NEWS
author blanchet
Thu Mar 06 13:36:15 2014 +0100 (2014-03-06)
changeset 55931 62156e694f3d
parent 55889 6bfbec3dff62
child 55933 12ee2c407dad
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed 'map_sum' to 'sum_map'
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    44 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    45 
    46 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    47 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    48 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    49 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    50 
    51 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    52 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    53 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    54 
    55 
    56 *** Pure ***
    57 
    58 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    59 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    60 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    61 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    62 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    63 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    64 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    65 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    66 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    67 
    68 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    69 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    70 instantiated theorem.
    71 
    72 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    73 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    74 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    75 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    76 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    77 
    78   attribute_setup standard =
    79     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    80 
    81 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    82 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    83 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    84 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    85 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    86 
    87 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    88 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    89 differently).
    90 
    91 
    92 *** HOL ***
    93 
    94 * HOL-Word:
    95   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
    96   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
    97   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
    98   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
    99   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   100 
   101 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   105 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   108 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   111 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   114   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   115   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   116   Theory renamings:
   117     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   118     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   119     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   120     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   121     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   122     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   123     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   124     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   125     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   126     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   127     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   128     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   129     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   130     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   131     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   132     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   133     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   134     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   135     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   136     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   137     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   138     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   139   New theories:
   140     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   141     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   142     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   143     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   144     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   145   Discontinued theories:
   146     BNF/BNF.thy
   147     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   148   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * New datatype package:
   151   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   152   * Renamed commands:
   153       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   154       primrec_new ~> primrec
   155       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   156     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   158     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   159     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   161     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   162     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Old datatype package:
   165   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   166     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   167     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   169     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   170     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   173   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   174   datatype package.
   175   Renamed constants:
   176     Option.set ~> set_option
   177     Option.map ~> map_option
   178     option_rel ~> rel_option
   179     option_rec ~> case_option
   180   Renamed theorems:
   181     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   182     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   183     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   184     option.recs ~> option.case
   185     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   186     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   187     map.simps ~> list.map
   188     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   189     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   190     the.simps ~> option.sel
   191   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * The following map function has been renamed:
   194     map_sum ~> sum_map
   195 
   196 * New theory:
   197     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   198 
   199 * Theory reorganizations:
   200   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   201 
   202 * Sledgehammer:
   203   - New option:
   204       smt_proofs
   205   - Renamed options:
   206       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   207       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   208     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * Metis:
   211   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   212     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   215 
   216 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   219 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   220 
   221 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   222 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   223 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   224 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   225 
   226 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228 
   229 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   230 with the given constants.
   231 
   232 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   233 
   234 Fact consolidations:
   235     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   236     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   237     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   238     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   239     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   240     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   241     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   242     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   243     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   244     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   245     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   246     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   247     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   248     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   249     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   250     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   251     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   252     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   253     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   254     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   255     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   256     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   257     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   258     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   259     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   260     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   261     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   262     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   263     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   264     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   265     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   266     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   267     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   268     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   269     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   270     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   271     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   272     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   273     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   274     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   275 
   276 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   277 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   278 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   279 
   280 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   281 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   282 
   283 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   284 
   285 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   286 
   287 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   289 
   290 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292 
   293 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   294 operations on records.
   295 
   296 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   300     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   304     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   305     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307 
   308 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   309   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   310   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   311   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   312     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   313   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   314     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   315   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   316 INCOMPATBILITY.
   317 
   318 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   319     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   320     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   321     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   322     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324 
   325 * Fact name consolidation:
   326     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   327     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   328     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   329     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   330     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   332 
   333 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   334 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   335 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   336 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   337 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   338 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   339 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   340 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   341 
   342 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   343 
   344 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   345 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   346 
   347 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   348 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   349 
   350 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   351 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   352 or the brute way with
   353 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   354 
   355 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   356 
   357 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   358 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   359 
   360 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   361 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   362 
   363 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   364 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   365 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   366 INCOMPATIBILITY
   367 
   368 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   369 
   370 * Nitpick:
   371   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   372     infinite values.
   373   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   374     "Rep_Integ".
   375   - Removed "std" option.
   376   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   377     "hide_types".
   378 
   379 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   380   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   381   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   382     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   383     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   384     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   385     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   386     intervals.
   387 
   388 
   389 *** Scala ***
   390 
   391 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   392 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   393 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   394 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   395 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   396 
   397 
   398 *** ML ***
   399 
   400 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   401 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   402 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   403 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   404 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   405 of schematic variables.
   406 
   407 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   408 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   410 formal context.
   411 
   412 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   413 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   414 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   415 actually belongs to it).
   416 
   417 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   418 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   419 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   420 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   421 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   422 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   423 
   424 
   425 *** System ***
   426 
   427 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   428 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   429 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   430 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   431 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   432 
   433 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   434 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   435 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   436 
   437 
   438 
   439 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   440 -------------------------------------
   441 
   442 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   443 
   444 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   445 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   446 
   447 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   448 after edits surrounding the command location.
   449 
   450 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   451 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   452 e.g. out-of-memory).
   453 
   454 
   455 *** System ***
   456 
   457 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   458 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   459 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   460 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   461 
   462 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   463 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   464 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   465 
   466 
   467 
   468 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   469 -------------------------------------
   470 
   471 *** General ***
   472 
   473 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   474 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   475 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   476 
   477 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   478 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   479 
   480 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   481 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   482 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   483 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   484 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   485 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   486 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   487 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   488 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   489 syntax.
   490 
   491 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   492 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   495 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   496 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   497 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   498 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   499 
   500 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   504 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   505 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   506 
   507 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   508 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   509 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   510 
   511 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   512 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   513 
   514 
   515 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   516 
   517 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   518 Documentation panel.
   519 
   520 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   521 documentation.
   522 
   523 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   524 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   525 
   526 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   527 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   528 normal editing and checking process.
   529 
   530 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   531 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   532 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   533 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   534 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   535 
   536 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   537 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   538 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   539 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   540 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   541 
   542 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   543 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   544 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   545 
   546 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   547 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   548 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   549 to resolve conflict.
   550 
   551 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   552 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   553 
   554 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   555 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   556 such command executions while editing.
   557 
   558 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   559 document content.
   560 
   561 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   562 toplevel theorem statements.
   563 
   564 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   565 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   566 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   567 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   568 
   569 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   570 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   571 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   572 
   573 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   574 / Global Options / Appearance".
   575 
   576 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   577 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   578 
   579 
   580 *** Pure ***
   581 
   582 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   583 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   584 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   585 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   586 details.
   587 
   588 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   589 
   590 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   591 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   592 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   593 
   594 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   596 
   597 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   598 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   599 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   600 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   601 
   602 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   603 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   604 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   607 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   608 
   609 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   610 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   611 situations.
   612 
   613 
   614 *** HOL ***
   615 
   616 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   617 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   621 
   622 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   623 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   624 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   625 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   626 
   627   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   628 
   629 * Code generator:
   630   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   631     'code_instance'.
   632   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   633     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   634 
   635 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   636 examples.
   637 
   638 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   639 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   640 to distinguish both when desired.
   641 
   642 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   643 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   644 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   645 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   648 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   649 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   650 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   651 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   652 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   653 
   654 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   655 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   656 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   657 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   658 
   659 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   660 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   661 
   662 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   663 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   664 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   665 
   666 * Lifting:
   667   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   668     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   669       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   670       transfer rules
   671     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   672       correspondence relation can be generated
   673     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   674       parametricity
   675     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   676   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   677   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   678     copies
   679   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   680     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   681     anonymous context)
   682   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   683     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   684   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   685     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   686   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   687     INCOMPATIBILITY
   688 
   689 * Transfer:
   690   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   691     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   692   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   693   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   694     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   695   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   696 
   697 * Reification and reflection:
   698   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   699     "Reification".
   700   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   701   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   705   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   706     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   707     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   708   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   709     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   710   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   711     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   712     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   713     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   714     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   715     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   716     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   717     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   718   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   719     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   720   - Fact renames:
   721       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   722       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   724 
   725 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   726 
   727 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   728 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   729 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   731 
   732 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   733 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   734 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   735 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   736 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   737 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   738 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   739 lemmas.
   740 
   741 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   742 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   743 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   744 
   745 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   746 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   747 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   748 
   749 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   750 top and bottom elements.
   751 
   752 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   753 
   754 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   755 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   756 
   757  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   758    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   759    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   760 
   761  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   762    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   763    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   764 
   765    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   766    arbitrary filter.
   767 
   768  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   769    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   770    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   771    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   772    on a compact set.
   773 
   774  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   775    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   776    linear_continuum_topology).
   777 
   778  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   779    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   780    on all sequences converging to x.
   781 
   782  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   783    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   784    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   785    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   786    left or right.
   787 
   788  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   789 
   790      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   791 
   792  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   793    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   794 
   795  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   796    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   797    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   798    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   799    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   800    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   801 
   802  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   803 
   804    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   805 
   806    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   807      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   808 
   809    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   810 
   811    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   812      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   813 
   814    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   815 
   816    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   817 
   818  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   819 
   820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   821 
   822 * Nitpick:
   823   - Added option "spy".
