Old 'recdef' package has been moved to theory Library/Old_Recdef,
   221 from where it must be imported explicitly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223 * Well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has been moved to theory
   224 Library/Wfrec. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   227 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   228 constants:
   229 
   230   type inat   ~> type enat
   231   Fin         ~> enat
   232   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   233   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   234   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   235 
   236 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   237 been renamed accordingly.
   238 
   239 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   240 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   243 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   244 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   245 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   246 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   247 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   248 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   249 
   250   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   251   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   252   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   253   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   254 
   255 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   256 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   257 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   260   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   261   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   262   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   263   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   264   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   265   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   266   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   267   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   268   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   269   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   270   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   271   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   272   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   273   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   274   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   275   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   276   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   277   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   278   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   279   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   280   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   281   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   282   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   283   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   284   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   285   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   286   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   287   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   288   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   289   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   290   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   291   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   292   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   293   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   294   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   295   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   296   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   297   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   298   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   299   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   300   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   301   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   302   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   303   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   304   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   305   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   306   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   307   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   308   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   309 
   310 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   311 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   312 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   313 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   316   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   317   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   318   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   319   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   320   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   321   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   322 
   323 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   324 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   327   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   328   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   329   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   330   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   331   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   332   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   333   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   334   expi_add ~> exp_add
   335   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   336   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   337   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   338   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   339   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   340   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   341   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   342   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   343   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   344   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   345   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   346   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   347   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   348   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   349   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   350   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   351   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   352   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   353   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   354   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   355   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   356   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   357   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   358   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   359   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   360   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   361   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   362   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   363   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   364   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   365   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   366   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   367   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   368   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   369   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   370   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   371   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   372   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   373   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   374   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   375   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   376   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   377   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   378   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   379   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   380   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   381   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   382   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   383   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   384   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   385   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   386   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   387   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   388 
   389 
   390 *** Document preparation ***
   391 
   392 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   393 like this:
   394 
   395   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   396   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   397 
   398 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   399 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   400 same.
   401 
   402 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   403 result.
   404 
   405 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   406 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   407 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   408 
   409 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   410 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   411 
   412 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators, which are better
   413 avoided in the first place (no universally agreed standard expansion).
   414 Implicit tab-width is now 1.
   415 
   416 
   417 *** ML ***
   418 
   419 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   420 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   421 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   422 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   423 under external program control.
   424 
   425 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   426 data, which requires explicit setup.
   427 
   428 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   429 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   430 (better known as Proof General).
   431 
   432 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   433 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   434 
   435 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   436 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   437 
   438 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   439 (including quotes etc.).
   440 
   441 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   442 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   443 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   444 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   445 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   446 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   447 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   448 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   449 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   450 
   451 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   452 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   453 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   454 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   455 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   456 
   457 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   458 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   459 
   460 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   461 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   462 
   463 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   464 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   465 
   466 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   467 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   468 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   469 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   470 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   472 proper Proof.context.
   473 
   474 
   475 *** System ***
   476 
   477 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   478 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
   479 example:
   480 
   481   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   482 
   483 Togeter with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode this
   484 allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
   485 
   486 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
   487 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
   488 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
   489 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
   490 
   491 
   492 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   493 ----------------------------------
   494 
   495 *** General ***
   496 
   497 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   498 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   499 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   500 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   501 like this:
   502 
   503   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   504 
   505 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   506 
   507 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   508 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   509 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   510 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   511 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   512 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   513 
   514 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   515 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   516 the following package declarations:
   517 
   518   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   519   \usepackage{textcomp}
   520 
   521 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   522 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   523 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   524 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   525 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   526 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   527 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   528 
   529 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   530 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   531 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   532 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   533 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   534 
   535 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   536 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   537 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   538 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   539 
   540 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   541 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   542 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   543 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   544 
   545   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   546 
   547   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   548   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   549   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   550   show_types                    show_types
   551   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   552   show_consts                   show_consts
   553   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   554 
   555   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   556   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   557   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   558 
   559   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   560   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   561 
   562   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   563 
   564   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   565   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   566   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   567   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   568   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   569 
   570 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   571 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   572 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   573 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   574 
   575 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   579   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   580 
   581 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   582 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   583 float_token.
   584 
   585 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   586 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   590 DejaVu Sans.
   591 
   592 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   593 
   594 
   595 *** Pure ***
   596 
   597 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   598 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   599 time.
   600 
   601 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   602 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   603 
   604 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   605 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   608 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   609 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   610 command already provided this functionality.
   611 
   612 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   613 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   614 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   615 without interpretations.
   616 
   617 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   618 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   619 
   620 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   621 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   622 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   623 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   624 
   625 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   626 'definition' instead.
   627 
   628 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   629 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   630 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   631 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   632 
   633 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   634 constructors.
   635 
   636 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   637 the local file system.
   638 
   639 
   640 *** HOL ***
   641 
   642 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   643 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   644 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   645 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   646 
   647   declare [[coercion f]]
   648 
   649 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   650 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   651 
   652   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   653 
   654 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   655 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   656 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   657 other theories like this:
   658 
   659   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   660 
   661 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   662 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   663 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   664 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   665 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   666 for examples.
   667 
   668 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   669 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   670 
   671 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   672 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   673 
   674 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   675 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   676 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   677 
   678 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   679 functorial structure of types.
   680 
   681 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   682 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   683 
   684 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   685 languages.
   686 
   687 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   688 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   692 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   695 combinators any longer.
   696 
   697 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   698 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   699 
   700 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   701 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   702 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   703 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   704 
   705   record 'a foo = ...
   706   ...
   707   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   708 
   709 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   710 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   714 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   715 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   716 
   717 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   718 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   719 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   720 
   721 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   722 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   725 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   726 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   727 independently.
   728 
   729 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   730 counter example search.
   731 
   732 * Sledgehammer:
   733   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   734     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   735     sledgehammer").
   736   - Renamed commands:
   737     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   738     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   739     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   740     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741   - Renamed options:
   742     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   743     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   744     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   745     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   746     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * Nitpick:
   749   - Renamed options:
   750     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   751     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   752     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   754   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   755   - Added "whack" option.
   756   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   757   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   758   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   759   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   760     higher cardinalities.
   761   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   762 
   763 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   764 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   765 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   766 
   767     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   768 
   769 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   770 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   771 
   772 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   773 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   774 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   775 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   776 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   777 "smt_solver".
   778 
   779 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   780 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   781 
   782 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   783 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   784 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   785 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   788   - Renamed:
   789     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   790     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   791     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792   - Added:
   793     smt_verbose
   794     smt_random_seed
   795     smt_datatypes
   796     smt_infer_triggers
   797     smt_monomorph_limit
   798     cvc3_options
   799     remote_cvc3_options
   800     remote_z3_options
   801     yices_options
   802 
   803 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   804 header.
   805 
   806 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   807 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   808 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   809 
   810   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   811 
   812 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   813 
   814 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   815 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   816 
   817 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   820 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   821 
   822 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   823 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   824 
   825 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   826 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827 
   828 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   829 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   830 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
   835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   838 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   839 
   840 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   841 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   842 for congruent(2)).
   843 
   844 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   845 
   846   types
   847     bool ~> HOL.bool
   848     nat ~> Nat.nat
   849 
   850   constants
   851     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   852     True ~> HOL.True
   853     False ~> HOL.False
   854     op & ~> HOL.conj
   855     op | ~> HOL.disj
   856     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   857     op = ~> HOL.eq
   858     Not ~> HOL.Not
   859     The ~> HOL.The
   860     All ~> HOL.All
   861     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   862     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   863     Let ~> HOL.Let
   864     If ~> HOL.If
   865     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   866     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   867     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   868     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   869     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   870     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   871     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   872     op : ~> Set.member
   873     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   874 
   875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
   878 
   879     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
   880     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
   881     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
   882     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
   883     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
   884     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
   885     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
   886     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
   887 
   888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889 
   890 * More stylized fact names:
   891 
   892   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
   893   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
   894   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
   895   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
   896 
   897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   898 
   899 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
   900 
   901   constants
   902     null ~> List.null
   903 
   904   facts
   905     mem_iff ~> member_def
   906     null_empty ~> null_def
   907 
   908 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
   909 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
   910 generation.
   911 
   912 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
   913 Haskell code.
   914 
   915 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
   916 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
   917 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
   920 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   921 
   922 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
   923 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
   924 
   925 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
   926 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
   927 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   928 
   929 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
   930 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   931 
   932 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
   933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
   936 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
   937 referred to by its qualified name.
   938 
   939   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
   940   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
   941   product ~>  Enum.product
   942 
   943 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
   944 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
   945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   946 
   947 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
   948 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
   949 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
   950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
   953 sort_key.
   954 
   955 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
   956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957 
   958 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
   959 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
   960 instead of finite cartesian products.
