NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Jan 17 20:20:20 2014 +0100 (2014-01-17)
changeset 55029 61a6bf7d4b02
parent 55015 e33c5bd729ff
child 55049 327eafb594ba
permissions -rw-r--r--
clarified @{rail} syntax: prefer explicit \<newline> symbol;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 
    24 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    25 
    26 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    27 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    28 
    29 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    30 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    31 
    32 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    33 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    34 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    35 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Pure ***
    39 
    40 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    41 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    42 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    43 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    44 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    45 
    46 
    47 *** HOL ***
    48 
    49 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
    50 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
    51 
    52 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
    53 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
    54 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
    55 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
    56 
    57 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
    58 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    59 
    60 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
    61 with the given constants.
    62 
    63 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
    64 
    65 Fact consolidations:
    66     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
    67     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
    68     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
    69     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
    70     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
    71     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
    72     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
    73     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
    74     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
    75     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
    76     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
    77     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
    78     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
    79     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
    80     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
    81     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
    82     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
    83     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
    84     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
    85     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
    86     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
    87     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
    88     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
    89     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
    90     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
    91     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
    92     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
    93     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
    94     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
    95     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
    96     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
    97     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
    98     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
    99     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   100     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   101     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   102     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   103     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   104     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   105     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   106 
   107 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   108 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   109 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   110 
   111 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   112 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   113 
   114 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   115 
   116 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   117 
   118 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   120 
   121 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   125 operations on records.
   126 
   127 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   131     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   135     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   136     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   138 
   139 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   140   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   141   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   142   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   143     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   144   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   145     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   146   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   147 INCOMPATBILITY.
   148 
   149 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   150     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   151     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   152     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   153     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Fact name consolidation:
   157     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   158     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   159     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   160     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   161     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   165 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   166 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   167 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   168 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   169 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   170 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   171 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   174 
   175 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   176 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   177 
   178 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   179 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   180 
   181 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   182 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   183 or the brute way with
   184 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   185 
   186 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   187 
   188 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   189 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   192 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   193 
   194 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   195 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   196 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   197 INCOMPATIBILITY
   198 
   199 * Nitpick:
   200   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   201     infinite values.
   202 
   203 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   204   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   205   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   206     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   207     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   208     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   209     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   210     intervals.
   211 
   212 
   213 *** ML ***
   214 
   215 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   216 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   218 formal context.
   219 
   220 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   221 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   222 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   223 actually belongs to it).
   224 
   225 
   226 *** System ***
   227 
   228 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   229 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   230 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   231 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   232 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   233 
   234 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   235 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   236 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   237 
   238 
   239 
   240 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   241 -------------------------------------
   242 
   243 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   244 
   245 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   246 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   247 
   248 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   249 after edits surrounding the command location.
   250 
   251 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   252 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   253 e.g. out-of-memory).
   254 
   255 
   256 *** System ***
   257 
   258 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   259 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   260 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   261 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   262 
   263 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   264 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   265 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   266 
   267 
   268 
   269 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   270 -------------------------------------
   271 
   272 *** General ***
   273 
   274 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   275 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   276 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   279 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   282 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   283 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   284 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   285 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   286 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   287 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   288 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   289 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   290 syntax.
   291 
   292 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   293 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   294 
   295 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   296 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   297 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   298 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   299 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   300 
   301 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303 
   304 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   305 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   306 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   307 
   308 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   309 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   310 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   311 
   312 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   313 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   314 
   315 
   316 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   317 
   318 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   319 Documentation panel.
   320 
   321 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   322 documentation.
   323 
   324 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   325 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   326 
   327 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   328 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   329 normal editing and checking process.
   330 
   331 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   332 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   333 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   334 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   335 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   336 
   337 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   338 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   339 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   340 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   341 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   342 
   343 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   344 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   345 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   346 
   347 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   348 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   349 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   350 to resolve conflict.
   351 
   352 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   353 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   354 
   355 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   356 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   357 such command executions while editing.
   358 
   359 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   360 document content.
   361 
   362 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   363 toplevel theorem statements.
   364 
   365 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   366 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   367 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   368 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   369 
   370 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   371 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   372 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   373 
   374 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   375 / Global Options / Appearance".
   376 
   377 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   378 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   379 
   380 
   381 *** Pure ***
   382 
   383 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   384 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   385 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   386 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   387 details.
   388 
   389 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   390 
   391 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   392 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   393 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   394 
   395 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   399 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   400 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   401 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   404 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   405 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   408 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   409 
   410 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   411 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   412 situations.
   413 
   414 
   415 *** HOL ***
   416 
   417 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   418 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   420 
   421 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   422 
   423 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   424 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   425 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   426 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   427 
   428   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   429 
   430 * Code generator:
   431   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   432     'code_instance'.
   433   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   434     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   435 
   436 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   437 examples.
   438 
   439 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   440 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   441 to distinguish both when desired.
   442 
   443 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   444 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   445 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   446 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 
   448 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   449 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   450 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   451 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   452 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   453 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   456 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   457 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   458 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   459 
   460 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   461 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   462 
   463 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   464 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   465 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   466 
   467 * Lifting:
   468   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   469     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   470       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   471       transfer rules
   472     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   473       correspondence relation can be generated
   474     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   475       parametricity
   476     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   477   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   478   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   479     copies
   480   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   481     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   482     anonymous context)
   483   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   484     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   485   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   486     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   487   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   488     INCOMPATIBILITY
   489 
   490 * Transfer:
   491   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   492     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   493   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   494   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   495     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   496   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   497 
   498 * Reification and reflection:
   499   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   500     "Reification".
   501   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   502   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   506   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   507     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   508     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   509   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   510     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   511   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   512     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   513     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   514     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   515     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   516     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   517     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   518     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   519   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   520     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   521   - Fact renames:
   522       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   523       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   525 
   526 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   527 
   528 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   529 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   530 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   534 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   535 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   536 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   537 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   538 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   539 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   540 lemmas.
   541 
   542 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   543 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   544 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   547 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   548 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   549 
   550 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   551 top and bottom elements.
   552 
   553 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   554 
   555 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   556 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   557 
   558  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   559    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   560    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   561 
   562  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   563    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   564    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   565 
   566    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   567    arbitrary filter.
   568 
   569  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   570    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   571    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   572    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   573    on a compact set.
   574 
   575  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   576    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   577    linear_continuum_topology).
   578 
   579  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   580    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   581    on all sequences converging to x.
   582 
   583  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   584    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   585    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   586    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   587    left or right.
   588 
   589  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   590 
   591      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   592 
   593  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   594    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   595 
   596  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   597    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   598    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   599    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   600    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   601    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   602 
   603  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   604 
   605    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   606 
   607    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   608      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   609 
   610    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   611 
   612    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   613      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   614 
   615    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   616 
   617    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   618 
   619  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   620 
   621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 * Nitpick:
   624   - Added option "spy"
   625   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   626 
   627 * Sledgehammer:
   628   - Renamed option:
   629       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   630     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   632   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   633   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   634 
   635 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   636 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   637 
   638 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   639   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   640   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   641     generated code.
   642   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   643   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   644   - Fact renames:
   645     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   646     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   647     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   648 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 
   650 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   651 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   652 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   653 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   654 
   655 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   656 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   657 
   658 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   661 
   662     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   663     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   664 
   665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   666 
   667 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   668 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   669 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   670 
   671 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   672 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   673 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   674 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   675 
   676 * HOL-BNF:
   677   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   678     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   679     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   680     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   681   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   682     coinduct).
   683   - Renamed keywords:
   684     data ~> datatype_new
   685     codata ~> codatatype
   686     bnf_def ~> bnf
   687   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   688     discs ~> disc
   689     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   690     map_id' ~> map_id
   691     sels ~> sel
   692     set_map' ~> set_map
   693     sets ~> set
   694 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   695 
   696 
   697 *** ML ***
   698 
   699 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   700 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   701 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   702 Examples.thy in particular.
   703 
   704 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   705 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   706 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   707 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   708 
   709 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   710 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   711 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   712 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   716 
   717     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   718     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   719 
   720 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   723 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   724 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   725 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   726 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   727 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   728 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   729 
   730 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   731 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   732 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   733 clasets separately from the context.
   734 
   735 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   736 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   737 
   738 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   739 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   740 
   741 
   742 *** System ***
   743 
   744 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   745 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   748 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   751 settings variable.
   752 
   753 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   754 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   755 always pdf.
   756 
   757 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   758 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   759 
   760 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   761 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   762 
   763 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   764 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   765 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   766 
   767 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   768 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   769 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   770 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   771 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   772 for HTML presentation of theories.
   773 
   774 
   775 
   776 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   777 -----------------------------------
   778 
   779 *** General ***
   780 
   781 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   782 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   783 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   784 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   785 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   786 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   787 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   788 
   789 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   790 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   791 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   792 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   793 
   794 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   795 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   796 
   797 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   798 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   799 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   800 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   801 dependencies properly.
   802 
   803 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   804 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   805 
   806 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   807 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   808 
   809 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   810 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   811 and "class ... context ...".
   812 
   813 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   814 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   815 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   816 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   817 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   818 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   819 
   820 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   821 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   822 
   823 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   824 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   825 
   826 
   827 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   828 
   829 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   830 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   831 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   832 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   833 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   834 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   835 
   836 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   837 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   838 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   839 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   840 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   841 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   842 
   843 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   844 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   845 browser on demand.
   846 
   847 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   848 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   849 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   850 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   851 
   852 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   853 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   854 
   855 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   856 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   857 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   858 potentially infinite message streams.
   859 
   860 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   861 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   862 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   863 schemes.
   864 
   865 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   866 symbols.
   867 
   868 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   869 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   870 
   871 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   872 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   873 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   874 
   875 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   876 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   877 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   878 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   879 
   880 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   881 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   882 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   883 
   884 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   885 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   886 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   887 Isabelle distribution.
   888 
   889 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   890 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   891 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   892 
   893 
   894 *** Pure ***
   895 
   896 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   897 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   898 
   899 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   900 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   901 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902 
   903 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   904 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   905 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   906 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   907 with some care where this is really required.
   908 
   909 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   910 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   911 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   912 
   913   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   914 
   915 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   916 a Hasse diagram.
   917 
   918 
   919 *** HOL ***
   920 
   921 * Sledgehammer:
   922 
   923   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   924     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   925   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   926   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   927   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   928   - Renamed options:
   929       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   930       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   931       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   932       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   933 
   934 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   935 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   936 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   937 
   938 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   940 
   941 * Lifting:
   942   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   943   - quot_del attribute
   944   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   945 
   946 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   947 expressions.
   948 
   949 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   950 pointfree expressions.
   951 
   952 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   953 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   954 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   955 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957 
   958 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   959 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   960 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   961 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   962 accordingly.
   963 
   964 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   965 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   966 
   967 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   968 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   969 
   970 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   973 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   974 
   975 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   976 
   977 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   978 
   979   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   980   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   981 
   982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   985 
   986   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   987   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   988 
   989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   990 
   991 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   992 
   993   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   994     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   995     output f x converges to G.
   996 
   997   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   998     infinity (at_bot).
   999 
  1000   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1001     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1002 
  1003   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1004     at_top".
  1005 
  1006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1009 lattice type classes.
  1010 
  1011 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1012 
  1013     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1014     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1015 
  1016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1017 
  1018 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1019 changes as follows.
  1020 
  1021   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1022 
  1023       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1024       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1025 
  1026   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1027     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1028     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1029     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1030 
  1031   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1032     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1033     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1034 
  1035   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1036     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1037     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1038     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1039 
  1040   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1041     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1042 
  1043       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1044       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1045       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1046       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1047       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1048       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1049       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1050       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1051       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1052       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1053       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1054       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1055       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1056       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1057       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1058       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1059 
  1060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1063 
  1064 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1065 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1066 
  1067 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1068 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1069 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1070 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1071 
  1072   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1073   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1074   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1075   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1076   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1077   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1078   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1079   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1080   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1081   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1082 
  1083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1086 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1087 Data").
  1088 
  1089 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1090 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1091 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1092 code.
  1093 
  1094 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1095 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1096 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1100 
  1101 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1102 
  1103 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1104 
  1105   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1106   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1107 
  1108 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1109 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1110 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1111 
  1112   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1113 
  1114     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1115     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1116     cart_base i  removed
  1117     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1118 
  1119   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1120 
  1121   Renamed lemmas:
  1122 
  1123     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1124     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1125     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1126     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1127     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1128     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1129     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1130     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1131     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1132     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1133 
  1134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * HOL/Probability:
  1137 
  1138   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1139 
  1140   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1141     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1142     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1143 
  1144   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1145     projective family).
  1146 
  1147 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1148 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1149 
  1150 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1151 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1152 datatypes.
  1153 
  1154 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1155 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1156 
  1157 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1158 trees for the code generator.
  1159 
  1160 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1161 Lifting/Transfer.
  1162 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1163 
  1164 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1166 
  1167 
  1168 *** Document preparation ***
  1169 
  1170 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1171 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1172 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1173 
  1174 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1175 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1176 
  1177 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1178 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1179 document/root.tex.
  1180 
  1181 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1182 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1183 
  1184 
  1185 *** ML ***
  1186 
  1187 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1188 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1189 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1190 
  1191 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1192 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1193 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1194 
  1195 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1196 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1197 necessarily printing visible text.
  1198 
  1199 
  1200 *** System ***
  1201 
  1202 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1203 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1204 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1205 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1206 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1207 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1208 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1209 
  1210 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1211 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1212 
  1213   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1214 
  1215 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1216 
  1217 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1218 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1219 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1220 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1221 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1222 
  1223 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1224 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1225 
  1226 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1227 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1228 
  1229 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1233 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1234 version of Isabelle.
  1235 
  1236 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1237 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1238 
  1239 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1240 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1241 for home-made settings.
  1242 
  1243 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1244 
  1245 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1246 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1247 configuration.
  1248 
  1249 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1250 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1251 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1252 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1253 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1254 
  1255 
  1256 
  1257 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1258 ------------------------------
  1259 
  1260 *** General ***
  1261 
  1262 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1263 
  1264   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1265     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1266   - markup for bound variables
  1267   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1268   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1269   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1270     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1271 
  1272 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1273 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1274 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1275 
  1276 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1277 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1278 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1279 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1280 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1281 
  1282   context
  1283     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1284     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1285   begin
  1286 
  1287   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1288 
  1289   end
  1290 
  1291   thm my_trans
  1292 
  1293 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1294 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1295 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1296 
  1297 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1298 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1299 
  1300 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1301 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1302 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1303 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1304 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1305 
  1306 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1307 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1308 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1309 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1310 indices of schematic variables.
  1311 
  1312 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1313 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1314 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1315 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1316 etc. was exploited.
  1317 
  1318 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1319 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1320 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1321 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1322 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1323 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1324 
  1325 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1326 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1327 manual.
  1328 
  1329 
  1330 *** Pure ***
  1331 
  1332 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1333 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1334 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1335 
  1336 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1337 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1338 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1339 undocumented feature.)
  1340 
  1341 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1342 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1343 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1344 
  1345   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1346 
  1347   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1348     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1349 
  1350 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1351 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1352 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1353 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1354 
  1355 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1356 
  1357     num ~> num_token
  1358     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1359     xstr ~> str_token
  1360 
  1361 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1362 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1363 position information via constraints).
  1364 
  1365 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1366 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1367 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1368 
  1369 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1370 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1371 
  1372 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1373 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1374 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1377 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378 
  1379 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1380 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1381 
  1382   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1383 
  1384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1385 
  1386 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1387 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1388 
  1389 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1390 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1391 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1392 
  1393 
  1394 *** HOL ***
  1395 
  1396 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1397 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1398 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1399 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1400 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1401 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1402 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1403 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1404 possible.
  1405 
  1406 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1407 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1408 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1409 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1410 
  1411 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1412 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1415 
  1416 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1417 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1418 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1419 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1420 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1421 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1422 
  1423   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1424     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1425 
  1426   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1427     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1428     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1429 
  1430   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1431     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1432 
  1433   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1434     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1435     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1436 
  1437   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1438     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1439 
  1440 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1441 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1442 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1443 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1444 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1445 
  1446   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1447     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1448     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1449     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1450     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1451 
  1452     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1453     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1454 
  1455   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1456     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1457     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1458     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1459     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1460     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1461     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1462     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1463 
  1464   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1465     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1466     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1467     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1468 
  1469   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1470     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1471     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1472     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1473 
  1474   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1475     from type nat to type int.
  1476 
  1477 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1478 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1479 
  1480   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1481     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1482     type.  Example syntax:
  1483 
  1484     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1485       is List.insert
  1486 
  1487     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1488     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1489     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1490     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1491     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1492     by the package.
  1493 
  1494   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1495     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1496     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1497     code generation for each constant.
  1498 
  1499   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1500     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1501     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1502     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1503     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1504 
  1505   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1506     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1507     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1508 
  1509 * Quotient package:
  1510 
  1511   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1512     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1513 
  1514   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1515     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1516 
  1517   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1518     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1519     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1520 
  1521   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1522     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1525 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1526 
  1527 * Quickcheck:
  1528 
  1529   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1530     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1531     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1532     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1533     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1534 
  1535     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1536     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1537     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1538 
  1539     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1540     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1541 
  1542     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1543     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1544     show genuine counterexamples.
  1545 
  1546   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1547     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1548 
  1549     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1550     constructors of that type.
  1551 
  1552   - Support for multisets.
  1553 
  1554   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1555 
  1556   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1557     conjectures in a locale context.
  1558 
  1559 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1560 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1561 
  1562 * Sledgehammer:
  1563   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1564     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1565   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1566   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1567     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1568   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1569   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1570   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1571   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1572 
  1573 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1574 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1575 
  1576 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1577 
  1578 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1581 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1582 
  1583   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1584 
  1585 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1586 a list and a nat.
  1587 
  1588 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1589 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1590 
  1591 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1592 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1593 default.
  1594 
  1595 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1596 
  1597   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1598 
  1599 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1600 
  1601 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1602 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1603 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1604 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1605 one_case.
  1606 
  1607 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1608 the result of the fact expression.
  1609 
  1610 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1611 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1612 of some relation theorems:
  1613 
  1614   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1615   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1616   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1617   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1618   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1619   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1620 
  1621 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1622 
  1623 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1624 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1625 
  1626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1627 
  1628 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1629 to match the constant's name:
  1630 
  1631   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1632   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1633   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1634   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1635   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1636   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1637   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1638   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1639   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1640   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1641   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1642   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1643   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1644   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1645   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1646   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1647   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1648   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1649   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1650   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1651   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1652   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1653   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1654   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1655 
  1656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1659 and corresponding theorem names:
  1660 
  1661   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1662 
  1663   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1664 
  1665   - Renamed theorems:
  1666 
  1667     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1668     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1669     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1670     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1671     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1672     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1673     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1674     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1675     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1676     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1677     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1678     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1679     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1680     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1681     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1682     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1683     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1684     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1685     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1686     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1687     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1688     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1689     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1690 
  1691     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1692 
  1693     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1694 
  1695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1696 
  1697 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1698 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1699 
  1700   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1701   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1702   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1703   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1704   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1705   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1706   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1707   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1708   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1709   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1710   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1711   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1712   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1713   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1714   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1715   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1716   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1717   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1718   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1719   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1720   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1721 
  1722 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1723 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1728 
  1729   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1730   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1731   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1732   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1733   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1734   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1735   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1736   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1737   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1738   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1739   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1740   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1741   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1742   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1743   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1744   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1745   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1746   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1747 
  1748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749 
  1750 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1751 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1752 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1753 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1754 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1755 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1756 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1757 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1758 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1759 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1760 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1761 
  1762 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1763 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1764 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1765 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1766 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1767 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1768 
  1769 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1770 through option types.
  1771 
  1772 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1773 relations.
  1774 
  1775 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1778 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1779 
  1780   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1781   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1782   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1783   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1784   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1785   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1786   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1787   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1788   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1789   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1790   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1791   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1792   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1793   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1794   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1795   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1796   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1797   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1798   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1799   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1800   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1801   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1802   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1803   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1804   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1805   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1806   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1807   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1808   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1809   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1810   zless_le ~> less_le
  1811   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1812   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1813   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1814 
  1815 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1816 
  1817   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1818 
  1819 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1820 
  1821 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1822 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1823 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1824 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1826 
  1827 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1828 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1829 
  1830 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1831 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1832 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1833 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1834 follows:
  1835 
  1836   Operations:
  1837   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1838   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1839   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1840   del -> rbt_del
  1841   delete -> rbt_delete
  1842   ins -> rbt_ins
  1843   insert -> rbt_insert
  1844   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1845   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1846   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1847   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1848   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1849   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1850   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1851   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1852   union -> rbt_union
  1853   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1854   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1855 
  1856   Lemmas:
  1857   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1858   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1859   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1860   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1861   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1862   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1863   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1864   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1865   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1866   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1867   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1868   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1869   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1870   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1871   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1872   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1873   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1874   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1875   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1876   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1877   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1878   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1879   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1880   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1881   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1882   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1883   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1884   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1885   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1886   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1887   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1888   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1889   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1890   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1891   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1892   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1893   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1894   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1895   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1896   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1897   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1898   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1899   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1900   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1901   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1902   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1903   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1904   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1905   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1906   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1907   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1908   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1909   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1910   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1911   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1912   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1913   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1914   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1915   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1916   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1917   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1918   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1919   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1920   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1921   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1922   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1923   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1924   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1925   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1926   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1927   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1928   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1929   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1930   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1931   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1932   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1933   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1934   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1935   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1936   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1937   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1938   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1939   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1940 
  1941 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1942 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1943 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945   Changed Operations:
  1946   float_abs -> abs
  1947   float_nprt -> nprt
  1948   float_pprt -> pprt
  1949   pow2 -> use powr
  1950   round_down -> float_round_down
  1951   round_up -> float_round_up
  1952   scale -> exponent
  1953 
  1954   Removed Operations:
  1955   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1956 
  1957   Renamed Lemmas:
  1958   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1959   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1960   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1961   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1962   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1963   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1964   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1965   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1966   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1967   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1968   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1969   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1970   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1971   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1972   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1973   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1974   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1975   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1976   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1977   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1978   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1979   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1980   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1981   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1982   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1983   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1984   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1985   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1986   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1987   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1988   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1989   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1990   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1991   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1992   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1993   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1994 
  1995   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1996   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1997   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1998   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1999   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2000   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2001   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2002   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2003   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2004   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2005 
  2006 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2007 association lists with distinct keys.
  2008 
  2009 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2010 annotated commands.
  2011 
  2012 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2013 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2014 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2015 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2016 
  2017 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2018 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2019 instead.
  2020 
  2021   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2022   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2023   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2024   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2025   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2026   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2027   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2028   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2029   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2030   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2031   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2032   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2033   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2034   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2035   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2036   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2037   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2038   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2039   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2040   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2041   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2042   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2043   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2044   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2045   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2046   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2047   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2048   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2049   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2050   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2051   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2052   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2053   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2054   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2055   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2056   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2057   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2058   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2059   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2060   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2061   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2062 
  2063 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2064 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2065 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2066 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2067 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2068 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2069 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2070 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2071 
  2072 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2073 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2074 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2075 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2076 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2077 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2078 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2079 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2080 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2081 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2082 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2083 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2084 
  2085   Renamed constants:
  2086   measure -> emeasure
  2087   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2088   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2089   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2090   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2091 
  2092   Removed locales:
  2093   completeable_measure_space
  2094   finite_measure_space
  2095   finite_prob_space
  2096   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2097   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2098   finite_sigma_algebra
  2099   measure_space
  2100   pair_finite_prob_space
  2101   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2102   pair_finite_space
  2103   pair_sigma_algebra
  2104   product_sigma_algebra
  2105 
  2106   Removed constants:
  2107   conditional_space
  2108   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2109   image_space
  2110   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2111   pair_measure_generator
  2112   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2113   subvimage
  2114 
  2115   Replacement theorems:
  2116   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2117   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2118   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2119   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2120   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2121   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2122   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2123   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2124   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2125   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2126   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2127   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2128   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2129   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2130   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2131   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2132   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2133   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2134   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2135   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2136   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2137   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2138   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2139   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2140   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2141   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2142   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2143   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2144   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2145   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2146   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2147   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2148   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2149   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2150   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2151   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2152   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2153   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2154   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2155   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2156   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2157   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2158   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2159   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2160   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2161   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2162   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2163   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2164   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2165   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2166   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2167   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2168   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2169   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2170   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2171   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2172   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2173   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2174   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2175   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2176   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2177   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2178   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2179   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2180   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2181   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2182   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2183   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2184   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2185   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2186   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2187   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2188   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2189   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2190   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2191   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2192   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2193   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2194   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2195   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2196   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2197   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2198   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2199   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2200   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2201   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2202   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2203   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2204   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2205   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2206   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2207   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2208   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2209   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2210   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2211   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2212   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2213   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2214   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2215   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2216   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2217   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2218   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2219   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2220   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2221   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2222   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2223   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2224   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2225   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2226   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2227   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2228   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2229   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2230   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2231   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2232   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2233   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2234   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2235   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2236   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2237   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2238   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2239   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2240   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2241   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2242   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2243   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2244 
  2245 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2246 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2247 
  2248 
  2249 *** FOL ***
  2250 
  2251 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2252 
  2253 
  2254 *** ZF ***
  2255 
  2256 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2257 analysis.
  2258 
  2259 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2260 
  2261 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2262 
  2263 
  2264 *** ML ***
  2265 
  2266 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2267 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2268 
  2269 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2270 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2271 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2272 
  2273 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2274 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2275 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2276 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2277 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2278 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2279 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2280 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2281 
  2282 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2283 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2284 
  2285 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2286 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2287 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2288 
  2289 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2290 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2293 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2294 context as well.
  2295 
  2296 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2297 
  2298   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2299   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2300   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2301   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2302   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2303   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2304   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2305   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2306   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2307   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2308   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2309   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2310 
  2311 
  2312 *** System ***
  2313 
  2314 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2315 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2316 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2317 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2318 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2319 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2320 the generic user home was intended.
  2321 
  2322 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2323 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2324 
  2325 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2326 (not just JRE).
  2327 
  2328 
  2329 
  2330 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2331 ------------------------------------
  2332 
  2333 *** General ***
  2334 
  2335 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2336 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2337 
  2338   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2339     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2340     files for checking).
  2341 
  2342   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2343     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2344     positions.
  2345 
  2346   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2347     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2348     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2349 
  2350   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2351     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2352     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2353 
  2354   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2355     cores.
  2356 
  2357   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2358     versions (garbage collection).
  2359 
  2360 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2361 including some remaining limitations.
  2362 
  2363 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2364 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2365 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2366 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2367 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2371 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2372 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2373 
  2374 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2375 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2376 usedir option -Q.
  2377 
  2378 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2379 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2380 
  2381   long_names   ~> names_long
  2382   short_names  ~> names_short
  2383   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2384 
  2385 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2386 
  2387   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2388 
  2389 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2390 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2391 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2392 
  2393 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2394 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2395 
  2396 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2397   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2398   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2399   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2400     "Classical Reasoner".
  2401 
  2402 
  2403 *** HOL ***
  2404 
  2405 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2406 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2409 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2410 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2411 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2412 class complete_linorder.
  2413 
  2414 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2415 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2416 
  2417 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2418 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2419 
  2420   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2421   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2422   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2423   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2424   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2425   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2426   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2427   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2428   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2429   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2430   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2431 
  2432 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2433 
  2434   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2435   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2436   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2437   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2438   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2439   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2440   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2441   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2442   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2443   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2444   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2445   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2446   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2447   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2448   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2449   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2450 
  2451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2457 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2458 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2459 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2462 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2463 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465 
  2466 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2467 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2468 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2469 
  2470 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2471 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2472 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473 
  2474 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2475 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2476 
  2477 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2478 
  2479     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2480     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2481 
  2482 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2483 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2484 
  2485 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2486 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2489 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2490 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2491 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2492 
  2493   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2494   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2495   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2496   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2497   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2498   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2499   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2500 
  2501 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2502 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2505   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2506   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2507   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2508   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2509   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2510   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2511   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2512   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2513   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2514   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2515   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2516   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2517   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2518   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2519   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2520   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2521   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2522   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2523   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2524   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2525   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2526   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2527   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2528   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2529   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2530   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2531   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2532   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2533   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2534   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2535   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2536   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2537   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2538   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2539   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2540   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2541   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2542   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2543   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2544   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2545   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2546   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2547   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2548   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2549   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2550   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2551   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2552   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2553   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2554   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2555   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2556   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2557   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2558   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2559   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2560   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2561   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2562   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2563   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2564   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2565   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2566   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2567   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2568   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2569   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2570   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2571   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2572   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2573   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2574   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2575   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2576   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2577   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2578   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2579   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2580   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2581   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2582   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2583   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2584   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2585   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2586 
  2587 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2588 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2589 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2590 
  2591 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2592 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2593 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2594 
  2595 * Code generation:
  2596 
  2597   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2598     characters in the target language.
  2599 
  2600   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2601     instead.
  2602 
  2603   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2604 
  2605   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2606     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2607 
  2608       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2609 
  2610 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2613 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2614 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2615 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2616 syntax.
  2617 
  2618 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2619 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2620 
  2621 * Nitpick:
  2622   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2623   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2624   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2625     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Sledgehammer:
  2628   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2629   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2630     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2631   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2632     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2633   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2634     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2636     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2637   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2638     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2639 
  2640 * Metis:
  2641   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2643     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * Command 'try':
  2646   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2647     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2649     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2650 
  2651 * Quickcheck:
  2652   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2653     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2654   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2655     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2656   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2657     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2658     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2659     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2660   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2661     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2662 
  2663 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2664 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2665 
  2666 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2667 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2668 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2669 
  2670 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2671 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673 
  2674 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2675 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676 
  2677 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2678 arithmetic.
  2679 
  2680 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2681 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2682 and lattice type classes.
  2683 
  2684 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2685 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2686 
  2687 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2688 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2689 
  2690 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2691 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2692 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2695   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2696   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2697   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2698 
  2699 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2700 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2701 constants:
  2702 
  2703   type inat   ~> type enat
  2704   Fin         ~> enat
  2705   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2706   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2707   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2708 
  2709 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2710 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2713 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2714 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2715 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2716 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2717 
  2718 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2719 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2720 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2721 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2722 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2723 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2724 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2725 
  2726   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2727   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2728   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2729   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2730 
  2731 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2732 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2733 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2736   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2737   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2738   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2739   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2740   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2741   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2742   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2743   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2744   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2745   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2746   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2747   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2748   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2749   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2750   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2751   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2752   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2753   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2754   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2755   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2756   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2757   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2758   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2759   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2760   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2761   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2762   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2763   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2764   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2765   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2766   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2767   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2768   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2769   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2770   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2771   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2772   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2773   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2774   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2775   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2776   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2777   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2778   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2779   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2780   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2781   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2782   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2783   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2784   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2785   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2786 
  2787 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2788   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2789   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2790   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2791   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2792     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2795 
  2796   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2797   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2798   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2799   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2800   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2801   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2802   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2803   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2804   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2805   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2806   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2807   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2808   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2809   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2810   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2811   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2812   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2813   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2814   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2815   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2816   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2817   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2818   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2819   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2820   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2821 
  2822 
  2823 *** Document preparation ***
  2824 
  2825 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2826 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2827 same.
  2828 
  2829 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2830 result.
  2831 
  2832 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2833 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2834 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2835 
  2836 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2837 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2838 
  2839 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2840 like this:
  2841 
  2842   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2843   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2844 
  2845 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2846 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2847 layouts.
  2848 
  2849 
  2850 *** ML ***
  2851 
  2852 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2853 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2854 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2855 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2856 under external program control.
  2857 
  2858 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2859 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2860 
  2861 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2862 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2863 (better known as Proof General).
  2864 
  2865 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2866 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2867 
  2868 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2869 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2870 
  2871 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2872 (including quotes etc.).
  2873 
  2874 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2875 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2876 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2877 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2878 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2879 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2880 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2881 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2882 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2883 
  2884 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2885 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2886 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2887 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2888 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2889 
  2890 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2891 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2892 
  2893 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2894 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2895 
  2896 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2897 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2898 
  2899 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2900 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2901 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2902 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2903 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2904 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2905 proper Proof.context.
  2906 
  2907 
  2908 *** System ***
  2909 
  2910 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2911 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2912 
  2913 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2914 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2915 
  2916 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2917 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2918 
  2919   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2920   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2921   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2922   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2923   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2924 
  2925 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2926 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2929 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2930 example:
  2931 
  2932   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2933 
  2934 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2935 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2936 
  2937 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2938 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2939 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2940 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2941 
  2942 
  2943 
  2944 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2945 ----------------------------------
  2946 
  2947 *** General ***
  2948 
  2949 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2950 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2951 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2952 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2953 like this:
  2954 
  2955   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2956 
  2957 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2958 
  2959 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2960 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2961 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2962 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2963 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2964 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2965 
  2966 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2967 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2968 the following package declarations:
  2969 
  2970   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2971   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2972 
  2973 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2974 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2975 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2976 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2977 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2978 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2979 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2980 
  2981 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2982 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2983 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2984 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2985 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2986 
  2987 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2988 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2989 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2990 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2991 
  2992 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2993 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2994 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2995 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2996 
  2997   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2998 
  2999   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3000   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3001   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3002   show_types                    show_types
  3003   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3004   show_consts                   show_consts
  3005   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3006 
  3007   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3008   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3009   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3010 
  3011   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3012   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3013 
  3014   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3015 
  3016   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3017   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3018   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3019   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3020   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3021 
  3022 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3023 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3024 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3025 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3026 
  3027 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3029 
  3030   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3031   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3032 
  3033 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3034 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3035 float_token.
  3036 
  3037 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3038 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040 
  3041 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3042 DejaVu Sans.
  3043 
  3044 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3045 
  3046 
  3047 *** Pure ***
  3048 
  3049 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3050 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3051 time.
  3052 
  3053 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3054 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3057 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3060 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3061 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3062 command already provided this functionality.
  3063 
  3064 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3065 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3066 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3067 without interpretations.
  3068 
  3069 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3070 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3071 
  3072 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3073 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3074 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3075 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3076 
  3077 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3078 'definition' instead.
  3079 
  3080 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3081 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3082 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3083 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3084 
  3085 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3086 constructors.
  3087 
  3088 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3089 the local file system.
  3090 
  3091 
  3092 *** HOL ***
  3093 
  3094 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3095 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3096 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3097 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3098 
  3099   declare [[coercion f]]
  3100 
  3101 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3102 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3103 
  3104   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3105 
  3106 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3107 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3108 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3109 other theories like this:
  3110 
  3111   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3112 
  3113 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3114 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3115 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3116 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3117 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3118 for examples.
  3119 
  3120 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3121 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3124 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3125 
  3126 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3127 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3128 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3129 
  3130 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3131 functorial structure of types.
  3132 
  3133 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3134 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3135 
  3136 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3137 languages.
  3138 
  3139 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3140 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3144 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3147 combinators any longer.
  3148 
  3149 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3150 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3151 
  3152 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3153 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3154 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3155 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3156 
  3157   record 'a foo = ...
  3158   ...
  3159   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3160 
  3161 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3162 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3164 
  3165 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3166 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3167 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3168 
  3169 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3170 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3171 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3172 
  3173 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3174 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3177 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3178 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3179 independently.
  3180 
  3181 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3182 counter example search.
  3183 
  3184 * Sledgehammer:
  3185   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3186     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3187     sledgehammer").
  3188   - Renamed commands:
  3189     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3190     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3191     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3192     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193   - Renamed options:
  3194     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3195     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3196     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3197     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3198     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Nitpick:
  3201   - Renamed options:
  3202     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3203     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3204     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3206   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3207   - Added "whack" option.
  3208   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3209   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3210   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3211   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3212     higher cardinalities.
  3213   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3214 
  3215 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3216 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3217 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3218 
  3219     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3220 
  3221 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3222 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3223 
  3224 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3225 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3226 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3227 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3228 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3229 "smt_solver".
  3230 
  3231 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3232 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3233 
  3234 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3235 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3236 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3237 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238 
  3239 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3240   - Renamed:
  3241     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3242     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3243     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244   - Added:
  3245     smt_verbose
  3246     smt_random_seed
  3247     smt_datatypes
  3248     smt_infer_triggers
  3249     smt_monomorph_limit
  3250     cvc3_options
  3251     remote_cvc3_options
  3252     remote_z3_options
  3253     yices_options
  3254 
  3255 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3256 header.
  3257 
  3258 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3259 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3260 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3261 
  3262   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3263 
  3264 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265 
  3266 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3267 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3272 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3275 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3276 
  3277 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3278 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3281 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3282 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288 
  3289 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3290 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3293 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3294 for congruent(2)).
  3295 
  3296 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3297 
  3298   types
  3299     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3300     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3301 
  3302   constants
  3303     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3304     True ~> HOL.True
  3305     False ~> HOL.False
  3306     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3307     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3308     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3309     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3310     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3311     The ~> HOL.The
  3312     All ~> HOL.All
  3313     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3314     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3315     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3316     If ~> HOL.If
  3317     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3318     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3319     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3320     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3321     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3322     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3323     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3324     op : ~> Set.member
  3325     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3326 
  3327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3330 
  3331     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3332     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3333     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3334     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3335     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3336     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3337     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3338     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3339 
  3340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 * More stylized fact names:
  3343 
  3344   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3345   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3346   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3347   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3348 
  3349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3352 
  3353   constants
  3354     null ~> List.null
  3355 
  3356   facts
  3357     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3358     null_empty ~> null_def
  3359 
  3360 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3361 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3362 generation.
  3363 
  3364 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3365 Haskell code.
  3366 
  3367 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3368 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3369 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3372 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3375 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3376 
  3377 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3378 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3379 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3382 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3388 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3389 referred to by its qualified name.
  3390 
  3391   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3392   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3393   product ~>  Enum.product
  3394 
  3395 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3396 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3400 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3401 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3405 sort_key.
  3406 
  3407 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3411 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3412 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3413 
  3414   types
  3415     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3416               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3417               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3418         (depends on your needs)
  3419 
  3420   constants
  3421      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3422      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3423      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3424 
  3425 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3426 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3427 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3428 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3431 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3432 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3433 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3434 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3440 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3441 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3442 
  3443 
  3444 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3445 
  3446 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3447 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3448 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3449 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3450 compatibility.
  3451 
  3452 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3453 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3454 
  3455 
  3456 *** HOLCF ***
  3457 
  3458 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3459 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3460 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3464 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3465 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466 
  3467   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3468   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3469   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3470 
  3471 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3472 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3473 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474 
  3475 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3476 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3477 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3478 domain definition now works:
  3479 
  3480   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3481 
  3482 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3483 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3484 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3485 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3486 
  3487   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3488     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3489 
  3490   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3491 
  3492 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3493 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3494 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3497 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3500 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3501 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3502 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3503 
  3504 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3505 
  3506 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3507 
  3508 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3514 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3515 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3516 
  3517 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3518 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3519 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3522 still supported as an input translation.
  3523 
  3524 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3525 
  3526   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3527   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3528   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3529   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3530   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3531   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3532   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3533 
  3534 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3535 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3538   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3539   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3540   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3541   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3542   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3543 
  3544 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3545 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3548 
  3549   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3550   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3551   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3552   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3553 
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3557 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3560 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3563   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3564   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3565   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3566   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3567   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3568   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3569   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3570   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3571   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3572   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3573   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3574   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3575   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3576   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3577   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3578   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3579   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3580   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3581   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3582 
  3583 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3586   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3587   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3588   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3589   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3590   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3591   box_less             ~> box_below
  3592   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3593   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3594   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3595   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3596   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3597   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3598   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3599   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3600   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3601   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3602   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3603   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3604   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3605   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3606   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3607   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3608   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3609   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3610   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3611   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3612   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3613   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3614   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3615   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3616   up_less              ~> up_below
  3617   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3618   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3619   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3620   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3621   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3622   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3623   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3624   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3625   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3626   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3627   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3628   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3629   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3630 
  3631 
  3632 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3633 
  3634 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3635 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 
  3638 *** ML ***
  3639 
  3640 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3641 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3642 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3643 
  3644 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3645 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3646 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3647 
  3648 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3649 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3650 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3651 
  3652 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3653 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3654 
  3655 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3656 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3657 
  3658 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3659 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3660 
  3661 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3662 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3663 
  3664 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3665 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3666 almost all situations.
  3667 
  3668 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3669 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3670 Isabelle/ML.
  3671 
  3672 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3673 meaning.
  3674 
  3675 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3676 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3677 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3678 
  3679 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3680 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3681 
  3682 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3683 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3684 
  3685 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3687 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3688 
  3689 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3690 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3691 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3692 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3693 configuration options.
  3694 
  3695 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3696 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3697 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3698 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3699 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3700 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3701 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3702 
  3703 
  3704 
  3705 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3706 ---------------------------------
  3707 
  3708 *** General ***
  3709 
  3710 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3711 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3712 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3713 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3714 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3715 their full internal name.
  3716 
  3717 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3718 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3719 Some hints on upgrading:
  3720 
  3721   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3722     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3723     which are independent of this issue.
  3724 
  3725   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3726     provides the following special forms:
  3727 
  3728       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3729       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3730       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3731 
  3732     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3733     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3734     extra variables".
  3735 
  3736     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3737     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3738     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3739     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3740     "logic".
  3741 
  3742   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3743     antiquotations:
  3744 
  3745       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3746       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3747       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3748       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3749 
  3750   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3751     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3752     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3753     antiquotations.
  3754 
  3755 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3756 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3757 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3758 diagnose syntax problems.
  3759 
  3760 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3761 
  3762 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3763 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3764 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3765 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3766 
  3767 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3768 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3769 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3770 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3773 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3774 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3775 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3776 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3777 
  3778 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3779 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3780 
  3781 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3782 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3783 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3784 
  3785   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3786 
  3787 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3788 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3789 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3790 
  3791 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3792 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3796 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3797 
  3798 
  3799 *** Pure ***
  3800 
  3801 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3802 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3803 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3804 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3805 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3806 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3807 inspect proof terms.
  3808 
  3809 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3810 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3811 are added internally.  For example:
  3812 
  3813   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3814 
  3815 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3816 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3817 
  3818 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3821 'class' instead.
  3822 
  3823 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3824 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3826 
  3827 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3828 invariants.
  3829 
  3830 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3831 user space functionality any longer.
  3832 
  3833 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3834 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3838 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3839 
  3840 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3841 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3842 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3843 
  3844 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3845 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3846 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3847 
  3848 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3849 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3850 
  3851 
  3852 *** HOL ***
  3853 
  3854 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3855 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3856 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3857 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3858 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3859 
  3860 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3861 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3862 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3863 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3864 
  3865   fun
  3866     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3867   where
  3868     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3869 
  3870   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3871     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3872 
  3873   quotient_definition
  3874     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3875 
  3876 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3877 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3878 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3879 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3880 
  3881 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3882 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3883 
  3884 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3885 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3886 
  3887 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3891 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3892 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3893 
  3894 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3895 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899 
  3900 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3904 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3907 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3908 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3911   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3912   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3913   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3914   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3915   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3916   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3917   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3918   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3919   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3920   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3921   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3922   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3923   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3924   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3925   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3926   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3927   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3928   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3929   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3930   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3931   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3932   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3933   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3934   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3935   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3936   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3937   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3938   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3939   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3940 
  3941 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3942 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3943 
  3944 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3945 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3946 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3947 
  3948 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3949 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3950 
  3951 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3952 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3955 
  3956 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3957 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3960 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3965 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3966 
  3967 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3968 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3969 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3970 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3973   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3974   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3975   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977 
  3978 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3979 lattices):
  3980 
  3981     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3982     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3983 
  3984     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3985 
  3986     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3987     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3988     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3989     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3990     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3991     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3992     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3993     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3994     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3995     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3996     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3997     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3998     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3999 
  4000     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4001     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4002     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4003     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4004     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4005     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4006     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4007     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4008     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4009     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4010     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4011     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4012     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4013     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4014     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4015     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4016     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4017     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4018 
  4019   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4020   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4021 
  4022     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4023     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4024     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4025     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4026     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4027 
  4028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Refined field classes:
  4031   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4032     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4033     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4034   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4036 
  4037 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4038   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4039   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4040   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4041     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4042   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4043     equal_neg_zero.
  4044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4047 sets to lattices:
  4048 
  4049   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4050   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4051   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4052   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4053   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4054   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4055   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4056   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4057   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4058   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4059 
  4060 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4061 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4062 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4063 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4064 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4065 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4066 
  4067 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4068 multiset order:
  4069 
  4070   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4071     <= and <;
  4072   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4073     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4074     multiset_order;
  4075   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4076     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4077     generation;
  4078   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4079     if needed.
  4080 
  4081 Renamed:
  4082 
  4083   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4084   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4085   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4086 
  4087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088 
  4089 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4090 
  4091 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4092 
  4093 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4094 
  4095 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4096 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4097 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099   Constants:
  4100   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4101   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4102   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4103   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4104   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4105   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4106   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4107   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4108   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4109   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4110   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4111   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4112   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4113 
  4114   Lemmas:
  4115   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4116   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4117   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4118   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4119   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4120   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4121   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4122   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4123   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4124   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4125   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4126   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4127   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4128 
  4129 * Sledgehammer:
  4130   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4131     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4132     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4133     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4134     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4135     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4136     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4137   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4138   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4139     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4140   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4141     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4142     is still experimental.)
  4143   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4144     full-typed mode.
  4145   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4146 
  4147 * Nitpick:
  4148   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4149   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4150   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4151     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4152   - Added support for quotient types.
  4153   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4154     constructs.
  4155   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4156     "termination" proofs).
  4157   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4158   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4159   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4160   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4161     record getters.
  4162   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4163   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4164   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4165   - Added "atoms" option.
  4166   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4167     problems.
  4168   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4169     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4170     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4172     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4173   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4176   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4177   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4178   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4179   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4180   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4181   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4182   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4183   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4184   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186 
  4187 *** HOLCF ***
  4188 
  4189 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4190 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4191 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4192 
  4193 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4194 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4195 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4196 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4199 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4200 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4201 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4202 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4205 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4206 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4207 
  4208 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4209 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4212   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4213 
  4214 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4215 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4218   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4219   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4220   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4221   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4222 
  4223 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4224 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4227   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4228   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4229 
  4230 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4231 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4233 
  4234 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4235 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4238 
  4239 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4240 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 
  4243 *** ML ***
  4244 
  4245 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4246 
  4247     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4248     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4249 
  4250     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4251     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4252     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4253     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4254 
  4255     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4256     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4257     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4258 
  4259 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4260 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4261 
  4262 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4263 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4264 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4265 
  4266 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4267 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4268 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4269 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4270 
  4271 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4272 the context or even global references.
  4273 
  4274 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4275 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4276 
  4277 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4278 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4279 
  4280   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4281   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4282   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4283   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4284   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4285   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4286   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4287   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4288   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4289   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4290 
  4291 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4292 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4293 
  4294 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4295 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4296 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4297 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4298 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4299 
  4300 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4301 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4302 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4303 Theory_Data version.
  4304 
  4305 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4306 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4307 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4308 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4309 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4310 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4311 explicitly in rare situations.
  4312 
  4313 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4314 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4316 
  4317 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4318 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4321 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4322 quite rare).
  4323 
  4324 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4325 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4328 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4329 terms.
  4330 
  4331 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4332 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4333 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4334 
  4335 
  4336 *** System ***
  4337 
  4338 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4339 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4340 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4341 
  4342 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4343 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4344 respectively.
  4345 
  4346 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4347 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4348 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4349 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4350 
  4351   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4352 
  4353 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4354 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4355 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4356 component.
  4357 
  4358 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4359 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4360 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4361 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4362 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4363 the user for manual installation.
  4364 
  4365 
  4366 
  4367 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4368 -------------------------------------
  4369 
  4370 *** General ***
  4371 
  4372 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4373 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4374 
  4375 
  4376 *** Pure ***
  4377 
  4378 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4379 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4380 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4381 
  4382 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4383 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4384 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4385 
  4386 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4387 interpretation.
  4388 
  4389 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4390 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4391 
  4392 
  4393 *** Document preparation ***
  4394 
  4395 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4396 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4397 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4398 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4399 
  4400 
  4401 *** HOL ***
  4402 
  4403 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4404 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4405 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4406 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4407 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4408 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4409 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4410 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4411 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4412 
  4413 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4414 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4415 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4416 
  4417 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4418 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4419 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4420 
  4421 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4422 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4423 
  4424 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4425 
  4426 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4427 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4428 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4429 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4430 
  4431 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4432 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4433 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4434 "mirabelle" utility.
  4435 
  4436 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4437 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4438 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4439 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4440 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4441 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4442 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4443 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4444 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4445 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4446 
  4447 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4448 procedure only.
  4449 
  4450 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4451 
  4452 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4453 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4454 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4455 that fail later.
  4456 
  4457 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4458 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4459 
  4460 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4461 the same method as the approximation method.
  4462 
  4463 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4464 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4465 series expansion.
  4466 
  4467 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4468 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4469 
  4470 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4471 reals.
  4472 
  4473 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4474 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4475 
  4476 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4477 fixpoint theorem.
  4478 
  4479 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4480   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4481     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4482   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4483     accordingly
  4484   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4485     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4486   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4487     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4488 
  4489 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4490 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4491 lattice.
  4492 
  4493 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4494 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4495 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4496 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4497 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4498 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4500 
  4501 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4502   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4503     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4504   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4505     le_inf_iff
  4506   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4507     sup_aci)
  4508   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4509   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4510   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4511     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4512     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4513     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4514     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4515     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4516     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4517     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4518     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4519     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4520     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4521   - authentic syntax for
  4522     Set.Pow
  4523     Set.image
  4524   - mere abbreviations:
  4525     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4526     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4527     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4528     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4529     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4530     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4531     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4532     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4533   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4534 
  4535 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4536 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4537 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4538 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4539 
  4540 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4541 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4542 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4543 
  4544 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4545 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4546 
  4547 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4548 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4549 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4550 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4551 
  4552 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4553 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4554 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4555 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4556 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4557 
  4558 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4559 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4563 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4564 
  4565 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4566 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4567 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4568 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4569 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4570 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4571 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4573 
  4574 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4575     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4576     code_post       replaces    code post
  4577     etc.
  4578   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4579 
  4580 * Renamed methods:
  4581     sizechange -> size_change
  4582     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4583   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4587 
  4588 * Renamed theorems:
  4589     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4590     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4591     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4592     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4593     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4594   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602 
  4603 *** HOLCF ***
  4604 
  4605 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4606 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4607 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4608 
  4609 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4610 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4611 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4612 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4613 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4614 
  4615 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4616 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4617 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4618 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4619 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4620 
  4621 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4622 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4623 constructor are pre-configured.
  4624 
  4625 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4626 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4627 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4628 
  4629 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4630 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4631 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4632 as well.)
  4633 
  4634 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4635 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4636 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4637 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4638 examples.
  4639 
  4640 
  4641 *** ML ***
  4642 
  4643 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4644 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4645 
  4646 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4647 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4648 position, logical grouping etc.
  4649 
  4650 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4651 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4652 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4653 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4654 
  4655 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4656 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4657 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4658 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4659 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4660 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4661 
  4662 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4663 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4664 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4665 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4666 experiments with references.
  4667 
  4668 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4669 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4670 
  4671 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4672 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4673 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4674 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4675 
  4676 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4677 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4678 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4679 
  4680 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4681 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4682 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4683 
  4684 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4690 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4691 
  4692 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4693 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4694 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4695 
  4696 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4697 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4698 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4701 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4702 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4706 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4707 instead of global theory.
  4708 
  4709 
  4710 *** System ***
  4711 
  4712 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4713 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4714 usedir option -q.
  4715 
  4716 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4717 also the system manual.
  4718 
  4719 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4720 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4721 
  4722 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4723 this is always enabled.
  4724 
  4725 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4726 
  4727 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4728 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4729 currently supported on Linux only.
  4730 
  4731 
  4732 
  4733 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4734 --------------------------------
  4735 
  4736 *** General ***
  4737 
  4738 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4739 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4740 
  4741   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4742     "isatool."
  4743 
  4744   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4745     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4746 
  4747   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4748     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4749 
  4750 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4751 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4752 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4753 
  4754 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4755 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4756 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4757 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4758 via "isabelle emacs".
  4759 
  4760 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4761 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4762 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4763 
  4764 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4765 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4766 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4767 
  4768 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4769 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4770 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4771 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4772 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4773 
  4774 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4775 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4776 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4777 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4778 
  4779 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4780 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4781 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4782 
  4783 
  4784 *** Pure ***
  4785 
  4786 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4787 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4788 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4789 
  4790 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4791 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4792 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4793 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4794 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4795 
  4796 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4797 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4798 useful in locale declarations.
  4799 
  4800 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4801 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4802 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4803 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4804 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4805 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4806 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4807 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4808 no longer generated.
  4809 
  4810 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4811 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4812 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4813 
  4814 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4815 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4816 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4817 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4818 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4819 
  4820 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4821 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4822 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4823 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4824 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4825 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4826 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4827 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4828 
  4829 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4830 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4831 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4832 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4833 
  4834 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4837 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4838 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4839 
  4840 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4841 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4844 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4845 in HOL, write
  4846 
  4847     class foo = ...
  4848 
  4849 instead of
  4850 
  4851     class foo = type + ...
  4852 
  4853 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4854 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4857 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4858 
  4859 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4860 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4861 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4862 
  4863 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4864 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4865 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4866 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4867 directly in regular applications.
  4868 
  4869 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4870 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4871 
  4872 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4873 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4874 
  4875 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4876 theory context.
  4877 
  4878 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4879 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4880 
  4881 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4882 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4883 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4884 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4885 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4886 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4887 
  4888   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4889 
  4890 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4891 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4892 normalization.
  4893 
  4894 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4895 addressing etc.
  4896 
  4897 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4898 
  4899   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4900   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4901 
  4902 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4903 
  4904   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4905      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4906      parts of the code generator framework).
  4907 
  4908   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4909      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4910      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4911 
  4912 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4913 
  4914 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4915 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4916 
  4917 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4918 patterns, e.g.
  4919 
  4920     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4921 
  4922 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4923 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4924 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4925 hyphen:
  4926 
  4927     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4928 
  4929 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4930 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4931 
  4932 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4933 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4934 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4935 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4936 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4937 higher-order unification.
  4938 
  4939 
  4940 *** Document preparation ***
  4941 
  4942 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4943 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4944 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4945 
  4946 
  4947 *** HOL ***
  4948 
  4949 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4950 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4951 
  4952 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4953 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4954 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4955 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4956 Main, as before.
  4957 
  4958 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4959 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4960 
  4961 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4962 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4963 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4964 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4965 
  4966 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4967 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4968 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4969 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4970 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4971 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4972 
  4973 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4974 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4975 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4976 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4977 
  4978 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4979 menu.
  4980 
  4981 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4982 (contains the empty clause).
  4983 
  4984 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4985 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4986 
  4987 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4988 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4989 
  4990 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4991 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4992 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4993 
  4994 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4995 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4996 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4997 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4998 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4999 
  5000 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5001 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5002 
  5003 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5004 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5005 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5006 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5007 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5008 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5009 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5010 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5011 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5012 
  5013 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5014 
  5015 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5016 
  5017 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5018 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5019 
  5020 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5021 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5022 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5023 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5024 
  5025 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5026 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5027 
  5028     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5029     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5030     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5031     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5032     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5033     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5034     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5035     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5036 
  5037 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5038 theory Set.
  5039 
  5040 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5041 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5042 
  5043 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5044 
  5045 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5046 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5047 
  5048 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5049 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5050 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5051 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5052 allowed. For examples see
  5053 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5054 
  5055 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5056 
  5057 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 
  5060 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5061 structure:
  5062 
  5063     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5064     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5065     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5066     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5067     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5068     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5069     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5070     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5071     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5072     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5073     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5074     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5075     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5076     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5077     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5078     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5079     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5080     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5081     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5082     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5083     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5084     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5085     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5086     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5087     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5088     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5089     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5090     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5091     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5092     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5093     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5094     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5095     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5096 
  5097     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5098     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5099     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5100     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5101     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5102     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5103     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5104     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5105     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5106     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5107 
  5108     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5109     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5110     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5111     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5112     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5113     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5114 
  5115 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5116 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5117 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5118 
  5119 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5120 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5121 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5122 
  5123 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5124 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5127 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5128 
  5129 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5130 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5131 proofs, e.g.
  5132 
  5133   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5134 
  5135 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5136 
  5137 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5138 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5139 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5140 
  5141 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5142 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5146 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5147 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5149 
  5150 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5151 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5152 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5153 preorder_class.*.
  5154 
  5155 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5156 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5157 
  5158 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5159 
  5160   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5161 
  5162 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5163 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5164 fold_image.
  5165 
  5166 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5167 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5168 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5169 the former will disappear at some point.
  5170 
  5171 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5172 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5173 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5174 
  5175 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5176 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5177 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5178 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5179 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5180 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5181 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5182 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5183 
  5184 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5185 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5186 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5187 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5188 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5189 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5190 
  5191     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5192     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5193     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5194     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5195     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5196     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5197     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5198 
  5199 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5200 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5201 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5202 
  5203 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5204 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5205 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5206 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5207 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5208 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5209 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5210 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5211 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5212 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5213 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5214 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5215 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5216 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5217 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5218 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5219 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5220 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5221 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5222 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5223 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5224 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5225 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5226 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5227 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5228 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5229 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5230 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5231 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5232 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5233 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5234 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5235 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5236 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5237 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5238 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5239 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5240 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5241 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5242 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5243 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5244 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5245 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5246 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5247 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5248 
  5249 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5250 
  5251 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5252 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5253 
  5254 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5255 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5256 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5257 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5258 
  5259 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5260 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5261 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5262 theory RealVector.
  5263 
  5264 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5265 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5266 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5267 and inner products are included.
  5268 
  5269 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5270 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5271 supported.
  5272 
  5273 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5274 first diagonalization argument.
  5275 
  5276 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5277 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5278 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5279 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5280 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5281 
  5282     hide (open) const gcd
  5283     abbreviation gcd where
  5284       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5285     notation (output)
  5286       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5287 
  5288 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5289 
  5290 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5291 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5292 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5293 
  5294 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5295 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5296 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5297 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5298 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5299 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5300 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5301 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5302 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5303 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5304 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5305 cases.
  5306 
  5307 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5308 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5309 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5310 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5311 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5312 
  5313     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5314     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5315     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5316     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5317     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5318 
  5319 
  5320 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5321 
  5322 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5323 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5324 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5325 
  5326 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5327 
  5328 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5329 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5330 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5331 
  5332 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5333 
  5334 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5335 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5336 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5337 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5338 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5339 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5340 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5341 
  5342 
  5343 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5344 
  5345 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5346 
  5347 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5348 theory targets.
  5349 
  5350 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5351 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5352 'inductive' etc.
  5353 
  5354 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5355 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5356 
  5357 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5358 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5359 
  5360 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5361 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5362 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5363 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5364 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5365 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5366 the algorithm W:
  5367 
  5368  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5369  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5370          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5371 
  5372 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5373 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5374 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5375 
  5376 
  5377 *** HOLCF ***
  5378 
  5379 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5380 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5381 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5382 
  5383 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5384 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5385 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5386 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5387 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5388 
  5389 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5390 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5391 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5392 
  5393 
  5394 *** ZF ***
  5395 
  5396 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5397 
  5398 
  5399 *** ML ***
  5400 
  5401 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5402 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5403 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5404 5.2.1!
  5405 
  5406 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5407 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5408 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5409 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5410 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5411 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5412 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5413 
  5414 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5415 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5416 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5417 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5418 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5419 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5420 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5421 
  5422 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5423 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5424 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5425 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5426 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5427 
  5428 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5429 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5430 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5431 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5432 Method.add_method.
  5433 
  5434 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5435 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5436 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5437 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5438 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5439 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5440 
  5441 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5442 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5443 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5444 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5445 examples.
  5446 
  5447 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5448 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5449 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5450 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5451 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5452 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5453 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5454 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5455 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5456 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5457 
  5458 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5459 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5460 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5461 
  5462 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5463 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5464 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5465 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5466 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5467 resort for legacy applications.
  5468 
  5469 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5470 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5471 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5472 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5473 explicit runtime argument.
  5474 
  5475 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5476 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5477 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5478 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5479 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5480 
  5481 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5482 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5483 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5484 theory state.
  5485 
  5486 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5487 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5488 
  5489   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5490   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5491   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5492   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5493   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5494   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5495   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5496   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5497   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5498   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5499 
  5500 
  5501 *** System ***
  5502 
  5503 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5504 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5505 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5506 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5507 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5508 
  5509 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5510 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5511 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5512 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5513 
  5514 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5515 
  5516 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5517 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5518 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5519 prover operations.
  5520 
  5521 
  5522 
  5523 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5524 -------------------------------
  5525 
  5526 *** General ***
  5527 
  5528 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5529 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5530 
  5531 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5532 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5533 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5534 provides a proper context already.
  5535 
  5536 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5537 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5538 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5539 
  5540 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5541 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5542 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5543 swap theory imports.
  5544 
  5545 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5546 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5547 
  5548 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5549 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5550 white space without escapes.
  5551 
  5552 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5553 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5554 "foo_bar".
  5555 
  5556 
  5557 *** Pure ***
  5558 
  5559 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5560 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5561 
  5562 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5563 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5564 
  5565 (1) unused_thms
  5566      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5567 
  5568 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5569      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5570      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5571 
  5572 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5573      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5574      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5575      their ancestors.
  5576 
  5577 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5578 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5579 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5580 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5581 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5582 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5583 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5584 
  5585 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5586 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5587 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5588 
  5589 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5590 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5591 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5592 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5593 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5594 
  5595 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5596 
  5597 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5598 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5599 update of theories within ML code.
  5600 
  5601 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5602 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5603 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5604 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5605 
  5606 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5607 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5608 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5612 
  5613 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5614 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5615 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5616 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5617 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5618 
  5619 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5620 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5621 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5622 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5623 situations.
  5624 
  5625 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5626 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5627 proof text.
  5628 
  5629 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5630 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5631 
  5632 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5633 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5634 predicates.
  5635 
  5636 
  5637 *** Document preparation ***
  5638 
  5639 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5640 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5641 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5642 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5643 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5644 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5645 
  5646 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5647 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5648 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5649 
  5650 
  5651 *** HOL ***
  5652 
  5653 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5654 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5655 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5656 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5657 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5658 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5659 
  5660 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5661 with multithreading.
  5662 
  5663 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5664 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5665 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5666 
  5667 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5668 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5669 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5670 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5671 
  5672 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5673 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5674 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5675 and makes them available separately.  See
  5676 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5677 
  5678 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5679 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5680 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5681 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5682 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5683 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5684 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5685 the declared rules.
  5686 
  5687 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5688 
  5689   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5690 
  5691 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5692 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5693 
  5694 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5695 
  5696   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5697 
  5698   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5699     definitions on => and bool.
  5700 
  5701   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5702     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5703     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5704 
  5705       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5706       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5707       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5708       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5709       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5710       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5711       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5712       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5713 
  5714   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5715     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5716     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5717 
  5718   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5719     The proof pattern
  5720 
  5721       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5722       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5723 
  5724     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5725     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5726 
  5727       have "EX S. P S"
  5728       proof
  5729         show "P S" <...>
  5730       qed
  5731 
  5732   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5733     The proof pattern
  5734 
  5735       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5736       also have "S = T" <...>
  5737       finally have "P T" .
  5738 
  5739     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5740     must be replaced by something like
  5741 
  5742       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5743       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5744       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5745 
  5746   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5747     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5748 
  5749       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5750 
  5751     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5752     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5753     type of the form
  5754 
  5755       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5756 
  5757     rather than
  5758 
  5759       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5760 
  5761 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5762 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5763 
  5764 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5765 
  5766 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5767 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5769 
  5770 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5771 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5772 
  5773 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5774 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5775 
  5776 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5777 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5778 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5779 
  5780 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5781 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5782 
  5783   less_trans
  5784   less_linear
  5785   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5786   le_less_trans
  5787   less_le_trans
  5788   less_not_sym
  5789   less_asym
  5790 
  5791 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5792 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5793 and different variable names.
  5794 
  5795 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5796 
  5797 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5798 finite maps.
  5799 
  5800 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5801 
  5802 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5803 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5804 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5805 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5806 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5807 accordingly.
  5808 
  5809 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5810 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5811 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5812 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5813 
  5814 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5815 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5816 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5817 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5818 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5820 
  5821 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5822 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5823 
  5824 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5825 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5826 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5827 
  5828 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5830 
  5831 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5832 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5833 
  5834 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5835 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5836 
  5837 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5838 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5839 
  5840 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5841 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5843 
  5844 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5845 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5846 
  5847 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5848 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5849 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5850 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5851 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5852 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5853 
  5854 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5855 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5856 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5857 
  5858 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5859 
  5860 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5861 
  5862 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5863 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5864 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5865 
  5866 
  5867 *** ZF ***
  5868 
  5869 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5870 same session:
  5871 
  5872   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5873   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5874   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5875   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5876   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5877   List      -> List_ZF
  5878   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5879 
  5880 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5881 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5882 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5883 
  5884 
  5885 *** ML ***
  5886 
  5887 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5888 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5889 
  5890 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5891 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5892 
  5893 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5894 
  5895 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5896 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5897 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5898 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5899 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5902 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5903 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5904 
  5905 
  5906 *** System ***
  5907 
  5908 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5909 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5910 
  5911 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5912 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5913 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5914 
  5915 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5916 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5917 
  5918 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5919 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5920 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5921 
  5922 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5923 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5924 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5925 
  5926 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5927 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5928 
  5929 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5930 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5931 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5932 script.
  5933 
  5934 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5935 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5936 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5937 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5938 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5939 
  5940 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5941 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5942 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5943 
  5944 
  5945 
  5946 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5947 -----------------------------------
  5948 
  5949 *** General ***
  5950 
  5951 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5952 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5953 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5954 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5955 
  5956 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5957 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5958 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5961 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5962 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5963 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5964 
  5965 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5966 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5967 quotes.
  5968 
  5969 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5970 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5971 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5972 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5973 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5974 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5975 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5976 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5977 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5978 
  5979 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5980 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5981 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5982 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5983 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5984 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5985 
  5986 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5987 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5988 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5989 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5990 
  5991 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5992 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5993 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5994 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5995 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5996 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5997 
  5998 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5999 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6000 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6001 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6002 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6003 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6004 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6005 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6006 
  6007 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6008 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6009 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6010 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6011 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6012 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6013 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6014 
  6015 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6016 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6017 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6018 
  6019 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6020 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6021 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6022 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6023 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6024 limit is imposed.
  6025 
  6026 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6027 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6028 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6029 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6030 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6031 and scalability.
  6032 
  6033 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6034 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6035 
  6036 
  6037 *** Document preparation ***
  6038 
  6039 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6040 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6041 current context.
  6042 
  6043 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6044 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6045 
  6046 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6047 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6048 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6049 
  6050 
  6051 *** Pure ***
  6052 
  6053 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6054 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6055 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6056 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6057 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6058 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6059 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6060 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6061 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6062 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6063 
  6064 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6065 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6066 sketch:
  6067 
  6068     internal compilation:
  6069         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6070     writing SML code to a file:
  6071         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6072     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6073         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6074     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6075         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6076 
  6077     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6078         method ``eval''
  6079 
  6080 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6081 
  6082 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6083 
  6084     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6085     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6086     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6087     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6088 
  6089 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6090 
  6091     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6092       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6093 
  6094     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6095       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6096 
  6097     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6098       {(target)}+
  6099         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6100 
  6101     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6102       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6103         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6104 
  6105 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6106 
  6107 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6108 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6109 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6110 codegen".
  6111 
  6112 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6113 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6114 annotations).
  6115 
  6116 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6117 syntax.
  6118 
  6119 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6120 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6121 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6122 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6123 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6124 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6125 
  6126 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6127 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6128 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6129 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6130 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6131 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6132 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6133 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6134 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6135 equations, see section "definitions".
  6136 
  6137 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6138 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6139 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6140 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6141 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6142 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6143 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6144 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6145 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6146 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6147 
  6148 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6149 configuration options:
  6150 
  6151   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6152   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6153   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6154   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6155   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6156   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6157   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6158   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6159   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6160 
  6161 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6162 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6163 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6164 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6165 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6166 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6167 order.
  6168 
  6169 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6170 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6171 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6172 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6173 context encountered later on.
  6174 
  6175 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6176 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6177 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6178 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6179 
  6180 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6181 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6182 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6183 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6184 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6185 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6186 
  6187 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6188 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6189 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6190 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6191 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6192 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6193 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6194 more permissive.
  6195 
  6196 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6197 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6198 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6199 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6200 maintainability of proof texts.
  6201 
  6202 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6203 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6204 
  6205   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6206   then guess x and y by clarify
  6207 
  6208 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6209 proof tools being involved here.
  6210 
  6211 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6212 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6213 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6214 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6215 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6216 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6217 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6218 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6219 
  6220 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6221 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6222 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6223 
  6224   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6225   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6226   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6227   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6228 
  6229 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6230 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6231 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6232 
  6233 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6234 both named and unnamed ones.
  6235 
  6236 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6237 
  6238   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6239 
  6240 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6241 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6242 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6243 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6244 
  6245 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6246 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6247 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6248 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6249 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6250 
  6251 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6252 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6253 
  6254 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6255 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6256 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6257 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6258 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6259 originally first one.
  6260 
  6261 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6262 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as