   824   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   825 
   826 * Sledgehammer:
   827   - Renamed option:
   828       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   829     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   830   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   831   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   832   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   833 
   834 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   835 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   836 
   837 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   838   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   839   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   840     generated code.
   841   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   842   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   843   - Fact renames:
   844     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   845     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   846     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   847 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   850 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   851 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   852 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   853 
   854 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   855 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   856 
   857 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   858 
   859 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   860 
   861     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   862     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   863 
   864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   867 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   868 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   869 
   870 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   871 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   872 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   873 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   874 
   875 * HOL-BNF:
   876   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   877     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   878     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   879     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   880   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   881     coinduct).
   882   - Renamed keywords:
   883     data ~> datatype_new
   884     codata ~> codatatype
   885     bnf_def ~> bnf
   886   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   887     discs ~> disc
   888     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   889     map_id' ~> map_id
   890     sels ~> sel
   891     set_map' ~> set_map
   892     sets ~> set
   893 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 
   896 *** ML ***
   897 
   898 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   899 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   900 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   901 Examples.thy in particular.
   902 
   903 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   904 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   905 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   906 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   907 
   908 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   909 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   910 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   911 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   915 
   916     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   917     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   918 
   919 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   920 
   921 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   922 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   923 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   924 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   925 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   926 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   927 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   928 
   929 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   930 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   931 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   932 clasets separately from the context.
   933 
   934 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   935 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   936 
   937 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   938 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   939 
   940 
   941 *** System ***
   942 
   943 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   944 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   947 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   948 
   949 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   950 settings variable.
   951 
   952 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   953 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   954 always pdf.
   955 
   956 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   957 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   958 
   959 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   960 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   961 
   962 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   963 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   964 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   965 
   966 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   967 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   968 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   969 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   970 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   971 for HTML presentation of theories.
   972 
   973 
   974 
   975 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   976 -----------------------------------
   977 
   978 *** General ***
   979 
   980 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   981 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   982 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   983 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   984 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   985 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   986 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   987 
   988 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   989 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   990 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   991 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   992 
   993 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   994 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   995 
   996 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   997 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   998 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   999 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1000 dependencies properly.
  1001 
  1002 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1003 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1004 
  1005 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1006 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1007 
  1008 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1009 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1010 and "class ... context ...".
  1011 
  1012 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1013 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1014 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1015 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1016 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1017 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1018 
  1019 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1020 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1021 
  1022 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1023 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1024 
  1025 
  1026 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1027 
  1028 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1029 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1030 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1031 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1032 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1033 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1034 
  1035 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1036 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1037 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1038 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1039 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1040 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1041 
  1042 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1043 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1044 browser on demand.
  1045 
  1046 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1047 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1048 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1049 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1050 
  1051 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1052 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1053 
  1054 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1055 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1056 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1057 potentially infinite message streams.
  1058 
  1059 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1060 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1061 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1062 schemes.
  1063 
  1064 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1065 symbols.
  1066 
  1067 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1068 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1069 
  1070 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1071 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1072 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1073 
  1074 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1075 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1076 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1077 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1078 
  1079 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1080 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1081 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1082 
  1083 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1084 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1085 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1086 Isabelle distribution.
  1087 
  1088 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1089 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1090 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1091 
  1092 
  1093 *** Pure ***
  1094 
  1095 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1096 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1097 
  1098 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1099 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1100 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1101 
  1102 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1103 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1104 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1105 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1106 with some care where this is really required.
  1107 
  1108 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1109 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1110 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1111 
  1112   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1113 
  1114 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1115 a Hasse diagram.
  1116 
  1117 
  1118 *** HOL ***
  1119 
  1120 * Sledgehammer:
  1121 
  1122   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1123     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1124   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1125   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1126   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1127   - Renamed options:
  1128       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1129       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1130       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1131       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1132 
  1133 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1134 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1135 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1136 
  1137 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * Lifting:
  1141   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1142   - quot_del attribute
  1143   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1144 
  1145 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1146 expressions.
  1147 
  1148 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1149 pointfree expressions.
  1150 
  1151 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1152 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1153 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1154 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1156 
  1157 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1158 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1159 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1160 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1161 accordingly.
  1162 
  1163 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1164 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1167 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1168 
  1169 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1170 
  1171 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1172 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1173 
  1174 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1175 
  1176 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1177 
  1178   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1179   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1180 
  1181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1184 
  1185   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1186   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1187 
  1188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1191 
  1192   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1193     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1194     output f x converges to G.
  1195 
  1196   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1197     infinity (at_bot).
  1198 
  1199   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1200     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1201 
  1202   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1203     at_top".
  1204 
  1205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1206 
  1207 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1208 lattice type classes.
  1209 
  1210 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1211 
  1212     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1213     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1214 
  1215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1216 
  1217 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1218 changes as follows.
  1219 
  1220   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1221 
  1222       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1223       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1224 
  1225   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1226     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1227     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1228     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1229 
  1230   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1231     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1232     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1233 
  1234   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1235     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1236     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1237     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1238 
  1239   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1240     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1241 
  1242       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1243       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1244       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1245       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1246       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1247       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1248       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1249       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1250       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1251       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1252       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1253       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1254       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1255       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1256       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1257       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1258 
  1259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1260 
  1261 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1262 
  1263 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1264 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1265 
  1266 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1267 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1268 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1269 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1270 
  1271   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1272   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1273   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1274   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1275   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1276   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1277   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1278   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1279   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1280   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1281 
  1282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1283 
  1284 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1285 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1286 Data").
  1287 
  1288 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1289 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1290 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1291 code.
  1292 
  1293 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1294 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1295 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1297 
  1298 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1299 
  1300 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1301 
  1302 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1303 
  1304   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1305   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1306 
  1307 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1308 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1309 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1310 
  1311   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1312 
  1313     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1314     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1315     cart_base i  removed
  1316     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1317 
  1318   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1319 
  1320   Renamed lemmas:
  1321 
  1322     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1323     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1324     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1325     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1326     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1327     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1328     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1329     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1330     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1331     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1332 
  1333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1334 
  1335 * HOL/Probability:
  1336 
  1337   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1338 
  1339   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1340     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1341     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1342 
  1343   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1344     projective family).
  1345 
  1346 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1347 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1348 
  1349 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1350 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1351 datatypes.
  1352 
  1353 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1354 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1355 
  1356 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1357 trees for the code generator.
  1358 
  1359 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1360 Lifting/Transfer.
  1361 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1365 
  1366 
  1367 *** Document preparation ***
  1368 
  1369 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1370 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1371 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1372 
  1373 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1374 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1375 
  1376 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1377 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1378 document/root.tex.
  1379 
  1380 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1381 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1382 
  1383 
  1384 *** ML ***
  1385 
  1386 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1387 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1388 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1389 
  1390 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1391 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1392 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1393 
  1394 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1395 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1396 necessarily printing visible text.
  1397 
  1398 
  1399 *** System ***
  1400 
  1401 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1402 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1403 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1404 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1405 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1406 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1407 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1408 
  1409 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1410 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1411 
  1412   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1413 
  1414 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1415 
  1416 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1417 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1418 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1419 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1420 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1421 
  1422 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1423 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1424 
  1425 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1426 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1427 
  1428 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1432 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1433 version of Isabelle.
  1434 
  1435 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1436 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1437 
  1438 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1439 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1440 for home-made settings.
  1441 
  1442 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1443 
  1444 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1445 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1446 configuration.
  1447 
  1448 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1449 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1450 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1451 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1452 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1453 
  1454 
  1455 
  1456 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1457 ------------------------------
  1458 
  1459 *** General ***
  1460 
  1461 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1462 
  1463   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1464     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1465   - markup for bound variables
  1466   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1467   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1468   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1469     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1470 
  1471 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1472 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1473 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1474 
  1475 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1476 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1477 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1478 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1479 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1480 
  1481   context
  1482     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1483     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1484   begin
  1485 
  1486   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1487 
  1488   end
  1489 
  1490   thm my_trans
  1491 
  1492 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1493 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1494 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1495 
  1496 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1497 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1498 
  1499 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1500 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1501 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1502 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1503 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1504 
  1505 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1506 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1507 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1508 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1509 indices of schematic variables.
  1510 
  1511 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1512 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1513 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1514 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1515 etc. was exploited.
  1516 
  1517 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1518 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1519 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1520 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1521 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1522 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1523 
  1524 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1525 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1526 manual.
  1527 
  1528 
  1529 *** Pure ***
  1530 
  1531 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1532 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1533 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1534 
  1535 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1536 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1537 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1538 undocumented feature.)
  1539 
  1540 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1541 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1542 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1543 
  1544   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1545 
  1546   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1547     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1548 
  1549 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1550 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1551 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1552 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1553 
  1554 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1555 
  1556     num ~> num_token
  1557     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1558     xstr ~> str_token
  1559 
  1560 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1561 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1562 position information via constraints).