   961 
   962   types
   963     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
   964               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
   965               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
   966         (depends on your needs)
   967 
   968   constants
   969      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
   970      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
   971      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
   972 
   973 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
   974 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
   975 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
   976 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   977 
   978 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
   979 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
   980 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
   981 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
   982 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
   985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 
   987 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
   988 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
   989 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
   990 
   991 
   992 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   993 
   994 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
   995 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
   996 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
   997 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
   998 compatibility.
   999 
  1000 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1001 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1002 
  1003 
  1004 *** HOLCF ***
  1005 
  1006 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1007 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1008 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1012 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1013 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1016   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1017   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1018 
  1019 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1020 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1021 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1022 
  1023 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1024 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1025 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1026 domain definition now works:
  1027 
  1028   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1029 
  1030 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1031 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1032 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1033 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1034 
  1035   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1036     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1037 
  1038   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1039 
  1040 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1041 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1042 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043 
  1044 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1045 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1048 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1049 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1050 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1051 
  1052 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1053 
  1054 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1062 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1063 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1064 
  1065 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1066 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1067 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1068 
  1069 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1070 still supported as an input translation.
  1071 
  1072 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1073 
  1074   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1075   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1076   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1077   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1078   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1079   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1080   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1081 
  1082 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1083 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1086   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1087   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1088   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1089   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1090   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1091 
  1092 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1093 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1096 
  1097   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1098   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1099   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1100   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1101 
  1102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1105 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1108 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1109 
  1110   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1111   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1112   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1113   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1114   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1115   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1116   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1117   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1118   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1119   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1120   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1121   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1122   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1123   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1124   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1125   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1126   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1127   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1128   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1129   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1130 
  1131 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1132 
  1133   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1134   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1135   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1136   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1137   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1138   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1139   box_less             ~> box_below
  1140   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1141   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1142   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1143   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1144   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1145   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1146   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1147   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1148   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1149   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1150   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1151   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1152   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1153   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1154   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1155   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1156   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1157   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1158   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1159   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1160   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1161   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1162   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1163   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1164   up_less              ~> up_below
  1165   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1166   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1167   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1168   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1169   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1170   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1171   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1172   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1173   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1174   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1175   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1176   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1177   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1178 
  1179 
  1180 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1181 
  1182 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1183 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 
  1186 *** ML ***
  1187 
  1188 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1189 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1190 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1191 
  1192 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1193 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1194 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1195 
  1196 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1197 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1198 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1199 
  1200 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1201 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1202 
  1203 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1204 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1205 
  1206 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1207 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1208 
  1209 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1210 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1211 
  1212 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1213 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1214 almost all situations.
  1215 
  1216 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1217 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1218 Isabelle/ML.
  1219 
  1220 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1221 meaning.
  1222 
  1223 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1224 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1225 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1226 
  1227 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1228 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1229 
  1230 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1231 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1232 
  1233 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1234 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1235 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1236 
  1237 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1238 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1239 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1240 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1241 configuration options.
  1242 
  1243 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1244 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1245 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1246 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1247 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1248 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1249 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1250 
  1251 
  1252 
  1253 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1254 ---------------------------------
  1255 
  1256 *** General ***
  1257 
  1258 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1259 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1260 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1261 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1262 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1263 their full internal name.
  1264 
  1265 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1266 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1267 Some hints on upgrading:
  1268 
  1269   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1270     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1271     which are independent of this issue.
  1272 
  1273   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1274     provides the following special forms:
  1275 
  1276       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1277       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1278       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1279 
  1280     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1281     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1282     extra variables".
  1283 
  1284     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1285     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1286     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1287     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1288     "logic".
  1289 
  1290   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1291     antiquotations:
  1292 
  1293       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1294       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1295       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1296       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1297 
  1298   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1299     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1300     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1301     antiquotations.
  1302 
  1303 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1304 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1305 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1306 diagnose syntax problems.
  1307 
  1308 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1309 
  1310 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1311 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1312 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1313 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1314 
  1315 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1316 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1317 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1318 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1321 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1322 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1323 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1324 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1325 
  1326 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1327 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1328 
  1329 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1330 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1331 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1332 
  1333   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1334 
  1335 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1336 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1337 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1338 
  1339 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1340 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1344 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1345 
  1346 
  1347 *** Pure ***
  1348 
  1349 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1350 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1351 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1352 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1353 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1354 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1355 inspect proof terms.
  1356 
  1357 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1358 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1359 are added internally.  For example:
  1360 
  1361   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1362 
  1363 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1364 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1365 
  1366 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1367 
  1368 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1369 'class' instead.
  1370 
  1371 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1372 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1374 
  1375 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1376 invariants.
  1377 
  1378 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1379 user space functionality any longer.
  1380 
  1381 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1382 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1383 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384 
  1385 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1386 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1387 
  1388 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1389 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1390 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1391 
  1392 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1393 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1394 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1395 
  1396 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1397 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1398 
  1399 
  1400 *** HOL ***
  1401 
  1402 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1403 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1404 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1405 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1406 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1407 
  1408 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1409 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1410 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1411 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1412 
  1413   fun
  1414     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1415   where
  1416     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1417 
  1418   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1419     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1420 
  1421   quotient_definition
  1422     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1423 
  1424 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1425 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1426 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1427 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1428 
  1429 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1430 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1431 
  1432 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1433 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1434 
  1435 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1437 
  1438 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1439 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1440 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1441 
  1442 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1443 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1447 
  1448 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1452 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1453 
  1454 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1455 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1456 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1459   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1460   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1461   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1462   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1463   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1464   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1465   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1466   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1467   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1468   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1469   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1470   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1471   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1472   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1473   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1474   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1475   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1476   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1477   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1478   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1479   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1480   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1481   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1482   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1483   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1484   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1485   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1486   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1487   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1488 
  1489 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1490 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1491 
  1492 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1493 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1494 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1495 
  1496 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1497 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1498 
  1499 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1500 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1503 
  1504 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1505 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1508 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1513 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1514 
  1515 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1516 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1517 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1518 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1521   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1522   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1523   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1527 lattices):
  1528 
  1529     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1530     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1531 
  1532     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1533 
  1534     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1535     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1536     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1537     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1538     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1539     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1540     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1541     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1542     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1543     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1544     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1545     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1546     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1547 
  1548     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1549     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1550     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1551     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1552     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1553     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1554     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1555     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1556     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1557     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1558     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1559     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1560     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1561     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1562     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1563     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1564     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1565     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1566 
  1567   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1568   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1569 
  1570     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1571     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1572     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1573     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1574     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1575 
  1576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1577 
  1578 * Refined field classes:
  1579   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1580     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1581     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1582   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1586   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1587   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1588   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1589     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1590   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1591     equal_neg_zero.
  1592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593 
  1594 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1595 sets to lattices:
  1596 
  1597   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1598   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1599   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1600   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1601   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1602   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1603   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1604   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1605   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1606   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1607 
  1608 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1609 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1610 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1611 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1612 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1613 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1616 multiset order:
  1617 
  1618   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1619     <= and <;
  1620   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1621     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1622     multiset_order;
  1623   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1624     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1625     generation;
  1626   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1627     if needed.
  1628 
  1629 Renamed:
  1630 
  1631   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1632   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1633   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1634 
  1635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1638 
  1639 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1640 
  1641 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1642 
  1643 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1644 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1645 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1646 
  1647   Constants:
  1648   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1649   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1650   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1651   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1652   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1653   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1654   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1655   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1656   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1657   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1658   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1659   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1660   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1661 
  1662   Lemmas:
  1663   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1664   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1665   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1666   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1667   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1668   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1669   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1670   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1671   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1672   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1673   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1674   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1675   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1676 
  1677 * Sledgehammer:
  1678   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1679     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1680     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1681     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1682     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1683     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1684     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1686   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1687     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1688   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1689     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1690     is still experimental.)
  1691   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1692     full-typed mode.
  1693   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1694 
  1695 * Nitpick:
  1696   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1697   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1698   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1699     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1700   - Added support for quotient types.
  1701   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1702     constructs.
  1703   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1704     "termination" proofs).
  1705   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1706   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1707   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1708   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1709     record getters.
  1710   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1711   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1712   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1713   - Added "atoms" option.
  1714   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1715     problems.
  1716   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1717     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1718     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1720     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1721   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1724   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1725   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1726   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1727   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1728   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1729   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1730   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1731   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1732   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1733 
  1734 
  1735 *** HOLCF ***
  1736 
  1737 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1738 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1739 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1740 
  1741 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1742 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1743 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1744 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745 
  1746 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1747 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1748 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1749 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1750 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751 
  1752 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1753 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1754 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755 
  1756 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1757 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1760   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1761 
  1762 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1763 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1766   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1767   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1768   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1769   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1770 
  1771 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1772 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1775   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1776   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1777 
  1778 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1779 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1783 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1786 
  1787 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1788 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1789 
  1790 
  1791 *** ML ***
  1792 
  1793 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1794 
  1795     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1796     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1797 
  1798     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1799     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1800     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1801     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1802 
  1803     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1804     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1805     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1806 
  1807 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1808 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1809 
  1810 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1811 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1812 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1813 
  1814 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1815 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1816 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1817 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1818 
  1819 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1820 the context or even global references.
