NEWS
author blanchet
Mon May 19 13:53:58 2014 +0200 (2014-05-19)
changeset 56995 61855ade6c7e
parent 56993 e5366291d6aa
child 56996 891e992e510f
permissions -rw-r--r--
hide more consts to beautify documentation
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * Old datatype package:
   321   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   322     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   323     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   325     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   326     "case_prod").
   327     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   330   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   331   datatype package.
   332   Renamed constants:
   333     Option.set ~> set_option
   334     Option.map ~> map_option
   335     option_rel ~> rel_option
   336   Renamed theorems:
   337     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   338     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   339     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   340     option.recs ~> option.rec
   341     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   342     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   343     map.simps ~> list.map
   344     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   345     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   346     the.simps ~> option.sel
   347   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   350     sum_map ~> map_sum
   351     map_pair ~> map_prod
   352     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   353     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   354     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   355     set_rel ~> rel_set
   356     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   357     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   358     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   359     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   360 
   361 * New theory:
   362     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   363 
   364 * Theory reorganizations:
   365   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   366 
   367 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   368   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   369   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   370   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   371   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   372   the old default can be restored using
   373   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * SMT module:
   376   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   377     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   378     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   379     elsewhere.
   380 
   381 * Sledgehammer:
   382   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   383   - New option:
   384       smt_proofs
   385   - Renamed options:
   386       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   387       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   389 
   390 * Metis:
   391   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   392     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   395 
   396 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   399 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   400 
   401 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   402 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   403 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   404 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   405 
   406 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   410 with the given constants.
   411 
   412 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   413 
   414 Fact consolidations:
   415     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   416     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   417     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   418     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   419     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   420     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   421     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   422     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   423     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   424     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   425     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   426     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   427     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   428     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   429     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   430     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   431     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   432     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   433     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   434     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   435     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   436     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   437     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   438     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   439     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   440     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   441     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   442     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   443     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   444     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   445     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   446     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   447     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   448     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   449     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   450     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   451     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   452     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   453     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   454     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   455 
   456 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   457 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   458 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   459 
   460 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   461 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   462 
   463 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   464 
   465 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   466 
   467 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   474 operations on records.
   475 
   476 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   480     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   484     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   485     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   489   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   490   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   491   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   492     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   493   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   494     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   495   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   499     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   500     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   501     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   502     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Fact name consolidation:
   506     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   507     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   508     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   509     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   510     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   514 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   515 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   516 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   517 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   518 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   519 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   520 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   523 
   524 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   525 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   526 
   527 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   528 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   529 
   530 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   531 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   532 or the brute way with
   533 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   534 
   535 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   536 
   537 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   538 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   539 
   540 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   541 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   542 
   543 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   544 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   545 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   546 INCOMPATIBILITY
   547 
   548 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   549   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   550   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   551   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   552   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   553   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   554   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   555   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   556   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   557   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   558   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   559   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   560 
   561   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   562 
   563   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   564     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   565     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   566     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   567     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   569 
   570 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   571   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   572 
   573   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   574 
   575   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   576 
   577   - removed constant isDiff
   578 
   579   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   580     syntax.
   581 
   582   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   583 
   584   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   585 
   586   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   587 
   588   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   589 
   590   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   591     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   592 
   593   - Other renamings:
   594     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   595     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   596     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   597     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   598     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   599     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   600     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   604   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   605 
   606 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   607   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   608   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   609 
   610   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   611   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   612   removes
   613     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   614 
   615   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   616     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   617 
   618   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   619 
   620   Renamings:
   621     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   622     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   623     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   624     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   625     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   626     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   627     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   628     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   629     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   630     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   631     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   632     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   633 
   634     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   635     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   636     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   637 
   638   Removed theorems:
   639     complex_zero_def
   640     complex_add_def
   641     complex_minus_def
   642     complex_diff_def
   643     complex_one_def
   644     complex_mult_def
   645     complex_inverse_def
   646     complex_scaleR_def
   647 
   648 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   649 
   650 * Nitpick:
   651   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   652     infinite values.
   653   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   654     "Rep_Integ".
   655   - Removed "std" option.
   656   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   657     "hide_types".
   658 
   659 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   660   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   661   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   662     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   663     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   664     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   665     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   666     intervals.
   667 
   668   - renamed theorems:
   669     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   670     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   671     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   672 
   673 * HOL-Probability:
   674   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   675     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   676 
   677     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   678     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   679     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   680     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   681     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   682     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   683     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   684     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   685     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   686     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   687     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   688     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   689     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   690     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   691     integral_indicator          ~>
   692          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   693     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   694     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   695     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   696 
   697     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   698          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   699 
   700     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   701          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   702 
   703     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   704          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   705 
   706     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   707          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   708          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   709 
   710     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   711          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   712 
   713     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   714          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   715 
   716     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   717          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   718          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   719 
   720     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   721          positive_integral_real_affine
   722 
   723     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   724          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   725 
   726     The following theorems where removed:
   727 
   728     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   729     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   730     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   731     lebesgue_integral_multc
   732     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   733     integral_cmul_indicator
   734     integral_real
   735 
   736 *** Scala ***
   737 
   738 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   739 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   740 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   741 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   742 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 
   745 *** ML ***
   746 
   747 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   748 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   751 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   752 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   756 
   757 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   758 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   759 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   763 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   764 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   765 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   766 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   767 of schematic variables.
   768 
   769 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   770 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   772 formal context.
   773 
   774 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   775 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   776 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   777 actually belongs to it).
   778 
   779 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   780 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   781 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   782 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   783 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   784 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   785 
   786 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   787 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   790 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   791 
   792 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   793 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   794 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   795 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   796 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   797 
   798 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   799 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   800 purposes.
   801 
   802 
   803 *** System ***
   804 
   805 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   806 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   807 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   808 processing is started.
   809 
   810 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   811 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   812 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   813 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   814 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   815 
   816 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   817 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   818 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   819 
   820 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   821 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   822 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   823 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   824 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   825 settings variable yet.
   826 
   827 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   828 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   829 
   830 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   831 -------------------------------------
   832 
   833 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   834 
   835 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   836 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   837 
   838 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   839 after edits surrounding the command location.
   840 
   841 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   842 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   843 e.g. out-of-memory).
   844 
   845 
   846 *** System ***
   847 
   848 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   849 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   850 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   851 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   852 
   853 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   854 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   855 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   856 
   857 
   858 
   859 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   860 -------------------------------------
   861 
   862 *** General ***
   863 
   864 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   865 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   866 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   869 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   872 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   873 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   874 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   875 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   876 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   877 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   878 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   879 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   880 syntax.
   881 
   882 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   883 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   886 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   887 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   888 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   889 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   890 
   891 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   895 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   896 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   897 
   898 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   899 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   900 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   901 
   902 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   903 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   904 
   905 
   906 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   907 
   908 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   909 Documentation panel.
   910 
   911 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   912 documentation.
   913 
   914 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   915 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   916 
   917 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   918 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   919 normal editing and checking process.
   920 
   921 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   922 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   923 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   924 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   925 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   926 
   927 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   928 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   929 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   930 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   931 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   932 
   933 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   934 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   935 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   936 
   937 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   938 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   939 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   940 to resolve conflict.
   941 
   942 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   943 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   944 
   945 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   946 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   947 such command executions while editing.
   948 
   949 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   950 document content.
   951 
   952 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   953 toplevel theorem statements.
   954 
   955 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   956 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   957 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   958 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   959 
   960 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   961 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   962 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   963 
   964 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   965 / Global Options / Appearance".
   966 
   967 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   968 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   969 
   970 
   971 *** Pure ***
   972 
   973 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   974 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   975 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   976 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   977 details.
   978 
   979 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   980 
   981 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   982 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   983 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   984 
   985 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   987 
   988 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   989 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   990 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   991 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   994 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   995 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   998 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   999 
  1000 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1001 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1002 situations.
  1003 
  1004 
  1005 *** HOL ***
  1006 
  1007 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1008 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1012 
  1013 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1014 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1015 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1016 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1017 
  1018   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1019 
  1020 * Code generator:
  1021   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1022     'code_instance'.
  1023   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1024     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1025 
  1026 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1027 examples.
  1028 
  1029 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1030 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1031 to distinguish both when desired.