  1563 
  1564 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1565 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1566 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1567 
  1568 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1569 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1570 
  1571 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1572 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1573 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1576 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1577 
  1578 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1579 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1580 
  1581   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1582 
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1586 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1589 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1590 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1591 
  1592 
  1593 *** HOL ***
  1594 
  1595 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1596 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1597 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1598 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1599 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1600 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1601 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1602 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1603 possible.
  1604 
  1605 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1606 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1607 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1608 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1609 
  1610 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1611 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612 
  1613 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1614 
  1615 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1616 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1617 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1618 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1619 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1620 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1621 
  1622   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1623     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1624 
  1625   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1626     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1627     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1628 
  1629   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1630     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1631 
  1632   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1633     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1634     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1635 
  1636   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1637     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1638 
  1639 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1640 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1641 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1642 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1643 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1644 
  1645   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1646     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1647     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1648     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1649     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1650 
  1651     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1652     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1653 
  1654   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1655     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1656     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1657     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1658     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1659     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1660     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1661     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1662 
  1663   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1664     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1665     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1666     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1667 
  1668   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1669     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1670     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1671     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1672 
  1673   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1674     from type nat to type int.
  1675 
  1676 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1677 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1678 
  1679   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1680     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1681     type.  Example syntax:
  1682 
  1683     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1684       is List.insert
  1685 
  1686     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1687     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1688     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1689     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1690     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1691     by the package.
  1692 
  1693   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1694     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1695     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1696     code generation for each constant.
  1697 
  1698   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1699     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1700     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1701     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1702     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1703 
  1704   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1705     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1706     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1707 
  1708 * Quotient package:
  1709 
  1710   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1711     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1712 
  1713   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1714     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1715 
  1716   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1717     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1718     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1721     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1724 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1725 
  1726 * Quickcheck:
  1727 
  1728   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1729     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1730     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1731     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1732     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1733 
  1734     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1735     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1736     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1737 
  1738     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1739     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1740 
  1741     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1742     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1743     show genuine counterexamples.
  1744 
  1745   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1746     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1747 
  1748     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1749     constructors of that type.
  1750 
  1751   - Support for multisets.
  1752 
  1753   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1754 
  1755   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1756     conjectures in a locale context.
  1757 
  1758 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1759 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1760 
  1761 * Sledgehammer:
  1762   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1763     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1764   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1765   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1766     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1767   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1768   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1769   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1770   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1771 
  1772 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1773 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1774 
  1775 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1776 
  1777 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1780 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1781 
  1782   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1783 
  1784 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1785 a list and a nat.
  1786 
  1787 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1788 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1789 
  1790 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1791 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1792 default.
  1793 
  1794 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1795 
  1796   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1797 
  1798 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1799 
  1800 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1801 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1802 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1803 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1804 one_case.
  1805 
  1806 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1807 the result of the fact expression.
  1808 
  1809 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1810 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1811 of some relation theorems:
  1812 
  1813   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1814   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1815   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1816   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1817   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1818   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1819 
  1820 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1821 
  1822 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1823 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1824 
  1825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1826 
  1827 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1828 to match the constant's name:
  1829 
  1830   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1831   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1832   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1833   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1834   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1835   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1836   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1837   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1838   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1839   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1840   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1841   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1842   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1843   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1844   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1845   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1846   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1847   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1848   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1849   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1850   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1851   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1852   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1853   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1854 
  1855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1856 
  1857 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1858 and corresponding theorem names:
  1859 
  1860   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1861 
  1862   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1863 
  1864   - Renamed theorems:
  1865 
  1866     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1867     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1868     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1869     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1870     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1871     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1872     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1873     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1874     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1875     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1876     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1877     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1878     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1879     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1880     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1881     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1882     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1883     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1884     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1885     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1886     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1887     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1888     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1889 
  1890     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1891 
  1892     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1893 
  1894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1897 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1898 
  1899   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1900   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1901   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1902   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1903   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1904   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1905   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1906   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1907   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1908   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1909   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1910   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1911   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1912   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1913   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1914   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1915   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1916   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1917   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1918   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1919   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1920 
  1921 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1922 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1923 
  1924 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1927 
  1928   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1929   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1930   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1931   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1932   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1933   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1934   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1935   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1936   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1937   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1938   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1939   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1940   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1941   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1942   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1943   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1944   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1945   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1946 
  1947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1948 
  1949 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1950 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1951 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1952 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1953 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1954 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1955 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1956 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1957 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1958 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1959 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1960 
  1961 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1962 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1963 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1964 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1965 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1966 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1967 
  1968 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1969 through option types.
  1970 
  1971 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1972 relations.
  1973 
  1974 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975 
  1976 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1977 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1978 
  1979   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1980   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1981   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1982   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1983   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1984   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1985   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1986   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1987   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1988   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1989   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1990   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1991   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1992   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1993   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1994   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1995   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1996   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1997   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1998   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1999   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2000   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2001   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2002   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2003   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2004   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2005   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2006   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2007   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2008   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2009   zless_le ~> less_le
  2010   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2011   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2012   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2013 
  2014 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2015 
  2016   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2017 
  2018 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2019 
  2020 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2021 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2022 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2023 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2025 
  2026 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2027 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2028 
  2029 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2030 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2031 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2032 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2033 follows:
  2034 
  2035   Operations:
  2036   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2037   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2038   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2039   del -> rbt_del
  2040   delete -> rbt_delete
  2041   ins -> rbt_ins
  2042   insert -> rbt_insert
  2043   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2044   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2045   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2046   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2047   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2048   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2049   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2050   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2051   union -> rbt_union
  2052   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2053   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2054 
  2055   Lemmas:
  2056   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2057   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2058   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2059   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2060   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2061   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2062   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2063   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2064   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2065   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2066   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2067   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2068   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2069   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2070   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2071   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2072   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2073   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2074   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2075   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2076   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2077   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2078   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2079   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2080   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2081   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2082   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2083   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2084   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2085   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2086   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2087   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2088   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2089   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2090   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2091   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2092   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2093   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2094   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2095   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2096   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2097   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2098   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2099   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2100   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2101   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2102   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2103   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2104   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2105   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2106   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2107   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2108   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2109   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2110   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2111   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2112   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2113   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2114   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2115   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2116   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2117   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2118   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2119   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2120   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2121   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2122   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2123   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2124   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2125   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2126   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2127   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2128   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2129   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2130   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2131   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2132   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2133   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2134   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2135   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2136   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2137   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2138   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2139 
  2140 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2141 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2142 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2143 
  2144   Changed Operations:
  2145   float_abs -> abs
  2146   float_nprt -> nprt
  2147   float_pprt -> pprt
  2148   pow2 -> use powr
  2149   round_down -> float_round_down
  2150   round_up -> float_round_up
  2151   scale -> exponent
  2152 
  2153   Removed Operations:
  2154   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2155 
  2156   Renamed Lemmas:
  2157   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2158   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2159   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2160   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2161   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2162   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2163   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2164   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2165   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2166   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2167   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2168   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2169   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2170   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2171   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2172   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2173   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2174   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2175   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2176   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2177   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2178   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2179   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2180   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2181   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2182   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2183   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2184   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2185   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2186   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2187   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2188   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2189   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2190   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2191   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2192   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2193 
  2194   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2195   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2196   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2197   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2198   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2199   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2200   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2201   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2202   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2203   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2204 
  2205 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2206 association lists with distinct keys.
  2207 
  2208 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2209 annotated commands.
  2210 
  2211 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2212 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2213 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2214 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2217 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2218 instead.