  1821 
  1822 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1823 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1824 
  1825 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1826 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1827 
  1828   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1829   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1830   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1831   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1832   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1833   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1834   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1835   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1836   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1837   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1838 
  1839 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1840 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1841 
  1842 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1843 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1844 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1845 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1846 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1847 
  1848 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1849 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1850 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1851 Theory_Data version.
  1852 
  1853 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1854 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1855 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1856 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1857 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1858 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1859 explicitly in rare situations.
  1860 
  1861 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1862 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1864 
  1865 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1866 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1867 
  1868 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1869 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1870 quite rare).
  1871 
  1872 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1873 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  1876 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  1877 terms.
  1878 
  1879 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  1880 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  1881 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  1882 
  1883 
  1884 *** System ***
  1885 
  1886 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  1887 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  1888 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  1889 
  1890 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  1891 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  1892 respectively.
  1893 
  1894 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  1895 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  1896 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  1897 prefers 64 bit if available:
  1898 
  1899   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  1900 
  1901 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  1902 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  1903 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  1904 component.
  1905 
  1906 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  1907 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  1908 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  1909 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  1910 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  1911 the user for manual installation.
  1912 
  1913 
  1914 
  1915 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  1916 -------------------------------------
  1917 
  1918 *** General ***
  1919 
  1920 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  1921 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  1922 
  1923 
  1924 *** Pure ***
  1925 
  1926 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  1927 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  1928 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  1929 
  1930 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  1931 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  1932 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  1933 
  1934 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  1935 interpretation.
  1936 
  1937 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  1938 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1939 
  1940 
  1941 *** Document preparation ***
  1942 
  1943 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  1944 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  1945 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  1946 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  1947 
  1948 
  1949 *** HOL ***
  1950 
  1951 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  1952 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  1953 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  1954 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  1955 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  1956 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  1957 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  1958 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  1959 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  1960 
  1961 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  1962 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  1963 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  1964 
  1965 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  1966 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  1967 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  1968 
  1969 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  1970 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  1971 
  1972 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  1973 
  1974 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  1975 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  1976 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  1977 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  1978 
  1979 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  1980 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  1981 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  1982 "mirabelle" utility.
  1983 
  1984 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  1985 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  1986 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  1987 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  1988 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  1989 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  1990 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  1991 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  1992 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  1993 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  1994 
  1995 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  1996 procedure only.
  1997 
  1998 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  1999 
  2000 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2001 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2002 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2003 that fail later.
  2004 
  2005 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2006 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2007 
  2008 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2009 the same method as the approximation method.
  2010 
  2011 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2012 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2013 series expansion.
  2014 
  2015 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2016 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2017 
  2018 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2019 reals.
  2020 
  2021 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2022 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2023 
  2024 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2025 fixpoint theorem.
  2026 
  2027 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2028   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2029     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2030   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2031     accordingly
  2032   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2033     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2034   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2035     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2036 
  2037 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2038 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2039 lattice.
  2040 
  2041 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2042 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2043 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2044 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2045 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2046 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2048 
  2049 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2050   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2051     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2052   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2053     le_inf_iff
  2054   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2055     sup_aci)
  2056   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2057   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2058   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2059     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2060     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2061     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2062     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2063     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2064     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2065     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2066     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2067     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2068     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2069   - authentic syntax for
  2070     Set.Pow
  2071     Set.image
  2072   - mere abbreviations:
  2073     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2074     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2075     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2076     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2077     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2078     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2079     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2080     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2081   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2082 
  2083 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2084 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2085 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2086 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2087 
  2088 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2089 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2090 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2091 
  2092 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2093 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2096 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2097 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2098 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2099 
  2100 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2101 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2102 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2103 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2104 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2105 
  2106 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2107 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109 
  2110 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2111 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2112 
  2113 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2114 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2115 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2116 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2117 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2118 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2119 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2123     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2124     code_post       replaces    code post
  2125     etc.
  2126   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * Renamed methods:
  2129     sizechange -> size_change
  2130     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2131   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2134 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2135 
  2136 * Renamed theorems:
  2137     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2138     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2139     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2140     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2141     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2142   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2143 
  2144 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2149 
  2150 
  2151 *** HOLCF ***
  2152 
  2153 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2154 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2155 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2156 
  2157 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2158 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2159 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2160 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2161 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2162 
  2163 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2164 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2165 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2166 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2167 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2168 
  2169 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2170 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2171 constructor are pre-configured.
  2172 
  2173 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2174 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2175 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2176 
  2177 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2178 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2179 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2180 as well.)
  2181 
  2182 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2183 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2184 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2185 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2186 examples.
  2187 
  2188 
  2189 *** ML ***
  2190 
  2191 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2192 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2193 
  2194 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2195 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2196 position, logical grouping etc.
  2197 
  2198 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2199 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2200 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2201 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2202 
  2203 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2204 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2205 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2206 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2207 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2208 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2209 
  2210 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2211 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2212 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2213 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2214 experiments with references.
  2215 
  2216 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2217 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2218 
  2219 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2220 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2221 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2222 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2223 
  2224 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2225 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2226 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2227 
  2228 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2229 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2230 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2233 
  2234 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2238 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2239 
  2240 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2241 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2242 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2243 
  2244 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2245 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2246 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2249 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2250 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2252 
  2253 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2254 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2255 instead of global theory.
  2256 
  2257 
  2258 *** System ***
  2259 
  2260 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2261 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2262 usedir option -q.
  2263 
  2264 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2265 also the system manual.
  2266 
  2267 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2268 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2269 
  2270 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2271 this is always enabled.
  2272 
  2273 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2274 
  2275 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2276 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2277 currently supported on Linux only.
  2278 
  2279 
  2280 
  2281 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2282 --------------------------------
  2283 
  2284 *** General ***
  2285 
  2286 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2287 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2288 
  2289   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2290     "isatool."
  2291 
  2292   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2293     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2294 
  2295   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2296     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2297 
  2298 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2299 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2300 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2301 
  2302 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2303 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2304 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2305 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2306 via "isabelle emacs".
  2307 
  2308 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2309 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2310 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2311 
  2312 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2313 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2314 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2315 
  2316 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2317 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2318 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2319 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2320 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2321 
  2322 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2323 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2324 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2325 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2326 
  2327 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2328 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2329 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2330 
  2331 
  2332 *** Pure ***
  2333 
  2334 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2335 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2336 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2337 
  2338 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2339 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2340 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2341 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2342 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2343 
  2344 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2345 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2346 useful in locale declarations.
  2347 
  2348 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2349 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2350 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2351 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2352 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2353 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2354 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2355 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2356 no longer generated.
  2357 
  2358 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2359 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2360 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2361 
  2362 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2363 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2364 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2365 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2366 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2367 
  2368 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2370 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2371 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2372 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2373 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2374 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2375 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2376 
  2377 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2378 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2379 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2380 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2381 
  2382 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2385 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2386 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2387 
  2388 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2389 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390 
  2391 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2392 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2393 in HOL, write
  2394 
  2395     class foo = ...
  2396 
  2397 instead of
  2398 
  2399     class foo = type + ...
  2400 
  2401 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2402 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2405 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2406 
  2407 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2408 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2409 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2410 
  2411 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2412 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2413 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2414 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2415 directly in regular applications.
  2416 
  2417 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2418 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2419 
  2420 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2421 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2422 
  2423 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2424 theory context.
  2425 
  2426 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2427 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2430 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2431 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2432 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2433 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2434 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2435 
  2436   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2437 
  2438 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2439 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2440 normalization.
  2441 
  2442 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2443 addressing etc.
  2444 
  2445 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2446 
  2447   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2448   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2449 
  2450 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2451 
  2452   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2453      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2454      parts of the code generator framework).
  2455 
  2456   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2457      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2458      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2459 
  2460 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461 
  2462 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2463 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2464 
  2465 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2466 patterns, e.g.
  2467 
  2468     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2469 
  2470 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2471 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2472 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2473 hyphen:
  2474 
  2475     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2476 
  2477 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2478 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2479 
  2480 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2481 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2482 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2483 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2484 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2485 higher-order unification.
  2486 
  2487 
  2488 *** Document preparation ***
  2489 
  2490 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2491 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2492 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2493 
  2494 
  2495 *** HOL ***
  2496 
  2497 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2498 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2499 
  2500 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2501 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2502 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2503 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2504 Main, as before.
  2505 
  2506 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2507 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2508 
  2509 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2510 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2511 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2512 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2513 
  2514 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2515 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2516 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2517 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2518 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2519 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2520 
  2521 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2522 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2523 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2524 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2525 
  2526 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2527 menu.
  2528 
  2529 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2530 (contains the empty clause).
  2531 
  2532 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2533 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2534 
  2535 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2536 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2537 
  2538 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2539 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2540 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2543 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2544 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2545 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2546 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2547 
  2548 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2549 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2550 
  2551 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2552 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2553 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2554 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2555 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2556 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2557 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2558 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2559 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2560 
  2561 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2562 
  2563 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2564 
  2565 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2566 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2567 
  2568 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2569 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2570 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2571 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2572 
  2573 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2574 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2575 
  2576     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2577     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2578     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2579     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2580     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2581     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2582     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2583     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2584 
  2585 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2586 theory Set.
  2587 
  2588 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2589 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2590 
  2591 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2592 
  2593 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2594 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2595 
  2596 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2597 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2598 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2599 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2600 allowed. For examples see
  2601 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2602 
  2603 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2604 
  2605 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2609 structure:
  2610 
  2611     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2612     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2613     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2614     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2615     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2616     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2617     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2618     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2619     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2620     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2621     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2622     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2623     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2624     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2625     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2626     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2627     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2628     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2629     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2630     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2631     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2632     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2633     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2634     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2635     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2636     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2637     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2638     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2639     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2640     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2641     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2642     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2643     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2644 
  2645     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2646     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2647     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2648     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2649     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2650     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2651     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2652     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2653     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2654     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2655 
  2656     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2657     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2658     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2659     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2660     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2661     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2662 
  2663 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2664 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2665 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2666 
  2667 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2668 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2669 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2670 
  2671 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2672 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673 
  2674 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2675 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2676 
  2677 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2678 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2679 proofs, e.g.
  2680 
  2681   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2682 
  2683 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2684 
  2685 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2686 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2687 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2688 
  2689 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2690 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2692 
  2693 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2694 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2695 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2699 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2700 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2701 preorder_class.*.
  2702 
  2703 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2704 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2705 
  2706 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2707 
  2708   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2709 
  2710 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2711 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2712 fold_image.
  2713 
  2714 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2715 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2716 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2717 the former will disappear at some point.
  2718 
  2719 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2720 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2721 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2722 
  2723 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2724 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2725 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2726 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2727 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2728 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2729 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2730 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2731 
  2732 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2733 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2734 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2735 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2736 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2737 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2738 
  2739     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2740     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2741     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2742     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2743     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2744     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2745     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2746 
  2747 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2748 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2749 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2750 
  2751 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2752 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2753 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2754 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2755 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2756 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2757 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2758 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2759 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2760 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2761 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2762 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2763 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2764 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2765 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2766 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2767 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2768 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2769 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2770 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2771 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2772 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2773 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2774 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2775 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2776 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2777 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2778 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2779 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2780 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2781 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2782 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2783 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2784 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2785 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2786 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2787 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2788 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2789 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2790 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2791 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2792 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2793 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2794 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2795 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2796 
  2797 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2798 
  2799 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2800 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2801 
  2802 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2803 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2804 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2805 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2806 
  2807 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2808 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2809 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2810 theory RealVector.
  2811 
  2812 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2813 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2814 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2815 and inner products are included.
  2816 
  2817 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2818 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2819 supported.
  2820 
  2821 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2822 first diagonalization argument.
  2823 
  2824 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2825 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2826 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2827 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2828 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2829 
  2830     hide (open) const gcd
  2831     abbreviation gcd where
  2832       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2833     notation (output)
  2834       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2835 
  2836 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2837 
  2838 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2839 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2840 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2841 
  2842 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2843 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2844 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2845 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2846 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2847 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2848 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2849 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2850 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2851 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2852 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2853 cases.
  2854 
  2855 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2856 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2857 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2858 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2859 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2860 
  2861     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2862     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2863     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2864     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2865     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2866 
  2867 
  2868 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2869 
  2870 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2871 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2872 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2873 
  2874 * New theory of factorial domains.
  2875 
  2876 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  2877 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  2878 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  2879 
  2880 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2881 
  2882 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  2883 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  2884 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  2885 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  2886 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  2887 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  2888 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  2889 
  2890 
  2891 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  2892 
  2893 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  2894 
  2895 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  2896 theory targets.
  2897 
  2898 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  2899 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  2900 'inductive' etc.
  2901 
  2902 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  2903 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  2904 
  2905 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  2906 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  2907 
  2908 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  2909 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  2910 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  2911 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  2912 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  2913 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  2914 the algorithm W:
  2915 
  2916  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  2917  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  2918          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  2919 
  2920 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  2921 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  2922 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  2923 
  2924 
  2925 *** HOLCF ***
  2926 
  2927 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  2928 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  2929 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  2930 
  2931 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  2932 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  2933 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  2934 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  2935 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  2938 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2939 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940 
  2941 
  2942 *** ZF ***
  2943 
  2944 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  2945 
  2946 
  2947 *** ML ***
  2948 
  2949 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  2950 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  2951 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  2952 5.2.1!
  2953 
  2954 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  2955 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  2956 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  2957 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  2958 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  2959 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  2960 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2961 
  2962 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  2963 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  2964 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  2965 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  2966 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  2967 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  2968 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2969 
  2970 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  2971 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  2972 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  2973 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  2974 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2975 
  2976 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  2977 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  2978 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  2979 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  2980 Method.add_method.
  2981 
  2982 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  2983 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  2984 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  2985 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  2986 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  2987 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  2988 
  2989 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  2990 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  2991 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  2992 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  2993 examples.
  2994 
  2995 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  2996 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  2997 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  2998 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  2999 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3000 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3001 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3002 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3003 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3004 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3005 
  3006 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3007 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3008 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3009 
  3010 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3011 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3012 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3013 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3014 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3015 resort for legacy applications.
  3016 
  3017 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3018 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3019 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3020 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3021 explicit runtime argument.
  3022 
  3023 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3024 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3025 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3026 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3027 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3030 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3031 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3032 theory state.
  3033 
  3034 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3035 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3036 
  3037   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3038   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3039   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3040   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3041   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3042   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3043   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3044   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3045   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3046   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3047 
  3048 
  3049 *** System ***
  3050 
  3051 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3052 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3053 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3054 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3055 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3056 
  3057 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3058 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3059 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3060 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3061 
  3062 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3063 
  3064 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3065 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3066 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3067 prover operations.
  3068 
  3069 
  3070 
  3071 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3072 -------------------------------
  3073 
  3074 *** General ***
  3075 
  3076 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3077 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3078 
  3079 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3080 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3081 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3082 provides a proper context already.
  3083 
  3084 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3085 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3086 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3087 
  3088 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3089 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3090 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3091 swap theory imports.
  3092 
  3093 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3094 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3095 
  3096 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3097 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3098 white space without escapes.
  3099 
  3100 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3101 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3102 "foo_bar".
  3103 
  3104 
  3105 *** Pure ***
  3106 
  3107 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3108 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3109 
  3110 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3111 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3112 
  3113 (1) unused_thms
  3114      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3115 
  3116 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3117      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3118      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3119 
  3120 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3121      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3122      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3123      their ancestors.
  3124 
  3125 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3126 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3127 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3128 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3129 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3130 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3131 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3132 
  3133 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3134 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3135 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3136 
  3137 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3138 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3139 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3140 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3141 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3142 
  3143 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3144 
  3145 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3146 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3147 update of theories within ML code.
  3148 
  3149 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3150 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3151 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3152 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3153 
  3154 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3155 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3156 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3158 
  3159 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3160 
  3161 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3162 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3163 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3164 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3165 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3166 
  3167 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3168 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3169 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3170 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3171 situations.
  3172 
  3173 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3174 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3175 proof text.
  3176 
  3177 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3178 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3179 
  3180 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3181 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3182 predicates.
  3183 
  3184 
  3185 *** Document preparation ***
  3186 
  3187 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3188 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3189 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3190 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3191 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3192 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3193 
  3194 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3195 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3196 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3197 
  3198 
  3199 *** HOL ***
  3200 
  3201 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3202 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3203 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3204 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3205 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3206 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3207 
  3208 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3209 with multithreading.
  3210 
  3211 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3212 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3213 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3214 
  3215 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3216 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3217 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3218 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3219 
  3220 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3221 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3222 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3223 and makes them available separately.  See
  3224 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3225 
  3226 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3227 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3228 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3229 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3230 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3231 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3232 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3233 the declared rules.
  3234 
  3235 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3236 
  3237   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3238 
  3239 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3240 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3241 
  3242 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3243 
  3244   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3245 
  3246   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3247     definitions on => and bool.
  3248 
  3249   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3250     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3251     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3252 
  3253       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3254       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3255       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3256       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3257       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3258       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3259       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3260       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3261 
  3262   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3263     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3264     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3265 
  3266   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3267     The proof pattern
  3268 
  3269       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3270       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3271 
  3272     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3273     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3274 
  3275       have "EX S. P S"
  3276       proof
  3277         show "P S" <...>
  3278       qed
  3279 
  3280   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3281     The proof pattern
  3282 
  3283       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3284       also have "S = T" <...>
  3285       finally have "P T" .
