NEWS
author blanchet
Mon Feb 17 13:31:42 2014 +0100 (2014-02-17)
changeset 55533 6260caf1d612
parent 55525 70b7e91fa1f9
child 55536 56ebc4d4d008
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    41 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    42 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Pure ***
    46 
    47 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    48 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    49 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    50 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    51 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    52 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    53 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    54 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    55 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    56 
    57 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    58 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    59 instantiated theorem.
    60 
    61 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    62 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    63 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    64 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    65 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    66 
    67   attribute_setup standard =
    68     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    69 
    70 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    71 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    72 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    73 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    74 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    75 
    76 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    77 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    78 differently).
    79 
    80 
    81 *** HOL ***
    82 
    83 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    84 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    85 
    86 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    87   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    88   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    89   "Main".
    90   Theory renamings:
    91     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    92     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    93     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    94     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    95     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    96     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    97     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    98     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
    99     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   100     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   101     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   102     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   103     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   104     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   105     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   106     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   107     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   108     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   109     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   110     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   111     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   112     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   113   New theories:
   114     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
   115     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   116     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   117     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   118     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   119     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   120   Discontinued theories:
   121     BNF/BNF.thy
   122     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   123   Renamed commands:
   124     datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   125     primrec_new ~> primrec
   126     wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   127   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Old datatype package:
   130   * Generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed "case_xxx"
   131     and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   132     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   135   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based datatype
   136   package.
   137   Renamed constants:
   138     Option.set ~> set_option
   139     Option.map ~> map_option
   140     option_rel ~> rel_option
   141   Renamed theorems:
   142     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   143     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   144     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   145     map.simps ~> list.map
   146     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   147     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   148     the.simps ~> option.sel
   149   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * New theory:
   152     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   153 
   154 * Theory reorganizations:
   155   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   156 
   157 * Sledgehammer:
   158   - New option:
   159       smt_proofs
   160   - Renamed options:
   161       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   162       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   163     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * Metis:
   166   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   167     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   170 
   171 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   174 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   175 
   176 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   177 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   178 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   179 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   180 
   181 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   185 with the given constants.
   186 
   187 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   188 
   189 Fact consolidations:
   190     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   191     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   192     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   193     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   194     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   195     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   196     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   197     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   198     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   199     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   200     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   201     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   202     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   203     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   204     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   205     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   206     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   207     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   208     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   209     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   210     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   211     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   212     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   213     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   214     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   215     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   216     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   217     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   218     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   219     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   220     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   221     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   222     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   223     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   224     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   225     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   226     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   227     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   228     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   229     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   230 
   231 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   232 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   233 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   234 
   235 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   236 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   237 
   238 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   239 
   240 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   241 
   242 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   244 
   245 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   249 operations on records.
   250 
   251 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253 
   254 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   255     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   257 
   258 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   259     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   260     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   262 
   263 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   264   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   265   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   266   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   267     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   268   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   269     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   270   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   271 INCOMPATBILITY.
   272 
   273 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   274     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   275     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   276     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   277     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * Fact name consolidation:
   281     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   282     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   283     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   284     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   285     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287 
   288 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   289 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   290 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   291 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   292 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   293 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   294 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   295 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   298 
   299 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   300 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   301 
   302 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   303 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   304 
   305 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   306 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   307 or the brute way with
   308 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   309 
   310 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   311 
   312 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   313 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   316 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   317 
   318 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   319 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   320 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   321 INCOMPATIBILITY
   322 
   323 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   324 
   325 * Nitpick:
   326   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   327     infinite values.
   328 
   329 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   330   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   331   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   332     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   333     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   334     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   335     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   336     intervals.
   337 
   338 
   339 *** ML ***
   340 
   341 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   342 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   343 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   344 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   345 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   346 of schematic variables.
   347 
   348 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   349 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   350 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   351 formal context.
   352 
   353 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   354 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   355 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   356 actually belongs to it).
   357 
   358 
   359 *** System ***
   360 
   361 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   362 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   363 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   364 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   365 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   366 
   367 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   368 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   369 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   370 
   371 
   372 
   373 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   374 -------------------------------------
   375 
   376 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   377 
   378 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   379 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   380 
   381 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   382 after edits surrounding the command location.
   383 
   384 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   385 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   386 e.g. out-of-memory).
   387 
   388 
   389 *** System ***
   390 
   391 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   392 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   393 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   394 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   395 
   396 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   397 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   398 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   399 
   400 
   401 
   402 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   403 -------------------------------------
   404 
   405 *** General ***
   406 
   407 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   408 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   409 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   412 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   415 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   416 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   417 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   418 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   419 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   420 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   421 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   422 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   423 syntax.
   424 
   425 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   426 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   429 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   430 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   431 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   432 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   433 
   434 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   438 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   439 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   440 
   441 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   442 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   443 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   444 
   445 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   446 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   447 
   448 
   449 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   450 
   451 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   452 Documentation panel.
   453 
   454 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   455 documentation.
   456 
   457 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   458 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   459 
   460 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   461 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   462 normal editing and checking process.
   463 
   464 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   465 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   466 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   467 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   468 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   469 
   470 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   471 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   472 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   473 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   474 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   475 
   476 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   477 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   478 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   479 
   480 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   481 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   482 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   483 to resolve conflict.
   484 
   485 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   486 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   487 
   488 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   489 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   490 such command executions while editing.
   491 
   492 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   493 document content.
   494 
   495 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   496 toplevel theorem statements.
   497 
   498 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   499 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   500 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   501 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   502 
   503 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   504 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   505 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   506 
   507 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   508 / Global Options / Appearance".
   509 
   510 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   511 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   512 
   513 
   514 *** Pure ***
   515 
   516 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   517 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   518 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   519 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   520 details.
   521 
   522 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   523 
   524 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   525 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   526 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   527 
   528 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   530 
   531 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   532 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   533 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   534 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   535 
   536 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   537 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   538 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   539 
   540 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   541 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   542 
   543 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   544 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   545 situations.
   546 
   547 
   548 *** HOL ***
   549 
   550 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   551 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   553 
   554 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   555 
   556 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   557 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   558 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   559 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   560 
   561   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   562 
   563 * Code generator:
   564   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   565     'code_instance'.
   566   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   567     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   568 
   569 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   570 examples.
   571 
   572 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   573 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   574 to distinguish both when desired.
   575 
   576 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   577 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   578 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   579 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   582 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   583 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   584 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   585 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   586 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   587 
   588 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   589 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   590 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   591 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   592 
   593 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   594 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   595 
   596 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   597 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   598 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   599 
   600 * Lifting:
   601   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   602     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   603       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   604       transfer rules
   605     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   606       correspondence relation can be generated
   607     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   608       parametricity
   609     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   610   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   611   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   612     copies
   613   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   614     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   615     anonymous context)
   616   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   617     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   618   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   619     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   620   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   621     INCOMPATIBILITY
   622 
   623 * Transfer:
   624   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   625     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   626   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   627   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   628     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   629   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   630 
   631 * Reification and reflection:
   632   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   633     "Reification".
   634   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   635   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   637 
   638 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   639   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   640     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   641     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   642   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   643     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   644   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   645     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   646     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   647     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   648     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   649     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   650     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   651     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   652   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   653     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   654   - Fact renames:
   655       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   656       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   658 
   659 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   660 
   661 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   662 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   663 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   667 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   668 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   669 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   670 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   671 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   672 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   673 lemmas.
   674 
   675 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   676 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   677 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   678 
   679 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   680 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   681 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   682 
   683 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   684 top and bottom elements.
   685 
   686 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   687 
   688 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   689 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   690 
   691  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   692    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   693    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   694 
   695  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   696    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   697    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   698 
   699    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   700    arbitrary filter.
   701 
   702  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   703    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   704    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   705    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   706    on a compact set.
   707 
   708  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   709    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   710    linear_continuum_topology).
   711 
   712  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   713    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   714    on all sequences converging to x.
   715 
   716  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   717    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   718    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   719    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   720    left or right.
   721 
   722  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   723 
   724      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   725 
   726  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   727    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   728 
   729  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   730    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   731    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   732    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   733    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   734    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   735 
   736  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   737 
   738    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   739 
   740    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   741      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   742 
   743    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   744 
   745    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   746      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   747 
   748    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   749 
   750    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   751 
   752  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   753 
   754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Nitpick:
   757   - Added option "spy"
   758   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   759 
   760 * Sledgehammer:
   761   - Renamed option:
   762       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   763     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   765   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   766   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   767 
   768 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   769 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   770 
   771 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   772   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   773   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   774     generated code.
   775   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   776   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   777   - Fact renames:
   778     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   779     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   780     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   781 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   784 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   785 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   786 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   787 
   788 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   789 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   790 
   791 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   794 
   795     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   796     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   797 
   798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   801 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   802 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   803 
   804 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   805 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   806 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   807 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * HOL-BNF:
   810   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   811     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   812     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   813     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   814   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   815     coinduct).
   816   - Renamed keywords:
   817     data ~> datatype_new
   818     codata ~> codatatype
   819     bnf_def ~> bnf
   820   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   821     discs ~> disc
   822     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   823     map_id' ~> map_id
   824     sels ~> sel
   825     set_map' ~> set_map
   826     sets ~> set
   827 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   828 
   829 
   830 *** ML ***
   831 
   832 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   833 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   834 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   835 Examples.thy in particular.
   836 
   837 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   838 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   839 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   840 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   841 
   842 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   843 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   844 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   845 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   846 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   847 
   848 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   849 
   850     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   851     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   852 
   853 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   856 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   857 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   858 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   859 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   860 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   861 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   862 
   863 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   864 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   865 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   866 clasets separately from the context.
   867 
   868 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   869 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   870 
   871 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   872 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   873 
   874 
   875 *** System ***
   876 
   877 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   878 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   881 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   882 
   883 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   884 settings variable.
   885 
   886 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   887 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   888 always pdf.
   889 
   890 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   891 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   892 
   893 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   894 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   895 
   896 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   897 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   898 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   899 
   900 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   901 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   902 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   903 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   904 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   905 for HTML presentation of theories.
   906 
   907 
   908 
   909 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   910 -----------------------------------
   911 
   912 *** General ***
   913 
   914 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   915 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   916 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   917 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   918 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   919 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   920 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   921 
   922 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   923 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   924 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   925 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   926 
   927 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   928 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   929 
   930 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   931 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   932 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   933 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   934 dependencies properly.
   935 
   936 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   937 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   938 
   939 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   940 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   941 
   942 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   943 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   944 and "class ... context ...".
   945 
   946 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   947 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   948 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   949 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   950 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   951 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   952 
   953 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   954 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   955 
   956 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   957 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   958 
   959 
   960 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   961 
   962 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   963 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   964 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   965 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   966 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   967 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   968 
   969 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   970 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   971 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   972 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   973 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   974 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   975 
   976 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   977 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   978 browser on demand.
   979 
   980 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   981 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   982 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   983 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   984 
   985 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   986 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   987 
   988 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   989 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   990 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   991 potentially infinite message streams.
   992 
   993 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   994 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   995 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   996 schemes.
   997 
   998 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   999 symbols.
  1000 
  1001 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1002 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1003 
  1004 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1005 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1006 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1007 
  1008 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1009 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1010 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1011 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1012 
  1013 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1014 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1015 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1016 
  1017 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1018 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1019 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1020 Isabelle distribution.
  1021 
  1022 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1023 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1024 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1025 
  1026 
  1027 *** Pure ***
  1028 
  1029 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1030 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1031 
  1032 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1033 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1034 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1035 
  1036 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1037 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1038 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1039 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1040 with some care where this is really required.
  1041 
  1042 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1043 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1044 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1045 
  1046   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1047 
  1048 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1049 a Hasse diagram.
  1050 
  1051 
  1052 *** HOL ***
  1053 
  1054 * Sledgehammer:
  1055 
  1056   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1057     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1058   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1059   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1060   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1061   - Renamed options:
  1062       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1063       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1064       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1065       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1066 
  1067 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1068 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1069 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1070 
  1071 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Lifting:
  1075   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1076   - quot_del attribute
  1077   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1078 
  1079 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1080 expressions.
  1081 
  1082 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1083 pointfree expressions.
  1084 
  1085 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1086 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1087 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1088 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1090 
  1091 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1092 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1093 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1094 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1095 accordingly.
  1096 
  1097 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1098 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1101 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1104 
  1105 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1106 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1107 
  1108 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1109 
  1110 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1111 
  1112   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1113   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1114 
  1115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1118 
  1119   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1120   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1121 
  1122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1125 
  1126   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1127     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1128     output f x converges to G.
  1129 
  1130   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1131     infinity (at_bot).
  1132 
  1133   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1134     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1135 
  1136   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1137     at_top".
  1138 
  1139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1142 lattice type classes.
  1143 
  1144 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1145 
  1146     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1147     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1148 
  1149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1150 
  1151 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1152 changes as follows.
  1153 
  1154   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1155 
  1156       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1157       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1158 
  1159   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1160     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1161     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1162     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1163 
  1164   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1165     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1166     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1167 
  1168   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1169     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1170     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1171     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1172 
  1173   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1174     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1175 
  1176       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1177       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1178       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1179       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1180       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1181       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1182       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1183       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1184       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1185       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1186       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1187       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1188       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1189       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1190       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1191       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1192 
  1193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1196 
  1197 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1198 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1199 
  1200 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1201 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1202 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1203 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1204 
  1205   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1206   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1207   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1208   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1209   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1210   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1211   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1212   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1213   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1214   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1215 
  1216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1217 
  1218 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1219 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1220 Data").
  1221 
  1222 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1223 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1224 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1225 code.
  1226 
  1227 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1228 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1229 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1233 
  1234 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1235 
  1236 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1237 
  1238   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1239   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1240 
  1241 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1242 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1243 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1244 
  1245   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1246 
  1247     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1248     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1249     cart_base i  removed
  1250     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1251 
  1252   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1253 
  1254   Renamed lemmas:
  1255 
  1256     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1257     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1258     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1259     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1260     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1261     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1262     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1263     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1264     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1265     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1266 
  1267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * HOL/Probability:
  1270 
  1271   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1272 
  1273   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1274     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1275     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1276 
  1277   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1278     projective family).
  1279 
  1280 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1281 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1282 
  1283 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1284 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1285 datatypes.
  1286 
  1287 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1288 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1289 
  1290 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1291 trees for the code generator.
  1292 
  1293 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1294 Lifting/Transfer.
  1295 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1296 
  1297 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 
  1301 *** Document preparation ***
  1302 
  1303 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1304 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1305 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1306 
  1307 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1308 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1309 
  1310 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1311 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1312 document/root.tex.
  1313 
  1314 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1315 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 
  1318 *** ML ***
  1319 
  1320 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1321 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1322 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1323 
  1324 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1325 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1326 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1327 
  1328 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1329 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1330 necessarily printing visible text.
  1331 
  1332 
  1333 *** System ***
  1334 
  1335 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1336 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1337 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1338 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1339 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1340 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1341 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1342 
  1343 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1344 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1345 
  1346   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1347 
  1348 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1349 
  1350 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1351 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1352 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1353 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1354 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1355 
  1356 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1357 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1358 
  1359 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1360 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1361 
  1362 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1364 
  1365 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1366 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1367 version of Isabelle.
  1368 
  1369 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1370 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1371 
  1372 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1373 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1374 for home-made settings.
  1375 
  1376 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1377 
  1378 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1379 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1380 configuration.
  1381 
  1382 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1383 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1384 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1385 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1386 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1387 
  1388 
  1389 
  1390 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1391 ------------------------------
  1392 
  1393 *** General ***
  1394 
  1395 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1396 
  1397   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1398     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1399   - markup for bound variables
  1400   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1401   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1402   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1403     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1404 
  1405 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1406 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1407 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1408 
  1409 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1410 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1411 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1412 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1413 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1414 
  1415   context
  1416     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1417     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1418   begin
  1419 
  1420   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1421 
  1422   end
  1423 
  1424   thm my_trans
  1425 
  1426 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1427 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1428 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1429 
  1430 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1431 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1432 
  1433 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1434 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1435 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1436 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1437 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1438 
  1439 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1440 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1441 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1442 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1443 indices of schematic variables.
  1444 
  1445 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1446 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1447 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1448 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1449 etc. was exploited.
  1450 
  1451 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1452 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1453 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1454 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1455 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1456 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1457 
  1458 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1459 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1460 manual.
  1461 
  1462 
  1463 *** Pure ***
  1464 
  1465 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1466 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1467 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1468 
  1469 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1470 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1471 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1472 undocumented feature.)
  1473 
  1474 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1475 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1476 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1477 
  1478   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1479 
  1480   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1481     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1482 
  1483 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1484 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1485 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1486 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1487 
  1488 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1489 
  1490     num ~> num_token
  1491     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1492     xstr ~> str_token
  1493 
  1494 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1495 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1496 position information via constraints).
  1497 
  1498 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1499 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1500 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1503 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1504 
  1505 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1506 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1507 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1508 
  1509 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1510 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1513 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1514 
  1515   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1516 
  1517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1518 
  1519 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1520 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521 
  1522 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1523 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1524 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1525 
  1526 
  1527 *** HOL ***
  1528 
  1529 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1530 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1531 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1532 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1533 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1534 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1535 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1536 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1537 possible.
  1538 
  1539 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1540 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1541 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1542 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1543 
  1544 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1545 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1548 
  1549 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1550 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1551 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1552 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1553 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1554 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1555 
  1556   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1557     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1558 
  1559   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1560     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1561     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1562 
  1563   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1564     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1565 
  1566   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1567     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1568     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1569 
  1570   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1571     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1572 
  1573 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1574 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1575 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1576 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1577 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1578 
  1579   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1580     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1581     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1582     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1583     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1584 
  1585     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1586     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1587 
  1588   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1589     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1590     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1591     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1592     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1593     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1594     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1595     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1596 
  1597   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1598     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1599     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1600     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1601 
  1602   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1603     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1604     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1605     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1606 
  1607   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1608     from type nat to type int.
  1609 
  1610 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1611 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1612 
  1613   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1614     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1615     type.  Example syntax:
  1616 
  1617     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1618       is List.insert
  1619 
  1620     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1621     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1622     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1623     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1624     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1625     by the package.
  1626 
  1627   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1628     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1629     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1630     code generation for each constant.
  1631 
  1632   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1633     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1634     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1635     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1636     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1637 
  1638   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1639     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1640     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1641 
  1642 * Quotient package:
  1643 
  1644   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1645     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1646 
  1647   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1648     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1649 
  1650   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1651     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1652     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1653 
  1654   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1655     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1658 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1659 
  1660 * Quickcheck:
  1661 
  1662   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1663     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1664     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1665     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1666     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1667 
  1668     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1669     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1670     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1671 
  1672     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1673     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1674 
  1675     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1676     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1677     show genuine counterexamples.
  1678 
  1679   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1680     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1681 
  1682     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1683     constructors of that type.
  1684 
  1685   - Support for multisets.
  1686 
  1687   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1688 
  1689   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1690     conjectures in a locale context.
  1691 
  1692 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1693 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1694 
  1695 * Sledgehammer:
  1696   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1697     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1698   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1699   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1700     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1701   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1702   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1703   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1704   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1705 
  1706 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1707 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1708 
  1709 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1710 
  1711 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1712 
  1713 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1714 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1715 
  1716   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1717 
  1718 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1719 a list and a nat.
  1720 
  1721 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1722 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1723 
  1724 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1725 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1726 default.
  1727 
  1728 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1729 
  1730   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1731 
  1732 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1733 
  1734 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1735 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1736 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1737 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1738 one_case.
  1739 
  1740 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1741 the result of the fact expression.
  1742 
  1743 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1744 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1745 of some relation theorems:
  1746 
  1747   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1748   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1749   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1750   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1751   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1752   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1753 
  1754 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1755 
  1756 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1757 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1758 
  1759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1760 
  1761 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1762 to match the constant's name:
  1763 
  1764   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1765   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1766   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1767   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1768   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1769   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1770   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1771   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1772   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1773   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1774   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1775   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1776   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1777   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1778   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1779   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1780   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1781   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1782   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1783   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1784   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1785   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1786   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1787   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1788 
  1789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1792 and corresponding theorem names:
  1793 
  1794   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1795 
  1796   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1797 
  1798   - Renamed theorems:
  1799 
  1800     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1801     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1802     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1803     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1804     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1805     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1806     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1807     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1808     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1809     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1810     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1811     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1812     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1813     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1814     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1815     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1816     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1817     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1818     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1819     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1820     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1821     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1822     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1823 
  1824     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1825 
  1826     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1827 
  1828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1831 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1832 
  1833   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1834   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1835   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1836   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1837   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1838   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1839   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1840   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1841   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1842   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1843   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1844   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1845   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1846   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1847   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1848   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1849   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1850   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1851   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1852   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1853   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1854 
  1855 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1856 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1857 
  1858 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1859 
  1860 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1861 
  1862   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1863   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1864   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1865   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1866   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1867   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1868   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1869   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1870   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1871   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1872   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1873   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1874   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1875   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1876   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1877   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1878   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1879   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1880 
  1881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1882 
  1883 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1884 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1885 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1886 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1887 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1888 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1889 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1890 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1891 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1892 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1893 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1894 
  1895 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1896 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1897 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1898 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1899 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1900 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1901 
  1902 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1903 through option types.
  1904 
  1905 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1906 relations.
  1907 
  1908 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1911 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1912 
  1913   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1914   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1915   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1916   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1917   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1918   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1919   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1920   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1921   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1922   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1923   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1924   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1925   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1926   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1927   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1928   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1929   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1930   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1931   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1932   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1933   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1934   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1935   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1936   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1937   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1938   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1939   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1940   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1941   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1942   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1943   zless_le ~> less_le
  1944   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1945   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1946   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1947 
  1948 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1949 
  1950   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1951 
  1952 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1953 
  1954 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1955 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1956 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1957 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1959 
  1960 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1961 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1962 
  1963 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1964 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1965 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1966 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1967 follows:
  1968 
  1969   Operations:
  1970   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1971   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1972   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1973   del -> rbt_del
  1974   delete -> rbt_delete
  1975   ins -> rbt_ins
  1976   insert -> rbt_insert
  1977   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1978   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1979   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1980   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1981   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1982   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1983   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1984   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1985   union -> rbt_union
  1986   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1987   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1988 
  1989   Lemmas:
  1990   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1991   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1992   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1993   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1994   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1995   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1996   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1997   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1998   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1999   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2000   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2001   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2002   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2003   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2004   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2005   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2006   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2007   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2008   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2009   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2010   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2011   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2012   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2013   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2014   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2015   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2016   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2017   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2018   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2019   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2020   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2021   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2022   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2023   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2024   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2025   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2026   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2027   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2028   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2029   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2030   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2031   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2032   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2033   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2034   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2035   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2036   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2037   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2038   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2039   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2040   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2041   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2042   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2043   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2044   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2045   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2046   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2047   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2048   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2049   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2050   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2051   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2052   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2053   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2054   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2055   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2056   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2057   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2058   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2059   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2060   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2061   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2062   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2063   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2064   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2065   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2066   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2067   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2068   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2069   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2070   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2071   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2072   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2073 
  2074 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2075 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2076 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078   Changed Operations:
  2079   float_abs -> abs
  2080   float_nprt -> nprt
  2081   float_pprt -> pprt
  2082   pow2 -> use powr
  2083   round_down -> float_round_down
  2084   round_up -> float_round_up
  2085   scale -> exponent
  2086 
  2087   Removed Operations:
  2088   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2089 
  2090   Renamed Lemmas:
  2091   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2092   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2093   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2094   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2095   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2096   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2097   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2098   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2099   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2100   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2101   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2102   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2103   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2104   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2105   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2106   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2107   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2108   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2109   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2110   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2111   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2112   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2113   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2114   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2115   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2116   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2117   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2118   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2119   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2120   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2121   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2122   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2123   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2124   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2125   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2126   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2127 
  2128   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2129   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2130   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2131   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2132   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2133   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2134   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2135   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2136   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2137   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2138 
  2139 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2140 association lists with distinct keys.
  2141 
  2142 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2143 annotated commands.
  2144 
  2145 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2146 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2147 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2148 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2149 
  2150 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2151 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2152 instead.
  2153 
  2154   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2155   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2156   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2157   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2158   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2159   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2160   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2161   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2162   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2163   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2164   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2165   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2166   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2167   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2168   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2169   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2170   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2171   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2172   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2173   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2174   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2175   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2176   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2177   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2178   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2179   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2180   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2181   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2182   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2183   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2184   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2185   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2186   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2187   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2188   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2189   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2190   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2191   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2192   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2193   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2194   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2195 
  2196 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2197 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2198 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2199 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2200 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2201 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2202 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2203 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2204 
  2205 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2206 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2207 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2208 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2209 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2210 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2211 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2212 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2213 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2214 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2215 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2216 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218   Renamed constants:
  2219   measure -> emeasure
  2220   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2221   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2222   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2223   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2224 
  2225   Removed locales:
  2226   completeable_measure_space
  2227   finite_measure_space
  2228   finite_prob_space
  2229   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2230   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2231   finite_sigma_algebra
  2232   measure_space
  2233   pair_finite_prob_space
  2234   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2235   pair_finite_space
  2236   pair_sigma_algebra
  2237   product_sigma_algebra
  2238 
  2239   Removed constants:
  2240   conditional_space
  2241   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2242   image_space
  2243   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2244   pair_measure_generator
  2245   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2246   subvimage
  2247 
  2248   Replacement theorems:
  2249   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2250   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2251   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2252   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2253   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2254   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2255   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2256   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2257   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2258   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2259   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2260   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2261   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2262   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2263   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2264   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2265   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2266   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2267   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2268   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2269   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2270   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2271   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2272   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2273   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2274   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2275   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2276   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2277   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2278   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2279   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2280   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2281   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2282   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2283   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2284   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2285   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2286   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2287   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2288   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2289   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2290   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2291   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2292   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2293   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2294   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2295   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2296   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2297   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2298   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2299   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2300   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2301   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2302   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2303   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2304   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2305   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2306   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2307   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2308   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2309   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2310   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2311   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2312   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2313   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2314   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2315   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2316   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2317   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2318   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2319   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2320   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2321   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2322   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2323   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2324   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2325   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2326   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2327   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2328   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2329   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2330   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2331   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2332   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2333   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2334   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2335   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2336   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2337   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2338   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2339   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2340   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2341   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2342   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2343   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2344   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2345   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2346   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2347   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2348   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2349   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2350   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2351   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2352   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2353   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2354   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2355   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2356   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2357   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2358   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2359   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2360   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2361   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2362   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2363   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2364   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2365   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2366   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2367   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2368   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2369   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2370   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2371   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2372   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2373   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2374   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2375   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2376   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2377 
  2378 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2379 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2380 
  2381 
  2382 *** FOL ***
  2383 
  2384 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2385 
  2386 
  2387 *** ZF ***
  2388 
  2389 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2390 analysis.
  2391 
  2392 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2393 
  2394 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2395 
  2396 
  2397 *** ML ***
  2398 
  2399 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2400 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2401 
  2402 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2403 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2404 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2405 
  2406 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2407 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2408 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2409 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2410 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2411 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2412 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2413 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2414 
  2415 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2416 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2417 
  2418 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2419 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2420 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2421 
  2422 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2423 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2426 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2427 context as well.
  2428 
  2429 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2430 
  2431   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2432   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2433   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2434   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2435   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2436   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2437   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2438   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2439   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2440   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2441   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2442   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2443 
  2444 
  2445 *** System ***
  2446 
  2447 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2448 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2449 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2450 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2451 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2452 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2453 the generic user home was intended.
  2454 
  2455 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2456 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2457 
  2458 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2459 (not just JRE).
  2460 
  2461 
  2462 
  2463 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2464 ------------------------------------
  2465 
  2466 *** General ***
  2467 
  2468 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2469 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2470 
  2471   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2472     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2473     files for checking).
  2474 
  2475   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2476     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2477     positions.
  2478 
  2479   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2480     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2481     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2482 
  2483   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2484     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2485     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2486 
  2487   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2488     cores.
  2489 
  2490   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2491     versions (garbage collection).
  2492 
  2493 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2494 including some remaining limitations.
  2495 
  2496 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2497 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2498 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2499 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2500 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2502 
  2503 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2504 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2505 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2506 
  2507 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2508 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2509 usedir option -Q.
  2510 
  2511 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2512 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2513 
  2514   long_names   ~> names_long
  2515   short_names  ~> names_short
  2516   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2517 
  2518 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2519 
  2520   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2521 
  2522 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2523 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2524 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2525 
  2526 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2527 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2528 
  2529 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2530   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2531   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2532   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2533     "Classical Reasoner".
  2534 
  2535 
  2536 *** HOL ***
  2537 
  2538 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2539 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2542 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2543 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2544 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2545 class complete_linorder.
  2546 
  2547 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2548 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2549 
  2550 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2551 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2552 
  2553   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2554   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2555   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2556   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2557   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2558   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2559   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2560   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2561   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2562   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2563   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2564 
  2565 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2566 
  2567   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2568   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2569   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2570   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2571   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2572   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2573   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2574   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2575   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2576   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2577   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2578   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2579   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2580   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2581   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2582   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2583 
  2584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2590 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2591 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2592 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2593 
  2594 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2595 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2596 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2600 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2601 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2602 
  2603 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2604 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2605 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2608 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2609 
  2610 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2611 
  2612     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2613     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2614 
  2615 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2616 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2617 
  2618 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2619 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2622 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2623 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2624 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2627   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2628   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2629   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2630   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2631   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2632   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2633 
  2634 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2635 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2638   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2639   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2640   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2641   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2642   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2643   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2644   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2645   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2646   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2647   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2648   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2649   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2650   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2651   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2652   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2653   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2654   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2655   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2656   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2657   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2658   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2659   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2660   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2661   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2662   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2663   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2664   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2665   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2666   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2667   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2668   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2669   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2670   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2671   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2672   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2673   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2674   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2675   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2676   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2677   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2678   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2679   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2680   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2681   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2682   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2683   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2684   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2685   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2686   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2687   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2688   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2689   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2690   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2691   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2692   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2693   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2694   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2695   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2696   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2697   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2698   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2699   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2700   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2701   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2702   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2703   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2704   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2705   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2706   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2707   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2708   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2709   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2710   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2711   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2712   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2713   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2714   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2715   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2716   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2717   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2718   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2719 
  2720 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2721 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2722 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2723 
  2724 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2725 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2726 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2727 
  2728 * Code generation:
  2729 
  2730   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2731     characters in the target language.
  2732 
  2733   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2734     instead.
  2735 
  2736   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2737 
  2738   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2739     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2740 
  2741       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2742 
  2743 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2746 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2747 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2748 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2749 syntax.
  2750 
  2751 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2752 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2753 
  2754 * Nitpick:
  2755   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2756   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2757   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2758     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * Sledgehammer:
  2761   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2762   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2763     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2764   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2765     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2766   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2767     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2769     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2770   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2771     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2772 
  2773 * Metis:
  2774   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2776     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * Command 'try':
  2779   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2780     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2782     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2783 
  2784 * Quickcheck:
  2785   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2786     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2787   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2788     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2789   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2790     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2791     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2792     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2793   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2794     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2795 
  2796 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2797 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2798 
  2799 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2800 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2801 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2802 
  2803 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2804 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2808 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2811 arithmetic.
  2812 
  2813 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2814 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2815 and lattice type classes.
  2816 
  2817 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2818 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2819 
  2820 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2821 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2822 
  2823 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2824 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2825 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2828   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2829   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2830   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2831 
  2832 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2833 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2834 constants:
  2835 
  2836   type inat   ~> type enat
  2837   Fin         ~> enat
  2838   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2839   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2840   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2841 
  2842 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2843 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2846 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2847 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2848 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2849 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2850 
  2851 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2852 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2853 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2854 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2855 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2856 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2857 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2858 
  2859   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2860   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2861   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2862   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2863 
  2864 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2865 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2866 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867 
  2868   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2869   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2870   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2871   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2872   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2873   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2874   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2875   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2876   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2877   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2878   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2879   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2880   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2881   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2882   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2883   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2884   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2885   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2886   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2887   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2888   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2889   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2890   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2891   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2892   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2893   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2894   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2895   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2896   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2897   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2898   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2899   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2900   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2901   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2902   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2903   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2904   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2905   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2906   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2907   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2908   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2909   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2910   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2911   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2912   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2913   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2914   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2915   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2916   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2917   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2918   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2919 
  2920 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2921   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2922   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2923   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2924   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2925     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926 
  2927 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2930   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2931   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2932   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2933   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2934   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2935   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2936   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2937   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2938   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2939   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2940   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2941   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2942   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2943   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2944   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2945   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2946   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2947   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2948   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2949   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2950   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2951   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2952   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2953   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2954 
  2955 
  2956 *** Document preparation ***
  2957 
  2958 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2959 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2960 same.
  2961 
  2962 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2963 result.
  2964 
  2965 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2966 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2967 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2968 
  2969 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2970 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2971 
  2972 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2973 like this:
  2974 
  2975   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2976   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2977 
  2978 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2979 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2980 layouts.
  2981 
  2982 
  2983 *** ML ***
  2984 
  2985 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2986 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2987 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2988 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2989 under external program control.
  2990 
  2991 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2992 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2993 
  2994 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2995 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2996 (better known as Proof General).
  2997 
  2998 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2999 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3000 
  3001 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3002 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3003 
  3004 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3005 (including quotes etc.).
  3006 
  3007 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3008 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3009 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3010 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3011 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3012 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3013 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3014 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3015 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3016 
  3017 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3018 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3019 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3020 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3021 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3022 
  3023 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3024 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3025 
  3026 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3027 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3028 
  3029 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3030 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3031 
  3032 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3033 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3034 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3035 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3036 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3037 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3038 proper Proof.context.
  3039 
  3040 
  3041 *** System ***
  3042 
  3043 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3044 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3045 
  3046 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3047 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3048 
  3049 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3050 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3051 
  3052   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3053   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3054   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3055   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3056   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3057 
  3058 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3059 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3062 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3063 example:
  3064 
  3065   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3066 
  3067 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3068 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3069 
  3070 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3071 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3072 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3073 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3074 
  3075 
  3076 
  3077 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3078 ----------------------------------
  3079 
  3080 *** General ***
  3081 
  3082 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3083 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3084 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3085 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3086 like this:
  3087 
  3088   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3089 
  3090 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3091 
  3092 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3093 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3094 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3095 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3096 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3097 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3098 
  3099 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3100 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3101 the following package declarations:
  3102 
  3103   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3104   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3105 
  3106 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3107 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3108 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3109 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3110 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3111 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3112 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3113 
  3114 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3115 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3116 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3117 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3118 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3119 
  3120 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3121 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3122 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3123 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3124 
  3125 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3126 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3127 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3128 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3129 
  3130   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3131 
  3132   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3133   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3134   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3135   show_types                    show_types
  3136   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3137   show_consts                   show_consts
  3138   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3139 
  3140   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3141   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3142   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3143 
  3144   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3145   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3146 
  3147   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3148 
  3149   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3150   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3151   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3152   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3153   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3154 
  3155 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3156 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3157 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3158 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3159 
  3160 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3164   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3165 
  3166 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3167 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3168 float_token.
  3169 
  3170 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3171 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173 
  3174 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3175 DejaVu Sans.
  3176 
  3177 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3178 
  3179 
  3180 *** Pure ***
  3181 
  3182 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3183 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3184 time.
  3185 
  3186 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3187 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3190 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3193 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3194 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3195 command already provided this functionality.
  3196 
  3197 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3198 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3199 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3200 without interpretations.
  3201 
  3202 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3203 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3204 
  3205 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3206 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3207 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3208 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3209 
  3210 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3211 'definition' instead.
  3212 
  3213 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3214 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3215 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3216 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3217 
  3218 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3219 constructors.
  3220 
  3221 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3222 the local file system.
  3223 
  3224 
  3225 *** HOL ***
  3226 
  3227 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3228 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3229 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3230 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3231 
  3232   declare [[coercion f]]
  3233 
  3234 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3235 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3236 
  3237   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3238 
  3239 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3240 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3241 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3242 other theories like this:
  3243 
  3244   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3245 
  3246 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3247 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3248 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3249 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3250 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3251 for examples.
  3252 
  3253 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3254 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3257 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3258 
  3259 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3260 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3261 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3262 
  3263 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3264 functorial structure of types.
  3265 
  3266 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3267 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3268 
  3269 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3270 languages.
  3271 
  3272 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3273 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3277 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3280 combinators any longer.
  3281 
  3282 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3283 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3284 
  3285 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3286 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3287 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3288 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3289 
  3290   record 'a foo = ...
  3291   ...
  3292   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3293 
  3294 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3295 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3299 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3300 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3301 
  3302 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3303 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3304 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3305 
  3306 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3307 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3310 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3311 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3312 independently.
  3313 
  3314 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3315 counter example search.
  3316 
  3317 * Sledgehammer:
  3318   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3319     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3320     sledgehammer").
  3321   - Renamed commands:
  3322     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3323     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3324     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326   - Renamed options:
  3327     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3328     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3329     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3330     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3331     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333 * Nitpick:
  3334   - Renamed options:
  3335     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3336     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3337     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3339   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3340   - Added "whack" option.
  3341   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3342   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3343   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3344   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3345     higher cardinalities.
  3346   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3347 
  3348 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3349 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3350 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3351 
  3352     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3353 
  3354 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3355 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3356 
  3357 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3358 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3359 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3360 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3361 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3362 "smt_solver".
  3363 
  3364 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3365 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3366 
  3367 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3368 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3369 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3370 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3373   - Renamed:
  3374     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3375     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3376     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377   - Added:
  3378     smt_verbose
  3379     smt_random_seed
  3380     smt_datatypes
  3381     smt_infer_triggers
  3382     smt_monomorph_limit
  3383     cvc3_options
  3384     remote_cvc3_options
  3385     remote_z3_options
  3386     yices_options
  3387 
  3388 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3389 header.
  3390 
  3391 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3392 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3393 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3394 
  3395   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3396 
  3397 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3400 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3405 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3408 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3409 
  3410 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3411 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3414 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3415 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3423 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3426 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3427 for congruent(2)).
  3428 
  3429 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3430 
  3431   types
  3432     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3433     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3434 
  3435   constants
  3436     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3437     True ~> HOL.True
  3438     False ~> HOL.False
  3439     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3440     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3441     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3442     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3443     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3444     The ~> HOL.The
  3445     All ~> HOL.All
  3446     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3447     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3448     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3449     If ~> HOL.If
  3450     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3451     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3452     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3453     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3454     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3455     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3456     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3457     op : ~> Set.member
  3458     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3459 
  3460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3463 
  3464     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3465     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3466     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3467     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3468     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3469     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3470     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3471     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3472 
  3473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474 
  3475 * More stylized fact names:
  3476 
  3477   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3478   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3479   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3480   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3481 
  3482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483 
  3484 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3485 
  3486   constants
  3487     null ~> List.null
  3488 
  3489   facts
  3490     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3491     null_empty ~> null_def
  3492 
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3494 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3495 generation.
  3496 
  3497 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3498 Haskell code.
  3499 
  3500 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3501 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3502 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3505 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3508 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3509 
  3510 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3511 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3512 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3515 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3521 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3522 referred to by its qualified name.
  3523 
  3524   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3525   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3526   product ~>  Enum.product
  3527 
  3528 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3529 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3533 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3534 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3538 sort_key.
  3539 
  3540 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3544 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3545 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3546 
  3547   types
  3548     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3549               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3550               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3551         (depends on your needs)
  3552 
  3553   constants
  3554      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3555      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3556      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3557 
  3558 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3559 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3560 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3561 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3562 
  3563 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3564 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3565 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3566 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3567 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3573 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3574 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3575 
  3576 
  3577 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3578 
  3579 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3580 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3581 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3582 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3583 compatibility.
  3584 
  3585 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3586 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3587 
  3588 
  3589 *** HOLCF ***
  3590 
  3591 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3592 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3593 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3595 
  3596 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3597 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3598 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3601   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3602   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3603 
  3604 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3605 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3606 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3609 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3610 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3611 domain definition now works:
  3612 
  3613   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3614 
  3615 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3616 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3617 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3618 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3619 
  3620   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3621     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3622 
  3623   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3624 
  3625 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3626 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3627 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3628 
  3629 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3630 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3633 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3634 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3635 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3636 
  3637 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3638 
  3639 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3642 
  3643 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3645 
  3646 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3647 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3648 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3649 
  3650 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3651 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3652 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3655 still supported as an input translation.
  3656 
  3657 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3658 
  3659   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3660   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3661   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3662   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3663   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3664   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3665   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3666 
  3667 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3668 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3669 
  3670   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3671   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3672   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3673   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3674   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3675   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3676 
  3677 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3678 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3681 
  3682   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3683   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3684   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3685   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3686 
  3687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688 
  3689 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3690 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3693 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3696   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3697   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3698   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3699   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3700   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3701   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3702   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3703   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3704   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3705   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3706   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3707   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3708   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3709   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3710   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3711   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3712   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3713   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3714   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3715 
  3716 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3719   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3720   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3721   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3722   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3723   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3724   box_less             ~> box_below
  3725   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3726   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3727   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3728   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3729   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3730   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3731   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3732   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3733   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3734   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3735   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3736   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3737   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3738   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3739   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3740   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3741   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3742   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3743   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3744   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3745   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3746   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3747   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3748   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3749   up_less              ~> up_below
  3750   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3751   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3752   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3753   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3754   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3755   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3756   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3757   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3758   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3759   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3760   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3761   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3762   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3763 
  3764 
  3765 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3766 
  3767 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3768 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 
  3771 *** ML ***
  3772 
  3773 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3774 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3775 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3776 
  3777 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3778 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3779 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3780 
  3781 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3782 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3783 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3784 
  3785 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3786 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3787 
  3788 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3789 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3790 
  3791 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3792 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3793 
  3794 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3795 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3796 
  3797 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3798 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3799 almost all situations.
  3800 
  3801 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3802 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3803 Isabelle/ML.
  3804 
  3805 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3806 meaning.
  3807 
  3808 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3809 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3810 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3811 
  3812 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3813 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3814 
  3815 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3816 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3817 
  3818 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3819 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3820 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3821 
  3822 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3823 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3824 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3825 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3826 configuration options.
  3827 
  3828 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3829 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3830 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3831 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3832 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3833 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3834 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3835 
  3836 
  3837 
  3838 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3839 ---------------------------------
  3840 
  3841 *** General ***
  3842 
  3843 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3844 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3845 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3846 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3847 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3848 their full internal name.
  3849 
  3850 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3851 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3852 Some hints on upgrading:
  3853 
  3854   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3855     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3856     which are independent of this issue.
  3857 
  3858   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3859     provides the following special forms:
  3860 
  3861       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3862       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3863       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3864 
  3865     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3866     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3867     extra variables".
  3868 
  3869     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3870     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3871     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3872     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3873     "logic".
  3874 
  3875   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3876     antiquotations:
  3877 
  3878       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3879       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3880       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3881       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3882 
  3883   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3884     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3885     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3886     antiquotations.
  3887 
  3888 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3889 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3890 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3891 diagnose syntax problems.
  3892 
  3893 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3894 
  3895 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3896 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3897 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3898 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3899 
  3900 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3901 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3902 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3903 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3906 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3907 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3908 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3909 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3912 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3913 
  3914 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3915 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3916 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3917 
  3918   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3919 
  3920 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3921 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3922 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3923 
  3924 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3925 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3929 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3930 
  3931 
  3932 *** Pure ***
  3933 
  3934 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3935 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3936 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3937 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3938 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3939 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3940 inspect proof terms.
  3941 
  3942 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3943 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3944 are added internally.  For example:
  3945 
  3946   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3947 
  3948 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3949 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3952 
  3953 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3954 'class' instead.
  3955 
  3956 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3957 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3961 invariants.
  3962 
  3963 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3964 user space functionality any longer.
  3965 
  3966 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3967 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3971 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3972 
  3973 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3974 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3975 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3976 
  3977 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3978 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3979 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3980 
  3981 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3982 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 
  3985 *** HOL ***
  3986 
  3987 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3988 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3989 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3990 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3991 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3992 
  3993 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3994 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3995 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3996 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3997 
  3998   fun
  3999     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4000   where
  4001     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4002 
  4003   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4004     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4005 
  4006   quotient_definition
  4007     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4008 
  4009 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4010 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4011 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4012 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4013 
  4014 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4015 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4016 
  4017 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4018 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4019 
  4020 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4024 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4025 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4026 
  4027 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4028 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4037 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4040 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4041 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4044   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4045   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4046   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4047   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4048   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4049   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4050   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4051   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4052   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4053   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4054   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4055   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4056   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4057   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4058   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4059   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4060   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4061   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4062   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4063   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4064   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4065   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4066   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4067   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4068   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4069   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4070   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4071   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4072   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4073 
  4074 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4075 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4076 
  4077 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4078 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4079 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4080 
  4081 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4082 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4083 
  4084 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4085 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4088 
  4089 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4090 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4091 
  4092 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4093 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4098 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4099 
  4100 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4101 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4102 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4103 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4106   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4107   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4108   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4110 
  4111 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4112 lattices):
  4113 
  4114     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4115     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4116 
  4117     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4118 
  4119     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4120     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4121     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4122     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4123     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4124     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4125     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4126     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4127     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4128     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4129     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4130     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4131     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4132 
  4133     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4134     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4135     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4136     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4137     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4138     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4139     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4140     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4141     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4142     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4143     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4144     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4145     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4146     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4147     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4148     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4149     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4150     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4151 
  4152   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4153   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4154 
  4155     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4156     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4157     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4158     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4159     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4160 
  4161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * Refined field classes:
  4164   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4165     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4166     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4167   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4169 
  4170 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4171   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4172   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4173   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4174     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4175   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4176     equal_neg_zero.
  4177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4180 sets to lattices:
  4181 
  4182   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4183   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4184   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4185   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4186   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4187   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4188   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4189   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4190   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4191   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4192 
  4193 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4194 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4195 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4196 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4197 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4198 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4201 multiset order:
  4202 
  4203   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4204     <= and <;
  4205   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4206     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4207     multiset_order;
  4208   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4209     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4210     generation;
  4211   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4212     if needed.
  4213 
  4214 Renamed:
  4215 
  4216   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4217   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4218   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4219 
  4220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4223 
  4224 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4225 
  4226 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4227 
  4228 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4229 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4230 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232   Constants:
  4233   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4234   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4235   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4236   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4237   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4238   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4239   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4240   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4241   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4242   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4243   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4244   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4245   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4246 
  4247   Lemmas:
  4248   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4249   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4250   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4251   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4252   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4253   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4254   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4255   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4256   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4257   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4258   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4259   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4260   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4261 
  4262 * Sledgehammer:
  4263   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4264     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4265     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4266     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4267     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4268     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4269     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4270   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4271   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4272     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4273   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4274     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4275     is still experimental.)
  4276   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4277     full-typed mode.
  4278   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4279 
  4280 * Nitpick:
  4281   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4282   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4283   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4284     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4285   - Added support for quotient types.
  4286   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4287     constructs.
  4288   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4289     "termination" proofs).
  4290   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4291   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4292   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4293   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4294     record getters.
  4295   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4296   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4297   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4298   - Added "atoms" option.
  4299   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4300     problems.
  4301   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4302     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4303     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4305     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4309   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4310   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4311   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4312   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4313   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4314   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4315   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4316   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4317   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4318 
  4319 
  4320 *** HOLCF ***
  4321 
  4322 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4323 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4324 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4325 
  4326 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4327 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4328 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4329 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4330 
  4331 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4332 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4333 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4334 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4335 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336 
  4337 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4338 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4339 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340 
  4341 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4342 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4345   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4346 
  4347 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4348 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4349 
  4350   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4351   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4352   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4353   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4354   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4355 
  4356 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4357 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4358 
  4359   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4360   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4361   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4362 
  4363 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4364 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4368 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4373 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375 
  4376 *** ML ***
  4377 
  4378 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4379 
  4380     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4381     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4382 
  4383     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4384     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4385     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4386     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4387 
  4388     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4389     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4390     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4391 
  4392 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4393 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4394 
  4395 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4396 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4397 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4398 
  4399 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4400 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4401 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4402 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4403 
  4404 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4405 the context or even global references.
  4406 
  4407 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4408 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4409 
  4410 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4411 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4412 
  4413   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4414   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4415   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4416   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4417   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4418   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4419   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4420   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4421   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4422   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4423 
  4424 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4425 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4426 
  4427 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4428 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4429 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4430 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4431 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4432 
  4433 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4434 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4435 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4436 Theory_Data version.
  4437 
  4438 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4439 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4440 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4441 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4442 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4443 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4444 explicitly in rare situations.
  4445 
  4446 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4447 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4451 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4454 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4455 quite rare).
  4456 
  4457 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4458 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4459 
  4460 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4461 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4462 terms.
  4463 
  4464 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4465 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4466 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4467 
  4468 
  4469 *** System ***
  4470 
  4471 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4472 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4473 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4474 
  4475 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4476 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4477 respectively.
  4478 
  4479 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4480 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4481 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4482 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4483 
  4484   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4485 
  4486 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4487 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4488 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4489 component.
  4490 
  4491 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4492 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4493 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4494 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4495 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4496 the user for manual installation.
  4497 
  4498 
  4499 
  4500 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4501 -------------------------------------
  4502 
  4503 *** General ***
  4504 
  4505 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4506 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4507 
  4508 
  4509 *** Pure ***
  4510 
  4511 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4512 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4513 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4514 
  4515 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4516 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4517 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4518 
  4519 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4520 interpretation.
  4521 
  4522 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4523 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 
  4526 *** Document preparation ***
  4527 
  4528 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4529 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4530 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4531 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4532 
  4533 
  4534 *** HOL ***
  4535 
  4536 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4537 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4538 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4539 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4540 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4541 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4542 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4543 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4544 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4545 
  4546 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4547 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4548 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4549 
  4550 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4551 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4552 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4553 
  4554 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4555 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4556 
  4557 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4558 
  4559 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4560 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4561 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4562 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4563 
  4564 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4565 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4566 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4567 "mirabelle" utility.
  4568 
  4569 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4570 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4571 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4572 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4573 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4574 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4575 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4576 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4577 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4578 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4579 
  4580 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4581 procedure only.
  4582 
  4583 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4584 
  4585 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4586 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4587 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4588 that fail later.
  4589 
  4590 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4591 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4592 
  4593 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4594 the same method as the approximation method.
  4595 
  4596 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4597 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4598 series expansion.
  4599 
  4600 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4601 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4602 
  4603 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4604 reals.
  4605 
  4606 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4607 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4608 
  4609 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4610 fixpoint theorem.
  4611 
  4612 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4613   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4614     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4615   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4616     accordingly
  4617   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4618     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4619   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4620     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4621 
  4622 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4623 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4624 lattice.
  4625 
  4626 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4627 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4628 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4629 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4630 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4631 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4633 
  4634 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4635   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4636     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4637   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4638     le_inf_iff
  4639   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4640     sup_aci)
  4641   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4642   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4643   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4644     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4645     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4646     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4647     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4648     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4649     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4650     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4651     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4652     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4653     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4654   - authentic syntax for
  4655     Set.Pow
  4656     Set.image
  4657   - mere abbreviations:
  4658     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4659     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4660     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4661     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4662     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4663     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4664     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4665     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4666   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4667 
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4669 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4670 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4671 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4672 
  4673 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4674 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4675 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4678 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4681 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4682 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4683 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4686 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4687 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4688 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4689 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4690 
  4691 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4692 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4694 
  4695 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4696 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4697 
  4698 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4699 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4700 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4701 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4702 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4703 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4704 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4708     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4709     code_post       replaces    code post
  4710     etc.
  4711   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 * Renamed methods:
  4714     sizechange -> size_change
  4715     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4716   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4717 
  4718 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4719 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4720 
  4721 * Renamed theorems:
  4722     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4723     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4724     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4725     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4726     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4727   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4734 
  4735 
  4736 *** HOLCF ***
  4737 
  4738 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4739 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4740 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4741 
  4742 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4743 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4744 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4745 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4746 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4747 
  4748 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4749 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4750 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4751 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4752 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4753 
  4754 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4755 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4756 constructor are pre-configured.
  4757 
  4758 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4759 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4760 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4761 
  4762 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4763 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4764 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4765 as well.)
  4766 
  4767 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4768 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4769 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4770 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4771 examples.
  4772 
  4773 
  4774 *** ML ***
  4775 
  4776 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4777 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4778 
  4779 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4780 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4781 position, logical grouping etc.
  4782 
  4783 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4784 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4785 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4786 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4787 
  4788 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4789 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4790 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4791 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4792 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4793 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4794 
  4795 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4796 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4797 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4798 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4799 experiments with references.
  4800 
  4801 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4802 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4803 
  4804 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4805 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4806 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4807 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4808 
  4809 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4810 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4811 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4812 
  4813 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4814 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4815 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4821 
  4822 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4823 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4824 
  4825 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4826 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4827 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4828 
  4829 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4830 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4831 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4832 
  4833 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4834 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4835 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4839 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4840 instead of global theory.
  4841 
  4842 
  4843 *** System ***
  4844 
  4845 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4846 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4847 usedir option -q.
  4848 
  4849 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4850 also the system manual.
  4851 
  4852 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4853 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4854 
  4855 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4856 this is always enabled.
  4857 
  4858 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4859 
  4860 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4861 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4862 currently supported on Linux only.
  4863 
  4864 
  4865 
  4866 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4867 --------------------------------
  4868 
  4869 *** General ***
  4870 
  4871 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4872 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4873 
  4874   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4875     "isatool."
  4876 
  4877   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4878     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4879 
  4880   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4881     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4882 
  4883 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4884 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4885 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4886 
  4887 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4888 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4889 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4890 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4891 via "isabelle emacs".
  4892 
  4893 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4894 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4895 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4896 
  4897 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4898 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4899 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4900 
  4901 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4902 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4903 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4904 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4905 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4906 
  4907 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4908 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4909 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4910 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4911 
  4912 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4913 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4914 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4915 
  4916 
  4917 *** Pure ***
  4918 
  4919 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4920 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4921 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4922 
  4923 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4924 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4925 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4926 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4927 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4928 
  4929 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4930 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4931 useful in locale declarations.
  4932 
  4933 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4934 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4935 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4936 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4937 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4938 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4939 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4940 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4941 no longer generated.
  4942 
  4943 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4944 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4945 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4946 
  4947 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4948 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4949 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4950 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4951 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4952 
  4953 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4955 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4956 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4957 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4958 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4959 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4960 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4961 
  4962 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4963 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4964 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4965 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4966 
  4967 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4968 
  4969 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4970 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4971 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4972 
  4973 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4974 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4975 
  4976 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4977 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4978 in HOL, write
  4979 
  4980     class foo = ...
  4981 
  4982 instead of
  4983 
  4984     class foo = type + ...
  4985 
  4986 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4987 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4988 
  4989 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4990 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4991 
  4992 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4993 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4994 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4995 
  4996 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4997 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4998 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4999 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5000 directly in regular applications.
  5001 
  5002 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5003 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5004 
  5005 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5006 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5007 
  5008 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5009 theory context.
  5010 
  5011 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5012 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5013 
  5014 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5015 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5016 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5017 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5018 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5019 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5020 
  5021   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5022 
  5023 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5024 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5025 normalization.
  5026 
  5027 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5028 addressing etc.
  5029 
  5030 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5031 
  5032   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5033   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5034 
  5035 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5036 
  5037   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5038      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5039      parts of the code generator framework).
  5040 
  5041   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5042      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5043      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5044 
  5045 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5048 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5049 
  5050 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5051 patterns, e.g.
  5052 
  5053     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5054 
  5055 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5056 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5057 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5058 hyphen:
  5059 
  5060     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5061 
  5062 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5063 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5064 
  5065 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5066 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5067 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5068 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5069 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5070 higher-order unification.
  5071 
  5072 
  5073 *** Document preparation ***
  5074 
  5075 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5076 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5077 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5078 
  5079 
  5080 *** HOL ***
  5081 
  5082 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5083 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5084 
  5085 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5086 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5087 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5088 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5089 Main, as before.
  5090 
  5091 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5092 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5093 
  5094 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5095 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5096 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5097 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5098 
  5099 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5100 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5101 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5102 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5103 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5104 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5105 
  5106 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5107 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5108 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5109 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5110 
  5111 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5112 menu.
  5113 
  5114 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5115 (contains the empty clause).
  5116 
  5117 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5118 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5119 
  5120 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5121 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5122 
  5123 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5124 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5125 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5126 
  5127 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5128 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5129 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5130 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5131 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5132 
  5133 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5134 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5135 
  5136 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5137 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5138 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5139 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5140 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5141 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5142 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5143 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5144 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5145 
  5146 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5147 
  5148 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5149 
  5150 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5151 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5152 
  5153 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5154 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5155 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5156 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5157 
  5158 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5159 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5160 
  5161     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5162     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5163     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5164     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5165     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5166     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5167     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5168     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5169 
  5170 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5171 theory Set.
  5172 
  5173 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5174 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5175 
  5176 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5177 
  5178 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5179 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5180 
  5181 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5182 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5183 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5184 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5185 allowed. For examples see
  5186 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5187 
  5188 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5189 
  5190 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5194 structure:
  5195 
  5196     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5197     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5198     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5199     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5200     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5201     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5202     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5203     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5204     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5205     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5206     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5207     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5208     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5209     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5210     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5211     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5212     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5213     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5214     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5215     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5216     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5217     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5218     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5219     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5220     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5221     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5222     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5223     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5224     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5225     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5226     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5227     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5228     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5229 
  5230     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5231     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5232     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5233     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5234     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5235     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5236     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5237     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5238     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5239     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5240 
  5241     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5242     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5243     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5244     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5245     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5246     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5247 
  5248 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5249 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5250 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5251 
  5252 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5253 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5254 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5255 
  5256 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5257 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5258 
  5259 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5260 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5261 
  5262 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5263 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5264 proofs, e.g.
  5265 
  5266   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5267 
  5268 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5269 
  5270 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5271 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5272 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5273 
  5274 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5275 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5277 
  5278 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5279 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5280 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5282 
  5283 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5285 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5286 preorder_class.*.
  5287 
  5288 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5289 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5290 
  5291 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5292 
  5293   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5294 
  5295 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5296 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5297 fold_image.
  5298 
  5299 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5300 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5301 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5302 the former will disappear at some point.
  5303 
  5304 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5305 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5306 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5307 
  5308 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5309 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5310 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5311 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5312 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5313 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5314 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5315 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5316 
  5317 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5318 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5319 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5320 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5321 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5322 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5323 
  5324     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5325     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5326     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5327     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5328     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5329     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5330     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5331 
  5332 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5333 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5334 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5335 
  5336 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5337 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5338 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5339 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5340 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5341 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5342 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5343 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5344 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5345 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5346 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5347 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5348 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5349 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5350 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5351 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5352 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5353 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5354 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5355 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5356 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5357 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5358 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5359 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5360 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5361 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5362 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5363 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5364 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5365 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5366 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5367 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5368 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5369 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5370 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5371 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5372 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5373 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5374 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5375 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5376 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5377 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5378 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5379 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5380 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5381 
  5382 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5383 
  5384 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5385 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5386 
  5387 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5388 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5389 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5390 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5391 
  5392 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5393 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5394 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5395 theory RealVector.
  5396 
  5397 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5398 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5399 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5400 and inner products are included.
  5401 
  5402 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5403 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5404 supported.
  5405 
  5406 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5407 first diagonalization argument.
  5408 
  5409 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5410 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5411 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5412 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5413 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5414 
  5415     hide (open) const gcd
  5416     abbreviation gcd where
  5417       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5418     notation (output)
  5419       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5420 
  5421 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5422 
  5423 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5424 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5425 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5426 
  5427 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5428 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5429 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5430 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5431 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5432 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5433 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5434 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5435 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5436 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5437 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5438 cases.
  5439 
  5440 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5441 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5442 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5443 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5444 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5445 
  5446     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5447     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5448     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5449     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5450     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5451 
  5452 
  5453 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5454 
  5455 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5456 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5457 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5458 
  5459 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5460 
  5461 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5462 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5463 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5464 
  5465 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5466 
  5467 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5468 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5469 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5470 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5471 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5472 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5473 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5474 
  5475 
  5476 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5477 
  5478 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5479 
  5480 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5481 theory targets.
  5482 
  5483 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5484 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5485 'inductive' etc.
  5486 
  5487 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5488 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5489 
  5490 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5491 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5492 
  5493 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5494 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5495 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5496 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5497 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5498 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5499 the algorithm W:
  5500 
  5501  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5502  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5503          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5504 
  5505 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5506 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5507 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5508 
  5509 
  5510 *** HOLCF ***
  5511 
  5512 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5513 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5514 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5515 
  5516 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5517 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5518 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5519 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5520 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5521 
  5522 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5523 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5524 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5525 
  5526 
  5527 *** ZF ***
  5528 
  5529 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5530 
  5531 
  5532 *** ML ***
  5533 
  5534 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5535 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5536 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5537 5.2.1!
  5538 
  5539 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5540 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5541 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5542 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5543 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5544 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5545 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5546 
  5547 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5548 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5549 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5550 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5551 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5552 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5553 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5554 
  5555 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5556 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5557 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5558 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5559 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5560 
  5561 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5562 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5563 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5564 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5565 Method.add_method.
  5566 
  5567 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5568 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5569 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5570 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5571 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5572 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5573 
  5574 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5575 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5576 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5577 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5578 examples.
  5579 
  5580 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5581 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5582 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5583 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5584 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5585 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5586 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5587 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5588 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5589 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5590 
  5591 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5592 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5593 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5594 
  5595 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5596 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5597 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5598 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5599 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5600 resort for legacy applications.
  5601 
  5602 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5603 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5604 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5605 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5606 explicit runtime argument.
  5607 
  5608 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5609 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5610 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5611 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5612 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5613 
  5614 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5615 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5616 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5617 theory state.
  5618 
  5619 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5620 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5621 
  5622   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5623   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5624   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5625   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5626   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5627   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5628   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5629   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5630   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5631   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5632 
  5633 
  5634 *** System ***
  5635 
  5636 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5637 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5638 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5639 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5640 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5641 
  5642 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5643 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5644 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5645 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5646 
  5647 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5648 
  5649 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5650 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5651 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5652 prover operations.
  5653 
  5654 
  5655 
  5656 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5657 -------------------------------
  5658 
  5659 *** General ***
  5660 
  5661 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5662 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5663 
  5664 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5665 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5666 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5667 provides a proper context already.
  5668 
  5669 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5670 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5671 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5672 
  5673 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5674 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5675 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5676 swap theory imports.
  5677 
  5678 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5679 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5680 
  5681 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5682 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5683 white space without escapes.
  5684 
  5685 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5686 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5687 "foo_bar".
  5688 
  5689 
  5690 *** Pure ***
  5691 
  5692 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5693 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5694 
  5695 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5696 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5697 
  5698 (1) unused_thms
  5699      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5700 
  5701 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5702      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5703      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5704 
  5705 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5706      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5707      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5708      their ancestors.
  5709 
  5710 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5711 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5712 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5713 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5714 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5715 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5716 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5717 
  5718 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5719 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5720 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5721 
  5722 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5723 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5724 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5725 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5726 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5727 
  5728 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5729 
  5730 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5731 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5732 update of theories within ML code.
  5733 
  5734 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5735 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5736 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5737 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5738 
  5739 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5740 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5741 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5743 
  5744 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5745 
  5746 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5747 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5748 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5749 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5750 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5751 
  5752 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5753 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5754 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5755 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5756 situations.
  5757 
  5758 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5759 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5760 proof text.
  5761 
  5762 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5763 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5764 
  5765 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5766 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5767 predicates.
  5768 
  5769 
  5770 *** Document preparation ***
  5771 
  5772 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5773 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5774 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5775 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5776 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5777 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5778 
  5779 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5780 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5781 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5782 
  5783 
  5784 *** HOL ***
  5785 
  5786 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5787 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5788 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5789 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5790 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5791 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5792 
  5793 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5794 with multithreading.
  5795 
  5796 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5797 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5798 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5799 
  5800 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5801 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5802 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5803 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5806 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5807 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5808 and makes them available separately.  See
  5809 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5810 
  5811 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5812 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5813 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5814 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5815 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5816 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5817 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5818 the declared rules.
  5819 
  5820 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5821 
  5822   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5823 
  5824 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5825 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5826 
  5827 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5828 
  5829   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5830 
  5831   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5832     definitions on => and bool.
  5833 
  5834   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5835     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5836     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5837 
  5838       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5839       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5840       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5841       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5842       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5843       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5844       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5845       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5846 
  5847   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5848     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5849     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5850 
  5851   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5852     The proof pattern
  5853 
  5854       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5855       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5856 
  5857     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5858     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5859 
  5860       have "EX S. P S"
  5861       proof
  5862         show "P S" <...>
  5863       qed
  5864 
  5865   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5866     The proof pattern
  5867 
  5868       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5869       also have "S = T" <...>
  5870       finally have "P T" .
  5871 
  5872     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5873     must be replaced by something like
  5874 
  5875       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5876       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5877       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5878 
  5879   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5880     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5881 
  5882       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5883 
  5884     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5885     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5886     type of the form
  5887 
  5888       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5889 
  5890     rather than
  5891 
  5892       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5893 
  5894 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5895 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5896 
  5897 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5898 
  5899 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5900 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5902 
  5903 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5904 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5905 
  5906 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5907 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5908 
  5909 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5910 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5911 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5912 
  5913 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5914 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5915 
  5916   less_trans
  5917   less_linear
  5918   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5919   le_less_trans
  5920   less_le_trans
  5921   less_not_sym
  5922   less_asym
  5923 
  5924 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5925 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5926 and different variable names.
  5927 
  5928 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5929 
  5930 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5931 finite maps.
  5932 
  5933 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5934 
  5935 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5936 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5937 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5938 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5939 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5940 accordingly.
  5941 
  5942 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5943 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5944 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5945 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5946 
  5947 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5948 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5949 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5950 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5951 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5955 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5956 
  5957 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5958 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5959 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5960 
  5961 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5963 
  5964 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5965 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5966 
  5967 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5968 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5969 
  5970 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5971 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5972 
  5973 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5974 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5976 
  5977 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5978 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5979 
  5980 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5981 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5982 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5983 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5984 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5985 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5986 
  5987 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5988 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5989 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5990 
  5991 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5992 
  5993 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5994 
  5995 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5996 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5997 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5998 
  5999 
  6000 *** ZF ***
  6001 
  6002 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6003 same session:
  6004 
  6005   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6006   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6007   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6008   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6009   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6010   List      -> List_ZF
  6011   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6012 
  6013 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6014 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6015 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6016 
  6017 
  6018 *** ML ***
  6019 
  6020 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6021 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6022 
  6023 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6024 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6025 
  6026 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6027 
  6028 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6029 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6030 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6031 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6032 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6033 
  6034 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6035 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6036 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6037 
  6038 
  6039 *** System ***
  6040 
  6041 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6042 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6043 
  6044 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6045 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6046 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6047 
  6048 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6049 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6050 
  6051 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6052 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6053 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6054 
  6055 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6056 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6057 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6058 
  6059 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6060 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6061 
  6062 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6063 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6064 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6065 script.
  6066 
  6067 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6068 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6069 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6070 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6071 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6072 
  6073 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6074 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6075 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6076 
  6077 
  6078 
  6079 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6080 -----------------------------------
  6081 
  6082 *** General ***
  6083 
  6084 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6085 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6086 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6087 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6088 
  6089 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6090 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6091 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6092 
  6093 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6094 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6095 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6096 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6097 
  6098 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6099 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6100 quotes.
  6101 
  6102 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6103 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6104 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6105 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6106 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6107 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6108 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6109 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6110 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6111 
  6112 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6113 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6114 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6115 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6116 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6117 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6118 
  6119 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6120 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6121 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6122 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6123 
  6124 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6125 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6126 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6127 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6128 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6129 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6130 
  6131 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6132 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6133 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6134 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6135 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6136 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6137 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6138 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6139 
  6140 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6141 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6142 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6143 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6144 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6145 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6146 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6147 
  6148 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6149 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6150 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6151 
  6152 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6153 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6154 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6155 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6156 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6157 limit is imposed.
  6158 
  6159 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6160 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6161 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6162 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6163 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6164 and scalability.
  6165 
  6166 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6167 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6168 
  6169 
  6170 *** Document preparation ***
  6171 
  6172 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6173 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6174 current context.
  6175 
  6176 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6177 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6178 
  6179 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6180 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6181 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6182 
  6183 
  6184 *** Pure ***
  6185 
  6186 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6187 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6188 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6189 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6190 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6191 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6192 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6193 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6194 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6195 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6196 
  6197 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6198 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6199 sketch:
  6200 
  6201     internal compilation:
  6202         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6203     writing SML code to a file:
  6204         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6205     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6206         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6207     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6208         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6209 
  6210     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6211         method ``eval''
  6212 
  6213 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6214 
  6215 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6216 
  6217     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6218     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6219     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6220     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6221 
  6222 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6223 
  6224     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6225       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6226 
  6227     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6228       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6229 
  6230     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6231       {(target)}+
  6232         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6233 
  6234     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6235       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6236         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6237 
  6238 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6239 
  6240 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6241 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6242 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6243 codegen".
  6244 
  6245 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6246 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6247 annotations).
  6248 
  6249 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6250 syntax.
  6251 
  6252 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6253 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6254 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6255 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6256 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6257 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6258 
  6259 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6260 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6261 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6262 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6263 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6264 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6265 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6266 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6267 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6268 equations, see section "definitions".