  2219 
  2220   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2221   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2222   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2223   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2224   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2225   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2226   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2227   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2228   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2229   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2230   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2231   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2232   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2233   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2234   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2235   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2236   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2237   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2238   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2239   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2240   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2241   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2242   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2243   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2244   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2245   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2246   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2247   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2248   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2249   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2250   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2251   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2252   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2253   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2254   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2255   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2256   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2257   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2258   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2259   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2260   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2261 
  2262 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2263 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2264 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2265 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2266 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2267 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2268 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2269 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2270 
  2271 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2272 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2273 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2274 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2275 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2276 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2277 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2278 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2279 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2280 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2281 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2282 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284   Renamed constants:
  2285   measure -> emeasure
  2286   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2287   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2288   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2289   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2290 
  2291   Removed locales:
  2292   completeable_measure_space
  2293   finite_measure_space
  2294   finite_prob_space
  2295   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2296   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2297   finite_sigma_algebra
  2298   measure_space
  2299   pair_finite_prob_space
  2300   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2301   pair_finite_space
  2302   pair_sigma_algebra
  2303   product_sigma_algebra
  2304 
  2305   Removed constants:
  2306   conditional_space
  2307   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2308   image_space
  2309   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2310   pair_measure_generator
  2311   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2312   subvimage
  2313 
  2314   Replacement theorems:
  2315   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2316   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2317   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2318   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2319   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2320   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2321   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2322   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2323   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2324   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2325   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2326   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2327   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2328   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2329   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2330   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2331   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2332   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2333   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2334   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2335   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2336   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2337   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2338   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2339   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2340   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2341   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2342   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2343   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2344   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2345   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2346   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2347   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2348   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2349   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2350   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2351   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2352   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2353   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2354   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2355   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2356   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2357   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2358   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2359   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2360   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2361   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2362   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2363   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2364   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2365   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2366   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2367   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2368   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2369   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2370   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2371   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2372   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2373   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2374   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2375   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2376   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2377   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2378   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2379   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2380   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2381   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2382   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2383   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2384   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2385   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2386   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2387   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2388   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2389   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2390   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2391   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2392   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2393   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2394   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2395   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2396   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2397   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2398   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2399   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2400   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2401   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2402   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2403   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2404   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2405   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2406   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2407   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2408   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2409   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2410   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2411   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2412   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2413   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2414   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2415   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2416   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2417   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2418   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2419   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2420   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2421   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2422   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2423   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2424   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2425   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2426   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2427   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2428   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2429   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2430   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2431   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2432   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2433   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2434   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2435   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2436   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2437   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2438   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2439   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2440   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2441   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2442   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2443 
  2444 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2445 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2446 
  2447 
  2448 *** FOL ***
  2449 
  2450 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2451 
  2452 
  2453 *** ZF ***
  2454 
  2455 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2456 analysis.
  2457 
  2458 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2459 
  2460 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461 
  2462 
  2463 *** ML ***
  2464 
  2465 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2466 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2467 
  2468 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2469 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2470 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2471 
  2472 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2473 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2474 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2475 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2476 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2477 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2478 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2479 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2480 
  2481 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2482 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2483 
  2484 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2485 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2486 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2487 
  2488 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2489 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2490 
  2491 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2492 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2493 context as well.
  2494 
  2495 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2496 
  2497   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2498   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2499   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2500   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2501   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2502   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2503   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2504   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2505   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2506   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2507   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2508   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2509 
  2510 
  2511 *** System ***
  2512 
  2513 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2514 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2515 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2516 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2517 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2518 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2519 the generic user home was intended.
  2520 
  2521 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2522 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2523 
  2524 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2525 (not just JRE).
  2526 
  2527 
  2528 
  2529 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2530 ------------------------------------
  2531 
  2532 *** General ***
  2533 
  2534 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2535 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2536 
  2537   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2538     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2539     files for checking).
  2540 
  2541   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2542     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2543     positions.
  2544 
  2545   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2546     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2547     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2548 
  2549   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2550     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2551     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2552 
  2553   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2554     cores.
  2555 
  2556   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2557     versions (garbage collection).
  2558 
  2559 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2560 including some remaining limitations.
  2561 
  2562 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2563 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2564 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2565 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2566 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2570 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2571 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2572 
  2573 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2574 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2575 usedir option -Q.
  2576 
  2577 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2578 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2579 
  2580   long_names   ~> names_long
  2581   short_names  ~> names_short
  2582   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2583 
  2584 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2585 
  2586   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2587 
  2588 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2589 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2590 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2591 
  2592 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2593 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2594 
  2595 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2596   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2597   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2598   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2599     "Classical Reasoner".
  2600 
  2601 
  2602 *** HOL ***
  2603 
  2604 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2605 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2608 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2609 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2610 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2611 class complete_linorder.
  2612 
  2613 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2614 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2615 
  2616 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2617 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2618 
  2619   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2620   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2621   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2622   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2623   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2624   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2625   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2626   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2627   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2628   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2629   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2630 
  2631 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2632 
  2633   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2634   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2635   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2636   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2637   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2638   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2639   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2640   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2641   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2642   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2643   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2644   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2645   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2646   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2647   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2648   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2649 
  2650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2651 
  2652 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2656 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2657 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2658 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2659 
  2660 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2661 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2662 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2664 
  2665 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2666 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2667 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2668 
  2669 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2670 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2671 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2674 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2675 
  2676 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2677 
  2678     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2679     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2680 
  2681 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2682 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2685 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2686 
  2687 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2688 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2689 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2690 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2693   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2694   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2695   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2696   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2697   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2698   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2699 
  2700 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2701 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2704   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2705   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2706   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2707   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2708   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2709   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2710   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2711   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2712   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2713   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2714   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2715   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2716   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2717   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2718   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2719   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2720   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2721   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2722   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2723   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2724   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2725   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2726   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2727   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2728   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2729   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2730   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2731   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2732   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2733   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2734   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2735   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2736   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2737   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2738   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2739   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2740   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2741   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2742   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2743   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2744   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2745   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2746   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2747   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2748   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2749   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2750   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2751   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2752   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2753   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2754   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2755   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2756   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2757   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2758   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2759   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2760   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2761   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2762   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2763   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2764   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2765   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2766   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2767   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2768   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2769   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2770   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2771   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2772   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2773   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2774   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2775   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2776   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2777   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2778   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2779   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2780   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2781   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2782   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2783   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2784   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2785 
  2786 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2787 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2788 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2789 
  2790 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2791 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2792 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2793 
  2794 * Code generation:
  2795 
  2796   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2797     characters in the target language.
  2798 
  2799   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2800     instead.
  2801 
  2802   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2803 
  2804   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2805     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2806 
  2807       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2808 
  2809 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2812 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2813 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2814 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2815 syntax.
  2816 
  2817 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2818 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2819 
  2820 * Nitpick:
  2821   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2822   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2823   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2824     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * Sledgehammer:
  2827   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2828   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2829     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2830   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2831     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2832   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2833     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2835     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2836   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2837     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838 
  2839 * Metis:
  2840   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2841   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2842     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Command 'try':
  2845   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2846     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2848     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2849 
  2850 * Quickcheck:
  2851   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2852     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2853   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2854     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2855   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2856     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2857     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2858     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2859   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2860     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2861 
  2862 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2863 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2864 
  2865 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2866 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2867 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2868 
  2869 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2870 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2872 
  2873 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2874 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2877 arithmetic.
  2878 
  2879 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2880 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2881 and lattice type classes.
  2882 
  2883 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2884 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2885 
  2886 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2887 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2888 
  2889 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2890 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2891 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2892 
  2893   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2894   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2895   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2896   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2897 
  2898 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2899 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2900 constants:
  2901 
  2902   type inat   ~> type enat
  2903   Fin         ~> enat
  2904   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2905   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2906   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2907 
  2908 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2909 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2910 
  2911 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2912 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2913 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2914 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2915 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2916 
  2917 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2918 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2919 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2920 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2921 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2922 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2923 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2924 
  2925   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2926   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2927   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2928   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2929 
  2930 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2931 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2932 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2935   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2936   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2937   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2938   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2939   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2940   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2941   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2942   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2943   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2944   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2945   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2946   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2947   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2948   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2949   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2950   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2951   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2952   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2953   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2954   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2955   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2956   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2957   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2958   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2959   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2960   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2961   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2962   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2963   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2964   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2965   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2966   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2967   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2968   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2969   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2970   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2971   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2972   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2973   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2974   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2975   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2976   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2977   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2978   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2979   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2980   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2981   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2982   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2983   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2984   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2985 
  2986 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2987   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2988   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2989   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2990   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2991     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2996   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2997   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2998   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2999   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3000   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3001   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3002   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3003   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3004   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3005   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3006   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3007   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3008   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3009   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3010   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3011   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3012   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3013   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3014   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3015   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3016   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3017   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3018   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3019   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3020 
  3021 
  3022 *** Document preparation ***
  3023 
  3024 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3025 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3026 same.
  3027 
  3028 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3029 result.
  3030 
  3031 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3032 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3033 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3034 
  3035 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3036 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3037 
  3038 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3039 like this:
  3040 
  3041   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3042   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3043 
  3044 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3045 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3046 layouts.
  3047 
  3048 
  3049 *** ML ***
  3050 
  3051 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3052 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3053 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3054 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3055 under external program control.
  3056 
  3057 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3058 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3059 
  3060 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3061 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3062 (better known as Proof General).
  3063 
  3064 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3065 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3066 
  3067 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3068 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3069 
  3070 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3071 (including quotes etc.).
  3072 
  3073 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3074 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3075 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3076 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3077 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3078 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3079 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3080 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3081 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3082 
  3083 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3084 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3085 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3086 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3087 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3088 
  3089 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3090 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3091 
  3092 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3093 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3094 
  3095 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3096 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3097 
  3098 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3099 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3100 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3101 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3102 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3103 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3104 proper Proof.context.
  3105 
  3106 
  3107 *** System ***
  3108 
  3109 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3110 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3111 
  3112 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3113 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3114 
  3115 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3116 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3117 
  3118   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3119   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3120   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3121   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3122   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3123 
  3124 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3125 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3128 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3129 example:
  3130 
  3131   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3132 
  3133 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3134 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3135 
  3136 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3137 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3138 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3139 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3140 
  3141 
  3142 
  3143 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3144 ----------------------------------
  3145 
  3146 *** General ***
  3147 
  3148 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3149 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3150 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3151 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3152 like this:
  3153 
  3154   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3155 
  3156 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3157 
  3158 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3159 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3160 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3161 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3162 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3163 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3164 
  3165 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3166 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3167 the following package declarations:
  3168 
  3169   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3170   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3171 
  3172 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3173 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3174 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3175 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3176 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3177 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3178 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3179 
  3180 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3181 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3182 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3183 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3184 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3185 
  3186 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3187 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3188 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3189 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3190 
  3191 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3192 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3193 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3194 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3195 
  3196   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3197 
  3198   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3199   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3200   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3201   show_types                    show_types
  3202   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3203   show_consts                   show_consts
  3204   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3205 
  3206   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3207   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3208   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3209 
  3210   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3211   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3212 
  3213   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3214 
  3215   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3216   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3217   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3218   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3219   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3220 
  3221 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3222 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3223 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3224 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3225 
  3226 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228 
  3229   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3230   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3231 
  3232 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3233 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3234 float_token.
  3235 
  3236 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3237 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3241 DejaVu Sans.
  3242 
  3243 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3244 
  3245 
  3246 *** Pure ***
  3247 
  3248 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3249 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3250 time.
  3251 
  3252 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3253 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3256 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3259 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3260 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3261 command already provided this functionality.
  3262 
  3263 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3264 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3265 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3266 without interpretations.
  3267 
  3268 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3269 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3270 
  3271 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3272 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3273 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3274 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3275 
  3276 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3277 'definition' instead.
  3278 
  3279 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3280 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3281 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3282 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3283 
  3284 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3285 constructors.
  3286 
  3287 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3288 the local file system.
  3289 
  3290 
  3291 *** HOL ***
  3292 
  3293 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3294 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3295 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3296 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3297 
  3298   declare [[coercion f]]
  3299 
  3300 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3301 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3302 
  3303   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3304 
  3305 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3306 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3307 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3308 other theories like this:
  3309 
  3310   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3311 
  3312 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3313 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3314 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3315 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3316 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3317 for examples.
  3318 
  3319 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3320 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3323 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3324 
  3325 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3326 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3327 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3328 
  3329 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3330 functorial structure of types.
  3331 
  3332 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3333 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3334 
  3335 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3336 languages.
  3337 
  3338 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3339 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3343 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344 
  3345 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3346 combinators any longer.
  3347 
  3348 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3349 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3350 
  3351 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3352 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3353 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3354 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3355 
  3356   record 'a foo = ...
  3357   ...
  3358   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3359 
  3360 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3361 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3365 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3366 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3367 
  3368 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3369 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3370 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3371 
  3372 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3373 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3376 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3377 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3378 independently.
  3379 
  3380 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3381 counter example search.
  3382 
  3383 * Sledgehammer:
  3384   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3385     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3386     sledgehammer").
  3387   - Renamed commands:
  3388     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3389     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3390     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3391     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392   - Renamed options:
  3393     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3394     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3395     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3396     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3397     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * Nitpick:
  3400   - Renamed options:
  3401     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3402     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3405   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3406   - Added "whack" option.
  3407   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3408   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3409   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3410   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3411     higher cardinalities.
  3412   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3413 
  3414 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3415 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3416 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3417 
  3418     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3419 
  3420 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3421 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3422 
  3423 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3424 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3425 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3426 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3427 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3428 "smt_solver".
  3429 
  3430 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3431 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3432 
  3433 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3434 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3435 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3436 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3439   - Renamed:
  3440     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3441     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3442     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443   - Added:
  3444     smt_verbose
  3445     smt_random_seed
  3446     smt_datatypes
  3447     smt_infer_triggers
  3448     smt_monomorph_limit
  3449     cvc3_options
  3450     remote_cvc3_options
  3451     remote_z3_options
  3452     yices_options
  3453 
  3454 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3455 header.
  3456 
  3457 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3458 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3459 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3460 
  3461   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3462 
  3463 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3466 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3469 
  3470 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3471 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3472 
  3473 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3474 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3475 
  3476 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3477 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3478 
  3479 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3480 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3481 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3489 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3492 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3493 for congruent(2)).
  3494 
  3495 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3496 
  3497   types
  3498     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3499     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3500 
  3501   constants
  3502     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3503     True ~> HOL.True
  3504     False ~> HOL.False
  3505     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3506     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3507     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3508     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3509     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3510     The ~> HOL.The
  3511     All ~> HOL.All
  3512     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3513     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3514     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3515     If ~> HOL.If
  3516     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3517     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3518     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3519     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3520     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3521     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3522     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3523     op : ~> Set.member
  3524     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3525 
  3526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3529 
  3530     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3531     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3532     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3533     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3534     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3535     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3536     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3537     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3538 
  3539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * More stylized fact names:
  3542 
  3543   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3544   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3545   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3546   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3547 
  3548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549 
  3550 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3551 
  3552   constants
  3553     null ~> List.null
  3554 
  3555   facts
  3556     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3557     null_empty ~> null_def
  3558 
  3559 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3560 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3561 generation.
  3562 
  3563 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3564 Haskell code.
  3565 
  3566 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3567 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3568 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3571 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3574 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3575 
  3576 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3577 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3578 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3581 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3587 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3588 referred to by its qualified name.
  3589 
  3590   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3591   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3592   product ~>  Enum.product
  3593 
  3594 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3595 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597 
  3598 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3599 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3600 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3604 sort_key.
  3605 
  3606 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3610 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3611 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3612 
  3613   types
  3614     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3615               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3616               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3617         (depends on your needs)
  3618 
  3619   constants
  3620      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3621      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3622      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3623 
  3624 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3625 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3626 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3627 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3628 
  3629 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3630 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3631 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3632 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3633 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3639 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3640 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3641 
  3642 
  3643 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3644 
  3645 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3646 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3647 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3648 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3649 compatibility.
  3650 
  3651 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3652 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3653 
  3654 
  3655 *** HOLCF ***
  3656 
  3657 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3658 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3659 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3661 
  3662 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3663 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3664 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3667   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3668   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3669 
  3670 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3671 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3672 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3675 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3676 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3677 domain definition now works:
  3678 
  3679   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3680 
  3681 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3682 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3683 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3684 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3685 
  3686   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3687     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3688 
  3689   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3690 
  3691 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3692 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3693 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3696 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3699 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3700 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3701 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3702 
  3703 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3704 
  3705 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3708 
  3709 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3713 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3714 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3715 
  3716 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3717 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3718 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3721 still supported as an input translation.
  3722 
  3723 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3724 
  3725   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3726   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3727   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3728   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3729   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3730   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3731   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3732 
  3733 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3734 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3737   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3738   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3739   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3740   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3741   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3742 
  3743 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3744 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3747 
  3748   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3749   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3750   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3751   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3752 
  3753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3756 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3759 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760 
  3761   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3762   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3763   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3764   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3765   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3766   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3767   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3768   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3769   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3770   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3771   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3772   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3773   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3774   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3775   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3776   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3777   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3778   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3779   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3780   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3781 
  3782 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3785   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3786   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3787   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3788   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3789   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3790   box_less             ~> box_below
  3791   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3792   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3793   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3794   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3795   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3796   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3797   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3798   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3799   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3800   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3801   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3802   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3803   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3804   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3805   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3806   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3807   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3808   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3809   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3810   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3811   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3812   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3813   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3814   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3815   up_less              ~> up_below
  3816   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3817   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3818   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3819   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3820   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3821   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3822   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3823   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3824   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3825   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3826   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3827   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3828   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3829 
  3830 
  3831 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3832 
  3833 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3834 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836 
  3837 *** ML ***
  3838 
  3839 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3840 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3841 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3842 
  3843 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3844 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3845 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3846 
  3847 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3848 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3849 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3850 
  3851 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3852 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3853 
  3854 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3855 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3856 
  3857 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3858 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3859 
  3860 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3861 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3862 
  3863 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3864 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3865 almost all situations.
  3866 
  3867 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3868 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3869 Isabelle/ML.
  3870 
  3871 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3872 meaning.
  3873 
  3874 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3875 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3876 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3877 
  3878 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3879 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3880 
  3881 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3882 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3883 
  3884 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3885 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3886 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3887 
  3888 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3889 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3890 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3891 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3892 configuration options.
  3893 
  3894 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3895 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3896 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3897 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3898 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3899 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3900 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3901 
  3902 
  3903 
  3904 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3905 ---------------------------------
  3906 
  3907 *** General ***
  3908 
  3909 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3910 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3911 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3912 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3913 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3914 their full internal name.
  3915 
  3916 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3917 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3918 Some hints on upgrading:
  3919 
  3920   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3921     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3922     which are independent of this issue.
  3923 
  3924   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3925     provides the following special forms:
  3926 
  3927       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3928       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3929       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3930 
  3931     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3932     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3933     extra variables".
  3934 
  3935     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3936     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3937     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3938     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3939     "logic".
  3940 
  3941   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3942     antiquotations:
  3943 
  3944       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3945       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3946       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3947       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3948 
  3949   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3950     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3951     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3952     antiquotations.
  3953 
  3954 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3955 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3956 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3957 diagnose syntax problems.
  3958 
  3959 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3960 
  3961 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3962 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3963 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3964 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3965 
  3966 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3967 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3968 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3969 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3972 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3973 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3974 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3975 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3978 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3979 
  3980 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3981 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3982 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3983 
  3984   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3985 
  3986 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3987 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3988 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3989 
  3990 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3991 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3995 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3996 
  3997 
  3998 *** Pure ***
  3999 
  4000 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4001 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4002 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4003 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4004 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4005 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4006 inspect proof terms.
  4007 
  4008 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4009 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4010 are added internally.  For example:
  4011 
  4012   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4013 
  4014 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4015 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4020 'class' instead.
  4021 
  4022 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4023 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4027 invariants.
  4028 
  4029 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4030 user space functionality any longer.
  4031 
  4032 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4033 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4037 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4038 
  4039 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4040 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4041 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4042 
  4043 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4044 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4045 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4046 
  4047 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4048 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 
  4051 *** HOL ***
  4052 
  4053 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4054 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4055 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4056 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4057 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4058 
  4059 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4060 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4061 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4062 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4063 
  4064   fun
  4065     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4066   where
  4067     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4068 
  4069   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4070     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4071 
  4072   quotient_definition
  4073     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4074 
  4075 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4076 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4077 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4078 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4079 
  4080 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4081 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4082 
  4083 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4084 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4085 
  4086 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088 
  4089 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4090 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4091 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4092 
  4093 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4094 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4101 
  4102 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4103 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4106 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4107 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4110   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4111   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4112   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4113   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4114   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4115   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4116   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4117   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4118   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4119   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4120   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4121   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4122   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4123   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4124   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4125   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4126   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4127   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4128   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4129   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4130   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4131   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4132   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4133   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4134   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4135   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4136   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4137   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4138   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4139 
  4140 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4141 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4142 
  4143 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4144 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4145 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4146 
  4147 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4148 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4149 
  4150 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4151 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4152 
  4153 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4154 
  4155 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4156 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4157 
  4158 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4159 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4164 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4165 
  4166 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4167 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4168 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4169 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4172   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4173   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4174   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4178 lattices):
  4179 
  4180     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4181     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4182 
  4183     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4184 
  4185     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4186     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4187     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4188     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4189     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4190     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4191     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4192     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4193     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4194     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4195     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4196     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4197     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4198 
  4199     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4200     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4201     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4202     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4203     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4204     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4205     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4206     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4207     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4208     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4209     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4210     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4211     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4212     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4213     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4214     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4215     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4216     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4217 
  4218   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4219   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4220 
  4221     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4222     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4223     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4224     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4225     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4226 
  4227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * Refined field classes:
  4230   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4231     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4232     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4233   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4237   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4238   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4239   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4240     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4241   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4242     equal_neg_zero.
  4243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4246 sets to lattices:
  4247 
  4248   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4249   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4250   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4251   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4252   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4253   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4254   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4255   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4256   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4257   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4258 
  4259 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4260 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4261 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4262 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4263 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4264 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4267 multiset order:
  4268 
  4269   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4270     <= and <;
  4271   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4272     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4273     multiset_order;
  4274   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4275     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4276     generation;
  4277   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4278     if needed.
  4279 
  4280 Renamed:
  4281 
  4282   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4283   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4284   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4285 
  4286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4289 
  4290 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4291 
  4292 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4293 
  4294 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4295 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4296 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4297 
  4298   Constants:
  4299   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4300   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4301   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4302   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4303   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4304   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4305   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4306   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4307   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4308   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4309   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4310   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4311   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4312 
  4313   Lemmas:
  4314   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4315   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4316   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4317   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4318   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4319   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4320   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4321   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4322   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4323   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4324   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4325   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4326   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4327 
  4328 * Sledgehammer:
  4329   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4330     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4331     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4332     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4333     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4334     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4335     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4337   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4338     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4339   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4340     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4341     is still experimental.)
  4342   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4343     full-typed mode.
  4344   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4345 
  4346 * Nitpick:
  4347   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4348   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4349   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4350     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4351   - Added support for quotient types.
  4352   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4353     constructs.
  4354   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4355     "termination" proofs).
  4356   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4357   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4358   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4359   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4360     record getters.
  4361   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4362   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4363   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4364   - Added "atoms" option.
  4365   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4366     problems.
  4367   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4368     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4369     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4371     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4375   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4376   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4377   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4378   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4379   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4380   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4381   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4382   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4383   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4384 
  4385 
  4386 *** HOLCF ***
  4387 
  4388 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4389 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4390 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4391 
  4392 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4393 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4394 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4395 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4398 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4399 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4400 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4401 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4402 
  4403 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4404 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4405 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4408 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4411   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4412 
  4413 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4414 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4417   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4418   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4419   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4420   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4421 
  4422 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4423 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4424 
  4425   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4426   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4427   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4428 
  4429 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4430 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4434 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4435 
  4436 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4437 
  4438 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4439 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4440 
  4441 
  4442 *** ML ***
  4443 
  4444 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4445 
  4446     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4447     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4448 
  4449     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4450     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4451     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4452     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4453 
  4454     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4455     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4456     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4457 
  4458 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4459 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4460 
  4461 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4462 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4463 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4464 
  4465 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4466 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4467 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4468 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4469 
  4470 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4471 the context or even global references.
  4472 
  4473 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4474 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4475 
  4476 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4477 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4478 
  4479   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4480   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4481   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4482   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4483   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4484   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4485   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4486   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4487   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4488   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4489 
  4490 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4491 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4492 
  4493 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4494 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4495 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4496 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4497 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4498 
  4499 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4500 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4501 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4502 Theory_Data version.
  4503 
  4504 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4505 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4506 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4507 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4508 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4509 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4510 explicitly in rare situations.
  4511 
  4512 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4513 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4515 
  4516 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4517 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518 
  4519 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4520 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4521 quite rare).
  4522 
  4523 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4524 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4525 
  4526 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4527 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4528 terms.
  4529 
  4530 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4531 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4532 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4533 
  4534 
  4535 *** System ***
  4536 
  4537 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4538 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4539 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4540 
  4541 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4542 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4543 respectively.
  4544 
  4545 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4546 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4547 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4548 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4549 
  4550   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4551 
  4552 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4553 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4554 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4555 component.
  4556 
  4557 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4558 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4559 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4560 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4561 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4562 the user for manual installation.
  4563 
  4564 
  4565 
  4566 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4567 -------------------------------------
  4568 
  4569 *** General ***
  4570 
  4571 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4572 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4573 
  4574 
  4575 *** Pure ***
  4576 
  4577 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4578 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4579 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4580 
  4581 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4582 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4583 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4584 
  4585 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4586 interpretation.
  4587 
  4588 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4589 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 
  4592 *** Document preparation ***
  4593 
  4594 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4595 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4596 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4597 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4598 
  4599 
  4600 *** HOL ***
  4601 
  4602 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4603 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4604 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4605 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4606 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4607 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4608 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4609 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4610 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4611 
  4612 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4613 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4614 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4615 
  4616 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4617 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4618 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4619 
  4620 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4621 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4622 
  4623 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4624 
  4625 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4626 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4627 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4628 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4629 
  4630 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4631 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4632 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4633 "mirabelle" utility.
  4634 
  4635 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4636 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4637 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4638 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4639 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4640 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4641 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4642 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4643 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4644 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4645 
  4646 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4647 procedure only.
  4648 
  4649 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4650 
  4651 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4652 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4653 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4654 that fail later.
  4655 
  4656 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4657 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4658 
  4659 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4660 the same method as the approximation method.
  4661 
  4662 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4663 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4664 series expansion.
  4665 
  4666 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4667 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4668 
  4669 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4670 reals.
  4671 
  4672 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4673 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4674 
  4675 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4676 fixpoint theorem.
  4677 
  4678 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4679   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4680     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4681   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4682     accordingly
  4683   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4684     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4685   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4686     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4687 
  4688 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4689 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4690 lattice.
  4691 
  4692 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4693 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4694 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4695 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4696 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4697 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4701   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4702     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4703   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4704     le_inf_iff
  4705   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4706     sup_aci)
  4707   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4708   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4709   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4710     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4711     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4712     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4713     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4714     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4715     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4716     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4717     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4718     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4719     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4720   - authentic syntax for
  4721     Set.Pow
  4722     Set.image
  4723   - mere abbreviations:
  4724     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4725     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4726     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4727     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4728     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4729     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4730     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4731     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4732   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4733 
  4734 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4735 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4736 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4737 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4738 
  4739 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4740 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4741 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4742 
  4743 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4744 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4747 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4748 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4749 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4750 
  4751 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4752 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4753 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4754 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4755 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4756 
  4757 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4758 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4760 
  4761 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4762 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4765 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4766 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4767 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4768 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4769 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4770 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4774     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4775     code_post       replaces    code post
  4776     etc.
  4777   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Renamed methods:
  4780     sizechange -> size_change
  4781     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4782   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4785 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4786 
  4787 * Renamed theorems:
  4788     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4789     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4790     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4791     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4792     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4793   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4797 
  4798 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4800 
  4801 
  4802 *** HOLCF ***
  4803 
  4804 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4805 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4806 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4807 
  4808 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4809 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4810 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4811 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4812 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4813 
  4814 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4815 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4816 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4817 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4818 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4819 
  4820 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4821 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4822 constructor are pre-configured.
  4823 
  4824 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4825 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4826 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4827 
  4828 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4829 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4830 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4831 as well.)
  4832 
  4833 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4834 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4835 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4836 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4837 examples.
  4838 
  4839 
  4840 *** ML ***
  4841 
  4842 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4843 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4844 
  4845 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4846 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4847 position, logical grouping etc.
  4848 
  4849 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4850 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4851 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4852 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4853 
  4854 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4855 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4856 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4857 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4858 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4859 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4860 
  4861 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4862 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4863 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4864 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4865 experiments with references.
  4866 
  4867 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4868 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4869 
  4870 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4871 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4872 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4873 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4874 
  4875 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4876 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4877 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4878 
  4879 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4880 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4881 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4887 
  4888 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4889 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4890 
  4891 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4892 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4893 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4894 
  4895 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4896 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4897 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4898 
  4899 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4900 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4901 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4905 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4906 instead of global theory.
  4907 
  4908 
  4909 *** System ***
  4910 
  4911 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4912 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4913 usedir option -q.
  4914 
  4915 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4916 also the system manual.
  4917 
  4918 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4919 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4920 
  4921 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4922 this is always enabled.
  4923 
  4924 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4925 
  4926 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4927 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4928 currently supported on Linux only.
  4929 
  4930 
  4931 
  4932 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4933 --------------------------------
  4934 
  4935 *** General ***
  4936 
  4937 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4938 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4939 
  4940   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4941     "isatool."
  4942 
  4943   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4944     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4945 
  4946   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4947     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4948 
  4949 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4950 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4951 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4952 
  4953 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4954 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4955 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4956 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4957 via "isabelle emacs".
  4958 
  4959 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4960 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4961 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4962 
  4963 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4964 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4965 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4966 
  4967 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4968 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4969 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4970 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4971 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4972 
  4973 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4974 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4975 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4976 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4977 
  4978 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4979 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4980 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4981 
  4982 
  4983 *** Pure ***
  4984 
  4985 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4986 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4987 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4988 
  4989 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4990 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4991 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4992 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4993 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4994 
  4995 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4996 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4997 useful in locale declarations.
  4998 
  4999 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5000 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5001 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5002 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5003 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5004 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5005 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5006 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5007 no longer generated.
  5008 
  5009 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5010 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5011 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5012 
  5013 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5014 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5015 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5016 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5017 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5018 
  5019 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5020 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5021 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5022 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5023 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5024 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5025 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5026 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5027 
  5028 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5029 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5030 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5031 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5032 
  5033 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5034 
  5035 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5036 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5037 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5038 
  5039 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5040 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5041 
  5042 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5043 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5044 in HOL, write
  5045 
  5046     class foo = ...
  5047 
  5048 instead of
  5049 
  5050     class foo = type + ...
  5051 
  5052 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5053 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5054 
  5055 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5056 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5057 
  5058 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5059 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5060 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5061 
  5062 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5063 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5064 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5065 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5066 directly in regular applications.
  5067 
  5068 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5069 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5070 
  5071 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5072 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5073 
  5074 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5075 theory context.
  5076 
  5077 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5078 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5079 
  5080 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5081 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5082 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5083 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5084 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5085 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5086 
  5087   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5088 
  5089 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5090 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5091 normalization.
  5092 
  5093 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5094 addressing etc.
  5095 
  5096 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5097 
  5098   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5099   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5100 
  5101 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5102 
  5103   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5104      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5105      parts of the code generator framework).
  5106 
  5107   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5108      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5109      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5110 
  5111 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5114 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5115 
  5116 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5117 patterns, e.g.
  5118 
  5119     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5120 
  5121 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5122 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5123 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5124 hyphen:
  5125 
  5126     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5127 
  5128 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5129 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5130 
  5131 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5132 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5133 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5134 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5135 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5136 higher-order unification.
  5137 
  5138 
  5139 *** Document preparation ***
  5140 
  5141 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5142 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5143 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5144 
  5145 
  5146 *** HOL ***
  5147 
  5148 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5149 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5150 
  5151 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5152 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5153 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5154 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5155 Main, as before.
  5156 
  5157 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5158 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5159 
  5160 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5161 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5162 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5163 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5164 
  5165 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5166 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5167 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5168 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5169 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5170 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5171 
  5172 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5173 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5174 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5175 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5176 
  5177 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5178 menu.
  5179 
  5180 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5181 (contains the empty clause).
  5182 
  5183 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5184 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5185 
  5186 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5187 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5188 
  5189 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5190 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5191 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5194 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5195 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5196 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5197 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5198 
  5199 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5200 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5201 
  5202 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5203 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5204 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5205 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5206 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5207 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5208 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5209 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5210 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5211 
  5212 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5213 
  5214 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5215 
  5216 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5217 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5218 
  5219 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5220 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5221 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5222 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5223 
  5224 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5225 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5226 
  5227     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5228     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5229     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5230     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5231     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5232     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5233     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5234     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5235 
  5236 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5237 theory Set.
  5238 
  5239 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5240 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5241 
  5242 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5243 
  5244 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5245 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5246 
  5247 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5248 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5249 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5250 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5251 allowed. For examples see
  5252 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5253 
  5254 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5255 
  5256 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5258 
  5259 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5260 structure:
  5261 
  5262     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5263     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5264     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5265     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5266     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5267     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5268     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5269     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5270     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5271     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5272     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5273     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5274     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5275     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5276     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5277     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5278     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5279     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5280     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5281     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5282     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5283     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5284     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5285     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5286     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5287     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5288     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5289     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5290     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5291     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5292     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5293     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5294     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5295 
  5296     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5297     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5298     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5299     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5300     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5301     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5302     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5303     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5304     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5305     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5306 
  5307     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5308     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5309     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5310     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5311     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5312     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5313 
  5314 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5315 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5316 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5317 
  5318 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5319 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5320 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5321 
  5322 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5323 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5324 
  5325 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5326 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5327 
  5328 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5329 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5330 proofs, e.g.
  5331 
  5332   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5333 
  5334 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5335 
  5336 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5337 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5338 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5339 
  5340 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5341 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5343 
  5344 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5345 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5346 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5348 
  5349 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5350 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5351 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5352 preorder_class.*.
  5353 
  5354 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5355 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5356 
  5357 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5358 
  5359   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5360 
  5361 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5362 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5363 fold_image.
  5364 
  5365 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5366 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5367 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5368 the former will disappear at some point.
  5369 
  5370 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5371 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5372 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5373 
  5374 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5375 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5376 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5377 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5378 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5379 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5380 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5381 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5382 
  5383 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5384 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5385 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5386 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5387 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5388 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5389 
  5390     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5391     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5392     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5393     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5394     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5395     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5396     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5397 
  5398 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5399 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5400 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5401 
  5402 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5403 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5404 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5405 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5406 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5407 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5408 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5409 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5410 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5411 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5412 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5413 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5414 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5415 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5416 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5417 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5418 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5419 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5420 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5421 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5422 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5423 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5424 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5425 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5426 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5427 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5428 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5429 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5430 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5431 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5432 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5433 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5434 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5435 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5436 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5437 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5438 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5439 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5440 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5441 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5442 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5443 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5444 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5445 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5446 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5447 
  5448 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5449 
  5450 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5451 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5452 
  5453 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5454 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5455 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5456 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5457 
  5458 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5459 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5460 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5461 theory RealVector.
  5462 
  5463 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5464 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5465 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5466 and inner products are included.
  5467 
  5468 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5469 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5470 supported.
  5471 
  5472 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5473 first diagonalization argument.
  5474 
  5475 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5476 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5477 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5478 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5479 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5480 
  5481     hide (open) const gcd
  5482     abbreviation gcd where
  5483       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5484     notation (output)
  5485       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5486 
  5487 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5488 
  5489 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5490 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5491 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5492 
  5493 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5494 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5495 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5496 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5497 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5498 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5499 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5500 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5501 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5502 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5503 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5504 cases.
  5505 
  5506 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5507 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5508 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5509 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5510 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5511 
  5512     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5513     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5514     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5515     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5516     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5517 
  5518 
  5519 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5520 
  5521 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5522 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5523 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5524 
  5525 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5526 
  5527 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5528 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5529 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5530 
  5531 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5532 
  5533 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5534 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5535 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5536 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5537 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5538 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5539 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5540 
  5541 
  5542 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5543 
  5544 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5545 
  5546 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5547 theory targets.
  5548 
  5549 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5550 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5551 'inductive' etc.
  5552 
  5553 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5554 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5555 
  5556 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5557 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5558 
  5559 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5560 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5561 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5562 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5563 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5564 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5565 the algorithm W:
  5566 
  5567  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5568  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5569          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5570 
  5571 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5572 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5573 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5574 
  5575 
  5576 *** HOLCF ***
  5577 
  5578 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5579 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5580 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5581 
  5582 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5583 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5584 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5585 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5586 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5587 
  5588 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5589 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5590 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592 
  5593 *** ZF ***
  5594 
  5595 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5596 
  5597 
  5598 *** ML ***
  5599 
  5600 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5601 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5602 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5603 5.2.1!
  5604 
  5605 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5606 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5607 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5608 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5609 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5610 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5611 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5612 
  5613 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5614 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5615 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5616 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5617 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5618 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5619 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5620 
  5621 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5622 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5623 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5624 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5625 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5626 
  5627 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5628 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5629 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5630 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5631 Method.add_method.
  5632 
  5633 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5634 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5635 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5636 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5637 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5638 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5639 
  5640 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5641 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5642 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5643 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5644 examples.
  5645 
  5646 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5647 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5648 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5649 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5650 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5651 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5652 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5653 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5654 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5655 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5656 
  5657 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5658 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5659 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5660 
  5661 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5662 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5663 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5664 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5665 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5666 resort for legacy applications.
  5667 
  5668 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5669 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5670 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5671 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5672 explicit runtime argument.
  5673 
  5674 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5675 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5676 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5677 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5678 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5679 
  5680 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5681 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5682 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5683 theory state.
  5684 
  5685 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5686 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5687 
  5688   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5689   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5690   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5691   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5692   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5693   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5694   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5695   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5696   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5697   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5698 
  5699 
  5700 *** System ***
  5701 
  5702 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5703 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5704 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5705 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5706 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5707 
  5708 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5709 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5710 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5711 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5712 
  5713 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5714 
  5715 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5716 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5717 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5718 prover operations.
  5719 
  5720 
  5721 
  5722 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5723 -------------------------------
  5724 
  5725 *** General ***
  5726 
  5727 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5728 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5729 
  5730 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5731 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5732 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5733 provides a proper context already.
  5734 
  5735 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5736 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5737 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5738 
  5739 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5740 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5741 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5742 swap theory imports.
  5743 
  5744 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5745 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5746 
  5747 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5748 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5749 white space without escapes.
  5750 
  5751 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5752 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5753 "foo_bar".
  5754 
  5755 
  5756 *** Pure ***
  5757 
  5758 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5759 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5760 
  5761 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5762 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5763 
  5764 (1) unused_thms
  5765      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5766 
  5767 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5768      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5769      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5770 
  5771 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5772      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5773      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5774      their ancestors.
  5775 
  5776 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5777 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5778 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5779 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5780 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5781 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5782 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5783 
  5784 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5785 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5786 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5787 
  5788 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5789 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5790 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5791 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5792 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5793 
  5794 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5795 
  5796 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5797 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5798 update of theories within ML code.
  5799 
  5800 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5801 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5802 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5803 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5804 
  5805 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5806 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5807 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5809 
  5810 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5811 
  5812 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5813 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5814 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5815 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5816 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5817 
  5818 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5819 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5820 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5821 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5822 situations.
  5823 
  5824 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5825 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5826 proof text.
  5827 
  5828 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5829 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5830 
  5831 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5832 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5833 predicates.
  5834 
  5835 
  5836 *** Document preparation ***
  5837 
  5838 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5839 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5840 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5841 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5842 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5843 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5844 
  5845 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5846 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5847 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5848 
  5849 
  5850 *** HOL ***
  5851 
  5852 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5853 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5854 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5855 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5856 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5857 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5858 
  5859 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5860 with multithreading.
  5861 
  5862 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5863 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5864 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5865 
  5866 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5867 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5868 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5869 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5870 
  5871 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5872 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5873 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5874 and makes them available separately.  See
  5875 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5876 
  5877 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5878 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5879 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5880 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5881 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5882 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5883 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5884 the declared rules.
  5885 
  5886 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5887 
  5888   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5889 
  5890 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5891 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5892 
  5893 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5894 
  5895   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5896 
  5897   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5898     definitions on => and bool.
  5899 
  5900   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5901     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5902     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5903 
  5904       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5905       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5906       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5907       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5908       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5909       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5910       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5911       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5912 
  5913   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5914     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5915     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5916 
  5917   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5918     The proof pattern
  5919 
  5920       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5921       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5922 
  5923     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5924     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5925 
  5926       have "EX S. P S"
  5927       proof
  5928         show "P S" <...>
  5929       qed
  5930 
  5931   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5932     The proof pattern
  5933 
  5934       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5935       also have "S = T" <...>
  5936       finally have "P T" .
  5937 
  5938     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5939     must be replaced by something like
  5940 
  5941       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5942       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5943       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5944 
  5945   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5946     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5947 
  5948       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5949 
  5950     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5951     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5952     type of the form
  5953 
  5954       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5955 
  5956     rather than
  5957 
  5958       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5959 
  5960 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5961 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5962 
  5963 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5964 
  5965 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5966 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5968 
  5969 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5970 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5971 
  5972 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5973 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5974 
  5975 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5976 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5977 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5978 
  5979 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5980 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5981 
  5982   less_trans
  5983   less_linear
  5984   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5985   le_less_trans
  5986   less_le_trans
  5987   less_not_sym
  5988   less_asym
  5989 
  5990 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5991 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5992 and different variable names.
  5993 
  5994 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5995 
  5996 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5997 finite maps.
  5998 
  5999 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6000 
  6001 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6002 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6003 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6004 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6005 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6006 accordingly.
  6007 
  6008 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6009 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6010 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6011 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6012 
  6013 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6014 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6015 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6016 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6017 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6019 
  6020 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6021 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6022 
  6023 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6024 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6025 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6026 
  6027 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6031 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6032 
  6033 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6034 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6035 
  6036 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6037 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6038 
  6039 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6040 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6042 
  6043 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6044 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6045 
  6046 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6047 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6048 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6049 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6050 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6051 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6052 
  6053 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6054 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6055 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6056 
  6057 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6058 
  6059 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6060 
  6061 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6062 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6063 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6064 
  6065 
  6066 *** ZF ***
  6067 
  6068 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6069 same session:
  6070 
  6071   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6072   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6073   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6074   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6075   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6076   List      -> List_ZF
  6077   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6078 
  6079 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6080 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6081 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6082 
  6083 
  6084 *** ML ***
  6085 
  6086 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6087 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6088 
  6089 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6090 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6091 
  6092 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6093 
  6094 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6095 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6096 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6097 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6098 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6099 
  6100 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6101 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6102 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6103 
  6104 
  6105 *** System ***
  6106 
  6107 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6108 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6109 
  6110 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6111 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6112 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6113 
  6114 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6115 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6116 
  6117 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6118 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6119 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6120 
  6121 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6122 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6123 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6124 
  6125 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6126 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6127 
  6128 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6129 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6130 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6131 script.
  6132 
  6133 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6134 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6135 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6136 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6137 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6138 
  6139 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6140 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6141 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6142 
  6143 
  6144 
  6145 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6146 -----------------------------------
  6147 
  6148 *** General ***
  6149 
  6150 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6151 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6152 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6153 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6154 
  6155 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6156 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6157 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6158 
  6159 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6160 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6161 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6162 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6163 
  6164 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6165 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6166 quotes.
  6167 
  6168 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6169 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6170 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6171 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6172 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6173 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6174 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6175 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6176 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6177 
  6178 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6179 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6180 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6181 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6182 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6183 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6184 
  6185 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6186 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6187 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6188 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6189 
  6190 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6191 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6192 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6193 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6194 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6195 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6196 
  6197 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6198 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6199 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6200 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6201 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6202 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6203 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6204 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6205 
  6206 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6207 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6208 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6209 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6210 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6211 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6212 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6213 
  6214 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6215 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6216 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6217 
  6218 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6219 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6220 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6221 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6222 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6223 limit is imposed.
  6224 
  6225 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6226 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6227 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6228 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6229 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6230 and scalability.
  6231 
  6232 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6233 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6234 
  6235 
  6236 *** Document preparation ***
  6237 
  6238 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6239 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6240 current context.
  6241 
  6242 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6243 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6244 
  6245 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6246 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6247 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6248 
  6249 
  6250 *** Pure ***
  6251 
  6252 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6253 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6254 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6255 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6256 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6257 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6258 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6259 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6260 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6261 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6262 
  6263 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6264 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6265 sketch:
  6266 
  6267     internal compilation:
  6268         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML