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doc-src/TutorialI/CTL/CTLind.thy

author | nipkow |

Wed Dec 06 13:22:58 2000 +0100 (2000-12-06) | |

changeset 10608 | 620647438780 |

parent 10281 | 9554ce1c2e54 |

child 10795 | 9e888d60d3e5 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

*** empty log message ***

1 (*<*)theory CTLind = CTL:(*>*)

3 subsection{*CTL revisited*}

5 text{*\label{sec:CTL-revisited}

6 The purpose of this section is twofold: we want to demonstrate

7 some of the induction principles and heuristics discussed above and we want to

8 show how inductive definitions can simplify proofs.

9 In \S\ref{sec:CTL} we gave a fairly involved proof of the correctness of a

10 model checker for CTL. In particular the proof of the

11 @{thm[source]infinity_lemma} on the way to @{thm[source]AF_lemma2} is not as

12 simple as one might intuitively expect, due to the @{text SOME} operator

13 involved. Below we give a simpler proof of @{thm[source]AF_lemma2}

14 based on an auxiliary inductive definition.

16 Let us call a (finite or infinite) path \emph{@{term A}-avoiding} if it does

17 not touch any node in the set @{term A}. Then @{thm[source]AF_lemma2} says

18 that if no infinite path from some state @{term s} is @{term A}-avoiding,

19 then @{prop"s \<in> lfp(af A)"}. We prove this by inductively defining the set

20 @{term"Avoid s A"} of states reachable from @{term s} by a finite @{term

21 A}-avoiding path:

22 % Second proof of opposite direction, directly by well-founded induction

23 % on the initial segment of M that avoids A.

24 *}

26 consts Avoid :: "state \<Rightarrow> state set \<Rightarrow> state set";

27 inductive "Avoid s A"

28 intros "s \<in> Avoid s A"

29 "\<lbrakk> t \<in> Avoid s A; t \<notin> A; (t,u) \<in> M \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> u \<in> Avoid s A";

31 text{*

32 It is easy to see that for any infinite @{term A}-avoiding path @{term f}

33 with @{prop"f 0 \<in> Avoid s A"} there is an infinite @{term A}-avoiding path

34 starting with @{term s} because (by definition of @{term Avoid}) there is a

35 finite @{term A}-avoiding path from @{term s} to @{term"f 0"}.

36 The proof is by induction on @{prop"f 0 \<in> Avoid s A"}. However,

37 this requires the following

38 reformulation, as explained in \S\ref{sec:ind-var-in-prems} above;

39 the @{text rule_format} directive undoes the reformulation after the proof.

40 *}

42 lemma ex_infinite_path[rule_format]:

43 "t \<in> Avoid s A \<Longrightarrow>

44 \<forall>f\<in>Paths t. (\<forall>i. f i \<notin> A) \<longrightarrow> (\<exists>p\<in>Paths s. \<forall>i. p i \<notin> A)";

45 apply(erule Avoid.induct);

46 apply(blast);

47 apply(clarify);

48 apply(drule_tac x = "\<lambda>i. case i of 0 \<Rightarrow> t | Suc i \<Rightarrow> f i" in bspec);

49 apply(simp_all add:Paths_def split:nat.split);

50 done

52 text{*\noindent

53 The base case (@{prop"t = s"}) is trivial (@{text blast}).

54 In the induction step, we have an infinite @{term A}-avoiding path @{term f}

55 starting from @{term u}, a successor of @{term t}. Now we simply instantiate

56 the @{text"\<forall>f\<in>Paths t"} in the induction hypothesis by the path starting with

57 @{term t} and continuing with @{term f}. That is what the above $\lambda$-term

58 expresses. That fact that this is a path starting with @{term t} and that

59 the instantiated induction hypothesis implies the conclusion is shown by

60 simplification.

62 Now we come to the key lemma. It says that if @{term t} can be reached by a

63 finite @{term A}-avoiding path from @{term s}, then @{prop"t \<in> lfp(af A)"},

64 provided there is no infinite @{term A}-avoiding path starting from @{term

65 s}.

