NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Apr 11 12:47:46 2015 +0200 (2015-04-11)
changeset 60010 5fe58ca9cf40
parent 60009 bd1c342dbbce
child 60020 065ecea354d0
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned spelling;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
     8 ------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
    13 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
    14 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
    15 
    16   context
    17   begin
    18 
    19   private definition ...
    20   private lemma ...
    21 
    22   qualified definition ...
    23   qualified lemma ...
    24 
    25   lemma ...
    26   theorem ...
    27 
    28   end
    29 
    30 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
    31 naming policy.
    32 
    33 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    34 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    35 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    36 
    37 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    38 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    39 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
    40 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    41 
    42 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    43 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    44 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    45 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    46 
    47 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    48 theory context.
    49 
    50 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    51 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    52 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    53 
    54 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    55 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    56 
    57 
    58 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    59 
    60 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    61 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    62 
    63 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    64 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    65 in the buffer.
    66 
    67 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    68 marker, SideKick parser.
    69 
    70 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    71 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be opened
    72 in the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
    73 
    74 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
    75 Options / Text Area).
    76 
    77 * Old graph browser (Java/AWT 1.1) is superseded by improved graphview
    78 panel, which also produces PDF output without external tools.
    79 
    80 
    81 *** Document preparation ***
    82 
    83 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
    84 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
    85 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
    86 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
    87 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
    88 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
    89 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
    90 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91 
    92 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
    93 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
    94 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
    95 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
    96 
    97 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
    98 style.
    99 
   100 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   101 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   102 
   103 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   104 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   105 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   106 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   107 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   108 
   109 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   110 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   111 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   112 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   113 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   114 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   115 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 
   118 *** Pure ***
   119 
   120 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   121 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   122 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   123 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   124 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   125 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   126 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   127 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   128 
   129 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   130 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   131 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   132 
   133 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   134 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   135 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   136 different index.
   137 
   138 * Command "class_deps" takes optional sort arguments to constrain then
   139 resulting class hierarchy.
   140 
   141 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   142 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   143 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   144 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   145 
   146 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   147 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   148 token category instead.
   149 
   150 
   151 *** HOL ***
   152 
   153 * New (co)datatype package:
   154   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   155     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   156     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   157     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   158     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159   - Renamed theorems:
   160       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   161       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   162       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   163       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   164       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   165       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   166       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   167       sel_map ~> map_sel
   168       sel_set ~> set_sel
   169       sel_split ~> split_sel
   170       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   171       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   172       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   173     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   175     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   176     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   178     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   179     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   181     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   182     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   183     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   184     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   185     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   186     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187   - Renamed theories:
   188       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   189       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   190       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   191       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   192       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   193       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   194     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Old datatype package:
   197   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   198     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   199     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   200     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   201     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202   - Renamed theorems:
   203       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   204     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205   - Renamed theory:
   206       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   207     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Nitpick:
   210   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   211     operations.
   212 
   213 * Sledgehammer:
   214   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   215     default.
   216   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   217     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   218   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   219     Removed sub-command:
   220       min
   221   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   222     dramatically improved.
   223   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   224 
   225 * Old and new SMT modules:
   226   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   227     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   228     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   229     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   230     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   231     point to it.
   232     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   234     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   236     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   237   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   238     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   239 
   240 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   241 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   242 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243 
   244 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   245 
   246 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   247 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   248 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   249 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   250 
   251 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
   252 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253 
   254 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   258 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   259 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
   262 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
   265 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   266 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   267 needed.
   268 
   269 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   270 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   271 
   272 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   273 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   274 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   275 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   276 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   277 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   278 
   279 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   280 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   281 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   282 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   283 
   284 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   285 type class hierarchy:
   286   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   287   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   288   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   289   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   290 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291 
   292 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   293   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   294   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   295 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   298 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   299 
   300 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   301   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   302   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   303   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   304 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   307 and part of theory Main.
   308   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   315 Fact rename:
   316     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   320 
   321 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
   322 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   323 
   324 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   325 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   326 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   327 
   328 * Library/Multiset:
   329   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   330   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   331     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   332   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   333       <# ~> #<#
   334       <=# ~> #<=#
   335       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   336       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   337     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
   339       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
   340       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
   341     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   342   - Renamed
   343       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   344       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
   345       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
   346     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   348   - Added attributes:
   349       image_mset.id [simp]
   350       image_mset_id [simp]
   351       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   352       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   353       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   354       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   355       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   356       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   357     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   358 
   359 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   360 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   361 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   362 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
   365 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
   366 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
   367 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
   368 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   369 examples.
   370 
   371 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   372   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
   373   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   374   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   375     projection
   376 
   377 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   378 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   379 
   380 
   381 *** ML ***
   382 
   383 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   384 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   385 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   386 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   387 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   388 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   389 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   390 
   391 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   392 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   393 
   394 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   396 
   397 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   398 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   399 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   400 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   401 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   402 nested.
   403 
   404 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
   405 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   408 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   409 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   411 
   412 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   413 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   414 Thm.term_of etc.
   415 
   416 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   417 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   418 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   421 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   422 
   423 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   424 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   425 
   426 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   427 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   428 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   431 Input.source (with formal position information).
   432 
   433 
   434 *** System ***
   435 
   436 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   437 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   438 
   439 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -k and -x.
   440 
   441 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   442 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   443 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   444 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   448 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   449 
   450 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   451 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   452 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   453 
   454 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted.  Minor
   455 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_semicolons" to remove obsolete
   456 semicolons from theory sources.
   457 
   458 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   459 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
   460 
   461 
   462 
   463 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   464 ---------------------------------
   465 
   466 *** General ***
   467 
   468 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   469 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   470 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   471 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   472 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   473 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   474 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   475 some examples.
   476 
   477 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   478 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   479 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   480 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   481 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   482 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   483 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   484 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   485 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   486 
   487 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   488 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   489 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   490 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   491 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   492 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   493 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   494 proof tools.
   495 
   496 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   497 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   498 supports input via ` (backquote).
   499 
   500 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   501 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   502 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   503 
   504 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   505 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   506 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   507 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   510 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   511 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   515 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   516 
   517 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   518 not check existence within the file-system.
   519 
   520 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   521 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   522 
   523 
   524 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   525 
   526 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   527 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   528 buffer.
   529 
   530 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   531 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   532 
   533 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   534 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   535 
   536 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   537 auxiliary ML files.
   538 
   539 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   540 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   541 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   542 
   543 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   544 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   545 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   546 
   547 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   548 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   549 
   550 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   551 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   552 caret".
   553 
   554 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   555 completion popup and context-menu.
   556 
   557 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   558 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   559 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   560 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   561 
   562 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   563 to highlight text via regular expression.
   564 
   565 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   566 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   567 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   568 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   569 
   570 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   571 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   572 
   573 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   574 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   575 
   576 * Improved monitor panel.
   577 
   578 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   579 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   580 
   581 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   582 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   583 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   584 
   585 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   586 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   587 within the context.
   588 
   589 
   590 *** Pure ***
   591 
   592 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   593 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   594 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   595 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   596 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   597 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   598 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   599 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   600 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   601 
   602 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   603 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   604 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   605 renaming needs to be applied:
   606 
   607   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   608   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   609   all            ~>  Pure.all
   610   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   611   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   612 
   613 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   614 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   615 old constants:
   616 
   617 setup {*
   618   fn thy => thy
   619     |> Sign.root_path
   620     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   621     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   622     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   623     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   624 *}
   625 
   626 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   627 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   628 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   629 
   630 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   631 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   632 instantiated theorem.
   633 
   634 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   635 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   636 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   637 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   638 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   639 
   640   attribute_setup standard =
   641     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   642 
   643 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   644 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   645 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   646 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   647 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   648 
   649 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   650 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   651 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   652 
   653 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   654 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   655 
   656 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   657 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   658 
   659 
   660 *** HOL ***
   661 
   662 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   663 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   664 
   665 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   667 
   668 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   670 
   671 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   672 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   678 with the given constants.
   679 
   680 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   681 operations on records.
   682 
   683 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   684 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685 
   686 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   689 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   690 
   691 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   694 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   695 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   696 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   697 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   700 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   703   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   704   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   705   part of theory "Main".
   706 
   707   Theory renamings:
   708     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   709     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   710     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   711     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   712     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   713     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   714     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   715     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   716     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   717     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   718     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   719     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   720     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   721     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   722     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   723     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   724     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   725     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   726     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   727     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   728     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   729     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   730 
   731   New theories:
   732     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   733     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   734     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   735     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   736     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   737 
   738   Discontinued theories:
   739     BNF/BNF.thy
   740     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   741 
   742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * New (co)datatype package:
   745   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   746   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   747     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   748   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   749     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   750   - Renamed commands:
   751       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   752       primrec_new ~> primrec
   753       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   754     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   756     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   757     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   759     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   760     using "prim(co)rec".
   761     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   763     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   764     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   766     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   767     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   768     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Old datatype package:
   771   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   772     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   773     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   775     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   776     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   777 
   778 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   779   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   780   BNF-based datatype package.
   781 
   782   Renamed constants:
   783     Option.set ~> set_option
   784     Option.map ~> map_option
   785     option_rel ~> rel_option
   786 
   787   Renamed theorems:
   788     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   789     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   790     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   791     option.recs ~> option.rec
   792     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   793     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   794     map.simps ~> list.map
   795     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   796     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   797     the.simps ~> option.sel
   798 
   799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   802     sum_map ~> map_sum
   803     map_pair ~> map_prod
   804     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   805     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   806     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   807     set_rel ~> rel_set
   808     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   809     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   810     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   811     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   812 
   813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   814 
   815 * Lifting and Transfer:
   816   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   817   - stronger reflexivity prover
   818   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   819   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   820     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   821     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   822       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   823       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   824       automatically
   825     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   826     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   827       automatically for datatypes
   828   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   829     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   830       more
   831       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   832     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   833       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   834       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   836       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   837       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   838   - registration of code equations is more robust
   839     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   841     form
   842     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   844     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   846     Code_Numeral.natural
   847     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   849     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850 
   851 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   852 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   853 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   854 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   855 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   856 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   857 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   858 
   859 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   860 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   861 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   862 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   863 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   864 
   865 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   866 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   867 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   868 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   869 
   870 * Sledgehammer:
   871   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   872   - MaSh overhaul:
   873     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   874       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   875     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   876       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   877       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   878       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   879   - New option:
   880       smt_proofs
   881   - Renamed options:
   882       isar_compress ~> compress
   883       isar_try0 ~> try0
   884 
   885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   886 
   887 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   888 
   889 * Nitpick:
   890   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   891     take infinite values.
   892   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   893     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   894   - Removed "std" option.
   895   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   896     "hide_types".
   897 
   898 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   899 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   900 
   901 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   902 
   903 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   904   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   905   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   906     SUP instead uniformly.
   907   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   908     or SUP and Sup.
   909   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   910   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   911   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   912     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   913     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   914 
   915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   918 
   919 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   920 
   921   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   922   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   923   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   924   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   925 
   926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   929 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   930 
   931 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   932 
   933     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   934     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   935     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   936     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   937     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   938     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   939     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   940     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   941     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   942     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   943     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   944     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   945     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   946     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   947     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   948     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   949     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   950     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   951     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   952     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   953     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   954     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   955     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   956     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   957     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   958     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   959     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   960     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   961     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   962     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   963     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   964     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   965     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   966     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   967     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   968     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   969     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   970     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   971     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   972     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   973     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   974     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   975     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   976     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   977     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   978     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   979     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   980     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   981     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   982     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   983     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   984     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   985     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   986     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   987     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   988     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   989     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   990     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   991     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   992 
   993   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   994   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   995   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   996     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   997 
   998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   999 
  1000 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1001 
  1002   Fact consolidations:
  1003     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1004     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1005     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1006     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1007     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1008     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1009     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1010     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1011     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1012     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1013     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1014     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1015     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1016     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1017     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1018     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1019     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1020     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1021     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1022     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1023     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1024     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1025     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1026     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1027     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1028     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1029     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1030     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1031     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1032     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1033     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1034     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1035     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1036     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1037     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1038     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1039     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1040     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1041     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1042     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1043 
  1044 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1045 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1046 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1047 
  1048 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1049 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1050 
  1051 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1052 
  1053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1056 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1062     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1063 
  1064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1065 
  1066 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1067   consolidation:
  1068     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1069     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1070 
  1071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1072 
  1073 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1074   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1075   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1076   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1077     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1078   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1079     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1080   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1081 
  1082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1083 
  1084 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1085 
  1086     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1087     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1088     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1089     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1090     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1091     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1092     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1093     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1094     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1095     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1096     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1097     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1098     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1099 
  1100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1101 
  1102 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1103 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1104 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1105 
  1106 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1107     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1108     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1109     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1110     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1111 
  1112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113 
  1114 * Fact name consolidation:
  1115     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1116     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1117     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1118     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1119     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1120 
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1124 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1125 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1126 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1127 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1128 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1129 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1133 
  1134 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1135 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1136 
  1137 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1138 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1139 
  1140 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1141 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1142 or the brute way with
  1143 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1144 
  1145 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1146 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1147 stating boundedness of sets.
  1148 
  1149 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1150 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1151 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1154   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1155   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1156   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1157   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1158   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1159   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1160   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1161   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1162   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1163   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1164   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1165 
  1166   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1167 
  1168   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1169 
  1170     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1171     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1172     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1173     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1174     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1175 
  1176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1179   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1180 
  1181   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1182 
  1183   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1184 
  1185   - removed constant isDiff
  1186 
  1187   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1188     input syntax.
  1189 
  1190   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1191 
  1192   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1193 
  1194   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1195 
  1196   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1197 
  1198   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1199     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1200     has_vector_derivative.
  1201 
  1202   - Other renamings:
  1203     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1204     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1205     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1206     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1207     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1208     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1209     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1210 
  1211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1214 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1215 in continuous_intros.
  1216 
  1217 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1218 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1219 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1220 
  1221 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1222 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1223 especially removes
  1224 
  1225     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1226 
  1227 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1228     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1229 
  1230 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1231 
  1232   Renamings:
  1233     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1234     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1235     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1236     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1237     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1238     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1239     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1240     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1241     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1242     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1243     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1244     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1245 
  1246     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1247     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1248     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1249 
  1250   Removed theorems:
  1251     complex_zero_def
  1252     complex_add_def
  1253     complex_minus_def
  1254     complex_diff_def
  1255     complex_one_def
  1256     complex_mult_def
  1257     complex_inverse_def
  1258     complex_scaleR_def
  1259 
  1260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1263 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1266 
  1267 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1268 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1269 
  1270 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1271 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1272 
  1273 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1274 
  1275 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1277 
  1278 * HOL-Word:
  1279   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1280     of "word_arith_wis".
  1281   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1282     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1283     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1284 
  1285 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1286   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1287   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1288   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1289     (except the AFP)
  1290 
  1291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1294   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1295   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1296     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1297   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1298     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1299     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1300     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1301     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1302     intervals.
  1303   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1304     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1305     - renamed theorems:
  1306         interval ~> box
  1307         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1308         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1309         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1310         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1311         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1312         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1313         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1314         open_interval ~> open_box
  1315         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1316         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1317         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1318         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1319         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1320         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1321         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1322         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1323         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1324         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1325         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1326         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1327         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1328         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1329         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1330         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1331         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1332         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1333         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1334         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1335         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1336         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1337         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1338         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1339 
  1340     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1341         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1342         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1343         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1344         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1345         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1346         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1347         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1348         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1349         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1350         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1351         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1352         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1353         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1354         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1355         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1356         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1357         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1358 
  1359   - renamed theorems:
  1360     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1361     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1362     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1363 
  1364 * HOL-Probability:
  1365   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1366 
  1367     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1368       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1369 
  1370     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1371 
  1372   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1373     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1374 
  1375     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1376     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1377     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1378     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1379     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1380     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1381     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1382     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1383     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1384     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1385     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1386     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1387     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1388     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1389     integral_indicator          ~>
  1390          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1391     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1392     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1393     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1394 
  1395     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1396          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1397 
  1398     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1399          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1400 
  1401     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1402          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1403 
  1404     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1405          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1406          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1407 
  1408     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1409          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1410 
  1411     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1412          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1413 
  1414     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1415          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1416          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1417 
  1418     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1419          nn_integral_real_affine
  1420 
  1421     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1422          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1423 
  1424     The following theorems where removed:
  1425 
  1426     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1427     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1428     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1429     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1430     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1431     integral_cmul_indicator
  1432     integral_real
  1433 
  1434   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1435     distributed random variables.
  1436 
  1437 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1438 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 
  1442 *** Scala ***
  1443 
  1444 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1445 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1446 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1447 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1448 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1451 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1452 
  1453 
  1454 *** ML ***
  1455 
  1456 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1457 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1458 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1459 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1460 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1461 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1462 
  1463 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1464 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1465 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1466 actually belongs to it).
  1467 
  1468 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1469 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1470 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1471 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1472 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1473 of schematic variables.
  1474 
  1475 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1476 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1479 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1480 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 
  1485 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1486 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1487 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1491 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1493 formal context.
  1494 
  1495 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1496 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1499 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1500 
  1501 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1502 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1503 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1504 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1505 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1506 
  1507 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1508 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1509 purposes.
  1510 
  1511 
  1512 *** System ***
  1513 
  1514 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1515 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1516 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1517 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1518 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1519 
  1520 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1521 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1522 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1523 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1524 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1525 settings variable.
  1526 
  1527 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1528 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1529 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1530 
  1531 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1532 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1533 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1534 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1535 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1536 
  1537 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1538 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1539 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1540 
  1541 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1542 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1543 
  1544 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1545 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1546 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1547 
  1548 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1549 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1550 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1551 processing is started.
  1552 
  1553 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1554 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1555 
  1556 
  1557 
  1558 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1559 -------------------------------------
  1560 
  1561 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1562 
  1563 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1564 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1565 
  1566 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1567 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1568 
  1569 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1570 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1571 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1572 
  1573 
  1574 *** System ***
  1575 
  1576 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1577 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1578 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1579 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1580 
  1581 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1582 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1583 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1584 
  1585 
  1586 
  1587 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1588 -------------------------------------
  1589 
  1590 *** General ***
  1591 
  1592 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1593 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1594 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1597 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1600 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1601 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1602 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1603 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1604 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1605 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1606 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1607 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1608 syntax.
  1609 
  1610 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1611 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612 
  1613 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1614 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1615 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1616 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1617 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1618 
  1619 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1621 
  1622 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1623 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1624 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1625 
  1626 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1627 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1628 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1629 
  1630 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1631 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1632 
  1633 
  1634 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1635 
  1636 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1637 Documentation panel.
  1638 
  1639 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1640 documentation.
  1641 
  1642 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1643 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1644 
  1645 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1646 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1647 normal editing and checking process.
  1648 
  1649 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1650 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1651 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1652 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1653 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1654 
  1655 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1656 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1657 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1658 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1659 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1660 
  1661 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1662 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1663 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1664 
  1665 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1666 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1667 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1668 to resolve conflict.
  1669 
  1670 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1671 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1672 
  1673 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1674 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1675 such command executions while editing.
  1676 
  1677 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1678 document content.
  1679 
  1680 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1681 toplevel theorem statements.
  1682 
  1683 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1684 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1685 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1686 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1687 
  1688 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1689 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1690 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1691 
  1692 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1693 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1694 
  1695 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1696 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1697 
  1698 
  1699 *** Pure ***
  1700 
  1701 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1702 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1703 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1704 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1705 details.
  1706 
  1707 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1708 
  1709 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1710 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1711 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1712 
  1713 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715 
  1716 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1717 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1718 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1719 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1720 
  1721 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1722 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1723 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1726 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1727 
  1728 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1729 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1730 situations.
  1731 
  1732 
  1733 *** HOL ***
  1734 
  1735 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1736 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1738 
  1739 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1740 
  1741 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1742 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1743 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1744 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1745 
  1746   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1747 
  1748 * Code generator:
  1749   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1750     'code_instance'.
  1751   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1752     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1753 
  1754 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1755 examples.
  1756 
  1757 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1758 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1759 to distinguish both when desired.
  1760 
  1761 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1762 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1763 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1764 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1765 
  1766 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1767 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1768 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1769 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1770 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1771 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1774 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1775 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1776 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1777 
  1778 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1779 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1780 
  1781 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1782 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1783 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1784 
  1785 * Lifting:
  1786   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1787     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1788       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1789       transfer rules
  1790     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1791       correspondence relation can be generated
  1792     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1793       parametricity
  1794     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1795   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1796   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1797     copies
  1798   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1799     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1800     anonymous context)
  1801   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1802     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1803   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1804     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1805   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1806     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1807 
  1808 * Transfer:
  1809   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1810     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1811   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1812   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1813     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1814   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1815 
  1816 * Reification and reflection:
  1817   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1818     "Reification".
  1819   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1820   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1822 
  1823 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1824   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1825     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1826     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1827   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1828     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1829   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1830     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1831     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1832     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1833     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1834     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1835     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1836     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1837   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1838     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1839   - Fact renames:
  1840       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1841       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1845 
  1846 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1847 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1848 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1850 
  1851 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1852 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1853 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1854 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1855 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1856 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1857 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1858 lemmas.
  1859 
  1860 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1861 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1862 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1865 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1866 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1867 
  1868 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1869 top and bottom elements.
  1870 
  1871 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1872 
  1873 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1874 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1875 
  1876  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1877    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1878    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1879 
  1880  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1881    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1882    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1883 
  1884    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1885    arbitrary filter.
  1886 
  1887  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1888    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1889    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1890    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1891    on a compact set.
  1892 
  1893  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1894    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1895    linear_continuum_topology).
  1896 
  1897  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1898    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1899    on all sequences converging to x.
  1900 
  1901  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1902    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1903    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1904    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1905    left or right.
  1906 
  1907  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1908 
  1909      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1910 
  1911  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1912    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1913 
  1914  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1915    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1916    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1917    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1918    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1919    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1920 
  1921  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1922 
  1923    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1924 
  1925    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1926      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1927 
  1928    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1929 
  1930    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1931      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1932 
  1933    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1934 
  1935    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1936 
  1937  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1938 
  1939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941 * Nitpick:
  1942   - Added option "spy".
  1943   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1944 
  1945 * Sledgehammer:
  1946   - Renamed option:
  1947       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1948     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1949   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1950   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1951   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1952 
  1953 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1954 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1955 
  1956 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1957   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1958   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1959     generated code.
  1960   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1961   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1962   - Fact renames:
  1963     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1964     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1965     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1966 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1967 
  1968 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1969 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1970 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1971 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1972 
  1973 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1974 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1975 
  1976 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1977 
  1978 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1979 
  1980     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1981     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1982 
  1983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1986 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1987 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1988 
  1989 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1990 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1991 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1992 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * HOL-BNF:
  1995   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1996     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1997     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1998     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1999   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2000     coinduct).
  2001   - Renamed keywords:
  2002     data ~> datatype_new
  2003     codata ~> codatatype
  2004     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2005   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2006     discs ~> disc
  2007     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2008     map_id' ~> map_id
  2009     sels ~> sel
  2010     set_map' ~> set_map
  2011     sets ~> set
  2012 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 
  2015 *** ML ***
  2016 
  2017 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2018 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2019 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2020 Examples.thy in particular.
  2021 
  2022 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2023 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2024 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2025 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2026 
  2027 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2028 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2029 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2030 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2034 
  2035     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2036     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2037 
  2038 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2041 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2042 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2043 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2044 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2045 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2046 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2047 
  2048 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2049 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2050 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2051 clasets separately from the context.
  2052 
  2053 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2054 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2055 
  2056 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2057 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2058 
  2059 
  2060 *** System ***
  2061 
  2062 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2063 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064 
  2065 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2066 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2067 
  2068 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2069 settings variable.
  2070 
  2071 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2072 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2073 always pdf.
  2074 
  2075 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2076 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2077 
  2078 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2079 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2080 
  2081 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2082 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2083 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2084 
  2085 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2086 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2087 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2088 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2089 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2090 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2091 
  2092 
  2093 
  2094 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2095 -----------------------------------
  2096 
  2097 *** General ***
  2098 
  2099 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2100 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2101 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2102 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2103 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2104 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2105 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2106 
  2107 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2108 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2109 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2110 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2111 
  2112 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2113 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2114 
  2115 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2116 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2117 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2118 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2119 dependencies properly.
  2120 
  2121 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2122 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2123 
  2124 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2125 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2126 
  2127 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2128 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2129 and "class ... context ...".
  2130 
  2131 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2132 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2133 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2134 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2135 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2136 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2137 
  2138 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2139 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2140 
  2141 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2142 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2143 
  2144 
  2145 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2146 
  2147 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2148 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2149 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2150 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2151 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2152 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2153 
  2154 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2155 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2156 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2157 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2158 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2159 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2160 
  2161 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2162 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2163 browser on demand.
  2164 
  2165 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2166 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2167 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2168 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2169 
  2170 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2171 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2172 
  2173 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2174 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2175 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2176 potentially infinite message streams.
  2177 
  2178 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2179 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2180 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2181 schemes.
  2182 
  2183 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2184 symbols.
  2185 
  2186 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2187 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2188 
  2189 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2190 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2191 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2192 
  2193 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2194 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2195 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2196 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2197 
  2198 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2199 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2200 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2201 
  2202 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2203 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2204 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2205 Isabelle distribution.
  2206 
  2207 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2208 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2209 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2210 
  2211 
  2212 *** Pure ***
  2213 
  2214 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2215 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2216 
  2217 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2218 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2219 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2222 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2223 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2224 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2225 with some care where this is really required.
  2226 
  2227 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2228 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2229 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2230 
  2231   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2232 
  2233 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2234 a Hasse diagram.
  2235 
  2236 
  2237 *** HOL ***
  2238 
  2239 * Sledgehammer:
  2240 
  2241   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2242     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2243   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2244   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2245   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2246   - Renamed options:
  2247       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2248       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2249       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2250       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2251 
  2252 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2253 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2254 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2255 
  2256 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Lifting:
  2260   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2261   - quot_del attribute
  2262   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2263 
  2264 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2265 expressions.
  2266 
  2267 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2268 pointfree expressions.
  2269 
  2270 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2271 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2272 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2273 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2277 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2278 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2279 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2280 accordingly.
  2281 
  2282 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2283 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2286 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2287 
  2288 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2291 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2292 
  2293 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2294 
  2295 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2296 
  2297   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2298   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2299 
  2300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2303 
  2304   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2305   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2306 
  2307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2310 
  2311   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2312     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2313     output f x converges to G.
  2314 
  2315   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2316     infinity (at_bot).
  2317 
  2318   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2319     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2320 
  2321   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2322     at_top".
  2323 
  2324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2327 lattice type classes.
  2328 
  2329 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2330 
  2331     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2332     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2333 
  2334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2337 changes as follows.
  2338 
  2339   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2340 
  2341       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2342       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2343 
  2344   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2345     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2346     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2347     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2348 
  2349   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2350     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2351     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2352 
  2353   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2354     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2355     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2356     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2357 
  2358   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2359     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2360 
  2361       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2362       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2363       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2364       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2365       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2366       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2367       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2368       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2369       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2370       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2371       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2372       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2373       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2374       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2375       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2376       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2377 
  2378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2381 
  2382 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2383 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2384 
  2385 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2386 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2387 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2388 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2389 
  2390   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2391   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2392   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2393   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2394   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2395   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2396   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2397   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2398   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2399   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2400 
  2401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2404 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2405 Data").
  2406 
  2407 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2408 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2409 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2410 code.
  2411 
  2412 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2413 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2414 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2418 
  2419 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2420 
  2421 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2422 
  2423   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2424   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2425 
  2426 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2427 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2428 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2429 
  2430   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2431 
  2432     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2433     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2434     cart_base i  removed
  2435     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2436 
  2437   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2438 
  2439   Renamed lemmas:
  2440 
  2441     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2442     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2443     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2444     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2445     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2446     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2447     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2448     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2449     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2450     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2451 
  2452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453 
  2454 * HOL/Probability:
  2455 
  2456   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2457 
  2458   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2459     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2460     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2461 
  2462   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2463     projective family).
  2464 
  2465 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2466 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2467 
  2468 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2469 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2470 datatypes.
  2471 
  2472 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2473 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2474 
  2475 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2476 trees for the code generator.
  2477 
  2478 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2479 Lifting/Transfer.
  2480 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2481 
  2482 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2484 
  2485 
  2486 *** Document preparation ***
  2487 
  2488 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2489 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2490 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2491 
  2492 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2493 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2494 
  2495 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2496 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2497 document/root.tex.
  2498 
  2499 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2500 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502 
  2503 *** ML ***
  2504 
  2505 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2506 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2507 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2508 
  2509 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2510 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2511 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2512 
  2513 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2514 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2515 necessarily printing visible text.
  2516 
  2517 
  2518 *** System ***
  2519 
  2520 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2521 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2522 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2523 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2524 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2525 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2526 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2527 
  2528 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2529 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2530 
  2531   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2532 
  2533 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2534 
  2535 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2536 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2537 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2538 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2539 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2540 
  2541 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2542 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2543 
  2544 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2545 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2546 
  2547 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2551 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2552 version of Isabelle.
  2553 
  2554 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2555 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2556 
  2557 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2558 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2559 for home-made settings.
  2560 
  2561 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2562 
  2563 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2564 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2565 configuration.
  2566 
  2567 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2568 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2569 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2570 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2571 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2572 
  2573 
  2574 
  2575 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2576 ------------------------------
  2577 
  2578 *** General ***
  2579 
  2580 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2581 
  2582   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2583     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2584   - markup for bound variables
  2585   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2586   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2587   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2588     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2589 
  2590 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2591 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2592 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2593 
  2594 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2595 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2596 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2597 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2598 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2599 
  2600   context
  2601     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2602     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2603   begin
  2604 
  2605   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2606 
  2607   end
  2608 
  2609   thm my_trans
  2610 
  2611 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2612 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2613 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2614 
  2615 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2616 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2617 
  2618 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2619 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2620 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2621 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2622 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2623 
  2624 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2625 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2626 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2627 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2628 indices of schematic variables.
  2629 
  2630 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2631 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2632 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2633 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2634 etc. was exploited.
  2635 
  2636 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2637 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2638 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2639 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2640 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2641 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2642 
  2643 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2644 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2645 manual.
  2646 
  2647 
  2648 *** Pure ***
  2649 
  2650 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2651 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2652 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2653 
  2654 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2655 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2656 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2657 undocumented feature.)
  2658 
  2659 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2660 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2661 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2662 
  2663   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2664 
  2665   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2666     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2667 
  2668 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2669 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2670 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2671 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2672 
  2673 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2674 
  2675     num ~> num_token
  2676     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2677     xstr ~> str_token
  2678 
  2679 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2680 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2681 position information via constraints).
  2682 
  2683 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2684 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2685 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2686 
  2687 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2688 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2689 
  2690 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2691 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2692 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2695 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2698 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2699 
  2700   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2701 
  2702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2705 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2708 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2709 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2710 
  2711 
  2712 *** HOL ***
  2713 
  2714 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2715 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2716 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2717 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2718 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2719 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2720 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2721 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2722 possible.
  2723 
  2724 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2725 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2726 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2727 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2728 
  2729 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2730 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2733 
  2734 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2735 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2736 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2737 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2738 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2739 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2740 
  2741   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2742     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2743 
  2744   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2745     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2746     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2747 
  2748   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2749     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2750 
  2751   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2752     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2753     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2754 
  2755   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2756     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2757 
  2758 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2759 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2760 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2761 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2762 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2763 
  2764   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2765     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2766     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2767     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2768     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2769 
  2770     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2771     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2772 
  2773   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2774     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2775     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2776     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2777     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2778     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2779     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2780     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2781 
  2782   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2783     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2784     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2785     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2786 
  2787   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2788     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2789     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2790     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2791 
  2792   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2793     from type nat to type int.
  2794 
  2795 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2796 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2797 
  2798   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2799     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2800     type.  Example syntax:
  2801 
  2802     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2803       is List.insert
  2804 
  2805     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2806     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2807     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2808     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2809     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2810     by the package.
  2811 
  2812   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2813     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2814     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2815     code generation for each constant.
  2816 
  2817   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2818     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2819     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2820     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2821     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2822 
  2823   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2824     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2825     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2826 
  2827 * Quotient package:
  2828 
  2829   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2830     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2831 
  2832   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2833     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2834 
  2835   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2836     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2837     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838 
  2839   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2840     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2841 
  2842 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2843 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2844 
  2845 * Quickcheck:
  2846 
  2847   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2848     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2849     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2850     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2851     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2852 
  2853     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2854     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2855     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2856 
  2857     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2858     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2859 
  2860     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2861     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2862     show genuine counterexamples.
  2863 
  2864   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2865     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2866 
  2867     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2868     constructors of that type.
  2869 
  2870   - Support for multisets.
  2871 
  2872   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2873 
  2874   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2875     conjectures in a locale context.
  2876 
  2877 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2878 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2879 
  2880 * Sledgehammer:
  2881   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2882     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2883   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2884   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2885     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2886   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2887   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2888   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2889   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2890 
  2891 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2892 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2893 
  2894 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2895 
  2896 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897 
  2898 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2899 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2900 
  2901   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2902 
  2903 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2904 a list and a nat.
  2905 
  2906 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2907 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2908 
  2909 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2910 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2911 default.
  2912 
  2913 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2914 
  2915   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2916 
  2917 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2918 
  2919 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2920 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2921 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2922 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2923 one_case.
  2924 
  2925 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2926 the result of the fact expression.
  2927 
  2928 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2929 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2930 of some relation theorems:
  2931 
  2932   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2933   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2934   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2935   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2936   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2937   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2938 
  2939 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2940 
  2941 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2942 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2943 
  2944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2945 
  2946 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2947 to match the constant's name:
  2948 
  2949   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2950   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2951   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2952   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2953   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2954   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2955   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2956   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2957   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2958   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2959   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2960   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2961   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2962   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2963   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2964   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2965   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2966   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2967   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2968   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2969   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2970   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2971   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2972   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2973 
  2974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975 
  2976 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2977 and corresponding theorem names:
  2978 
  2979   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2980 
  2981   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2982 
  2983   - Renamed theorems:
  2984 
  2985     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2986     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2987     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2988     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2989     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2990     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2991     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2992     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2993     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2994     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2995     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2996     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2997     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2998     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2999     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3000     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3001     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3002     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3003     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3004     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3005     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3006     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3007     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3008 
  3009     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3010 
  3011     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3012 
  3013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3016 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3017 
  3018   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3019   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3020   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3021   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3022   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3023   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3024   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3025   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3026   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3027   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3028   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3029   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3030   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3031   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3032   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3033   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3034   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3035   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3036   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3037   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3038   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3039 
  3040 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3041 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3044 
  3045 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3046 
  3047   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3048   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3049   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3050   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3051   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3052   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3053   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3054   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3055   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3056   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3057   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3058   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3059   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3060   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3061   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3062   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3063   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3064   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3065 
  3066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3067 
  3068 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3069 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3070 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3071 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3072 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3073 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3074 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3075 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3076 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3077 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3078 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3079 
  3080 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3081 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3082 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3083 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3084 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3085 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3086 
  3087 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3088 through option types.
  3089 
  3090 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3091 relations.
  3092 
  3093 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3096 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3097 
  3098   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3099   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3100   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3101   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3102   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3103   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3104   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3105   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3106   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3107   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3108   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3109   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3110   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3111   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3112   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3113   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3114   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3115   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3116   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3117   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3118   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3119   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3120   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3121   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3122   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3123   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3124   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3125   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3126   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3127   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3128   zless_le ~> less_le
  3129   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3130   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3131   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3132 
  3133 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3134 
  3135   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3136 
  3137 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3138 
  3139 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3140 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3141 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3142 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3146 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3147 
  3148 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3149 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3150 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3151 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3152 follows:
  3153 
  3154   Operations:
  3155   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3156   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3157   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3158   del -> rbt_del
  3159   delete -> rbt_delete
  3160   ins -> rbt_ins
  3161   insert -> rbt_insert
  3162   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3163   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3164   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3165   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3166   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3167   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3168   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3169   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3170   union -> rbt_union
  3171   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3172   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3173 
  3174   Lemmas:
  3175   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3176   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3177   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3178   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3179   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3180   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3181   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3182   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3183   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3184   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3185   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3186   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3187   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3188   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3189   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3190   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3191   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3192   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3193   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3194   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3195   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3196   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3197   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3198   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3199   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3200   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3201   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3202   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3203   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3204   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3205   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3206   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3207   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3208   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3209   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3210   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3211   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3212   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3213   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3214   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3215   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3216   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3217   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3218   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3219   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3220   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3221   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3222   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3223   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3224   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3225   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3226   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3227   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3228   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3229   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3230   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3231   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3232   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3233   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3234   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3235   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3236   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3237   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3238   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3239   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3240   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3241   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3242   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3243   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3244   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3245   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3246   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3247   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3248   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3249   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3250   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3251   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3252   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3253   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3254   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3255   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3256   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3257   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3258 
  3259 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3260 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3261 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263   Changed Operations:
  3264   float_abs -> abs
  3265   float_nprt -> nprt
  3266   float_pprt -> pprt
  3267   pow2 -> use powr
  3268   round_down -> float_round_down
  3269   round_up -> float_round_up
  3270   scale -> exponent
  3271 
  3272   Removed Operations:
  3273   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3274 
  3275   Renamed Lemmas:
  3276   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3277   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3278   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3279   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3280   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3281   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3282   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3283   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3284   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3285   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3286   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3287   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3288   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3289   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3290   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3291   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3292   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3293   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3294   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3295   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3296   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3297   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3298   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3299   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3300   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3301   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3302   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3303   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3304   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3305   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3306   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3307   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3308   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3309   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3310   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3311   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3312 
  3313   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3314   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3315   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3316   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3317   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3318   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3319   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3320   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3321   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3322   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3323 
  3324 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3325 association lists with distinct keys.
  3326 
  3327 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3328 annotated commands.
  3329 
  3330 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3331 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3332 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3333 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3334 
  3335 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3336 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3337 instead.
  3338 
  3339   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3340   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3341   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3342   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3343   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3344   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3345   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3346   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3347   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3348   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3349   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3350   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3351   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3352   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3353   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3354   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3355   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3356   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3357   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3358   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3359   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3360   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3361   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3362   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3363   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3364   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3365   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3366   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3367   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3368   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3369   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3370   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3371   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3372   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3373   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3374   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3375   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3376   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3377   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3378   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3379   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3380 
  3381 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3382 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3383 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3384 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3385 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3386 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3387 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3388 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3389 
  3390 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3391 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3392 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3393 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3394 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3395 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3396 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3397 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3398 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3399 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3400 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3401 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403   Renamed constants:
  3404   measure -> emeasure
  3405   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3406   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3407   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3408   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3409 
  3410   Removed locales:
  3411   completeable_measure_space
  3412   finite_measure_space
  3413   finite_prob_space
  3414   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3415   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3416   finite_sigma_algebra
  3417   measure_space
  3418   pair_finite_prob_space
  3419   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3420   pair_finite_space
  3421   pair_sigma_algebra
  3422   product_sigma_algebra
  3423 
  3424   Removed constants:
  3425   conditional_space
  3426   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3427   image_space
  3428   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3429   pair_measure_generator
  3430   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3431   subvimage
  3432 
  3433   Replacement theorems:
  3434   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3435   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3436   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3437   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3438   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3439   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3440   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3441   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3442   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3443   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3444   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3445   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3446   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3447   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3448   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3449   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3450   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3451   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3452   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3453   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3454   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3455   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3456   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3457   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3458   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3459   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3460   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3461   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3462   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3463   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3464   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3465   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3466   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3467   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3468   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3469   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3470   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3471   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3472   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3473   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3474   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3475   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3476   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3477   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3478   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3479   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3480   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3481   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3482   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3483   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3484   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3485   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3486   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3487   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3488   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3489   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3490   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3491   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3492   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3493   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3494   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3495   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3496   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3497   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3498   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3499   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3500   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3501   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3502   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3503   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3504   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3505   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3506   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3507   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3508   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3509   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3510   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3511   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3512   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3513   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3514   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3515   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3516   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3517   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3518   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3519   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3520   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3521   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3522   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3523   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3524   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3525   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3526   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3527   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3528   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3529   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3530   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3531   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3532   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3533   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3534   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3535   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3536   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3537   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3538   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3539   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3540   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3541   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3542   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3543   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3544   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3545   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3546   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3547   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3548   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3549   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3550   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3551   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3552   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3553   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3554   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3555   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3556   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3557   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3558   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3559   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3560   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3561   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3562 
  3563 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3564 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3565 
  3566 
  3567 *** FOL ***
  3568 
  3569 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3570 
  3571 
  3572 *** ZF ***
  3573 
  3574 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3575 analysis.
  3576 
  3577 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3578 
  3579 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3580 
  3581 
  3582 *** ML ***
  3583 
  3584 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3585 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3586 
  3587 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3588 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3589 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3590 
  3591 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3592 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3593 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3594 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3595 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3596 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3597 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3598 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3599 
  3600 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3601 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3602 
  3603 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3604 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3605 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3606 
  3607 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3608 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3609 
  3610 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3611 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3612 context as well.
  3613 
  3614 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3615 
  3616   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3617   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3618   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3619   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3620   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3621   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3622   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3623   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3624   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3625   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3626   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3627   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3628 
  3629 
  3630 *** System ***
  3631 
  3632 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3633 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3634 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3635 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3636 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3637 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3638 the generic user home was intended.
  3639 
  3640 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3641 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3642 
  3643 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3644 (not just JRE).
  3645 
  3646 
  3647 
  3648 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3649 ------------------------------------
  3650 
  3651 *** General ***
  3652 
  3653 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3654 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3655 
  3656   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3657     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3658     files for checking).
  3659 
  3660   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3661     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3662     positions.
  3663 
  3664   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3665     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3666     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3667 
  3668   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3669     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3670     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3671 
  3672   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3673     cores.
  3674 
  3675   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3676     versions (garbage collection).
  3677 
  3678 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3679 including some remaining limitations.
  3680 
  3681 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3682 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3683 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3684 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3685 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3689 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3690 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3691 
  3692 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3693 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3694 usedir option -Q.
  3695 
  3696 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3697 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3698 
  3699   long_names   ~> names_long
  3700   short_names  ~> names_short
  3701   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3702 
  3703 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3704 
  3705   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3706 
  3707 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3708 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3709 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3710 
  3711 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3712 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3713 
  3714 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3715   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3716   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3717   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3718     "Classical Reasoner".
  3719 
  3720 
  3721 *** HOL ***
  3722 
  3723 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3724 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3727 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3728 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3729 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3730 class complete_linorder.
  3731 
  3732 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3733 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3734 
  3735 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3736 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3737 
  3738   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3739   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3740   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3741   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3742   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3743   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3744   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3745   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3746   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3747   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3748   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3749 
  3750 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3751 
  3752   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3753   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3754   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3755   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3756   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3757   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3758   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3759   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3760   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3761   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3762   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3763   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3764   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3765   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3766   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3767   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3768 
  3769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3775 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3776 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3777 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3780 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3781 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3785 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3786 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3787 
  3788 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3789 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3790 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3793 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3794 
  3795 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3796 
  3797     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3798     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3799 
  3800 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3801 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3804 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3807 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3808 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3809 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 
  3811   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3812   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3813   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3814   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3815   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3816   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3817   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3818 
  3819 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3820 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3823   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3824   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3825   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3826   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3827   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3828   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3829   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3830   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3831   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3832   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3833   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3834   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3835   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3836   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3837   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3838   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3839   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3840   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3841   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3842   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3843   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3844   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3845   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3846   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3847   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3848   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3849   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3850   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3851   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3852   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3853   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3854   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3855   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3856   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3857   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3858   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3859   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3860   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3861   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3862   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3863   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3864   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3865   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3866   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3867   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3868   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3869   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3870   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3871   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3872   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3873   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3874   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3875   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3876   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3877   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3878   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3879   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3880   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3881   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3882   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3883   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3884   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3885   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3886   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3887   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3888   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3889   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3890   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3891   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3892   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3893   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3894   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3895   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3896   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3897   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3898   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3899   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3900   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3901   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3902   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3903   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3904 
  3905 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3906 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3907 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3908 
  3909 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3910 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3911 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3912 
  3913 * Code generation:
  3914 
  3915   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3916     characters in the target language.
  3917 
  3918   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3919     instead.
  3920 
  3921   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3922 
  3923   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3924     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3925 
  3926       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3927 
  3928 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3931 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3932 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3933 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3934 syntax.
  3935 
  3936 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3937 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3938 
  3939 * Nitpick:
  3940   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3941   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3942   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3943     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3944 
  3945 * Sledgehammer:
  3946   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3947   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3948     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3949   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3950     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3951   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3952     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3954     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3955   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3956     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * Metis:
  3959   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3961     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 * Command 'try':
  3964   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3965     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3967     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3968 
  3969 * Quickcheck:
  3970   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3971     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3972   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3973     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3974   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3975     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3976     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3977     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3978   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3979     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3980 
  3981 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3982 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3983 
  3984 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3985 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3986 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3987 
  3988 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3989 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 
  3992 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3993 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994 
  3995 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3996 arithmetic.
  3997 
  3998 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3999 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4000 and lattice type classes.
  4001 
  4002 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4003 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4006 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4007 
  4008 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4009 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4010 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4013   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4014   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4015   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4016 
  4017 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4018 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4019 constants:
  4020 
  4021   type inat   ~> type enat
  4022   Fin         ~> enat
  4023   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4024   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4025   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4026 
  4027 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4028 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4031 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4032 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4033 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4034 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4035 
  4036 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4037 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4038 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4039 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4040 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4041 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4042 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4043 
  4044   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4045   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4046   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4047   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4048 
  4049 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4050 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4051 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4054   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4055   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4056   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4057   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4058   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4059   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4060   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4061   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4062   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4063   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4064   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4065   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4066   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4067   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4068   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4069   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4070   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4071   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4072   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4073   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4074   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4075   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4076   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4077   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4078   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4079   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4080   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4081   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4082   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4083   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4084   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4085   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4086   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4087   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4088   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4089   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4090   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4091   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4092   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4093   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4094   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4095   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4096   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4097   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4098   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4099   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4100   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4101   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4102   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4103   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4104 
  4105 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4106   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4107   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4108   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4109   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4110     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4111 
  4112 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4115   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4116   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4117   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4118   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4119   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4120   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4121   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4122   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4123   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4124   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4125   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4126   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4127   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4128   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4129   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4130   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4131   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4132   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4133   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4134   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4135   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4136   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4137   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4138   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4139 
  4140 
  4141 *** Document preparation ***
  4142 
  4143 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4144 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4145 same.
  4146 
  4147 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4148 result.
  4149 
  4150 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4151 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4152 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4153 
  4154 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4155 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4156 
  4157 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4158 like this:
  4159 
  4160   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4161   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4162 
  4163 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4164 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4165 layouts.
  4166 
  4167 
  4168 *** ML ***
  4169 
  4170 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4171 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4172 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4173 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4174 under external program control.
  4175 
  4176 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4177 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4178 
  4179 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4180 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4181 (better known as Proof General).
  4182 
  4183 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4184 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4185 
  4186 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4187 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4188 
  4189 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4190 (including quotes etc.).
  4191 
  4192 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4193 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4194 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4195 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4196 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4197 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4198 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4199 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4200 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4201 
  4202 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4203 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4204 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4205 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4206 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4207 
  4208 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4209 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4210 
  4211 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4212 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4213 
  4214 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4215 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4216 
  4217 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4218 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4219 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4220 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4221 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4222 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4223 proper Proof.context.
  4224 
  4225 
  4226 *** System ***
  4227 
  4228 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4229 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4230 
  4231 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4232 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4233 
  4234 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4235 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4236 
  4237   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4238   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4239   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4240   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4241   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4242 
  4243 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4244 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4247 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4248 example:
  4249 
  4250   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4251 
  4252 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4253 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4254 
  4255 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4256 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4257 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4258 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4259 
  4260 
  4261 
  4262 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4263 ----------------------------------
  4264 
  4265 *** General ***
  4266 
  4267 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4268 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4269 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4270 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4271 like this:
  4272 
  4273   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4274 
  4275 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4276 
  4277 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4278 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4279 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4280 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4281 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4282 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4283 
  4284 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4285 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4286 the following package declarations:
  4287 
  4288   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4289   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4290 
  4291 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4292 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4293 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4294 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4295 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4296 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4297 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4298 
  4299 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4300 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4301 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4302 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4303 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4304 
  4305 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4306 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4307 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4308 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4311 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4312 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4313 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4314 
  4315   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4316 
  4317   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4318   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4319   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4320   show_types                    show_types
  4321   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4322   show_consts                   show_consts
  4323   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4324 
  4325   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4326   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4327   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4328 
  4329   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4330   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4331 
  4332   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4333 
  4334   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4335   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4336   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4337   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4338   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4339 
  4340 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4341 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4342 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4343 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4344 
  4345 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4349   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4350 
  4351 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4352 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4353 float_token.
  4354 
  4355 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4356 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4358 
  4359 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4360 DejaVu Sans.
  4361 
  4362 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4363 
  4364 
  4365 *** Pure ***
  4366 
  4367 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4368 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4369 time.
  4370 
  4371 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4372 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4375 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4376 
  4377 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4378 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4379 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4380 command already provided this functionality.
  4381 
  4382 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4383 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4384 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4385 without interpretations.
  4386 
  4387 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4388 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4389 
  4390 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4391 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4392 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4393 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4394 
  4395 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4396 'definition' instead.
  4397 
  4398 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4399 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4400 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4401 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4402 
  4403 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4404 constructors.
  4405 
  4406 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4407 the local file system.
  4408 
  4409 
  4410 *** HOL ***
  4411 
  4412 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4413 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4414 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4415 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4416 
  4417   declare [[coercion f]]
  4418 
  4419 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4420 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4421 
  4422   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4423 
  4424 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4425 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4426 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4427 other theories like this:
  4428 
  4429   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4430 
  4431 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4432 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4433 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4434 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4435 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4436 for examples.
  4437 
  4438 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4439 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4440 
  4441 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4442 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4443 
  4444 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4445 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4446 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4447 
  4448 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4449 functorial structure of types.
  4450 
  4451 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4452 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4453 
  4454 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4455 languages.
  4456 
  4457 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4458 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4460 
  4461 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4462 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4463 
  4464 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4465 combinators any longer.
  4466 
  4467 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4468 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4469 
  4470 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4471 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4472 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4473 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4474 
  4475   record 'a foo = ...
  4476   ...
  4477   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4478 
  4479 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4480 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4482 
  4483 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4484 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4485 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4486 
  4487 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4488 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4489 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4490 
  4491 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4492 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4495 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4496 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4497 independently.
  4498 
  4499 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4500 counter example search.
  4501 
  4502 * Sledgehammer:
  4503   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4504     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4505     sledgehammer").
  4506   - Renamed commands:
  4507     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4508     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4509     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4510     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511   - Renamed options:
  4512     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4513     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4514     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4515     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4516     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Nitpick:
  4519   - Renamed options:
  4520     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4521     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4522     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4523   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4524   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4525   - Added "whack" option.
  4526   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4527   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4528   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4529   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4530     higher cardinalities.
  4531   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4532 
  4533 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4534 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4535 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4536 
  4537     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4538 
  4539 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4540 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4541 
  4542 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4543 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4544 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4545 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4546 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4547 "smt_solver".
  4548 
  4549 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4550 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4551 
  4552 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4553 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4554 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4555 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4558   - Renamed:
  4559     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4560     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4561     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4562   - Added:
  4563     smt_verbose
  4564     smt_random_seed
  4565     smt_datatypes
  4566     smt_infer_triggers
  4567     smt_monomorph_limit
  4568     cvc3_options
  4569     remote_cvc3_options
  4570     remote_z3_options
  4571     yices_options
  4572 
  4573 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4574 header.
  4575 
  4576 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4577 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4578 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4579 
  4580   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4581 
  4582 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4585 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4590 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4593 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4594 
  4595 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4596 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4599 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4600 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4603 
  4604 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4606 
  4607 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4608 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4609 
  4610 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4611 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4612 for congruent(2)).
  4613 
  4614 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4615 
  4616   types
  4617     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4618     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4619 
  4620   constants
  4621     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4622     True ~> HOL.True
  4623     False ~> HOL.False
  4624     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4625     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4626     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4627     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4628     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4629     The ~> HOL.The
  4630     All ~> HOL.All
  4631     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4632     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4633     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4634     If ~> HOL.If
  4635     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4636     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4637     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4638     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4639     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4640     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4641     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4642     op : ~> Set.member
  4643     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4644 
  4645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4648 
  4649     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4650     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4651     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4652     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4653     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4654     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4655     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4656     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4657 
  4658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4659 
  4660 * More stylized fact names:
  4661 
  4662   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4663   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4664   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4665   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4666 
  4667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4668 
  4669 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4670 
  4671   constants
  4672     null ~> List.null
  4673 
  4674   facts
  4675     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4676     null_empty ~> null_def
  4677 
  4678 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4679 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4680 generation.
  4681 
  4682 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4683 Haskell code.
  4684 
  4685 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4686 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4687 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4690 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4691 
  4692 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4693 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4694 
  4695 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4696 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4697 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4700 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4706 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4707 referred to by its qualified name.
  4708 
  4709   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4710   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4711   product ~>  Enum.product
  4712 
  4713 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4714 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4718 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4719 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4723 sort_key.
  4724 
  4725 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4727 
  4728 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4729 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4730 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4731 
  4732   types
  4733     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4734               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4735               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4736         (depends on your needs)
  4737 
  4738   constants
  4739      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4740      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4741      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4742 
  4743 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4744 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4745 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4746 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4747 
  4748 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4749 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4750 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4751 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4752 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4758 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4759 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4760 
  4761 
  4762 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4763 
  4764 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4765 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4766 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4767 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4768 compatibility.
  4769 
  4770 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4771 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4772 
  4773 
  4774 *** HOLCF ***
  4775 
  4776 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4777 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4778 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4782 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4783 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4786   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4787   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4788 
  4789 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4790 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4791 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4792 
  4793 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4794 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4795 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4796 domain definition now works:
  4797 
  4798   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4799 
  4800 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4801 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4802 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4803 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4804 
  4805   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4806     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4807 
  4808   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4809 
  4810 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4811 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4812 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4815 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4818 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4819 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4820 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4821 
  4822 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4823 
  4824 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4825 
  4826 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4827 
  4828 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4832 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4833 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4834 
  4835 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4836 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4837 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4840 still supported as an input translation.
  4841 
  4842 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4843 
  4844   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4845   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4846   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4847   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4848   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4849   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4850   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4851 
  4852 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4853 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4856   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4857   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4858   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4859   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4860   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4861 
  4862 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4863 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4864 
  4865 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4866 
  4867   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4868   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4869   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4870   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4871 
  4872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4873 
  4874 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4875 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4876 
  4877 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4878 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4879 
  4880   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4881   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4882   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4883   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4884   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4885   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4886   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4887   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4888   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4889   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4890   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4891   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4892   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4893   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4894   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4895   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4896   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4897   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4898   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4899   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4900 
  4901 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4902 
  4903   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4904   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4905   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4906   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4907   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4908   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4909   box_less             ~> box_below
  4910   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4911   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4912   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4913   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4914   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4915   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4916   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4917   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4918   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4919   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4920   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4921   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4922   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4923   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4924   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4925   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4926   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4927   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4928   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4929   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4930   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4931   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4932   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4933   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4934   up_less              ~> up_below
  4935   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4936   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4937   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4938   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4939   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4940   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4941   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4942   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4943   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4944   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4945   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4946   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4947   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4948 
  4949 
  4950 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4951 
  4952 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4953 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 
  4956 *** ML ***
  4957 
  4958 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4959 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4960 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4961 
  4962 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4963 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4964 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4965 
  4966 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4967 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4968 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4969 
  4970 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4971 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4972 
  4973 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4974 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4975 
  4976 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4977 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4978 
  4979 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4980 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4981 
  4982 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4983 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4984 almost all situations.
  4985 
  4986 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4987 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4988 Isabelle/ML.
  4989 
  4990 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4991 meaning.
  4992 
  4993 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4994 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4995 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4996 
  4997 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4998 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4999 
  5000 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5001 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5002 
  5003 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5004 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5005 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5006 
  5007 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5008 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5009 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5010 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5011 configuration options.
  5012 
  5013 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5014 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5015 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5016 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5017 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5018 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5019 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5020 
  5021 
  5022 
  5023 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5024 ---------------------------------
  5025 
  5026 *** General ***
  5027 
  5028 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5029 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5030 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5031 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5032 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5033 their full internal name.
  5034 
  5035 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5036 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5037 Some hints on upgrading:
  5038 
  5039   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5040     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5041     which are independent of this issue.
  5042 
  5043   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5044     provides the following special forms:
  5045 
  5046       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5047       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5048       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5049 
  5050     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5051     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5052     extra variables".
  5053 
  5054     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5055     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5056     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5057     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5058     "logic".
  5059 
  5060   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5061     antiquotations:
  5062 
  5063       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5064       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5065       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5066       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5067 
  5068   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5069     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5070     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5071     antiquotations.
  5072 
  5073 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5074 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5075 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5076 diagnose syntax problems.
  5077 
  5078 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5079 
  5080 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5081 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5082 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5083 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5084 
  5085 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5086 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5087 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5088 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5089 
  5090 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5091 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5092 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5093 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5094 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5095 
  5096 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5097 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5098 
  5099 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5100 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5101 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5102 
  5103   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5104 
  5105 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5106 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5107 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5108 
  5109 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5110 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5114 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5115 
  5116 
  5117 *** Pure ***
  5118 
  5119 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5120 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5121 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5122 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5123 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5124 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5125 inspect proof terms.
  5126 
  5127 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5128 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5129 are added internally.  For example:
  5130 
  5131   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5132 
  5133 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5134 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5135 
  5136 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5137 
  5138 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5139 'class' instead.
  5140 
  5141 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5142 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5146 invariants.
  5147 
  5148 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5149 user space functionality any longer.
  5150 
  5151 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5152 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5154 
  5155 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5156 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5157 
  5158 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5159 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5160 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5161 
  5162 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5163 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5164 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5165 
  5166 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5167 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5168 
  5169 
  5170 *** HOL ***
  5171 
  5172 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5173 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5174 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5175 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5176 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5177 
  5178 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5179 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5180 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5181 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5182 
  5183   fun
  5184     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5185   where
  5186     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5187 
  5188   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5189     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5190 
  5191   quotient_definition
  5192     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5193 
  5194 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5195 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5196 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5197 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5198 
  5199 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5200 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5201 
  5202 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5203 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5204 
  5205 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5207 
  5208 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5209 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5210 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5211 
  5212 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5213 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5214 
  5215 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5217 
  5218 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5220 
  5221 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5222 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5223 
  5224 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5225 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5226 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5227 
  5228   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5229   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5230   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5231   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5232   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5233   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5234   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5235   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5236   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5237   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5238   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5239   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5240   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5241   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5242   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5243   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5244   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5245   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5246   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5247   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5248   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5249   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5250   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5251   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5252   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5253   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5254   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5255   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5256   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5257   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5258 
  5259 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5260 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5261 
  5262 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5263 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5264 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5265 
  5266 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5267 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5268 
  5269 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5270 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5271 
  5272 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5273 
  5274 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5275 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5276 
  5277 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5278 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5279 
  5280 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5281 
  5282 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5283 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5284 
  5285 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5286 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5287 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5288 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5289 
  5290 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5291   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5292   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5293   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5295 
  5296 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5297 lattices):
  5298 
  5299     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5300     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5301 
  5302     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5303 
  5304     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5305     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5306     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5307     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5308     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5309     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5310     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5311     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5312     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5313     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5314     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5315     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5316     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5317 
  5318     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5319     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5320     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5321     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5322     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5323     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5324     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5325     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5326     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5327     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5328     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5329     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5330     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5331     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5332     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5333     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5334     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5335     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5336 
  5337   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5338   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5339 
  5340     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5341     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5342     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5343     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5344     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5345 
  5346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5347 
  5348 * Refined field classes:
  5349   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5350     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5351     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5352   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5354 
  5355 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5356   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5357   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5358   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5359     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5360   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5361     equal_neg_zero.
  5362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5363 
  5364 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5365 sets to lattices:
  5366 
  5367   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5368   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5369   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5370   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5371   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5372   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5373   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5374   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5375   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5376   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5377 
  5378 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5379 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5380 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5381 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5382 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5383 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5384 
  5385 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5386 multiset order:
  5387 
  5388   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5389     <= and <;
  5390   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5391     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5392     multiset_order;
  5393   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5394     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5395     generation;
  5396   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5397     if needed.
  5398 
  5399 Renamed:
  5400 
  5401   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5402   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5403   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5404 
  5405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5408 
  5409 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5410 
  5411 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5412 
  5413 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5414 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5415 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5416 
  5417   Constants:
  5418   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5419   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5420   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5421   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5422   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5423   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5424   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5425   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5426   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5427   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5428   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5429   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5430   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5431 
  5432   Lemmas:
  5433   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5434   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5435   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5436   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5437   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5438   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5439   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5440   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5441   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5442   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5443   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5444   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5445   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5446 
  5447 * Sledgehammer:
  5448   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5449     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5450     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5451     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5452     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5453     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5454     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5455   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5456   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5457     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5458   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5459     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5460     is still experimental.)
  5461   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5462     full-typed mode.
  5463   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5464 
  5465 * Nitpick:
  5466   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5467   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5468   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5469     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5470   - Added support for quotient types.
  5471   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5472     constructs.
  5473   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5474     "termination" proofs).
  5475   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5476   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5477   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5478   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5479     record getters.
  5480   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5481   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5482   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5483   - Added "atoms" option.
  5484   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5485     problems.
  5486   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5487     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5488     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5490     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5491   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5492 
  5493 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5494   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5495   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5496   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5497   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5498   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5499   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5500   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5501   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5502   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5503 
  5504 
  5505 *** HOLCF ***
  5506 
  5507 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5508 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5509 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5512 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5513 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5514 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5515 
  5516 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5517 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5518 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5519 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5520 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5521 
  5522 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5523 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5524 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5525 
  5526 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5527 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5528 
  5529   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5530   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5531 
  5532 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5533 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5534 
  5535   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5536   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5537   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5538   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5539   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5540 
  5541 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5542 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5545   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5546   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5547 
  5548 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5549 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5553 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5554 
  5555 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5556 
  5557 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5558 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5559 
  5560 
  5561 *** ML ***
  5562 
  5563 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5564 
  5565     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5566     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5567 
  5568     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5569     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5570     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5571     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5572 
  5573     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5574     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5575     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5576 
  5577 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5578 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5579 
  5580 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5581 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5582 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5583 
  5584 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5585 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5586 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5587 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5588 
  5589 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5590 the context or even global references.
  5591 
  5592 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5593 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5594 
  5595 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5596 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5597 
  5598   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5599   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5600   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5601   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5602   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5603   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5604   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5605   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5606   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5607   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5608 
  5609 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5610 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5611 
  5612 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5613 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5614 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5615 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5616 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5617 
  5618 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5619 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5620 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5621 Theory_Data version.
  5622 
  5623 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5624 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5625 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5626 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5627 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5628 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5629 explicitly in rare situations.
  5630 
  5631 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5632 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5634 
  5635 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5636 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5637 
  5638 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5639 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5640 quite rare).
  5641 
  5642 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5643 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5644 
  5645 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5646 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5647 terms.
  5648 
  5649 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5650 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5651 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5652 
  5653 
  5654 *** System ***
  5655 
  5656 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5657 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5658 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5659 
  5660 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5661 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5662 respectively.
  5663 
  5664 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5665 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5666 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5667 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5668 
  5669   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5670 
  5671 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5672 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5673 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5674 component.
  5675 
  5676 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5677 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5678 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5679 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5680 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5681 the user for manual installation.
  5682 
  5683 
  5684 
  5685 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5686 -------------------------------------
  5687 
  5688 *** General ***
  5689 
  5690 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5691 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5692 
  5693 
  5694 *** Pure ***
  5695 
  5696 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5697 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5698 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5699 
  5700 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5701 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5702 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5703 
  5704 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5705 interpretation.
  5706 
  5707 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5708 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 
  5711 *** Document preparation ***
  5712 
  5713 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5714 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5715 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5716 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5717 
  5718 
  5719 *** HOL ***
  5720 
  5721 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5722 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5723 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5724 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5725 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5726 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5727 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5728 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5729 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5730 
  5731 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5732 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5733 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5734 
  5735 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5736 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5737 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5738 
  5739 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5740 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5741 
  5742 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5743 
  5744 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5745 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5746 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5747 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5748 
  5749 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5750 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5751 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5752 "mirabelle" utility.
  5753 
  5754 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5755 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5756 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5757 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5758 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5759 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5760 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5761 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5762 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5763 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5764 
  5765 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5766 procedure only.
  5767 
  5768 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5769 
  5770 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5771 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5772 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5773 that fail later.
  5774 
  5775 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5776 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5777 
  5778 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5779 the same method as the approximation method.
  5780 
  5781 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5782 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5783 series expansion.
  5784 
  5785 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5786 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5787 
  5788 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5789 reals.
  5790 
  5791 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5792 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5793 
  5794 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5795 fixpoint theorem.
  5796 
  5797 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5798   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5799     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5800   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5801     accordingly
  5802   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5803     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5804   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5805     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5806 
  5807 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5808 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5809 lattice.
  5810 
  5811 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5812 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5813 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5814 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5815 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5816 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5818 
  5819 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5820   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5821     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5822   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5823     le_inf_iff
  5824   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5825     sup_aci)
  5826   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5827   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5828   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5829     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5830     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5831     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5832     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5833     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5834     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5835     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5836     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5837     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5838     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5839   - authentic syntax for
  5840     Set.Pow
  5841     Set.image
  5842   - mere abbreviations:
  5843     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5844     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5845     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5846     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5847     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5848     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5849     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5850     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5851   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5852 
  5853 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5854 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5855 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5856 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5857 
  5858 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5859 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5860 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5861 
  5862 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5863 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5864 
  5865 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5866 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5867 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5868 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5869 
  5870 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5871 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5872 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5873 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5874 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5875 
  5876 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5877 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5879 
  5880 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5881 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5884 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5885 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5886 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5887 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5888 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5889 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5891 
  5892 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5893     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5894     code_post       replaces    code post
  5895     etc.
  5896   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5897 
  5898 * Renamed methods:
  5899     sizechange -> size_change
  5900     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5901   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5902 
  5903 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5904 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5905 
  5906 * Renamed theorems:
  5907     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5908     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5909     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5910     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5911     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5912   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5913 
  5914 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5916 
  5917 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5919 
  5920 
  5921 *** HOLCF ***
  5922 
  5923 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5924 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5925 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5926 
  5927 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5928 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5929 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5930 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5931 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5932 
  5933 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5934 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5935 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5936 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5937 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5938 
  5939 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5940 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5941 constructor are pre-configured.
  5942 
  5943 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5944 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5945 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5946 
  5947 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5948 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5949 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5950 as well.)
  5951 
  5952 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5953 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5954 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5955 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5956 examples.
  5957 
  5958 
  5959 *** ML ***
  5960 
  5961 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5962 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5963 
  5964 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5965 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5966 position, logical grouping etc.
  5967 
  5968 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5969 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5970 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5971 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5972 
  5973 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5974 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5975 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5976 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5977 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5978 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5979 
  5980 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5981 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5982 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5983 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5984 experiments with references.
  5985 
  5986 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5987 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5988 
  5989 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5990 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5991 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5992 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5993 
  5994 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5995 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5996 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5997 
  5998 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5999 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  6000 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 
  6002 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6003 
  6004 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  6005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6006 
  6007 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6008 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6009 
  6010 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6011 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6012 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6013 
  6014 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6015 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6016 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6017 
  6018 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6019 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6020 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6022 
  6023 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6024 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6025 instead of global theory.
  6026 
  6027 
  6028 *** System ***
  6029 
  6030 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6031 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6032 usedir option -q.
  6033 
  6034 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6035 also the system manual.
  6036 
  6037 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6038 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6039 
  6040 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6041 this is always enabled.
  6042 
  6043 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6044 
  6045 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6046 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6047 currently supported on Linux only.
  6048 
  6049 
  6050 
  6051 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6052 --------------------------------
  6053 
  6054 *** General ***
  6055 
  6056 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6057 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6058 
  6059   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6060     "isatool."
  6061 
  6062   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6063     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6064 
  6065   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6066     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6067 
  6068 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6069 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6070 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6071 
  6072 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6073 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6074 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6075 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6076 via "isabelle emacs".
  6077 
  6078 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6079 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6080 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6081 
  6082 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6083 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6084 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6085 
  6086 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6087 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6088 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6089 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6090 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6091 
  6092 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6093 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6094 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6095 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6096 
  6097 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6098 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6099 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6100 
  6101 
  6102 *** Pure ***
  6103 
  6104 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6105 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6106 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6107 
  6108 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6109 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6110 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6111 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6112 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6113 
  6114 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6115 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6116 useful in locale declarations.
  6117 
  6118 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6119 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6120 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6121 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6122 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6123 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6124 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6125 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6126 no longer generated.
  6127 
  6128 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6129 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6130 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6131 
  6132 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6133 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6134 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6135 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6136 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6137 
  6138 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6139 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6140 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6141 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6142 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6143 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6144 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6145 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6146 
  6147 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6148 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6149 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6150 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6151 
  6152 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6153 
  6154 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6155 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6156 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6157 
  6158 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6159 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6162 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6163 in HOL, write
  6164 
  6165     class foo = ...
  6166 
  6167 instead of
  6168 
  6169     class foo = type + ...
  6170 
  6171 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6172 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6173 
  6174 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6175 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6176 
  6177 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6178 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6179 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6180 
  6181 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6182 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6183 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6184 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6185 directly in regular applications.
  6186 
  6187 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6188 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6189 
  6190 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6191 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6192 
  6193 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6194 theory context.
  6195 
  6196 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6197 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6198 
  6199 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6200 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6201 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6202 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6203 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6204 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6205 
  6206   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6207 
  6208 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6209 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6210 normalization.
  6211 
  6212 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  6213 addressing etc.
  6214 
  6215 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  6216 
  6217   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  6218   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  6219 
  6220 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6221 
  6222   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  6223      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  6224      parts of the code generator framework).
  6225 
  6226   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  6227      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  6228      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  6229 
  6230 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6231 
  6232 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  6233 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6234 
  6235 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  6236 patterns, e.g.
  6237 
  6238     find_consts "_ => bool"
  6239 
  6240 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  6241 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  6242 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  6243 hyphen:
  6244 
  6245     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  6246 
  6247 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  6248 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  6249 
  6250 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  6251 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  6252 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  6253 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  6254 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  6255 higher-order unification.
  6256 
  6257 
  6258 *** Document preparation ***
  6259 
  6260 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  6261 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  6262 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  6263 
  6264 
  6265 *** HOL ***
  6266 
  6267 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  6268 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  6269 
  6270 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  6271 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  6272 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
<