  1032 
  1033 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1034 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1035 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1036 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1039 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1040 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1041 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1042 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1043 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1046 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1047 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1048 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1049 
  1050 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1051 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1052 
  1053 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1054 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1055 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1056 
  1057 * Lifting:
  1058   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1059     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1060       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1061       transfer rules
  1062     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1063       correspondence relation can be generated
  1064     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1065       parametricity
  1066     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1067   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1068   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1069     copies
  1070   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1071     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1072     anonymous context)
  1073   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1074     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1075   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1076     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1077   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1078     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1079 
  1080 * Transfer:
  1081   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1082     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1083   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1084   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1085     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1086   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1087 
  1088 * Reification and reflection:
  1089   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1090     "Reification".
  1091   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1092   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1096   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1097     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1098     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1099   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1100     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1101   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1102     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1103     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1104     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1105     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1106     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1107     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1108     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1109   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1110     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1111   - Fact renames:
  1112       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1113       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1115 
  1116 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1117 
  1118 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1119 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1120 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1124 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1125 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1126 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1127 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1128 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1129 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1130 lemmas.
  1131 
  1132 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1133 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1134 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1137 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1138 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1139 
  1140 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1141 top and bottom elements.
  1142 
  1143 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1144 
  1145 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1146 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1147 
  1148  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1149    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1150    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1151 
  1152  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1153    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1154    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1155 
  1156    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1157    arbitrary filter.
  1158 
  1159  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1160    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1161    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1162    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1163    on a compact set.
  1164 
  1165  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1166    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1167    linear_continuum_topology).
  1168 
  1169  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1170    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1171    on all sequences converging to x.
  1172 
  1173  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1174    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1175    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1176    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1177    left or right.
  1178 
  1179  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1180 
  1181      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1182 
  1183  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1184    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1185 
  1186  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1187    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1188    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1189    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1190    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1191    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1192 
  1193  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1194 
  1195    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1196 
  1197    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1198      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1199 
  1200    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1201 
  1202    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1203      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1204 
  1205    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1206 
  1207    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1208 
  1209  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1210 
  1211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Nitpick:
  1214   - Added option "spy".
  1215   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1216 
  1217 * Sledgehammer:
  1218   - Renamed option:
  1219       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1220     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1221   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1222   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1223   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1224 
  1225 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1226 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1227 
  1228 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1229   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1230   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1231     generated code.
  1232   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1233   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1234   - Fact renames:
  1235     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1236     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1237     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1238 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1241 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1242 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1243 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1244 
  1245 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1246 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1247 
  1248 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1249 
  1250 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1251 
  1252     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1253     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1254 
  1255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1256 
  1257 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1258 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1259 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1260 
  1261 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1262 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1263 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1264 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1265 
  1266 * HOL-BNF:
  1267   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1268     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1269     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1270     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1271   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1272     coinduct).
  1273   - Renamed keywords:
  1274     data ~> datatype_new
  1275     codata ~> codatatype
  1276     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1277   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1278     discs ~> disc
  1279     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1280     map_id' ~> map_id
  1281     sels ~> sel
  1282     set_map' ~> set_map
  1283     sets ~> set
  1284 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 
  1287 *** ML ***
  1288 
  1289 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1290 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1291 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1292 Examples.thy in particular.
  1293 
  1294 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1295 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1296 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1297 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1298 
  1299 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1300 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1301 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1302 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1306 
  1307     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1308     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1309 
  1310 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1311 
  1312 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1313 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1314 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1315 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1316 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1317 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1318 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1319 
  1320 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1321 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1322 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1323 clasets separately from the context.
  1324 
  1325 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1326 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1327 
  1328 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1329 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1330 
  1331 
  1332 *** System ***
  1333 
  1334 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1335 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1338 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1339 
  1340 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1341 settings variable.
  1342 
  1343 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1344 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1345 always pdf.
  1346 
  1347 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1348 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1349 
  1350 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1351 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1352 
  1353 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1354 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1355 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1356 
  1357 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1358 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1359 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1360 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1361 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1362 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1363 
  1364 
  1365 
  1366 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1367 -----------------------------------
  1368 
  1369 *** General ***
  1370 
  1371 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1372 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1373 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1374 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1375 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1376 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1377 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1378 
  1379 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1380 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1381 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1382 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1383 
  1384 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1385 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1386 
  1387 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1388 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1389 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1390 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1391 dependencies properly.
  1392 
  1393 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1394 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1395 
  1396 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1397 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1398 
  1399 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1400 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1401 and "class ... context ...".
  1402 
  1403 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1404 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1405 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1406 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1407 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1408 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1409 
  1410 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1411 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1412 
  1413 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1414 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1415 
  1416 
  1417 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1418 
  1419 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1420 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1421 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1422 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1423 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1424 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1425 
  1426 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1427 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1428 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1429 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1430 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1431 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1432 
  1433 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1434 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1435 browser on demand.
  1436 
  1437 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1438 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1439 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1440 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1441 
  1442 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1443 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1444 
  1445 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1446 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1447 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1448 potentially infinite message streams.
  1449 
  1450 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1451 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1452 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1453 schemes.
  1454 
  1455 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1456 symbols.
  1457 
  1458 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1459 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1460 
  1461 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1462 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1463 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1464 
  1465 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1466 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1467 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1468 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1469 
  1470 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1471 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1472 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1473 
  1474 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1475 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1476 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1477 Isabelle distribution.
  1478 
  1479 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1480 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1481 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1482 
  1483 
  1484 *** Pure ***
  1485 
  1486 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1487 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1488 
  1489 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1490 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1491 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 
  1493 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1494 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1495 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1496 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1497 with some care where this is really required.
  1498 
  1499 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1500 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1501 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1502 
  1503   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1504 
  1505 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1506 a Hasse diagram.
  1507 
  1508 
  1509 *** HOL ***
  1510 
  1511 * Sledgehammer:
  1512 
  1513   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1514     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1515   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1516   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1517   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1518   - Renamed options:
  1519       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1520       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1521       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1522       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1523 
  1524 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1525 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1526 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1527 
  1528 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Lifting:
  1532   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1533   - quot_del attribute
  1534   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1535 
  1536 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1537 expressions.
  1538 
  1539 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1540 pointfree expressions.
  1541 
  1542 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1543 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1544 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1545 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1549 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1550 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1551 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1552 accordingly.
  1553 
  1554 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1555 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1556 
  1557 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1558 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1559 
  1560 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1563 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1564 
  1565 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1566 
  1567 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1568 
  1569   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1570   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1571 
  1572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1575 
  1576   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1577   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1578 
  1579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1582 
  1583   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1584     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1585     output f x converges to G.
  1586 
  1587   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1588     infinity (at_bot).
  1589 
  1590   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1591     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1592 
  1593   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1594     at_top".
  1595 
  1596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1599 lattice type classes.
  1600 
  1601 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1602 
  1603     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1604     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1605 
  1606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1609 changes as follows.
  1610 
  1611   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1612 
  1613       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1614       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1615 
  1616   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1617     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1618     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1619     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1620 
  1621   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1622     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1623     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1624 
  1625   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1626     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1627     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1628     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1629 
  1630   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1631     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1632 
  1633       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1634       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1635       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1636       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1637       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1638       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1639       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1640       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1641       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1642       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1643       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1644       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1645       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1646       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1647       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1648       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1649 
  1650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1653 
  1654 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1655 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1656 
  1657 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1658 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1659 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1660 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1661 
  1662   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1663   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1664   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1665   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1666   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1667   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1668   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1669   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1670   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1671   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1672 
  1673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1676 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1677 Data").
  1678 
  1679 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1680 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1681 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1682 code.
  1683 
  1684 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1685 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1686 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1690 
  1691 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1692 
  1693 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1694 
  1695   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1696   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1697 
  1698 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1699 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1700 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1701 
  1702   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1703 
  1704     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1705     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1706     cart_base i  removed
  1707     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1708 
  1709   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1710 
  1711   Renamed lemmas:
  1712 
  1713     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1714     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1715     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1716     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1717     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1718     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1719     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1720     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1721     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1722     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1723 
  1724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726 * HOL/Probability:
  1727 
  1728   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1729 
  1730   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1731     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1732     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1733 
  1734   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1735     projective family).
  1736 
  1737 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1738 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1739 
  1740 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1741 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1742 datatypes.
  1743 
  1744 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1745 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1746 
  1747 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1748 trees for the code generator.
  1749 
  1750 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1751 Lifting/Transfer.
  1752 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1753 
  1754 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 
  1758 *** Document preparation ***
  1759 
  1760 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1761 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1762 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1763 
  1764 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1765 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1766 
  1767 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1768 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1769 document/root.tex.
  1770 
  1771 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1772 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774 
  1775 *** ML ***
  1776 
  1777 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1778 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1779 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1780 
  1781 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1782 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1783 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1784 
  1785 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1786 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1787 necessarily printing visible text.
  1788 
  1789 
  1790 *** System ***
  1791 
  1792 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1793 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1794 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1795 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1796 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1797 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1798 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1799 
  1800 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1801 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1802 
  1803   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1804 
  1805 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1806 
  1807 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1808 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1809 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1810 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1811 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1812 
  1813 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1814 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1815 
  1816 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1817 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1818 
  1819 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1821 
  1822 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1823 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1824 version of Isabelle.
  1825 
  1826 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1827 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1828 
  1829 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1830 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1831 for home-made settings.
  1832 
  1833 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1834 
  1835 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1836 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1837 configuration.
  1838 
  1839 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1840 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1841 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1842 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1843 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1844 
  1845 
  1846 
  1847 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1848 ------------------------------
  1849 
  1850 *** General ***
  1851 
  1852 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1853 
  1854   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1855     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1856   - markup for bound variables
  1857   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1858   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1859   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1860     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1861 
  1862 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1863 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1864 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1865 
  1866 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1867 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1868 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1869 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1870 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1871 
  1872   context
  1873     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1874     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1875   begin
  1876 
  1877   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1878 
  1879   end
  1880 
  1881   thm my_trans
  1882 
  1883 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1884 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1885 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1886 
  1887 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1888 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1889 
  1890 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1891 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1892 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1893 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1894 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1895 
  1896 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1897 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1898 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1899 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1900 indices of schematic variables.
  1901 
  1902 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1903 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1904 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1905 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1906 etc. was exploited.
  1907 
  1908 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1909 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1910 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1911 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1912 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1913 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1914 
  1915 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1916 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1917 manual.
  1918 
  1919 
  1920 *** Pure ***
  1921 
  1922 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1923 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1924 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1925 
  1926 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1927 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1928 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1929 undocumented feature.)
  1930 
  1931 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1932 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1933 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1934 
  1935   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1936 
  1937   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1938     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1939 
  1940 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1941 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1942 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1943 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1944 
  1945 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1946 
  1947     num ~> num_token
  1948     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1949     xstr ~> str_token
  1950 
  1951 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1952 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1953 position information via constraints).
  1954 
  1955 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1956 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1957 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1958 
  1959 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1960 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1961 
  1962 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1963 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1964 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1965 
  1966 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1967 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1968 
  1969 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1970 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1971 
  1972   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1973 
  1974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975 
  1976 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1977 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1978 
  1979 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1980 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1981 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1982 
  1983 
  1984 *** HOL ***
  1985 
  1986 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1987 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1988 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1989 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1990 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1991 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1992 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1993 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1994 possible.
  1995 
  1996 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1997 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1998 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1999 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2000 
  2001 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2002 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003 
  2004 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2005 
  2006 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2007 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2008 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2009 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2010 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2011 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2012 
  2013   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2014     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2015 
  2016   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2017     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2018     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2019 
  2020   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2021     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2022 
  2023   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2024     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2025     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2026 
  2027   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2028     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2029 
  2030 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2031 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2032 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2033 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2034 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2035 
  2036   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2037     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2038     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2039     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2040     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2041 
  2042     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2043     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2044 
  2045   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2046     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2047     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2048     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2049     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2050     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2051     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2052     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2053 
  2054   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2055     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2056     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2057     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2058 
  2059   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2060     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2061     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2062     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2063 
  2064   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2065     from type nat to type int.
  2066 
  2067 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2068 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2069 
  2070   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2071     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2072     type.  Example syntax:
  2073 
  2074     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2075       is List.insert
  2076 
  2077     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2078     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2079     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2080     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2081     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2082     by the package.
  2083 
  2084   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2085     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2086     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2087     code generation for each constant.
  2088 
  2089   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2090     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2091     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2092     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2093     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2094 
  2095   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2096     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2097     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2098 
  2099 * Quotient package:
  2100 
  2101   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2102     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2103 
  2104   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2105     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2106 
  2107   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2108     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2109     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2110 
  2111   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2112     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113 
  2114 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2115 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2116 
  2117 * Quickcheck:
  2118 
  2119   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2120     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2121     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2122     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2123     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2124 
  2125     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2126     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2127     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2128 
  2129     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2130     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2131 
  2132     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2133     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2134     show genuine counterexamples.
  2135 
  2136   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2137     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2138 
  2139     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2140     constructors of that type.
  2141 
  2142   - Support for multisets.
  2143 
  2144   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2145 
  2146   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2147     conjectures in a locale context.
  2148 
  2149 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2150 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2151 
  2152 * Sledgehammer:
  2153   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2154     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2155   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2156   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2157     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2158   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2159   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2160   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2161   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2162 
  2163 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2164 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2165 
  2166 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2167 
  2168 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2171 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2172 
  2173   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2174 
  2175 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2176 a list and a nat.
  2177 
  2178 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2179 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2180 
  2181 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2182 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2183 default.
  2184 
  2185 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2186 
  2187   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2188 
  2189 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2190 
  2191 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2192 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2193 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2194 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2195 one_case.
  2196 
  2197 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2198 the result of the fact expression.
  2199 
  2200 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2201 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2202 of some relation theorems:
  2203 
  2204   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2205   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2206   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2207   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2208   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2209   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2210 
  2211 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2212 
  2213 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2214 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2215 
  2216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2219 to match the constant's name:
  2220 
  2221   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2222   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2223   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2224   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2225   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2226   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2227   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2228   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2229   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2230   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2231   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2232   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2233   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2234   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2235   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2236   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2237   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2238   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2239   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2240   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2241   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2242   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2243   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2244   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2245 
  2246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2249 and corresponding theorem names:
  2250 
  2251   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2252 
  2253   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2254 
  2255   - Renamed theorems:
  2256 
  2257     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2258     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2259     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2260     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2261     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2262     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2263     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2264     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2265     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2266     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2267     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2268     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2269     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2270     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2271     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2272     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2273     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2274     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2275     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2276     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2277     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2278     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2279     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2280 
  2281     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2282 
  2283     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2284 
  2285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2288 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2289 
  2290   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2291   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2292   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2293   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2294   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2295   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2296   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2297   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2298   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2299   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2300   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2301   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2302   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2303   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2304   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2305   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2306   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2307   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2308   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2309   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2310   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2311 
  2312 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2313 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316 
  2317 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2318 
  2319   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2320   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2321   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2322   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2323   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2324   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2325   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2326   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2327   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2328   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2329   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2330   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2331   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2332   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2333   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2334   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2335   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2336   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2337 
  2338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339 
  2340 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2341 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2342 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2343 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2344 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2345 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2346 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2347 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2348 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2349 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2350 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2351 
  2352 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2353 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2354 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2355 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2356 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2357 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2358 
  2359 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2360 through option types.
  2361 
  2362 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2363 relations.
  2364 
  2365 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2368 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2369 
  2370   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2371   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2372   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2373   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2374   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2375   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2376   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2377   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2378   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2379   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2380   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2381   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2382   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2383   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2384   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2385   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2386   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2387   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2388   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2389   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2390   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2391   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2392   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2393   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2394   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2395   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2396   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2397   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2398   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2399   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2400   zless_le ~> less_le
  2401   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2402   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2403   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2404 
  2405 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2406 
  2407   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2408 
  2409 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2410 
  2411 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2412 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2413 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2414 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2418 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2419 
  2420 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2421 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2422 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2423 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2424 follows:
  2425 
  2426   Operations:
  2427   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2428   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2429   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2430   del -> rbt_del
  2431   delete -> rbt_delete
  2432   ins -> rbt_ins
  2433   insert -> rbt_insert
  2434   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2435   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2436   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2437   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2438   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2439   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2440   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2441   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2442   union -> rbt_union
  2443   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2444   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2445 
  2446   Lemmas:
  2447   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2448   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2449   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2450   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2451   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2452   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2453   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2454   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2455   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2456   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2457   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2458   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2459   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2460   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2461   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2462   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2463   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2464   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2465   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2466   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2467   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2468   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2469   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2470   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2471   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2472   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2473   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2474   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2475   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2476   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2477   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2478   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2479   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2480   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2481   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2482   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2483   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2484   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2485   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2486   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2487   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2488   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2489   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2490   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2491   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2492   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2493   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2494   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2495   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2496   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2497   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2498   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2499   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2500   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2501   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2502   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2503   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2504   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2505   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2506   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2507   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2508   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2509   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2510   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2511   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2512   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2513   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2514   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2515   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2516   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2517   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2518   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2519   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2520   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2521   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2522   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2523   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2524   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2525   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2526   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2527   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2528   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2529   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2530 
  2531 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2532 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2533 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535   Changed Operations:
  2536   float_abs -> abs
  2537   float_nprt -> nprt
  2538   float_pprt -> pprt
  2539   pow2 -> use powr
  2540   round_down -> float_round_down
  2541   round_up -> float_round_up
  2542   scale -> exponent
  2543 
  2544   Removed Operations:
  2545   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2546 
  2547   Renamed Lemmas:
  2548   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2549   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2550   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2551   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2552   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2553   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2554   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2555   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2556   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2557   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2558   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2559   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2560   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2561   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2562   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2563   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2564   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2565   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2566   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2567   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2568   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2569   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2570   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2571   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2572   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2573   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2574   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2575   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2576   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2577   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2578   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2579   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2580   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2581   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2582   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2583   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2584 
  2585   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2586   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2587   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2588   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2589   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2590   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2591   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2592   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2593   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2594   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2595 
  2596 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2597 association lists with distinct keys.
  2598 
  2599 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2600 annotated commands.
  2601 
  2602 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2603 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2604 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2605 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2608 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2609 instead.
  2610 
  2611   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2612   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2613   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2614   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2615   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2616   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2617   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2618   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2619   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2620   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2621   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2622   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2623   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2624   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2625   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2626   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2627   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2628   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2629   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2630   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2631   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2632   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2633   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2634   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2635   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2636   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2637   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2638   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2639   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2640   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2641   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2642   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2643   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2644   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2645   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2646   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2647   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2648   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2649   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2650   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2651   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2652 
  2653 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2654 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2655 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2656 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2657 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2658 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2659 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2660 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2661 
  2662 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2663 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2664 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2665 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2666 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2667 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2668 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2669 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2670 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2671 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2672 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2673 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2674 
  2675   Renamed constants:
  2676   measure -> emeasure
  2677   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2678   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2679   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2680   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2681 
  2682   Removed locales:
  2683   completeable_measure_space
  2684   finite_measure_space
  2685   finite_prob_space
  2686   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2687   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2688   finite_sigma_algebra
  2689   measure_space
  2690   pair_finite_prob_space
  2691   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2692   pair_finite_space
  2693   pair_sigma_algebra
  2694   product_sigma_algebra
  2695 
  2696   Removed constants:
  2697   conditional_space
  2698   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2699   image_space
  2700   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2701   pair_measure_generator
  2702   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2703   subvimage
  2704 
  2705   Replacement theorems:
  2706   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2707   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2708   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2709   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2710   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2711   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2712   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2713   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2714   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2715   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2716   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2717   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2718   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2719   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2720   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2721   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2722   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2723   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2724   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2725   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2726   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2727   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2728   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2729   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2730   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2731   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2732   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2733   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2734   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2735   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2736   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2737   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2738   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2739   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2740   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2741   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2742   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2743   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2744   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2745   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2746   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2747   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2748   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2749   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2750   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2751   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2752   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2753   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2754   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2755   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2756   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2757   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2758   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2759   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2760   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2761   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2762   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2763   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2764   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2765   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2766   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2767   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2768   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2769   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2770   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2771   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2772   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2773   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2774   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2775   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2776   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2777   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2778   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2779   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2780   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2781   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2782   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2783   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2784   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2785   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2786   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2787   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2788   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2789   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2790   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2791   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2792   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2793   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2794   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2795   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2796   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2797   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2798   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2799   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2800   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2801   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2802   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2803   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2804   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2805   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2806   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2807   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2808   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2809   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2810   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2811   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2812   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2813   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2814   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2815   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2816   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2817   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2818   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2819   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2820   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2821   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2822   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2823   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2824   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2825   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2826   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2827   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2828   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2829   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2830   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2831   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2832   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2833   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2834 
  2835 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2836 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2837 
  2838 
  2839 *** FOL ***
  2840 
  2841 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2842 
  2843 
  2844 *** ZF ***
  2845 
  2846 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2847 analysis.
  2848 
  2849 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2850 
  2851 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852 
  2853 
  2854 *** ML ***
  2855 
  2856 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2857 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2858 
  2859 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2860 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2861 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2862 
  2863 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2864 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2865 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2866 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2867 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2868 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2869 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2870 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2871 
  2872 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2873 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2874 
  2875 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2876 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2877 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2878 
  2879 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2880 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2883 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2884 context as well.
  2885 
  2886 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2887 
  2888   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2889   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2890   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2891   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2892   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2893   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2894   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2895   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2896   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2897   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2898   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2899   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2900 
  2901 
  2902 *** System ***
  2903 
  2904 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2905 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2906 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2907 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2908 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2909 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2910 the generic user home was intended.
  2911 
  2912 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2913 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2914 
  2915 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2916 (not just JRE).
  2917 
  2918 
  2919 
  2920 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2921 ------------------------------------
  2922 
  2923 *** General ***
  2924 
  2925 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2926 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2927 
  2928   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2929     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2930     files for checking).
  2931 
  2932   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2933     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2934     positions.
  2935 
  2936   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2937     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2938     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2939 
  2940   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2941     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2942     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2943 
  2944   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2945     cores.
  2946 
  2947   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2948     versions (garbage collection).
  2949 
  2950 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2951 including some remaining limitations.
  2952 
  2953 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2954 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2955 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2956 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2957 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959 
  2960 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2961 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2962 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2963 
  2964 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2965 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2966 usedir option -Q.
  2967 
  2968 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2969 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2970 
  2971   long_names   ~> names_long
  2972   short_names  ~> names_short
  2973   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2974 
  2975 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2976 
  2977   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2978 
  2979 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2980 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2981 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2982 
  2983 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2984 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2985 
  2986 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2987   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2988   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2989   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2990     "Classical Reasoner".
  2991 
  2992 
  2993 *** HOL ***
  2994 
  2995 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2996 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2997 
  2998 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2999 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3000 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3001 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3002 class complete_linorder.
  3003 
  3004 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3005 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3006 
  3007 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3008 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3009 
  3010   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3011   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3012   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3013   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3014   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3015   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3016   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3017   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3018   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3019   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3020   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3021 
  3022 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3023 
  3024   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3025   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3026   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3027   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3028   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3029   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3030   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3031   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3032   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3033   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3034   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3035   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3036   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3037   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3038   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3039   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3040 
  3041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3047 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3048 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3049 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3052 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3053 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3057 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3058 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3059 
  3060 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3061 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3062 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3065 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3066 
  3067 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3068 
  3069     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3070     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3071 
  3072 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3073 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3076 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3079 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3080 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3081 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3084   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3085   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3086   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3087   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3088   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3089   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3090 
  3091 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3092 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3095   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3096   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3097   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3098   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3099   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3100   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3101   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3102   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3103   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3104   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3105   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3106   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3107   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3108   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3109   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3110   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3111   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3112   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3113   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3114   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3115   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3116   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3117   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3118   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3119   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3120   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3121   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3122   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3123   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3124   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3125   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3126   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3127   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3128   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3129   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3130   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3131   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3132   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3133   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3134   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3135   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3136   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3137   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3138   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3139   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3140   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3141   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3142   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3143   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3144   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3145   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3146   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3147   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3148   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3149   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3150   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3151   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3152   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3153   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3154   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3155   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3156   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3157   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3158   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3159   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3160   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3161   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3162   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3163   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3164   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3165   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3166   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3167   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3168   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3169   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3170   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3171   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3172   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3173   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3174   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3175   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3176 
  3177 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3178 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3179 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3180 
  3181 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3182 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3183 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3184 
  3185 * Code generation:
  3186 
  3187   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3188     characters in the target language.
  3189 
  3190   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3191     instead.
  3192 
  3193   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3194 
  3195   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3196     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3197 
  3198       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3199 
  3200 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3203 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3204 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3205 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3206 syntax.
  3207 
  3208 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3209 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3210 
  3211 * Nitpick:
  3212   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3213   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3214   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3215     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3216 
  3217 * Sledgehammer:
  3218   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3219   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3220     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3221   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3222     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3223   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3224     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3226     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3227   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3228     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * Metis:
  3231   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3233     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * Command 'try':
  3236   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3237     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3239     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3240 
  3241 * Quickcheck:
  3242   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3243     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3244   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3245     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3246   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3247     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3248     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3249     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3250   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3251     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3252 
  3253 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3254 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3255 
  3256 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3257 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3258 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3259 
  3260 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3261 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3265 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3268 arithmetic.
  3269 
  3270 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3271 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3272 and lattice type classes.
  3273 
  3274 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3275 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3276 
  3277 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3278 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3279 
  3280 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3281 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3282 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3285   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3286   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3287   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3288 
  3289 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3290 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3291 constants:
  3292 
  3293   type inat   ~> type enat
  3294   Fin         ~> enat
  3295   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3296   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3297   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3298 
  3299 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3300 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301 
  3302 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3303 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3304 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3305 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3306 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3307 
  3308 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3309 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3310 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3311 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3312 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3313 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3314 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3315 
  3316   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3317   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3318   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3319   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3320 
  3321 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3322 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3323 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3326   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3327   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3328   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3329   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3330   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3331   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3332   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3333   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3334   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3335   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3336   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3337   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3338   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3339   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3340   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3341   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3342   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3343   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3344   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3345   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3346   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3347   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3348   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3349   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3350   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3351   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3352   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3353   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3354   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3355   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3356   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3357   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3358   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3359   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3360   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3361   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3362   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3363   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3364   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3365   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3366   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3367   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3368   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3369   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3370   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3371   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3372   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3373   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3374   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3375   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3376 
  3377 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3378   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3379   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3380   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3381   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3382     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3387   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3388   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3389   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3390   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3391   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3392   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3393   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3394   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3395   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3396   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3397   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3398   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3399   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3400   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3401   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3402   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3403   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3404   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3405   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3406   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3407   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3408   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3409   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3410   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3411 
  3412 
  3413 *** Document preparation ***
  3414 
  3415 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3416 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3417 same.
  3418 
  3419 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3420 result.
  3421 
  3422 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3423 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3424 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3425 
  3426 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3427 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3428 
  3429 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3430 like this:
  3431 
  3432   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3433   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3434 
  3435 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3436 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3437 layouts.
  3438 
  3439 
  3440 *** ML ***
  3441 
  3442 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3443 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3444 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3445 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3446 under external program control.
  3447 
  3448 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3449 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3450 
  3451 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3452 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3453 (better known as Proof General).
  3454 
  3455 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3456 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3457 
  3458 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3459 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3460 
  3461 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3462 (including quotes etc.).
  3463 
  3464 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3465 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3466 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3467 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3468 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3469 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3470 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3471 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3472 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3473 
  3474 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3475 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3476 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3477 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3478 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3479 
  3480 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3481 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3482 
  3483 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3484 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3485 
  3486 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3487 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3488 
  3489 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3490 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3491 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3492 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3493 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3494 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3495 proper Proof.context.
  3496 
  3497 
  3498 *** System ***
  3499 
  3500 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3501 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3502 
  3503 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3504 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3505 
  3506 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3507 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3508 
  3509   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3510   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3511   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3512   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3513   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3514 
  3515 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3516 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3519 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3520 example:
  3521 
  3522   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3523 
  3524 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3525 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3526 
  3527 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3528 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3529 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3530 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3531 
  3532 
  3533 
  3534 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3535 ----------------------------------
  3536 
  3537 *** General ***
  3538 
  3539 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3540 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3541 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3542 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3543 like this:
  3544 
  3545   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3546 
  3547 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3548 
  3549 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3550 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3551 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3552 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3553 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3555 
  3556 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3557 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3558 the following package declarations:
  3559 
  3560   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3561   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3562 
  3563 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3564 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3565 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3566 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3567 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3568 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3569 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3570 
  3571 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3572 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3573 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3574 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3575 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3576 
  3577 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3578 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3579 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3580 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3581 
  3582 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3583 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3584 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3585 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3586 
  3587   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3588 
  3589   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3590   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3591   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3592   show_types                    show_types
  3593   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3594   show_consts                   show_consts
  3595   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3596 
  3597   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3598   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3599   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3600 
  3601   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3602   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3603 
  3604   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3605 
  3606   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3607   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3608   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3609   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3610   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3611 
  3612 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3613 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3614 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3615 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3616 
  3617 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3621   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3622 
  3623 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3624 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3625 float_token.
  3626 
  3627 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3628 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3632 DejaVu Sans.
  3633 
  3634 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3635 
  3636 
  3637 *** Pure ***
  3638 
  3639 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3640 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3641 time.
  3642 
  3643 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3644 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3645 
  3646 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3647 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3650 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3651 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3652 command already provided this functionality.
  3653 
  3654 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3655 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3656 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3657 without interpretations.
  3658 
  3659 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3660 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3661 
  3662 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3663 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3664 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3665 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3666 
  3667 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3668 'definition' instead.
  3669 
  3670 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3671 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3672 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3673 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3674 
  3675 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3676 constructors.
  3677 
  3678 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3679 the local file system.
  3680 
  3681 
  3682 *** HOL ***
  3683 
  3684 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3685 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3686 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3687 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3688 
  3689   declare [[coercion f]]
  3690 
  3691 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3692 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3693 
  3694   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3695 
  3696 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3697 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3698 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3699 other theories like this:
  3700 
  3701   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3702 
  3703 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3704 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3705 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3706 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3707 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3708 for examples.
  3709 
  3710 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3711 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3714 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3715 
  3716 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3717 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3718 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3719 
  3720 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3721 functorial structure of types.
  3722 
  3723 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3724 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3725 
  3726 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3727 languages.
  3728 
  3729 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3730 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3734 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3737 combinators any longer.
  3738 
  3739 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3740 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3741 
  3742 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3743 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3744 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3745 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3746 
  3747   record 'a foo = ...
  3748   ...
  3749   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3750 
  3751 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3752 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3756 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3757 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3758 
  3759 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3760 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3761 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3762 
  3763 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3764 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3767 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3768 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3769 independently.
  3770 
  3771 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3772 counter example search.
  3773 
  3774 * Sledgehammer:
  3775   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3776     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3777     sledgehammer").
  3778   - Renamed commands:
  3779     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3780     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3781     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3782     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783   - Renamed options:
  3784     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3785     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3786     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3787     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3788     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 * Nitpick:
  3791   - Renamed options:
  3792     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3793     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3794     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3796   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3797   - Added "whack" option.
  3798   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3799   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3800   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3801   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3802     higher cardinalities.
  3803   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3804 
  3805 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3806 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3807 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3808 
  3809     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3810 
  3811 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3812 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3813 
  3814 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3815 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3816 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3817 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3818 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3819 "smt_solver".
  3820 
  3821 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3822 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3823 
  3824 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3825 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3826 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3827 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3830   - Renamed:
  3831     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3832     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3833     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3834   - Added:
  3835     smt_verbose
  3836     smt_random_seed
  3837     smt_datatypes
  3838     smt_infer_triggers
  3839     smt_monomorph_limit
  3840     cvc3_options
  3841     remote_cvc3_options
  3842     remote_z3_options
  3843     yices_options
  3844 
  3845 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3846 header.
  3847 
  3848 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3849 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3850 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3851 
  3852   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3853 
  3854 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3857 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3862 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3865 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3866 
  3867 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3868 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3871 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3872 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3880 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3883 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3884 for congruent(2)).
  3885 
  3886 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3887 
  3888   types
  3889     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3890     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3891 
  3892   constants
  3893     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3894     True ~> HOL.True
  3895     False ~> HOL.False
  3896     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3897     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3898     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3899     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3900     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3901     The ~> HOL.The
  3902     All ~> HOL.All
  3903     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3904     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3905     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3906     If ~> HOL.If
  3907     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3908     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3909     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3910     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3911     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3912     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3913     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3914     op : ~> Set.member
  3915     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3916 
  3917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3920 
  3921     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3922     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3923     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3924     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3925     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3926     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3927     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3928     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3929 
  3930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * More stylized fact names:
  3933 
  3934   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3935   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3936   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3937   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3938 
  3939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3942 
  3943   constants
  3944     null ~> List.null
  3945 
  3946   facts
  3947     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3948     null_empty ~> null_def
  3949 
  3950 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3951 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3952 generation.
  3953 
  3954 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3955 Haskell code.
  3956 
  3957 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3958 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3959 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3962 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3965 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3966 
  3967 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3968 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3969 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3972 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3978 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3979 referred to by its qualified name.
  3980 
  3981   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3982   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3983   product ~>  Enum.product
  3984 
  3985 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3986 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3988 
  3989 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3990 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3991 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3995 sort_key.
  3996 
  3997 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4001 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4002 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4003 
  4004   types
  4005     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4006               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4007               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4008         (depends on your needs)
  4009 
  4010   constants
  4011      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4012      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4013      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4014 
  4015 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4016 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4017 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4018 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4021 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4022 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4023 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4024 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4030 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4031 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4032 
  4033 
  4034 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4035 
  4036 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4037 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4038 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4039 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4040 compatibility.
  4041 
  4042 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4043 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4044 
  4045 
  4046 *** HOLCF ***
  4047 
  4048 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4049 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4050 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4054 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4055 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4058   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4059   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4060 
  4061 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4062 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4063 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4066 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4067 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4068 domain definition now works:
  4069 
  4070   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4071 
  4072 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4073 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4074 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4075 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4076 
  4077   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4078     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4079 
  4080   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4081 
  4082 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4083 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4084 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085 
  4086 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4087 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088 
  4089 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4090 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4091 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4092 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4093 
  4094 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4095 
  4096 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4104 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4105 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4106 
  4107 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4108 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4109 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4110 
  4111 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4112 still supported as an input translation.
  4113 
  4114 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4115 
  4116   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4117   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4118   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4119   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4120   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4121   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4122   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4123 
  4124 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4125 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4126 
  4127   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4128   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4129   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4130   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4131   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4132   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4133 
  4134 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4135 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4138 
  4139   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4140   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4141   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4142   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4143 
  4144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4147 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4148 
  4149 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4150 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4151 
  4152   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4153   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4154   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4155   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4156   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4157   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4158   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4159   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4160   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4161   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4162   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4163   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4164   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4165   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4166   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4167   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4168   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4169   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4170   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4171   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4172 
  4173 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4176   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4177   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4178   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4179   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4180   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4181   box_less             ~> box_below
  4182   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4183   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4184   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4185   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4186   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4187   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4188   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4189   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4190   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4191   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4192   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4193   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4194   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4195   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4196   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4197   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4198   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4199   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4200   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4201   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4202   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4203   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4204   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4205   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4206   up_less              ~> up_below
  4207   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4208   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4209   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4210   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4211   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4212   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4213   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4214   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4215   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4216   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4217   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4218   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4219   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4220 
  4221 
  4222 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4223 
  4224 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4225 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 
  4228 *** ML ***
  4229 
  4230 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4231 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4232 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4233 
  4234 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4235 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4236 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4237 
  4238 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4239 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4240 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4241 
  4242 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4243 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4244 
  4245 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4246 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4247 
  4248 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4249 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4250 
  4251 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4252 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4253 
  4254 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4255 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4256 almost all situations.
  4257 
  4258 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4259 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4260 Isabelle/ML.
  4261 
  4262 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4263 meaning.
  4264 
  4265 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4266 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4267 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4268 
  4269 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4270 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4271 
  4272 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4273 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4274 
  4275 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4276 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4277 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4278 
  4279 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4280 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4281 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4282 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4283 configuration options.
  4284 
  4285 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4286 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4287 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4288 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4289 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4290 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4291 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4292 
  4293 
  4294 
  4295 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4296 ---------------------------------
  4297 
  4298 *** General ***
  4299 
  4300 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4301 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4302 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4303 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4304 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4305 their full internal name.
  4306 
  4307 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4308 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4309 Some hints on upgrading:
  4310 
  4311   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4312     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4313     which are independent of this issue.
  4314 
  4315   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4316     provides the following special forms:
  4317 
  4318       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4319       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4320       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4321 
  4322     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4323     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4324     extra variables".
  4325 
  4326     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4327     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4328     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4329     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4330     "logic".
  4331 
  4332   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4333     antiquotations:
  4334 
  4335       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4336       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4337       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4338       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4339 
  4340   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4341     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4342     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4343     antiquotations.
  4344 
  4345 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4346 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4347 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4348 diagnose syntax problems.
  4349 
  4350 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4351 
  4352 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4353 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4354 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4355 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4356 
  4357 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4358 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4359 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4360 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4363 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4364 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4365 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4366 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4369 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4370 
  4371 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4372 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4373 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4374 
  4375   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4376 
  4377 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4378 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4379 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4380 
  4381 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4382 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4383 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4384 
  4385 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4386 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4387 
  4388 
  4389 *** Pure ***
  4390 
  4391 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4392 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4393 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4394 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4395 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4396 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4397 inspect proof terms.
  4398 
  4399 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4400 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4401 are added internally.  For example:
  4402 
  4403   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4404 
  4405 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4406 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4411 'class' instead.
  4412 
  4413 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4414 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4418 invariants.
  4419 
  4420 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4421 user space functionality any longer.
  4422 
  4423 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4424 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4428 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4429 
  4430 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4431 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4432 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4433 
  4434 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4435 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4436 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4437 
  4438 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4439 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4440 
  4441 
  4442 *** HOL ***
  4443 
  4444 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4445 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4446 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4447 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4448 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4449 
  4450 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4451 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4452 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4453 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4454 
  4455   fun
  4456     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4457   where
  4458     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4459 
  4460   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4461     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4462 
  4463   quotient_definition
  4464     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4465 
  4466 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4467 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4468 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4469 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4470 
  4471 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4472 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4473 
  4474 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4475 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4476 
  4477 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4481 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4482 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4483 
  4484 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4485 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4486 
  4487 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4489 
  4490 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4492 
  4493 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4494 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4495 
  4496 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4497 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4498 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4501   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4502   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4503   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4504   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4505   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4506   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4507   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4508   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4509   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4510   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4511   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4512   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4513   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4514   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4515   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4516   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4517   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4518   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4519   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4520   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4521   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4522   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4523   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4524   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4525   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4526   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4527   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4528   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4529   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4530 
  4531 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4532 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4533 
  4534 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4535 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4536 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4537 
  4538 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4539 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4540 
  4541 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4542 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4543 
  4544 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4545 
  4546 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4547 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4550 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4551 
  4552 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4553 
  4554 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4555 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4556 
  4557 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4558 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4559 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4560 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4563   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4564   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4565   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4567 
  4568 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4569 lattices):
  4570 
  4571     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4572     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4573 
  4574     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4575 
  4576     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4577     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4578     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4579     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4580     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4581     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4582     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4583     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4584     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4585     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4586     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4587     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4588     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4589 
  4590     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4591     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4592     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4593     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4594     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4595     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4596     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4597     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4598     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4599     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4600     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4601     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4602     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4603     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4604     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4605     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4606     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4607     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4608 
  4609   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4610   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4611 
  4612     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4613     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4614     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4615     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4616     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4617 
  4618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Refined field classes:
  4621   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4622     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4623     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4624   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4628   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4629   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4630   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4631     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4632   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4633     equal_neg_zero.
  4634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4635 
  4636 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4637 sets to lattices:
  4638 
  4639   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4640   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4641   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4642   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4643   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4644   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4645   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4646   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4647   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4648   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4649 
  4650 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4651 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4652 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4653 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4654 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4655 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4656 
  4657 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4658 multiset order:
  4659 
  4660   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4661     <= and <;
  4662   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4663     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4664     multiset_order;
  4665   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4666     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4667     generation;
  4668   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4669     if needed.
  4670 
  4671 Renamed:
  4672 
  4673   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4674   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4675   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4676 
  4677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4680 
  4681 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4682 
  4683 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4684 
  4685 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4686 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4687 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689   Constants:
  4690   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4691   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4692   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4693   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4694   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4695   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4696   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4697   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4698   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4699   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4700   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4701   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4702   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4703 
  4704   Lemmas:
  4705   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4706   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4707   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4708   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4709   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4710   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4711   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4712   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4713   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4714   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4715   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4716   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4717   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4718 
  4719 * Sledgehammer:
  4720   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4721     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4722     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4723     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4724     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4725     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4726     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4727   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4728   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4729     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4730   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4731     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4732     is still experimental.)
  4733   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4734     full-typed mode.
  4735   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4736 
  4737 * Nitpick:
  4738   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4739   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4740   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4741     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4742   - Added support for quotient types.
  4743   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4744     constructs.
  4745   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4746     "termination" proofs).
  4747   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4748   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4749   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4750   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4751     record getters.
  4752   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4753   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4754   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4755   - Added "atoms" option.
  4756   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4757     problems.
  4758   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4759     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4760     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4761   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4762     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4764 
  4765 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4766   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4767   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4768   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4769   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4770   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4771   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4772   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4773   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4774   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 
  4777 *** HOLCF ***
  4778 
  4779 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4780 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4781 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4784 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4785 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4786 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4789 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4790 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4791 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4792 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4795 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4796 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4797 
  4798 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4799 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4800 
  4801   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4802   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4803 
  4804 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4805 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4806 
  4807   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4808   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4809   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4810   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4811   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4812 
  4813 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4814 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4815 
  4816   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4817   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4818   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4819 
  4820 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4821 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4825 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4828 
  4829 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4830 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 
  4833 *** ML ***
  4834 
  4835 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4836 
  4837     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4838     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4839 
  4840     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4841     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4842     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4843     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4844 
  4845     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4846     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4847     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4848 
  4849 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4850 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4851 
  4852 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4853 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4854 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4855 
  4856 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4857 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4858 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4859 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4860 
  4861 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4862 the context or even global references.
  4863 
  4864 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4865 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4866 
  4867 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4868 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4869 
  4870   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4871   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4872   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4873   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4874   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4875   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4876   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4877   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4878   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4879   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4880 
  4881 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4882 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4883 
  4884 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4885 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4886 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4887 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4888 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4889 
  4890 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4891 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4892 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4893 Theory_Data version.
  4894 
  4895 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4896 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4897 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4898 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4899 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4900 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4901 explicitly in rare situations.
  4902 
  4903 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4904 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4908 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4911 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4912 quite rare).
  4913 
  4914 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4915 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4916 
  4917 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4918 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4919 terms.
  4920 
  4921 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4922 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4923 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4924 
  4925 
  4926 *** System ***
  4927 
  4928 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4929 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4930 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4931 
  4932 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4933 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4934 respectively.
  4935 
  4936 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4937 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4938 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4939 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4940 
  4941   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4942 
  4943 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4944 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4945 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4946 component.
  4947 
  4948 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4949 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4950 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4951 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4952 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4953 the user for manual installation.
  4954 
  4955 
  4956 
  4957 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4958 -------------------------------------
  4959 
  4960 *** General ***
  4961 
  4962 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4963 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4964 
  4965 
  4966 *** Pure ***
  4967 
  4968 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4969 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4970 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4971 
  4972 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4973 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4974 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4975 
  4976 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4977 interpretation.
  4978 
  4979 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4980 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4981 
  4982 
  4983 *** Document preparation ***
  4984 
  4985 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4986 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4987 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4988 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4989 
  4990 
  4991 *** HOL ***
  4992 
  4993 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4994 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4995 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4996 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4997 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4998 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4999 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5000 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5001 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5002 
  5003 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5004 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5005 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5006 
  5007 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5008 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5009 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5010 
  5011 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5012 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5013 
  5014 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5015 
  5016 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5017 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5018 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5019 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5020 
  5021 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5022 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5023 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5024 "mirabelle" utility.
  5025 
  5026 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5027 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5028 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5029 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5030 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5031 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5032 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5033 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5034 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5035 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5036 
  5037 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5038 procedure only.
  5039 
  5040 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5041 
  5042 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5043 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5044 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5045 that fail later.
  5046 
  5047 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5048 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5049 
  5050 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5051 the same method as the approximation method.
  5052 
  5053 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5054 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5055 series expansion.
  5056 
  5057 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5058 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5059 
  5060 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5061 reals.
  5062 
  5063 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5064 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5065 
  5066 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5067 fixpoint theorem.
  5068 
  5069 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5070   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5071     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5072   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5073     accordingly
  5074   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5075     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5076   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5077     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5078 
  5079 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5080 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5081 lattice.
  5082 
  5083 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5084 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5085 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5086 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5087 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5088 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5090 
  5091 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5092   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5093     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5094   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5095     le_inf_iff
  5096   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5097     sup_aci)
  5098   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5099   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5100   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5101     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5102     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5103     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5104     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5105     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5106     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5107     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5108     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5109     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5110     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5111   - authentic syntax for
  5112     Set.Pow
  5113     Set.image
  5114   - mere abbreviations:
  5115     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5116     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5117     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5118     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5119     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5120     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5121     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5122     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5123   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5124 
  5125 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5126 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5127 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5128 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5129 
  5130 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5131 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5132 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5135 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5138 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5139 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5140 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5141 
  5142 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5143 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5144 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5145 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5146 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5147 
  5148 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5149 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5153 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5154 
  5155 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5156 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5157 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5158 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5159 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5160 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5161 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5163 
  5164 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5165     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5166     code_post       replaces    code post
  5167     etc.
  5168   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5169 
  5170 * Renamed methods:
  5171     sizechange -> size_change
  5172     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5173   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5176 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5177 
  5178 * Renamed theorems:
  5179     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5180     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5181     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5182     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5183     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5184   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5185 
  5186 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5191 
  5192 
  5193 *** HOLCF ***
  5194 
  5195 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5196 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5197 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5198 
  5199 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5200 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5201 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5202 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5203 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5204 
  5205 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5206 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5207 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5208 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5209 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5210 
  5211 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5212 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5213 constructor are pre-configured.
  5214 
  5215 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5216 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5217 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5218 
  5219 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5220 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5221 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5222 as well.)
  5223 
  5224 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5225 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5226 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5227 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5228 examples.
  5229 
  5230 
  5231 *** ML ***
  5232 
  5233 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5234 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5235 
  5236 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5237 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5238 position, logical grouping etc.
  5239 
  5240 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5241 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5242 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5243 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5244 
  5245 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5246 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5247 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5248 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5249 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5250 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5251 
  5252 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5253 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5254 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5255 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5256 experiments with references.
  5257 
  5258 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5259 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5260 
  5261 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5262 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5263 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5264 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5265 
  5266 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5267 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5268 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5269 
  5270 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5271 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5272 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5273 
  5274 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5275 
  5276 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5278 
  5279 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5280 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5281 
  5282 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5283 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5284 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5285 
  5286 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5287 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5288 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5289 
  5290 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5291 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5292 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5294 
  5295 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5296 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5297 instead of global theory.
  5298 
  5299 
  5300 *** System ***
  5301 
  5302 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5303 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5304 usedir option -q.
  5305 
  5306 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5307 also the system manual.
  5308 
  5309 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5310 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5311 
  5312 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5313 this is always enabled.
  5314 
  5315 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5316 
  5317 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5318 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5319 currently supported on Linux only.
  5320 
  5321 
  5322 
  5323 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5324 --------------------------------
  5325 
  5326 *** General ***
  5327 
  5328 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5329 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5330 
  5331   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5332     "isatool."
  5333 
  5334   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5335     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5336 
  5337   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5338     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5339 
  5340 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5341 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5342 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5343 
  5344 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5345 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5346 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5347 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5348 via "isabelle emacs".
  5349 
  5350 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5351 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5352 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5353 
  5354 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5355 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5356 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5357 
  5358 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5359 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5360 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5361 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5362 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5363 
  5364 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5365 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5366 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5367 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5368 
  5369 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5370 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5371 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5372 
  5373 
  5374 *** Pure ***
  5375 
  5376 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5377 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5378 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5379 
  5380 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5381 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5382 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5383 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5384 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5385 
  5386 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5387 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5388 useful in locale declarations.
  5389 
  5390 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5391 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5392 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5393 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5394 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5395 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5396 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5397 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5398 no longer generated.
  5399 
  5400 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5401 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5402 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5403 
  5404 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5405 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5406 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5407 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5408 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5409 
  5410 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5411 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5412 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5413 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5414 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5415 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5416 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5417 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5418 
  5419 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5420 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5421 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5422 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5423 
  5424 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5425 
  5426 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5427 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5428 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5429 
  5430 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5431 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5432 
  5433 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5434 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5435 in HOL, write
  5436 
  5437     class foo = ...
  5438 
  5439 instead of
  5440 
  5441     class foo = type + ...
  5442 
  5443 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5444 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5445 
  5446 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5447 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5448 
  5449 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5450 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5451 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5452 
  5453 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5454 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5455 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5456 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5457 directly in regular applications.
  5458 
  5459 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5460 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5461 
  5462 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5463 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5464 
  5465 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5466 theory context.
  5467 
  5468 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5469 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5470 
  5471 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5472 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5473 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5474 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5475 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5476 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5477 
  5478   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5479 
  5480 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5481 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5482 normalization.
  5483 
  5484 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5485 addressing etc.
  5486 
  5487 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5488 
  5489   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5490   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5491 
  5492 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5493 
  5494   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5495      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5496      parts of the code generator framework).
  5497 
  5498   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5499      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5500      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5501 
  5502 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5503 
  5504 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5505 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5506 
  5507 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5508 patterns, e.g.
  5509 
  5510     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5511 
  5512 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5513 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5514 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5515 hyphen:
  5516 
  5517     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5518 
  5519 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5520 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5521 
  5522 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5523 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5524 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5525 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5526 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5527 higher-order unification.