  3286 
  3287     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3288     must be replaced by something like
  3289 
  3290       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3291       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3292       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3293 
  3294   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3295     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3296 
  3297       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3298 
  3299     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3300     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3301     type of the form
  3302 
  3303       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3304 
  3305     rather than
  3306 
  3307       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3308 
  3309 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3310 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3311 
  3312 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3313 
  3314 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3315 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3319 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3322 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3323 
  3324 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3325 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3326 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3329 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3330 
  3331   less_trans
  3332   less_linear
  3333   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3334   le_less_trans
  3335   less_le_trans
  3336   less_not_sym
  3337   less_asym
  3338 
  3339 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3340 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3341 and different variable names.
  3342 
  3343 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3344 
  3345 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3346 finite maps.
  3347 
  3348 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3349 
  3350 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3351 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3352 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3353 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3354 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3355 accordingly.
  3356 
  3357 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3358 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3359 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3360 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3361 
  3362 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3363 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3364 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3365 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3366 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3368 
  3369 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3370 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3373 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3374 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3375 
  3376 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3380 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3381 
  3382 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3383 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3386 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3387 
  3388 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3389 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3391 
  3392 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3393 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3394 
  3395 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3396 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3397 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3398 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3399 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3400 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3403 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3404 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3405 
  3406 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3407 
  3408 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3409 
  3410 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3411 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3412 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3413 
  3414 
  3415 *** ZF ***
  3416 
  3417 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3418 same session:
  3419 
  3420   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3421   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3422   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3423   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3424   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3425   List      -> List_ZF
  3426   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3427 
  3428 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3429 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3430 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3431 
  3432 
  3433 *** ML ***
  3434 
  3435 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3436 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3437 
  3438 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3439 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3440 
  3441 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3442 
  3443 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3444 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3445 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3446 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3447 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3450 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3451 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3452 
  3453 
  3454 *** System ***
  3455 
  3456 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3457 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3458 
  3459 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3460 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3461 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3462 
  3463 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3464 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3465 
  3466 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3467 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3468 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3469 
  3470 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3471 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3472 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3473 
  3474 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3475 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3476 
  3477 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3478 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3479 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3480 script.
  3481 
  3482 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3483 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3484 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3485 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3486 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3487 
  3488 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3489 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3490 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3491 
  3492 
  3493 
  3494 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3495 -----------------------------------
  3496 
  3497 *** General ***
  3498 
  3499 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3500 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3501 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3502 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3503 
  3504 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3505 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3506 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3507 
  3508 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3509 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3510 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3511 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3514 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3515 quotes.
  3516 
  3517 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3518 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3519 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3520 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3521 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3522 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3523 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3524 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3525 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3526 
  3527 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3528 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3529 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3530 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3531 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3532 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3533 
  3534 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3535 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3536 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3537 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3538 
  3539 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3540 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3541 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3542 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3543 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3544 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3545 
  3546 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3547 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3548 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3549 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3550 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3551 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3552 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3553 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3554 
  3555 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3556 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3557 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3558 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3559 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3560 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3561 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3562 
  3563 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3564 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3565 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3566 
  3567 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3568 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3569 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3570 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3571 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3572 limit is imposed.
  3573 
  3574 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3575 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3576 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3577 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3578 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3579 and scalability.
  3580 
  3581 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3582 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3583 
  3584 
  3585 *** Document preparation ***
  3586 
  3587 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3588 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3589 current context.
  3590 
  3591 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3592 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3593 
  3594 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3595 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3596 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3597 
  3598 
  3599 *** Pure ***
  3600 
  3601 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3602 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3603 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3604 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3605 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3606 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3607 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3608 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3609 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3610 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3611 
  3612 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3613 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3614 sketch:
  3615 
  3616     internal compilation:
  3617         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3618     writing SML code to a file:
  3619         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3620     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3621         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3622     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3623         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3624 
  3625     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3626         method ``eval''
  3627 
  3628 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3629 
  3630 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3631 
  3632     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3633     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3634     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3635     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3636 
  3637 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3638 
  3639     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3640       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3641 
  3642     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3643       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3644 
  3645     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3646       {(target)}+
  3647         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3648 
  3649     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3650       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3651         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3652 
  3653 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3654 
  3655 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3656 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3657 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3658 codegen".
  3659 
  3660 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3661 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3662 annotations).
  3663 
  3664 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3665 syntax.
  3666 
  3667 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3668 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3669 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3670 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3671 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3672 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3673 
  3674 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3675 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3676 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3677 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3678 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3679 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3680 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3681 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3682 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3683 equations, see section "definitions".
  3684 
  3685 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3686 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3687 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3688 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3689 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3690 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3691 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3692 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3693 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3694 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3695 
  3696 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3697 configuration options:
  3698 
  3699   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3700   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3701   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3702   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3703   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3704   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3705   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3706   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3707   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3708 
  3709 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3710 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3711 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3712 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3713 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3714 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3715 order.
  3716 
  3717 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3718 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3719 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3720 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3721 context encountered later on.
  3722 
  3723 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3724 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3725 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3726 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3727 
  3728 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3729 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3730 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3731 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3732 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3733 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3734 
  3735 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3736 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3737 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3738 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3739 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3740 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3741 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3742 more permissive.
  3743 
  3744 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3745 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3746 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3747 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3748 maintainability of proof texts.
  3749 
  3750 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3751 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3752 
  3753   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3754   then guess x and y by clarify
  3755 
  3756 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3757 proof tools being involved here.
  3758 
  3759 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3760 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3761 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3762 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3763 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3764 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3765 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3766 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3767 
  3768 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3769 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3770 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3771 
  3772   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3773   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3774   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3775   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3776 
  3777 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3778 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3779 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3780 
  3781 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3782 both named and unnamed ones.
  3783 
  3784 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3785 
  3786   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3787 
  3788 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3789 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3790 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3791 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3792 
  3793 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3794 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3795 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3796 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3797 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3798 
  3799 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3800 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3801 
  3802 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3803 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3804 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3805 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3806 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3807 originally first one.
  3808 
  3809 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3810 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3811 expected.
  3812 
  3813 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3814 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3815 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3816 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3817 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3818 
  3819   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3820     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3821     obtains x where "P x"
  3822 
  3823   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3824     assumes "A & B"
  3825     obtains A and B
  3826 
  3827   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3828     assumes "A | B"
  3829     obtains
  3830       A
  3831     | B
  3832 
  3833 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3834 explicitly:
  3835 
  3836   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3837     obtains "~ thesis"
  3838 
  3839   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3840     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3841 
  3842 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3843 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3844 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3845 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3846 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3847 case_names).
  3848 
  3849 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3850 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3851 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3852 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3853 
  3854 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3855 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3856 top-level lemma.
  3857 
  3858 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3859 introduction rule (default "that").
  3860 
  3861 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3862 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3863 to occur.
  3864 
  3865 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3866 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3867 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3868 representations independently of name spaces.
  3869 
  3870 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3871 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3872 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  3875 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  3876 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  3877 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  3878 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  3879 current context.
  3880 
  3881 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  3882 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  3883 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  3884 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  3885 
  3886   axiomatization
  3887     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  3888     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  3889 
  3890   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  3891   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  3892 
  3893   abbreviation
  3894     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  3895     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  3896 
  3897 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  3898 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  3899 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  3900 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  3901 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  3902 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  3903 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  3904 
  3905 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  3906 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  3907 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  3908 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  3909 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  3910 
  3911 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  3912 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  3913 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  3914 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  3915 
  3916 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  3917 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  3918 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  3919 
  3920   definition "K x _ = x"
  3921 
  3922   inductive conj for A B
  3923   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  3924 
  3925 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  3926 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  3927 abbreviations on output.
  3928 
  3929 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  3930 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  3931 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  3932 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  3933 
  3934 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  3935 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  3936 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  3937 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  3938 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  3939 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  3940 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  3941 
  3942 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  3943 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  3944 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  3945 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  3946 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  3947 
  3948 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  3949 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  3950 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  3951 
  3952 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  3953 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  3954 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  3955 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  3956 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  3957 
  3958   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  3959     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  3960 
  3961 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  3962 definition specification element in the context of locale
  3963 partial_order.
  3964 
  3965 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  3966 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  3967 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  3968 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  3969 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  3970 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  3971 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  3972 examples.
  3973 
  3974 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  3975 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  3976 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  3977 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  3978 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  3979 
  3980 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  3981 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  3982 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  3983 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  3984 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  3985 
  3986   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  3987   (induct set: foo bar)
  3988   (induct pred: foo bar)
  3989   (induct type: foo bar)
  3990 
  3991 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  3992 new format.
  3993 
  3994 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  3995 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  3996 
  3997 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  3998 considered a legacy feature.
  3999 
  4000 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4001 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002 
  4003 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4004 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4005 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4006 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4007   
  4008 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4009 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4010 manipulating the claset.
  4011 
  4012 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4013 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4014 least one premise.
  4015 
  4016 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4017 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4018 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4019 rule steps.
  4020 
  4021 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4022 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4023 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4024 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4025 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4026 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4027 
  4028 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4029 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4030 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4031 
  4032 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4033 the graph browser tool.
  4034 
  4035 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4036 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4037 
  4038 
  4039 *** HOL ***
  4040 
  4041 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4042 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4043 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4044 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4045 multi-threading.
  4046   
  4047 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4048 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4049 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4050 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4051 work with multi-threading.
  4052 
  4053 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4054 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4055 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4056 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4057 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4058 
  4059 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4060 
  4061 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4062 equality.
  4063 
  4064 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4065 the new 'class' package:
  4066 
  4067     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4068     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4069     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4070     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4071     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4072     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4073     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4074     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4075     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4076     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4077     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4078     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4079     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4080     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4081     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4082     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4083     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4084     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4085     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4086     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4087 
  4088 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4089 
  4090 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4091 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4092 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4093 names.
  4094 
  4095 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4096 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4097 
  4098 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4099 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4100 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4101 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4102 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4103 
  4104 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4105 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4106 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4107 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4108 
  4109 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4110 
  4111 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4112 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4113 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4114 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4118 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4121 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4122 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4123 
  4124 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4125 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4126 
  4127 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4128 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4129 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4130 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4131 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4132 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4133 in the current context.
  4134 
  4135 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4136 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4140 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4141 
  4142 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4143 
  4144     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4145     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4146 
  4147     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4148       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4149     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4150     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4151 
  4152     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4153     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4154 
  4155   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4156 
  4157     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4158     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4159     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4160     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4161     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4162     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4163     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4164     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4165     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4166     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4167     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4168     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4169     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4170     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4171     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4172     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4173     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4174     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4175     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4176     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4177     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4178     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4179     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4180     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4181     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4182     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4183     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4184     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4185     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4186     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4187     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4188     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4189     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4190     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4191     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4192 
  4193     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4194     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4195     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4196     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4197     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4198     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4199     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4200     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4201     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4202     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4203     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4204     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4205     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4206     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4207     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4208     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4209     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4210 
  4211     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4212     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4213     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4214     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4215     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4216     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4217     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4218     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4219     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4220     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4221     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4222     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4223     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4224     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4225     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4226     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4227     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4228     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4229     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4230     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4231     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4232     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4233     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4234     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4235     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4236     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4237     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4238     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4239 
  4240     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4241     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4242     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4243     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4244     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4245     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4246 
  4247     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4248     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4249     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4250     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4251 
  4252     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4253     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4254 
  4255     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4256     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4257 
  4258 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4259 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4260 
  4261 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4262 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4263 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4264 "*.size".
  4265 
  4266 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4270 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4271 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4272 
  4273 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4276 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4277 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4278 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4279 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4280 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4281 numerals on all operations.
  4282 
  4283 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4284 
  4285 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4286 
  4287 * Code generator library theories:
  4288   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4289     languages.
  4290   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4291     languages.
  4292   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4293     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4294   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4295   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4296     denominator).
  4297   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4298     representable by rational numbers.
  4299   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4300     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4301     includes Code_Integer.
  4302   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4303     target-language built-in integers.
  4304   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4305     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4306 
  4307 * New package for inductive predicates
  4308 
  4309   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4310 
  4311     inductive
  4312       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4313       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4314     where
  4315       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4316     | ...
  4317 
  4318   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4319 
  4320     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4321 
  4322     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4323     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4324 
  4325     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4326     intros
  4327       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4328       ...
  4329 
  4330   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4331   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4332 
  4333     inductive_set
  4334       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4335       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4336     where
  4337       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4338     | ...
  4339 
  4340   or
  4341 
  4342     inductive_set
  4343       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4344       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4345       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4346     where
  4347       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4348     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4349     | ...
  4350 
  4351   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4352 
  4353   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4354   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4355 
  4356   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4357 
  4358   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4359     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4360     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4361     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4362     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4363 
  4364   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4365     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4366     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4367     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4368     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4369     statements of the form
  4370 
  4371       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4372 
  4373     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4374     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4375 
  4376       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4377 
  4378   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4379 
  4380       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4381         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4382         ==> ... ==> P
  4383 
  4384     for predicates and
  4385 
  4386       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4387         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4388         ==> ... ==> P
  4389 
  4390     for sets rather than
  4391 
  4392       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4393         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4394         ==> ... ==> P
  4395 
  4396     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4397     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4398     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4399 
  4400   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4401     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4402     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4403 
  4404 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4405 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4406 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4407 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4408 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4409 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4410 
  4411 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4412 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4413 
  4414 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4415 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4416 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4417 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4418 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4419 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4420 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4421 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4422 variable.
  4423 
  4424 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4425 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4426 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4427 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4428   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4429   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4430 
  4431 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4432 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4433 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4434 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4435 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4436 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4437 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4438 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4439 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4440 
  4441 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4442 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4443 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4444 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4445 rat, etc.
  4446 
  4447 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4448 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4449 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4450 
  4451 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4452 
  4453 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4454 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4455 
  4456 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4457 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4458 
  4459 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4460 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4461 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4464 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4466 
  4467 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4468 
  4469 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4470 
  4471 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4472 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4473 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4474 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4475 
  4476 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4477 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4478 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4479 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4480 
  4481 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4482 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4483 algebraic operations.
  4484 
  4485 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4487 
  4488 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4492 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4493 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4494 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4495 adapted.
  4496  
  4497 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4498 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4499 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4500 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4501 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4502 
  4503 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4504 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4505 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4506 
  4507 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4508 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4509 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4510 
  4511 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4512 
  4513 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4514 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4515 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4516   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4517       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4518   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4519   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4520   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4521 
  4522 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4523 
  4524 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4525 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4526 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4527 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4528 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4529 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4530 
  4531 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4532 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4533 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4534 
  4535 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4536 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4537 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4541 
  4542 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4543 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4544 
  4545 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4546 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4547 
  4548 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4549 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4550 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4551 
  4552 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4553 True/False.
  4554 
  4555 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4556 
  4557 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4558 
  4559 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4560 ``rule'' method.
  4561 
  4562 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4563 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4564 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4565 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4566 
  4567 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4568 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4569 
  4570 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4571 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4572 
  4573 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4574 Library.
  4575 
  4576 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4577 
  4578 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4579 as greatest fixed-point.
  4580 
  4581 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4582 association lists.
  4583 
  4584 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4585 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4586 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4587 
  4588 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4589 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4590 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4592 behavior.
  4593 
  4594 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4595 
  4596 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4597 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4598 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4599 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4600 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4601 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4602 
  4603 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4604 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4605 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4606 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4607 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4608 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4609 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4610 
  4611 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4612 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4613 
  4614 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4615 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4616 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4617 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4618 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4619 
  4620 
  4621 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4622 
  4623 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4624 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4625 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4626 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4630 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4631 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4632 
  4633 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4634 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4635 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4638 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4639 
  4640 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4641 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4642 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4646   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4647   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4648   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4649   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4650   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4651   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4652   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4653   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4654   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4655   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4656   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4657   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4658   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4659   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4660 
  4661 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4662 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4663 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4664 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4665 
  4666   approx        <-- capprox
  4667   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4668   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4669   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4670   monad         <-- cmonad
  4671   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4672   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4673   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4674   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4675 
  4676 
  4677 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4678 
  4679 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4680 
  4681 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4683 
  4684 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4685 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4688 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4689 of algebraic structures.
  4690 
  4691 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4692 
  4693 
  4694 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4695 
  4696 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4697 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4698 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4699 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4700 
  4701 
  4702 *** ML ***
  4703 
  4704 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4705 (even on SML/NJ).
  4706 
  4707 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4708 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4709 compile-time.  For example:
  4710 
  4711 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4712 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4713 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4714 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4715 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4716 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4717 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4718 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4719 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4720 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4721 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4722 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4723 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4724 ML {* @{context} *}
  4725 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4726 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4727 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4728 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4729 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4730 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4731 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4732 
  4733 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4734 
  4735 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4736 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4737 
  4738 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4739 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4740 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4741 
  4742 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4743 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4744 
  4745 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4746 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4747 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4748 
  4749 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4750 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4751 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4752 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4753 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4754 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4755 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4756 declarations and definitions.
  4757 
  4758 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4759 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4760 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4761 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4762 
  4763 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4764 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4765 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4766 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4769 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4770 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4771 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4772 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4773 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4774 
  4775 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4776 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4777 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4778 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4779 attributes, methods, etc.
  4780 
  4781 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4782 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4783 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4784 fold_map combinators.
  4785 
  4786 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4787 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4788 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4789 derivation.
  4790 
  4791 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4792 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4793 achieve the old behaviour.
  4794 
  4795 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4796 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4797 statements.
  4798 
  4799 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4800 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4801 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4802 
  4803 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4804 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4805 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4806 
  4807   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4808   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4809   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4810 
  4811 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4812 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4813 
  4814 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4815 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4816 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4817 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4818 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4819 
  4820 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4821 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4822 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4823 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4824 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4825 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4826 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4827 in a locale context).
  4828 
  4829 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4830 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4831 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4832 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4833 
  4834 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4835 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4836 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4837 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4838 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4839 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4840 
  4841 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4842 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4843 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4844 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4845 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4846 
  4847   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4848 
  4849 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4850 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4851 this:
  4852 
  4853   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4854 
  4855 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4856 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4857 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4858 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4859 
  4860 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4861 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4862 
  4863 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4864 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4865 
  4866 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4867 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4868 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4869 batch mode.
  4870 
  4871 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4872 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4873 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  4874 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4875 
  4876 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  4877 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  4878 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  4879 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  4880 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  4881 
  4882 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  4883 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  4884 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  4885 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  4886 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  4887 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  4888 
  4889 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  4890 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  4891 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  4892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  4895 "Trueprop" etc.
  4896 
  4897 
  4898 *** System ***
  4899 
  4900 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  4901 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  4902 Isabelle installations.
  4903 
  4904 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  4905 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  4906 code.
  4907 
  4908 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  4909 
  4910 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  4911 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  4912 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  4913 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  4914 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  4915 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  4916 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  4917 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  4918 Implementation manual.
  4919 
  4920 
  4921 
  4922 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  4923 ----------------------------------
  4924 
  4925 *** General ***
  4926 
  4927 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  4928 
  4929   theory <name>
  4930   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  4931   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  4932   begin
  4933 
  4934 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  4935 
  4936   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  4937 
  4938 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  4939 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  4940 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  4941 
  4942 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  4943 relative and absolute paths.
  4944 
  4945 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  4946 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  4947 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  4948 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  4949 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  4950 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  4951 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  4952 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  4953 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  4954 
  4955   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  4956 
  4957 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  4958 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  4959 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  4960 
  4961 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  4962 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4963 
  4964 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  4965 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  4966 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  4967 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  4968 
  4969   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  4970   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  4971 
  4972 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  4973 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  4974 faster.
  4975 
  4976 
  4977 *** Document preparation ***
  4978 
  4979 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  4980 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  4981 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  4982 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  4983 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  4984 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  4985 
  4986 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  4987 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  4988 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  4989 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  4990 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  4991 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  4992 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  4993 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  4994 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  4995 \isadroptag.
  4996 
  4997 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  4998 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  4999 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5000 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5001 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5002 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5003 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5004 specified above.
  5005 
  5006 * Several new antiquotations:
  5007 
  5008   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5009 
  5010   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5011 
  5012   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5013   argument is a known logical constant;
  5014 
  5015   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5016   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5017 
  5018   @{ML text}
  5019 
  5020 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5021 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5022 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5023 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5024 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5025 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5026 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5027 
  5028 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5029 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5030 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5031 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5032 
  5033 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5034 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5035 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5036 
  5037 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5038 a proof context.
  5039 
  5040 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5041 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5042 
  5043 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5044 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5045 
  5046 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5047 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5048 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5049 
  5050 
  5051 *** Pure ***
  5052 
  5053 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5054 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5055 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5056 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5057 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5058 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5059 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5060 
  5061 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5062 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5063 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5064 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5065 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5066 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5067 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5068 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5069 
  5070 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5071 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5072 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5073 
  5074 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5075 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5076 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5077 
  5078 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5079 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5080 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5081 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5083 
  5084 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5085 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5086 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5087 axclasses vs. locales.
  5088 
  5089 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5090 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5091 
  5092 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5093 marks in schematic variable names.
  5094 
  5095 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5096 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5097 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5098 
  5099   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5100     by simp
  5101 
  5102 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5103 
  5104 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5105 annotations as "(00...)".
  5106 
  5107 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5108 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5109 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5110 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5111 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5112 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5113 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5114 
  5115 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5116 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5117 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5118 specifications.
  5119 
  5120 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5121 locally fixed variables as well.
  5122 
  5123 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5124 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5125 Limit.
  5126 
  5127 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5128 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5129 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5130 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5131 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5132 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5133 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5134 
  5135 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5136 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5137 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5138 
  5139 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5140 
  5141 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5142 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5143 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5144 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5145 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5146 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5147 
  5148 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5149 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5150 
  5151 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5152 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5153 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5154 
  5155 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5156 
  5157 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5158 theory development.
  5159 
  5160 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5161 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5162 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5163 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5164 
  5165 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5166 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5167 quoted when used as identifier.
  5168 
  5169 
  5170 *** Locales ***
  5171 
  5172 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5173 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5174 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5175 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5176 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5177 commands is a follows:
  5178 
  5179   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5180   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5181   (3) interpret expr inst
  5182 
  5183 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5184 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5185 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5186 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5187 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5188 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5189 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5190 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5191 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5192 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5193 
  5194 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5195 'interpret' instead.
  5196 
  5197 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5198 parameters.
  5199 
  5200 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5201 redeclaration.
  5202 
  5203 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5204 
  5205 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5206 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5207 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5208 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5209 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5210 
  5211 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5212 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5213 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5214 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5215 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5216 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5217 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5218 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5219 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5220 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5221 
  5222 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5223 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5224 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5225 
  5226 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5227 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5228 
  5229 
  5230 *** Provers ***
  5231 
  5232 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5233 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5234 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5235 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5236 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5237 
  5238 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5239 and quasi orders.
  5240 
  5241 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5242 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5243 
  5244 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5245 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5246 
  5247 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5248 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5249 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5250 
  5251 
  5252 *** HOL ***
  5253 
  5254 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5255 
  5256   syntax (epsilon)
  5257     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5258 
  5259 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5260 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5261 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5262 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5263 
  5264 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5265 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5266 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5267 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5268 
  5269 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5270 instead of ":".
  5271 
  5272 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5273 
  5274   Old       New
  5275   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5276   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5277   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5278   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5279   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5280 
  5281 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5282 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5283 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5284 
  5285   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5286   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5287 
  5288 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5289 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5290 interface.
  5291 
  5292 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5293 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5294 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5295 be a tuple pattern.
  5296 
  5297 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5298 
  5299   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5300   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5301   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5302   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5303 
  5304 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5305 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5306 
  5307 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5308 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5309 (insert F x)'.
  5310 
  5311 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5312 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5313 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5314 
  5315 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5316 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5317 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5318 
  5319 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5320 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5321 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5322 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5323 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5324 
  5325 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5326 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5327 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5328 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5329 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5330 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5331 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5332 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5333 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5334 
  5335 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5336 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5337 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5338 quite long.
  5339 
  5340 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5341 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5342 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5343 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5344 
  5345 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5346 type-variables in the term.
  5347 
  5348 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5349 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5350 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5351 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5352 goals than previously.
  5353 
  5354 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5355 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5356 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5357 just like y <= x.
  5358 
  5359 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5360 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5361 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5362 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5363 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5364 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5365 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5366 
  5367 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5368 
  5369 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5370 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5371 
  5372 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5373 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5374 inequalities.
  5375 
  5376 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5377 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5378 
  5379   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5380   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5381   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5382   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5383   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5384   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5385   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5386   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5387   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5388   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5389   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5390 
  5391 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5392      
  5393      zero_le_square
  5394      not_square_less_zero 
  5395 
  5396   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5397   
  5398      realpow_zero_zero
  5399      realpow_two
  5400      realpow_less
  5401      zero_le_power
  5402      realpow_two_le
  5403      abs_realpow_two
  5404      realpow_two_abs     
  5405 
  5406 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5407 
  5408 * Theory List:
  5409 
  5410 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5411 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5412 
  5413   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5414   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5415   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5416   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5417 
  5418 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5419 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5420 
  5421 
  5422 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5423 
  5424 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5425 integers in the reals.
  5426 
  5427 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5428 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5429 
  5430   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5431   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5432   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5433   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5434   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5435 
  5436 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5437 
  5438 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5439 
  5440 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5441 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5442 
  5443   hypreal = real star
  5444   hypnat = nat star
  5445   hcomplex = complex star
  5446 
  5447 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5448 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5449 
  5450   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5451 
  5452   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5453   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5454   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5455   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5456   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5457 
  5458   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5459   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5460   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5461   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5462   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5463 
  5464 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5465 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5466 
  5467   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5468   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5469   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5470   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5471   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5472   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5473   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5474   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5475   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5476   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5477   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5478   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5479   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5480   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5481   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5482   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5483   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5484   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5485   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5486   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5487   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5488   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5489   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5490   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5491 
  5492 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5493 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5494 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5495 
  5496   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5497   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5498   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5499   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5500   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5501   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5502   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5503   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5504   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5505   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5506     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5507   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5508   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5509   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5510   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5511   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5512   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5513   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5514   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5515   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5516   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5517   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5518   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5519   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5520   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5521   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5522   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5523   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5524   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5525   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5526   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5527   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5528   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5529   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5530   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5531   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5532   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5533   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5534   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5535   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5536   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5537   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5538   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5539   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5540   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5541   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5542   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5543   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5544   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5545   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5546   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5547   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5548   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5549   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5550 
  5551   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5552   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5553   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5554   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5555   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5556   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5557   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5558   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5559   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5560   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5561   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5562 
  5563   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5564   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5565   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5566   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5567   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5568   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5569   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5570   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5571   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5572   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5573   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5574   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5575   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5576   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5577   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5578   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5579   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5580   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5581   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5582   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5583   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5584 
  5585 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5586 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5587 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5588 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5589 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5590 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5591 
  5592 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5593 
  5594 
  5595 *** HOLCF ***
  5596 
  5597 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5598 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5599 type-inference.
  5600 
  5601 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5602 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5603 instead of exponential time).
  5604 
  5605 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5606 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5607 
  5608   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5609 
  5610 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5611 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5612 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5613 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5614 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5615 syntax and examples.
  5616 
  5617 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5618 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5619 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5620 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5621 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5622 
  5623 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5624 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5625 
  5626   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5627   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5628   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5629   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5630   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5631   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5632 
  5633 
  5634 *** ZF ***
  5635 
  5636 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5637 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5638 of a homomorphism).
  5639 
  5640 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5641 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5642 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5643 
  5644 
  5645 *** Cube ***
  5646 
  5647 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5648 theories.
  5649 
  5650 
  5651 *** ML ***
  5652 
  5653 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5654 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5655 
  5656 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5657 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5658 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5659 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5660 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5661 
  5662 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5663 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5664 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5665 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5666 
  5667 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5668 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5669 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5670 
  5671     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5672     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5673     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5674     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5675     seq fs = List.app fs
  5676     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5677     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5678 
  5679 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5680 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5681 
  5682   x |> f                f #> g
  5683   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5684 
  5685 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5686 
  5687   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5688   infix 2 ?;
  5689   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5690   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5691 
  5692 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5693 infix operators.
  5694 
  5695 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5696 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5697 example:
  5698 
  5699   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5700     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5701 
  5702   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5703     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5704 
  5705   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5706     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5707 
  5708   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5709     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5710 
  5711 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5712 available:
  5713 
  5714   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5715   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5716   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5717   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5718 
  5719 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5720 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5721 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5722 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5723 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5724 
  5725   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5726   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5727   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5728 
  5729 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5730 
  5731   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5732   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5733 
  5734 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5735 Naive rewrites:
  5736 
  5737   make_keylist = AList.make
  5738   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5739 
  5740 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5741   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5742 
  5743     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5744     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5745 
  5746 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5747   Naive rewrites:
  5748 
  5749     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5750     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5751 
  5752 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5753 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5754 lists.
  5755 
  5756 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5757 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5758 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5759 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5760 
  5761 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5762 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5763 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5764 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5765 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5766 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5767 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5768 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5769 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5770 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5771 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5772 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5773 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5774 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5775 Output.raw have no effect.
  5776 
  5777 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5778 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5779 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5780 
  5781 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5782 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5783 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5784 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5785 
  5786 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5787 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5788 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5789 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5790 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5791 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5792 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5793 
  5794 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5795 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5796 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5797 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5798 
  5799 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5800 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5801 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5802 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5803 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5804 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5805 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5806 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5807 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5808 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5809 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5810 
  5811 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5812 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5813 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5814 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5815 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5816 with earlier declarations.
  5817 
  5818 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5819 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5820 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5821 
  5822 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5823 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5824 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5825 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5826 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5827 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5828 
  5829   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5830     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5831 
  5832   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5833     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5834 
  5835   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5836     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5837     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5838     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5839 
  5840 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5841 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5842 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5843 
  5844 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5845 
  5846 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5847 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5848 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5849 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5850 
  5851 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5852 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5853 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5854 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5855 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5856 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5857 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5858 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5859 
  5860 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5861 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5862 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5863 
  5864 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5865 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5866 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5867 
  5868 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5869 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5870 
  5871   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5872   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5873   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5874   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5875 
  5876 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  5877 
  5878 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  5879 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  5880 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  5881 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  5882 (both increase the runtime).
  5883 
  5884 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  5885 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  5886 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  5887 
  5888 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  5889 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  5890 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  5891 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  5892 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  5893 for further details.
  5894 
  5895 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  5896 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  5897 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  5898 scripts for the time being.
  5899 
  5900 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  5901 generated HTML files.  For example:
  5902 
  5903   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  5904   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  5905 
  5906 
  5907 *** System ***
  5908 
  5909 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  5910 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  5911 
  5912 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  5913 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  5914 
  5915 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  5916 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  5917 
  5918 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  5919 distribution being used.
  5920 
  5921 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  5922 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  5923 theories.
  5924 
  5925 
  5926 
  5927 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  5928 --------------------------------
  5929 
  5930 *** General ***
  5931 
  5932 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  5933   Replaces linorder.ML.
  5934 
  5935 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  5936   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  5937   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  5938   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  5939   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  5940   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  5941   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  5942   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  5943   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  5944   existing theory and ML files.
  5945 
  5946 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  5947 
  5948 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  5949   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  5950   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  5951   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  5952 
  5953 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  5954   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  5955   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  5956   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  5957 
  5958 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  5959   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  5960   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  5961 
  5962 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  5963   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  5964   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  5965   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  5966   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  5967 
  5968 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  5969   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  5970 
  5971 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  5972   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  5973   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  5974 
  5975 
  5976 *** Isar ***
  5977 
  5978 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  5979   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  5980   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  5981     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  5982     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  5983     emulations.
  5984   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  5985     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  5986     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  5987 
  5988 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  5989   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  5990     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  5991     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  5992   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  5993 
  5994 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  5995   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  5996   and derived forms.
  5997 
  5998 * Locales:
  5999   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  6000     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  6001     "_axioms") in the premise.
  6002     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  6003   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  6004     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  6005   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  6006     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  6007   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  6008         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  6009     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  6010     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  6011     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  6012     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  6013     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  6014       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  6015     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  6016     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  6017     with "locale (open)".
  6018       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  6019 
  6020 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  6021   (Isar) contexts.
  6022 
  6023 
  6024 *** HOL ***
  6025 
  6026 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  6027   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  6028   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  6029   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  6030   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  6031 
  6032 * Simplifier:
  6033   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  6034     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  6035     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  6036     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  6037     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  6038   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  6039     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  6040     is solved by simplification already.
  6041 
  6042 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  6043     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  6044 
  6045 * Numerics:
  6046   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  6047     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  6048   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  6049     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  6050   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  6051     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  6052     exponentiation).
  6053 
  6054 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  6055 
  6056 * Records:
  6057   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  6058     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  6059     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  6060   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  6061     (not enabled by default).
  6062   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  6063     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  6064   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  6065 
  6066 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  6067   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  6068   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  6069 
  6070 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  6071 
  6072 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  6073 
  6074 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  6075   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  6076 
  6077 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  6078   matrix theory to linear programming.
  6079 
  6080 * Unions and Intersections:
  6081   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  6082   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  6083   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  6084   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  6085 
  6086 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  6087   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  6088   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  6089   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  6090 
  6091 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  6092   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  6093 
  6094 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  6095   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  6096 
  6097 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  6098   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  6099   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  6100 
  6101 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  6102   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  6103   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  6104   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  6105   for examples.
  6106 
  6107 
  6108 *** HOLCF ***
  6109 
  6110 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  6111 
  6112 
  6113 
  6114 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  6115 ------------------------------
  6116 
  6117 *** General ***
  6118 
  6119 * Provers/simplifier:
  6120 
  6121   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  6122     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  6123     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  6124     the order of assumptions.
  6125 
  6126     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6127 
  6128     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  6129        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  6130 
  6131         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  6132 
  6133        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  6134 
  6135         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  6136 
  6137        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  6138        kind of problem.
  6139 
  6140     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  6141        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  6142        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  6143        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  6144        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  6145        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  6146        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  6147 
  6148   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  6149 
  6150   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  6151     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  6152     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  6153     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  6154     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  6155     the simplifier would diverge.
  6156 
  6157   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  6158 
  6159   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  6160     congruence is ignored.
  6161 
  6162 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  6163   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  6164   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  6165 
  6166 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  6167 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  6168    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  6169 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  6170 
  6171 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
  6172 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
  6173       PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
  6174 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
  6175 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
  6176 (or rather last, the way they are printed).
  6177 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
  6178 
  6179 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
  6180 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
  6181 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
  6182 assumption failed.
  6183 
  6184 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
  6185 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
  6186 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
  6187 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
  6188 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
  6189 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
  6190 on the old view without predicates;
  6191 
  6192 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
  6193 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
  6194 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
  6195 
  6196 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
  6197 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
  6198 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
  6199 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
  6200 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
  6201 be given (the default is 40);
  6202 
  6203 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
  6204 (batch-mode only);
  6205 
  6206 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
  6207 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
  6208 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
  6209 
  6210 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
  6211 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
  6212 for slight decrease in efficiency;
  6213 
  6214 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
  6215 linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
  6216 
  6217 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
  6218 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
  6219 
  6220 
  6221 *** HOL ***
  6222 
  6223 * arith(_tac)
  6224 
  6225  - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
  6226    Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
  6227    of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
  6228    In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
  6229 
  6230  - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
  6231 
  6232  - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
  6233    linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.