66 *}

68 lemma Avoid_in_lfp[rule_format(no_asm)]:

69 "\<forall>p\<in>Paths s. \<exists>i. p i \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> t \<in> Avoid s A \<longrightarrow> t \<in> lfp(af A)";

70 txt{*\noindent

71 The trick is not to induct on @{prop"t \<in> Avoid s A"}, as already the base

72 case would be a problem, but to proceed by well-founded induction @{term

73 t}. Hence @{prop"t \<in> Avoid s A"} needs to be brought into the conclusion as

74 well, which the directive @{text rule_format} undoes at the end (see below).

75 But induction with respect to which well-founded relation? The restriction

76 of @{term M} to @{term"Avoid s A"}:

77 @{term[display]"{(y,x). (x,y) \<in> M \<and> x \<in> Avoid s A \<and> y \<in> Avoid s A \<and> x \<notin> A}"}

78 As we shall see in a moment, the absence of infinite @{term A}-avoiding paths

79 starting from @{term s} implies well-foundedness of this relation. For the

80 moment we assume this and proceed with the induction:

81 *}

83 apply(subgoal_tac

84 "wf{(y,x). (x,y)\<in>M \<and> x \<in> Avoid s A \<and> y \<in> Avoid s A \<and> x \<notin> A}");

85 apply(erule_tac a = t in wf_induct);

86 apply(clarsimp);

88 txt{*\noindent

89 Now can assume additionally (induction hypothesis) that if @{prop"t \<notin> A"}

90 then all successors of @{term t} that are in @{term"Avoid s A"} are in

91 @{term"lfp (af A)"}. To prove the actual goal we unfold @{term lfp} once. Now

92 we have to prove that @{term t} is in @{term A} or all successors of @{term

93 t} are in @{term"lfp (af A)"}. If @{term t} is not in @{term A}, the second

94 @{term Avoid}-rule implies that all successors of @{term t} are in

95 @{term"Avoid s A"} (because we also assume @{prop"t \<in> Avoid s A"}), and

96 hence, by the induction hypothesis, all successors of @{term t} are indeed in

97 @{term"lfp(af A)"}. Mechanically:

98 *}

100 apply(rule ssubst [OF lfp_unfold[OF mono_af]]);

101 apply(simp only: af_def);

102 apply(blast intro:Avoid.intros);

104 txt{*

105 Having proved the main goal we return to the proof obligation that the above

106 relation is indeed well-founded. This is proved by contraposition: we assume

107 the relation is not well-founded. Thus there exists an infinite @{term

108 A}-avoiding path all in @{term"Avoid s A"}, by theorem

109 @{thm[source]wf_iff_no_infinite_down_chain}:

110 @{thm[display]wf_iff_no_infinite_down_chain[no_vars]}

111 From lemma @{thm[source]ex_infinite_path} the existence of an infinite

112 @{term A}-avoiding path starting in @{term s} follows, just as required for

113 the contraposition.

114 *}

116 apply(erule contrapos_pp);

117 apply(simp add:wf_iff_no_infinite_down_chain);

118 apply(erule exE);

119 apply(rule ex_infinite_path);

120 apply(auto simp add:Paths_def);

121 done

123 text{*

124 The @{text"(no_asm)"} modifier of the @{text"rule_format"} directive means

125 that the assumption is left unchanged---otherwise the @{text"\<forall>p"} is turned

126 into a @{text"\<And>p"}, which would complicate matters below. As it is,

127 @{thm[source]Avoid_in_lfp} is now

128 @{thm[display]Avoid_in_lfp[no_vars]}

129 The main theorem is simply the corollary where @{prop"t = s"},

130 in which case the assumption @{prop"t \<in> Avoid s A"} is trivially true

131 by the first @{term Avoid}-rule). Isabelle confirms this:

132 *}

134 theorem AF_lemma2:

135 "{s. \<forall>p \<in> Paths s. \<exists> i. p i \<in> A} \<subseteq> lfp(af A)";

136 by(auto elim:Avoid_in_lfp intro:Avoid.intros);

139 (*<*)end(*>*)