  5528 
  5529 
  5530 *** Document preparation ***
  5531 
  5532 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5533 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5534 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5535 
  5536 
  5537 *** HOL ***
  5538 
  5539 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5540 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5541 
  5542 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5543 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5544 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5545 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5546 Main, as before.
  5547 
  5548 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5549 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5550 
  5551 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5552 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5553 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5554 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5555 
  5556 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5557 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5558 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5559 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5560 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5561 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5562 
  5563 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5564 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5565 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5566 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5567 
  5568 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5569 menu.
  5570 
  5571 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5572 (contains the empty clause).
  5573 
  5574 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5575 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5576 
  5577 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5578 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5579 
  5580 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5581 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5582 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5585 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5586 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5587 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5588 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5589 
  5590 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5591 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5592 
  5593 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5594 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5595 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5596 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5597 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5598 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5599 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5600 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5601 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5602 
  5603 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5604 
  5605 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5606 
  5607 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5608 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5609 
  5610 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5611 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5612 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5613 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5614 
  5615 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5616 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5617 
  5618     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5619     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5620     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5621     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5622     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5623     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5624     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5625     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5626 
  5627 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5628 theory Set.
  5629 
  5630 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5631 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5632 
  5633 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5634 
  5635 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5636 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5637 
  5638 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5639 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5640 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5641 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5642 allowed. For examples see
  5643 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5644 
  5645 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5646 
  5647 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5649 
  5650 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5651 structure:
  5652 
  5653     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5654     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5655     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5656     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5657     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5658     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5659     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5660     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5661     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5662     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5663     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5664     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5665     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5666     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5667     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5668     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5669     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5670     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5671     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5672     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5673     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5674     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5675     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5676     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5677     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5678     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5679     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5680     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5681     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5682     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5683     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5684     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5685     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5686 
  5687     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5688     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5689     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5690     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5691     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5692     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5693     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5694     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5695     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5696     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5697 
  5698     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5699     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5700     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5701     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5702     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5703     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5704 
  5705 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5706 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5707 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5708 
  5709 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5710 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5711 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5712 
  5713 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5714 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5715 
  5716 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5717 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5718 
  5719 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5720 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5721 proofs, e.g.
  5722 
  5723   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5724 
  5725 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5726 
  5727 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5728 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5729 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5732 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5734 
  5735 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5736 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5737 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5739 
  5740 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5741 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5742 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5743 preorder_class.*.
  5744 
  5745 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5746 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5747 
  5748 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5749 
  5750   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5751 
  5752 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5753 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5754 fold_image.
  5755 
  5756 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5757 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5758 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5759 the former will disappear at some point.
  5760 
  5761 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5762 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5763 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5764 
  5765 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5766 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5767 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5768 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5769 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5770 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5771 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5772 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5773 
  5774 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5775 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5776 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5777 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5778 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5779 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5780 
  5781     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5782     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5783     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5784     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5785     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5786     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5787     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5788 
  5789 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5790 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5791 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5792 
  5793 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5794 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5795 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5796 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5797 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5798 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5799 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5800 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5801 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5802 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5803 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5804 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5805 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5806 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5807 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5808 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5809 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5810 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5811 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5812 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5813 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5814 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5815 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5816 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5817 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5818 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5819 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5820 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5821 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5822 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5823 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5824 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5825 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5826 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5827 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5828 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5829 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5830 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5831 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5832 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5833 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5834 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5835 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5836 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5837 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5838 
  5839 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5842 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5843 
  5844 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5845 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5846 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5847 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5848 
  5849 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5850 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5851 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5852 theory RealVector.
  5853 
  5854 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5855 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5856 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5857 and inner products are included.
  5858 
  5859 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5860 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5861 supported.
  5862 
  5863 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5864 first diagonalization argument.
  5865 
  5866 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5867 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5868 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5869 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5870 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5871 
  5872     hide (open) const gcd
  5873     abbreviation gcd where
  5874       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5875     notation (output)
  5876       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5877 
  5878 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5879 
  5880 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5881 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5882 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5883 
  5884 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5885 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5886 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5887 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5888 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5889 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5890 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5891 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5892 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5893 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5894 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5895 cases.
  5896 
  5897 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5898 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5899 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5900 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5901 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5902 
  5903     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5904     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5905     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5906     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5907     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5908 
  5909 
  5910 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5911 
  5912 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5913 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5914 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5915 
  5916 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5917 
  5918 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5919 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5920 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5921 
  5922 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5923 
  5924 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5925 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5926 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5927 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5928 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5929 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5930 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5931 
  5932 
  5933 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5934 
  5935 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5936 
  5937 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5938 theory targets.
  5939 
  5940 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5941 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5942 'inductive' etc.
  5943 
  5944 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5945 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5946 
  5947 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5948 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5949 
  5950 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5951 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5952 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5953 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5954 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5955 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5956 the algorithm W:
  5957 
  5958  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5959  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5960          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5961 
  5962 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5963 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5964 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5965 
  5966 
  5967 *** HOLCF ***
  5968 
  5969 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5970 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5971 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5972 
  5973 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5974 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5975 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5976 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5977 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5978 
  5979 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5980 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5981 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5982 
  5983 
  5984 *** ZF ***
  5985 
  5986 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5987 
  5988 
  5989 *** ML ***
  5990 
  5991 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5992 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5993 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5994 5.2.1!
  5995 
  5996 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5997 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5998 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5999 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6000 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6001 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6002 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6003 
  6004 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6005 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6006 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6007 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6008 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6009 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6010 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6011 
  6012 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6013 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6014 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6015 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6016 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6017 
  6018 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6019 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6020 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6021 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6022 Method.add_method.
  6023 
  6024 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6025 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6026 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6027 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6028 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6029 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6030 
  6031 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6032 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6033 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6034 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6035 examples.
  6036 
  6037 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6038 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6039 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6040 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6041 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6042 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6043 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6044 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6045 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6046 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6047 
  6048 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6049 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6050 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6051 
  6052 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6053 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6054 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6055 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6056 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6057 resort for legacy applications.
  6058 
  6059 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6060 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6061 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6062 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6063 explicit runtime argument.
  6064 
  6065 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6066 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6067 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6068 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6069 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6070 
  6071 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6072 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6073 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6074 theory state.
  6075 
  6076 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6077 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6078 
  6079   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6080   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6081   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6082   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6083   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6084   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6085   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6086   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6087   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6088   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6089 
  6090 
  6091 *** System ***
  6092 
  6093 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6094 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6095 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6096 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6097 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6098 
  6099 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6100 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6101 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6102 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6103 
  6104 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6105 
  6106 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6107 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6108 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6109 prover operations.
  6110 
  6111 
  6112 
  6113 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6114 -------------------------------
  6115 
  6116 *** General ***
  6117 
  6118 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6119 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6120 
  6121 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6122 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6123 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6124 provides a proper context already.
  6125 
  6126 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6127 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6128 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6129 
  6130 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6131 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6132 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6133 swap theory imports.
  6134 
  6135 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6136 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6137 
  6138 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6139 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6140 white space without escapes.
  6141 
  6142 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6143 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6144 "foo_bar".
  6145 
  6146 
  6147 *** Pure ***
  6148 
  6149 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6150 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6151 
  6152 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6153 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6154 
  6155 (1) unused_thms
  6156      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6157 
  6158 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6159      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6160      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6161 
  6162 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6163      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6164      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6165      their ancestors.
  6166 
  6167 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6168 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6169 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6170 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6171 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6172 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6173 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6174 
  6175 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6176 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6177 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6178 
  6179 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6180 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6181 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6182 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6183 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6184 
  6185 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6186 
  6187 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6188 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6189 update of theories within ML code.
  6190 
  6191 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6192 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6193 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6194 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6195 
  6196 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6197 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6198 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6200 
  6201 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6202 
  6203 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6204 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6205 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6206 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6207 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6208 
  6209 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6210 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6211 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6212 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6213 situations.
  6214 
  6215 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6216 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6217 proof text.
  6218 
  6219 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6220 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6221 
  6222 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6223 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6224 predicates.
  6225 
  6226 
  6227 *** Document preparation ***
  6228 
  6229 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6230 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6231 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6232 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6233 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6234 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6235 
  6236 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6237 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6238 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6239 
  6240 
  6241 *** HOL ***
  6242 
  6243 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6244 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6245 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6246 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6247 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6248 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6249 
  6250 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6251 with multithreading.
  6252 
  6253 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6254 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6255 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6256 
  6257 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6258 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6259 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6260 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBI