NEWS
author haftmann
Thu Oct 31 11:44:20 2013 +0100 (2013-10-31)
changeset 54227 63b441f49645
parent 54055 5bf55a713232
child 54228 229282d53781
permissions -rw-r--r--
moving generic lemmas out of theory parity, disregarding some unused auxiliary lemmas;
tuned presburger
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** HOL ***
     8 
     9 * Fact name generalization and consolidation:
    10   neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    11 
    12 
    13 
    14 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    15 -------------------------------------
    16 
    17 *** General ***
    18 
    19 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    20 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    21 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    24 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    27 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    28 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    29 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    30 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    31 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    32 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    33 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    34 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    35 syntax.
    36 
    37 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    38 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    41 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    42 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    43 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    44 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    45 
    46 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    47 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    48 
    49 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    50 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    51 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    52 
    53 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    54 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    55 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    56 
    57 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    58 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    59 
    60 
    61 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    62 
    63 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    64 Documentation panel.
    65 
    66 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    67 documentation.
    68 
    69 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    70 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    71 
    72 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    73 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    74 normal editing and checking process.
    75 
    76 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    77 timing information.
    78 
    79 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    80 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    81 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    82 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    83 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    84 
    85 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
    86 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    87 such command executions while editing.
    88 
    89 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    90 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    91 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    92 
    93 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    94 document content.
    95 
    96 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    97 toplevel theorem statements.
    98 
    99 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   100 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
   101 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
   102 
   103 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   104 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
   105 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   106 
   107 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   108 / Global Options / Appearance".
   109 
   110 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   111 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   112 
   113 
   114 *** Pure ***
   115 
   116 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   117 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   118 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   119 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   120 details.
   121 
   122 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   123 
   124 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   125 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   126 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   127 
   128 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   130 
   131 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   132 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   133 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   134 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   135 
   136 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   137 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   138 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   141 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   142 
   143 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   144 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   145 situations.
   146 
   147 
   148 *** HOL ***
   149 
   150 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   151 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   153 
   154 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   155 
   156 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   157 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   158 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   159 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   160 
   161   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   162 
   163 * Code generator:
   164   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   165     'code_instance'.
   166   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   167     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   168 
   169 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   170 examples.
   171 
   172 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   173 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   174 to distinguish both when desired.
   175 
   176 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   177 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   178 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   179 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   182 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   183 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   184 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   185 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   186 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   189 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   190 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   191 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   192 
   193 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   194 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   195 
   196 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   197 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   198 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   199 
   200 * Lifting:
   201   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   202     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in 
   203       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   204       transfer rules
   205     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   206       correspondence relation can be generated
   207     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   208       parametricity
   209     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   210   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   211   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   212     copies
   213   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   214     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   215     anonymous context)
   216   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in 
   217     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   218   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   219     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   220   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps. 
   221     INCOMPATIBILITY
   222 
   223 * Transfer:
   224   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T 
   225     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   226   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   227   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   228     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   229   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   230 
   231 * Reification and reflection:
   232   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   233     "Reification".
   234   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   235   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   239   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   240     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   241     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   242   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   243     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   244   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   245     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   246     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   247     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   248     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   249     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   250     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   251     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   252   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   253     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   254   - Fact renames:
   255       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   256       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   260 
   261 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   262 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   263 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   265 
   266 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   267 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   268 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   269 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   270 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   271 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   272 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   273 lemmas.
   274 
   275 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   276 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   277 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   278 
   279 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   280 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   281 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   282 
   283 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   284 top and bottom elements.
   285 
   286 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   287 
   288 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   289 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   290 
   291  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   292    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   293    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   294 
   295  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   296    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   297    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   298 
   299    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   300    arbitrary filter.
   301 
   302  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   303    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   304    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   305    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   306    on a compact set.
   307 
   308  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   309    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   310    linear_continuum_topology).
   311 
   312  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   313    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   314    on all sequences converging to x.
   315 
   316  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   317    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   318    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   319    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   320    left or right.
   321 
   322  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   323 
   324      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   325 
   326  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   327    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   328 
   329  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   330    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   331    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   332    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   333    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   334    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   335 
   336  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   337 
   338    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   339 
   340    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   341      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   342 
   343    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   344 
   345    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   346      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   347 
   348    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   349 
   350    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   351 
   352  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   353 
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * Nitpick:
   357   - Added option "spy"
   358   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   359 
   360 * Sledgehammer:
   361   - Renamed option:
   362       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   363     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   364   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   365   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   366   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   367 
   368 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   369 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   370 
   371 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   372   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   373   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   374     generated code.
   375   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   376   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   377   - Fact renames:
   378     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   379     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   380     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   381 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   384 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   385 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   386 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   387 
   388 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   389 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   390 
   391 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   392 
   393 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   394 
   395     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   396     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   397 
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   401 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   402 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   403 
   404 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   405 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   406 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   407 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * HOL-BNF:
   410   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   411     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   412     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   413     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   414   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   415     coinduct).
   416   - Renamed keywords:
   417     data ~> datatype_new
   418     codata ~> codatatype
   419     bnf_def ~> bnf
   420   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   421     discs ~> disc
   422     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   423     map_id' ~> map_id
   424     sels ~> sel
   425     set_map' ~> set_map
   426     sets ~> set
   427 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   428 
   429 
   430 *** ML ***
   431 
   432 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   433 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   434 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   435 Examples.thy in particular.
   436 
   437 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   438 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   439 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   440 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   441 
   442 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   443 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   444 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   445 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 
   448 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   449 
   450     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   451     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   452 
   453 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   456 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   457 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   458 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   459 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   460 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   461 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   462 
   463 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   464 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   465 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   466 clasets separately from the context.
   467 
   468 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   469 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   470 
   471 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   472 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   473 
   474 
   475 *** System ***
   476 
   477 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   478 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   479 
   480 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   481 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   484 settings variable.
   485 
   486 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   487 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   488 always pdf.
   489 
   490 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   491 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   492 
   493 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   494 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   495 
   496 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   497 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   498 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   499 
   500 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   501 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   502 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   503 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   504 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   505 for HTML presentation of theories.
   506 
   507 
   508 
   509 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   510 -----------------------------------
   511 
   512 *** General ***
   513 
   514 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   515 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   516 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   517 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   518 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   519 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   520 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   521 
   522 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   523 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   524 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   525 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   526 
   527 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   528 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   529 
   530 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   531 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   532 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   533 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   534 dependencies properly.
   535 
   536 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   537 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   538 
   539 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   540 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   541 
   542 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   543 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   544 and "class ... context ...".
   545 
   546 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   547 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   548 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   549 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   550 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   551 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   552 
   553 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   554 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   555 
   556 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   557 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   558 
   559 
   560 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   561 
   562 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   563 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   564 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   565 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   566 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   567 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   568 
   569 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   570 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   571 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   572 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   573 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   574 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   575 
   576 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   577 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   578 browser on demand.
   579 
   580 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   581 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   582 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   583 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   584 
   585 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   586 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   587 
   588 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   589 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   590 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   591 potentially infinite message streams.
   592 
   593 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   594 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   595 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   596 schemes.
   597 
   598 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   599 symbols.
   600 
   601 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   602 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   603 
   604 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   605 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   606 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   607 
   608 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   609 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   610 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   611 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   612 
   613 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   614 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   615 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   616 
   617 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   618 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   619 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   620 Isabelle distribution.
   621 
   622 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   623 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   624 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   625 
   626 
   627 *** Pure ***
   628 
   629 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   630 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   631 
   632 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   633 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   634 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   637 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   638 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   639 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   640 with some care where this is really required.
   641 
   642 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   643 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   644 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   645 
   646   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   647 
   648 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   649 a Hasse diagram.
   650 
   651 
   652 *** HOL ***
   653 
   654 * Sledgehammer:
   655 
   656   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   657     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   658   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   659   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   660   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   661   - Renamed options:
   662       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   663       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   664       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   665       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   666 
   667 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   668 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   669 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   670 
   671 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * Lifting:
   675   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   676   - quot_del attribute
   677   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   678 
   679 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   680 expressions.
   681 
   682 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   683 pointfree expressions.
   684 
   685 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   686 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   687 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   688 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   692 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   693 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   694 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   695 accordingly.
   696 
   697 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   698 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   701 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   706 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   707 
   708 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   709 
   710 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   711 
   712   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   713   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   714 
   715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   718 
   719   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   720   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   721 
   722 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   725 
   726   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   727     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   728     output f x converges to G.
   729 
   730   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   731     infinity (at_bot).
   732 
   733   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   734     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   735 
   736   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   737     at_top".
   738 
   739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   740 
   741 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   742 lattice type classes.
   743 
   744 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   745 
   746     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   747     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   748 
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   752 changes as follows.
   753 
   754   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   755 
   756       prefix ~> prefixeq
   757       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   758 
   759   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   760     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   761     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   762     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   763 
   764   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   765     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   766     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   767 
   768   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   769     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   770     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   771     Library/Prefix_Order.
   772 
   773   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   774     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   775 
   776       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   777       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   778       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   779       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   780       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   781       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   782       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   783       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   784       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   785       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   786       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   787       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   788       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   789       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   790       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   791       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   792 
   793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   794 
   795 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   796 
   797 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   798 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   799 
   800 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   801 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   802 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   803 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   804 
   805   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   806   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   807   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   808   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   809   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   810   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   811   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   812   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   813   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   814   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   815 
   816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817 
   818 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   819 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   820 Data").
   821 
   822 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   823 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   824 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   825 code.
   826 
   827 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   828 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   829 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   833 
   834 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   835 
   836 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   837 
   838   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   839   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   840 
   841 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   842 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   843 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   844 
   845   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   846 
   847     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   848     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   849     cart_base i  removed
   850     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   851 
   852   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   853 
   854   Renamed lemmas:
   855 
   856     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   857     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   858     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   859     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   860     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   861     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   862     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   863     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   864     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   865     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   866 
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * HOL/Probability:
   870 
   871   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   872 
   873   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   874     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   875     (borel_measurable_induct).
   876 
   877   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   878     projective family).
   879 
   880 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   881 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   882 
   883 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   884 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   885 datatypes.
   886 
   887 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   888 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   889 
   890 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   891 trees for the code generator.
   892 
   893 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   894 Lifting/Transfer.
   895 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   899 
   900 
   901 *** Document preparation ***
   902 
   903 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   904 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   905 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   906 
   907 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   908 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   909 
   910 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   911 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   912 document/root.tex.
   913 
   914 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   915 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 
   918 *** ML ***
   919 
   920 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   921 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   922 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   923 
   924 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   925 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   926 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   927 
   928 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   929 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   930 necessarily printing visible text.
   931 
   932 
   933 *** System ***
   934 
   935 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   936 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   937 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   938 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   939 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   940 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   941 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   942 
   943 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   944 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   945 
   946   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   947 
   948 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   949 
   950 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   951 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   952 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   953 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   954 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   955 
   956 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   957 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   958 
   959 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   960 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   961 
   962 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   964 
   965 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   966 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   967 version of Isabelle.
   968 
   969 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   970 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   971 
   972 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   973 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   974 for home-made settings.
   975 
   976 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   977 
   978 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   979 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   980 configuration.
   981 
   982 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   983 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   984 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   985 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   986 bundled as Isabelle component.
   987 
   988 
   989 
   990 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   991 ------------------------------
   992 
   993 *** General ***
   994 
   995 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   996 
   997   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   998     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   999   - markup for bound variables
  1000   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1001   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1002   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1003     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1004 
  1005 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1006 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1007 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1008 
  1009 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1010 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1011 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1012 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1013 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1014 
  1015   context
  1016     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1017     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1018   begin
  1019 
  1020   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1021 
  1022   end
  1023 
  1024   thm my_trans
  1025 
  1026 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1027 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1028 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1029 
  1030 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1031 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1032 
  1033 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1034 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1035 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1036 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1037 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1038 
  1039 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1040 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1041 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1042 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1043 indices of schematic variables.
  1044 
  1045 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1046 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1047 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1048 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1049 etc. was exploited.
  1050 
  1051 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1052 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1053 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1054 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1055 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1056 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1057 
  1058 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1059 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1060 manual.
  1061 
  1062 
  1063 *** Pure ***
  1064 
  1065 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1066 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1067 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1068 
  1069 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1070 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1071 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1072 undocumented feature.)
  1073 
  1074 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1075 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1076 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1077 
  1078   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1079 
  1080   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1081     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1082 
  1083 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1084 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1085 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1086 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1087 
  1088 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1089 
  1090     num ~> num_token
  1091     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1092     xstr ~> str_token
  1093 
  1094 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1095 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1096 position information via constraints).
  1097 
  1098 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1099 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1100 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1101 
  1102 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1103 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1104 
  1105 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1106 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1107 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1110 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1113 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1114 
  1115   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1116 
  1117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1118 
  1119 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1120 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1121 
  1122 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1123 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1124 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1125 
  1126 
  1127 *** HOL ***
  1128 
  1129 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1130 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1131 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1132 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1133 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1134 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1135 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1136 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1137 possible.
  1138 
  1139 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1140 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1141 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1142 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1143 
  1144 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1145 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1148 
  1149 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1150 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1151 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1152 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1153 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1154 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1155 
  1156   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1157     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1158 
  1159   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1160     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1161     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1162 
  1163   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1164     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1165 
  1166   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1167     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1168     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1169 
  1170   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1171     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1172 
  1173 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1174 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1175 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1176 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1177 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1178 
  1179   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1180     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1181     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1182     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1183     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1184 
  1185     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1186     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1187 
  1188   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1189     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1190     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1191     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1192     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1193     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1194     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1195     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1196 
  1197   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1198     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1199     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1200     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1201 
  1202   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1203     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1204     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1205     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1206 
  1207   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1208     from type nat to type int.
  1209 
  1210 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1211 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1212 
  1213   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1214     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1215     type.  Example syntax:
  1216 
  1217     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1218       is List.insert
  1219 
  1220     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1221     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1222     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1223     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1224     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1225     by the package.
  1226 
  1227   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1228     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1229     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1230     code generation for each constant.
  1231 
  1232   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1233     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1234     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1235     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1236     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1237 
  1238   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1239     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1240     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1241 
  1242 * Quotient package:
  1243 
  1244   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1245     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1246 
  1247   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1248     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1249 
  1250   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1251     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1252     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1253 
  1254   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1255     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1256 
  1257 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1258 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1259 
  1260 * Quickcheck:
  1261 
  1262   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1263     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1264     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1265     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1266     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1267 
  1268     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1269     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1270     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1271 
  1272     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1273     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1274 
  1275     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1276     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1277     show genuine counterexamples.
  1278 
  1279   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1280     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1281 
  1282     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1283     constructors of that type.
  1284 
  1285   - Support for multisets.
  1286 
  1287   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1288 
  1289   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1290     conjectures in a locale context.
  1291 
  1292 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1293 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1294 
  1295 * Sledgehammer:
  1296   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1297     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1298   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1299   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1300     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1301   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1302   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1303   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1304   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1305 
  1306 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1307 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1308 
  1309 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1310 
  1311 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1312 
  1313 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1314 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1315 
  1316   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1317 
  1318 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1319 a list and a nat.
  1320 
  1321 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1322 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1323 
  1324 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1325 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1326 default.
  1327 
  1328 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1329 
  1330   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1331 
  1332 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1333 
  1334 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1335 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1336 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1337 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1338 one_case.
  1339 
  1340 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1341 the result of the fact expression.
  1342 
  1343 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1344 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1345 of some relation theorems:
  1346 
  1347   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1348   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1349   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1350   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1351   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1352   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1353 
  1354 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1355 
  1356 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1357 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1358 
  1359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1360 
  1361 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1362 to match the constant's name:
  1363 
  1364   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1365   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1366   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1367   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1368   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1369   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1370   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1371   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1372   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1373   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1374   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1375   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1376   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1377   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1378   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1379   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1380   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1381   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1382   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1383   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1384   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1385   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1386   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1387   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1388 
  1389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1390 
  1391 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1392 and corresponding theorem names:
  1393 
  1394   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1395 
  1396   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1397 
  1398   - Renamed theorems:
  1399 
  1400     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1401     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1402     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1403     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1404     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1405     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1406     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1407     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1408     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1409     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1410     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1411     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1412     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1413     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1414     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1415     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1416     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1417     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1418     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1419     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1420     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1421     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1422     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1423 
  1424     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1425 
  1426     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1427 
  1428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1431 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1432 
  1433   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1434   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1435   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1436   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1437   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1438   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1439   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1440   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1441   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1442   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1443   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1444   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1445   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1446   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1447   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1448   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1449   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1450   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1451   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1452   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1453   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1454 
  1455 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1456 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1461 
  1462   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1463   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1464   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1465   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1466   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1467   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1468   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1469   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1470   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1471   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1472   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1473   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1474   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1475   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1476   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1477   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1478   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1479   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1480 
  1481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1482 
  1483 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1484 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1485 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1486 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1487 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1488 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1489 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1490 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1491 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1492 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1493 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1494 
  1495 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1496 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1497 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1498 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1499 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1500 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1501 
  1502 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1503 through option types.
  1504 
  1505 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1506 relations.
  1507 
  1508 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1511 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1512 
  1513   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1514   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1515   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1516   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1517   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1518   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1519   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1520   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1521   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1522   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1523   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1524   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1525   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1526   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1527   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1528   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1529   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1530   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1531   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1532   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1533   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1534   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1535   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1536   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1537   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1538   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1539   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1540   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1541   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1542   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1543   zless_le ~> less_le
  1544   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1545   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1546   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1547 
  1548 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1549 
  1550   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1551 
  1552 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1553 
  1554 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1555 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1556 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1557 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1559 
  1560 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1561 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1562 
  1563 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1564 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1565 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1566 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1567 follows:
  1568 
  1569   Operations:
  1570   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1571   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1572   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1573   del -> rbt_del
  1574   delete -> rbt_delete
  1575   ins -> rbt_ins
  1576   insert -> rbt_insert
  1577   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1578   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1579   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1580   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1581   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1582   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1583   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1584   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1585   union -> rbt_union
  1586   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1587   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1588 
  1589   Lemmas:
  1590   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1591   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1592   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1593   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1594   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1595   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1596   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1597   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1598   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1599   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1600   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1601   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1602   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1603   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1604   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1605   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1606   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1607   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1608   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1609   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1610   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1611   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1612   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1613   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1614   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1615   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1616   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1617   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1618   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1619   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1620   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1621   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1622   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1623   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1624   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1625   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1626   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1627   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1628   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1629   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1630   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1631   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1632   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1633   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1634   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1635   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1636   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1637   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1638   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1639   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1640   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1641   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1642   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1643   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1644   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1645   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1646   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1647   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1648   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1649   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1650   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1651   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1652   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1653   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1654   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1655   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1656   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1657   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1658   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1659   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1660   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1661   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1662   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1663   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1664   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1665   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1666   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1667   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1668   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1669   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1670   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1671   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1672   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1673 
  1674 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1675 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1676 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678   Changed Operations:
  1679   float_abs -> abs
  1680   float_nprt -> nprt
  1681   float_pprt -> pprt
  1682   pow2 -> use powr
  1683   round_down -> float_round_down
  1684   round_up -> float_round_up
  1685   scale -> exponent
  1686 
  1687   Removed Operations:
  1688   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1689 
  1690   Renamed Lemmas:
  1691   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1692   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1693   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1694   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1695   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1696   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1697   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1698   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1699   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1700   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1701   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1702   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1703   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1704   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1705   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1706   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1707   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1708   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1709   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1710   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1711   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1712   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1713   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1714   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1715   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1716   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1717   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1718   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1719   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1720   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1721   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1722   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1723   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1724   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1725   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1726   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1727 
  1728   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1729   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1730   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1731   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1732   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1733   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1734   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1735   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1736   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1737   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1738 
  1739 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1740 association lists with distinct keys.
  1741 
  1742 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1743 annotated commands.
  1744 
  1745 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1746 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1747 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1748 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749 
  1750 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1751 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1752 instead.
  1753 
  1754   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1755   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1756   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1757   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1758   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1759   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1760   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1761   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1762   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1763   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1764   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1765   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1766   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1767   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1768   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1769   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1770   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1771   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1772   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1773   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1774   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1775   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1776   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1777   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1778   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1779   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1780   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1781   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1782   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1783   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1784   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1785   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1786   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1787   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1788   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1789   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1790   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1791   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1792   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1793   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1794   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1795 
  1796 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1797 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1798 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1799 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1800 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1801 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1802 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1803 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1804 
  1805 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1806 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1807 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1808 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1809 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1810 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1811 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1812 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1813 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1814 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1815 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1816 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1817 
  1818   Renamed constants:
  1819   measure -> emeasure
  1820   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1821   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1822   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1823   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1824 
  1825   Removed locales:
  1826   completeable_measure_space
  1827   finite_measure_space
  1828   finite_prob_space
  1829   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1830   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1831   finite_sigma_algebra
  1832   measure_space
  1833   pair_finite_prob_space
  1834   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1835   pair_finite_space
  1836   pair_sigma_algebra
  1837   product_sigma_algebra
  1838 
  1839   Removed constants:
  1840   conditional_space
  1841   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1842   image_space
  1843   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1844   pair_measure_generator
  1845   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1846   subvimage
  1847 
  1848   Replacement theorems:
  1849   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1850   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1851   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1852   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1853   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1854   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1855   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1856   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1857   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1858   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1859   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1860   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1861   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1862   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1863   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1864   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1865   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1866   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1867   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1868   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1869   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1870   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1871   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1872   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1873   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1874   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1875   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1876   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1877   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1878   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1879   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1880   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1881   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1882   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1883   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1884   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1885   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1886   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1887   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1888   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1889   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1890   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1891   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1892   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1893   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1894   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1895   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1896   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1897   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1898   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1899   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1900   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1901   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1902   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1903   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1904   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1905   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1906   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1907   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1908   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1909   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1910   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1911   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1912   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1913   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1914   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1915   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1916   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1917   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1918   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1919   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1920   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1921   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1922   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1923   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1924   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1925   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1926   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1927   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1928   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1929   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1930   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1931   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1932   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1933   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1934   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1935   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1936   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1937   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1938   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1939   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1940   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1941   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1942   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1943   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1944   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1945   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1946   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1947   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1948   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1949   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1950   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1951   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1952   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1953   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1954   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1955   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1956   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1957   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1958   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1959   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1960   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1961   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1962   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1963   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1964   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1965   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1966   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1967   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1968   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1969   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1970   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1971   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1972   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1973   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1974   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1975   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1976   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1977 
  1978 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1979 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1980 
  1981 
  1982 *** FOL ***
  1983 
  1984 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1985 
  1986 
  1987 *** ZF ***
  1988 
  1989 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1990 analysis.
  1991 
  1992 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1993 
  1994 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 
  1997 *** ML ***
  1998 
  1999 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2000 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2001 
  2002 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2003 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2004 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2005 
  2006 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2007 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2008 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2009 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2010 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2011 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2012 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2013 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2014 
  2015 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2016 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2017 
  2018 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2019 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2020 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2021 
  2022 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2023 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2026 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2027 context as well.
  2028 
  2029 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2030 
  2031   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2032   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2033   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2034   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2035   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2036   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2037   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2038   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2039   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2040   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2041   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2042   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2043 
  2044 
  2045 *** System ***
  2046 
  2047 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2048 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2049 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2050 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2051 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2052 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2053 the generic user home was intended.
  2054 
  2055 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2056 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2057 
  2058 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2059 (not just JRE).
  2060 
  2061 
  2062 
  2063 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2064 ------------------------------------
  2065 
  2066 *** General ***
  2067 
  2068 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2069 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2070 
  2071   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2072     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2073     files for checking).
  2074 
  2075   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2076     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2077     positions.
  2078 
  2079   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2080     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2081     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2082 
  2083   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2084     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2085     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2086 
  2087   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2088     cores.
  2089 
  2090   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2091     versions (garbage collection).
  2092 
  2093 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2094 including some remaining limitations.
  2095 
  2096 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2097 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2098 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2099 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2100 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2102 
  2103 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2104 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2105 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2106 
  2107 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2108 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2109 usedir option -Q.
  2110 
  2111 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2112 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2113 
  2114   long_names   ~> names_long
  2115   short_names  ~> names_short
  2116   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2117 
  2118 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2119 
  2120   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2121 
  2122 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2123 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2124 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2125 
  2126 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2127 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2128 
  2129 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2130   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2131   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2132   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2133     "Classical Reasoner".
  2134 
  2135 
  2136 *** HOL ***
  2137 
  2138 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2139 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2142 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2143 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2144 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2145 class complete_linorder.
  2146 
  2147 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2148 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2149 
  2150 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2151 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2152 
  2153   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2154   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2155   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2156   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2157   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2158   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2159   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2160   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2161   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2162   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2163   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2164 
  2165 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2166 
  2167   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2168   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2169   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2170   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2171   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2172   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2173   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2174   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2175   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2176   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2177   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2178   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2179   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2180   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2181   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2182   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2183 
  2184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2190 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2191 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2192 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2193 
  2194 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2195 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2196 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2198 
  2199 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2200 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2201 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2202 
  2203 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2204 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2205 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2208 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2209 
  2210 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2211 
  2212     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2213     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2214 
  2215 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2216 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2219 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2222 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2223 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2224 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2227   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2228   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2229   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2230   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2231   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2232   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2233 
  2234 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2235 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2238   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2239   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2240   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2241   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2242   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2243   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2244   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2245   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2246   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2247   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2248   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2249   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2250   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2251   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2252   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2253   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2254   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2255   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2256   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2257   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2258   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2259   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2260   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2261   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2262   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2263   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2264   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2265   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2266   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2267   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2268   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2269   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2270   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2271   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2272   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2273   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2274   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2275   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2276   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2277   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2278   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2279   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2280   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2281   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2282   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2283   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2284   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2285   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2286   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2287   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2288   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2289   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2290   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2291   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2292   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2293   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2294   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2295   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2296   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2297   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2298   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2299   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2300   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2301   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2302   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2303   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2304   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2305   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2306   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2307   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2308   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2309   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2310   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2311   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2312   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2313   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2314   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2315   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2316   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2317   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2318   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2319 
  2320 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2321 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2322 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2323 
  2324 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2325 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2326 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2327 
  2328 * Code generation:
  2329 
  2330   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2331     characters in the target language.
  2332 
  2333   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2334     instead.
  2335 
  2336   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2337 
  2338   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2339     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2340 
  2341       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2342 
  2343 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2346 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2347 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2348 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2349 syntax.
  2350 
  2351 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2352 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2353 
  2354 * Nitpick:
  2355   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2356   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2357   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2358     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Sledgehammer:
  2361   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2362   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2363     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2364   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2365     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2366   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2367     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2368   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2369     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2370   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2371     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2372 
  2373 * Metis:
  2374   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2376     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2377 
  2378 * Command 'try':
  2379   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2380     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2382     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2383 
  2384 * Quickcheck:
  2385   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2386     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2387   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2388     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2389   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2390     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2391     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2392     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2393   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2394     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2395 
  2396 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2397 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2398 
  2399 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2400 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2401 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2402 
  2403 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2404 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2408 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2409 
  2410 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2411 arithmetic.
  2412 
  2413 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2414 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2415 and lattice type classes.
  2416 
  2417 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2418 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2419 
  2420 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2421 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2422 
  2423 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2424 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2425 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2426 
  2427   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2428   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2429   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2430   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2431 
  2432 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2433 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2434 constants:
  2435 
  2436   type inat   ~> type enat
  2437   Fin         ~> enat
  2438   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2439   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2440   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2441 
  2442 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2443 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444 
  2445 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2446 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2447 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2448 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2449 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2450 
  2451 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2452 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2453 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2454 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2455 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2456 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2457 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2458 
  2459   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2460   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2461   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2462   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2463 
  2464 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2465 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2466 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2469   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2470   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2471   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2472   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2473   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2474   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2475   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2476   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2477   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2478   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2479   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2480   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2481   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2482   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2483   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2484   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2485   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2486   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2487   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2488   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2489   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2490   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2491   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2492   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2493   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2494   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2495   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2496   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2497   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2498   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2499   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2500   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2501   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2502   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2503   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2504   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2505   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2506   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2507   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2508   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2509   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2510   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2511   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2512   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2513   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2514   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2515   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2516   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2517   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2518   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2519 
  2520 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2521   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2522   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2523   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2524   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2525     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2526 
  2527 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2530   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2531   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2532   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2533   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2534   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2535   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2536   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2537   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2538   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2539   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2540   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2541   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2542   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2543   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2544   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2545   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2546   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2547   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2548   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2549   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2550   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2551   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2552   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2553   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2554 
  2555 
  2556 *** Document preparation ***
  2557 
  2558 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2559 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2560 same.
  2561 
  2562 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2563 result.
  2564 
  2565 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2566 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2567 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2568 
  2569 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2570 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2571 
  2572 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2573 like this:
  2574 
  2575   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2576   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2577 
  2578 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2579 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2580 layouts.
  2581 
  2582 
  2583 *** ML ***
  2584 
  2585 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2586 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2587 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2588 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2589 under external program control.
  2590 
  2591 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2592 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2593 
  2594 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2595 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2596 (better known as Proof General).
  2597 
  2598 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2599 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2600 
  2601 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2602 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2603 
  2604 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2605 (including quotes etc.).
  2606 
  2607 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2608 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2609 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2610 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2611 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2612 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2613 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2614 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2615 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2616 
  2617 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2618 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2619 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2620 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2621 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2622 
  2623 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2624 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2625 
  2626 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2627 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2628 
  2629 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2630 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2631 
  2632 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2633 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2634 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2635 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2636 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2638 proper Proof.context.
  2639 
  2640 
  2641 *** System ***
  2642 
  2643 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2644 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2645 
  2646 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2647 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2648 
  2649 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2650 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2651 
  2652   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2653   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2654   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2655   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2656   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2657 
  2658 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2659 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2660 
  2661 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2662 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2663 example:
  2664 
  2665   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2666 
  2667 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2668 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2669 
  2670 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2671 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2672 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2673 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2674 
  2675 
  2676 
  2677 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2678 ----------------------------------
  2679 
  2680 *** General ***
  2681 
  2682 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2683 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2684 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2685 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2686 like this:
  2687 
  2688   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2689 
  2690 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2691 
  2692 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2693 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2694 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2695 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2696 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2697 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2698 
  2699 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2700 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2701 the following package declarations:
  2702 
  2703   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2704   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2705 
  2706 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2707 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2708 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2709 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2710 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2711 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2712 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2713 
  2714 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2715 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2716 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2717 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2718 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2719 
  2720 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2721 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2722 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2723 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2724 
  2725 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2726 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2727 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2728 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2729 
  2730   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2731 
  2732   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2733   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2734   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2735   show_types                    show_types
  2736   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2737   show_consts                   show_consts
  2738   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2739 
  2740   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2741   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2742   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2743 
  2744   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2745   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2746 
  2747   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2748 
  2749   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2750   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2751   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2752   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2753   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2754 
  2755 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2756 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2757 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2758 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2759 
  2760 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2764   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2765 
  2766 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2767 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2768 float_token.
  2769 
  2770 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2771 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2775 DejaVu Sans.
  2776 
  2777 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2778 
  2779 
  2780 *** Pure ***
  2781 
  2782 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2783 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2784 time.
  2785 
  2786 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2787 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2790 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2793 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2794 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2795 command already provided this functionality.
  2796 
  2797 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2798 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2799 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2800 without interpretations.
  2801 
  2802 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2803 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2804 
  2805 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2806 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2807 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2808 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2809 
  2810 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2811 'definition' instead.
  2812 
  2813 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2814 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2815 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2816 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2817 
  2818 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2819 constructors.
  2820 
  2821 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2822 the local file system.
  2823 
  2824 
  2825 *** HOL ***
  2826 
  2827 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2828 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2829 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2830 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2831 
  2832   declare [[coercion f]]
  2833 
  2834 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2835 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2836 
  2837   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2838 
  2839 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2840 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2841 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2842 other theories like this:
  2843 
  2844   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2845 
  2846 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2847 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2848 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2849 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2850 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2851 for examples.
  2852 
  2853 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2854 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2857 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2858 
  2859 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2860 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2861 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2862 
  2863 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2864 functorial structure of types.
  2865 
  2866 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2867 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2868 
  2869 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2870 languages.
  2871 
  2872 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2873 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2877 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2880 combinators any longer.
  2881 
  2882 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2883 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2884 
  2885 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2886 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2887 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2888 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2889 
  2890   record 'a foo = ...
  2891   ...
  2892   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2893 
  2894 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2895 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897 
  2898 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2899 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2900 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2901 
  2902 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2903 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2904 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2905 
  2906 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2907 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2910 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2911 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2912 independently.
  2913 
  2914 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2915 counter example search.
  2916 
  2917 * Sledgehammer:
  2918   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2919     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2920     sledgehammer").
  2921   - Renamed commands:
  2922     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2923     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2924     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2925     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926   - Renamed options:
  2927     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2928     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2929     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2930     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2931     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2932 
  2933 * Nitpick:
  2934   - Renamed options:
  2935     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2936     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2937     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2938   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2939   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2940   - Added "whack" option.
  2941   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2942   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2943   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2944   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2945     higher cardinalities.
  2946   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2947 
  2948 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2949 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2950 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2951 
  2952     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2953 
  2954 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2955 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2956 
  2957 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2958 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2959 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2960 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2961 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2962 "smt_solver".
  2963 
  2964 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2965 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2966 
  2967 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2968 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2969 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2970 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2973   - Renamed:
  2974     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2975     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2976     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977   - Added:
  2978     smt_verbose
  2979     smt_random_seed
  2980     smt_datatypes
  2981     smt_infer_triggers
  2982     smt_monomorph_limit
  2983     cvc3_options
  2984     remote_cvc3_options
  2985     remote_z3_options
  2986     yices_options
  2987 
  2988 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2989 header.
  2990 
  2991 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2992 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2993 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2994 
  2995   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2996 
  2997 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3000 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3005 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3008 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3009 
  3010 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3011 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3014 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3015 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3023 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3026 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3027 for congruent(2)).
  3028 
  3029 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3030 
  3031   types
  3032     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3033     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3034 
  3035   constants
  3036     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3037     True ~> HOL.True
  3038     False ~> HOL.False
  3039     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3040     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3041     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3042     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3043     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3044     The ~> HOL.The
  3045     All ~> HOL.All
  3046     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3047     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3048     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3049     If ~> HOL.If
  3050     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3051     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3052     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3053     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3054     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3055     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3056     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3057     op : ~> Set.member
  3058     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3059 
  3060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3063 
  3064     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3065     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3066     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3067     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3068     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3069     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3070     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3071     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3072 
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * More stylized fact names:
  3076 
  3077   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3078   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3079   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3080   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3081 
  3082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3085 
  3086   constants
  3087     null ~> List.null
  3088 
  3089   facts
  3090     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3091     null_empty ~> null_def
  3092 
  3093 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3094 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3095 generation.
  3096 
  3097 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3098 Haskell code.
  3099 
  3100 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3101 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3102 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103 
  3104 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3105 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106 
  3107 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3108 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3109 
  3110 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3111 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3112 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3115 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116 
  3117 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3119 
  3120 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3121 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3122 referred to by its qualified name.
  3123 
  3124   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3125   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3126   product ~>  Enum.product
  3127 
  3128 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3129 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3133 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3134 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3138 sort_key.
  3139 
  3140 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3144 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3145 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3146 
  3147   types
  3148     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3149               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3150               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3151         (depends on your needs)
  3152 
  3153   constants
  3154      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3155      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3156      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3157 
  3158 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3159 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3160 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3161 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3164 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3165 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3166 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3167 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3173 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3174 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3175 
  3176 
  3177 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3178 
  3179 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3180 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3181 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3182 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3183 compatibility.
  3184 
  3185 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3186 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3187 
  3188 
  3189 *** HOLCF ***
  3190 
  3191 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3192 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3193 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195 
  3196 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3197 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3198 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3201   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3202   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3203 
  3204 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3205 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3206 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3209 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3210 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3211 domain definition now works:
  3212 
  3213   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3214 
  3215 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3216 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3217 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3218 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3219 
  3220   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3221     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3222 
  3223   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3224 
  3225 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3226 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3227 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228 
  3229 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3230 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231 
  3232 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3233 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3234 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3235 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3236 
  3237 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3238 
  3239 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3247 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3248 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3249 
  3250 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3251 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3252 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3255 still supported as an input translation.
  3256 
  3257 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3258 
  3259   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3260   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3261   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3262   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3263   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3264   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3265   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3266 
  3267 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3268 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3271   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3272   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3273   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3274   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3275   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3276 
  3277 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3278 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3281 
  3282   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3283   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3284   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3285   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3286 
  3287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288 
  3289 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3290 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3293 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3296   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3297   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3298   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3299   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3300   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3301   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3302   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3303   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3304   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3305   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3306   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3307   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3308   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3309   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3310   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3311   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3312   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3313   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3314   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3315 
  3316 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3319   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3320   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3321   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3322   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3323   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3324   box_less             ~> box_below
  3325   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3326   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3327   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3328   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3329   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3330   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3331   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3332   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3333   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3334   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3335   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3336   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3337   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3338   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3339   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3340   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3341   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3342   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3343   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3344   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3345   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3346   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3347   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3348   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3349   up_less              ~> up_below
  3350   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3351   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3352   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3353   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3354   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3355   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3356   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3357   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3358   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3359   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3360   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3361   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3362   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3363 
  3364 
  3365 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3366 
  3367 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3368 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369 
  3370 
  3371 *** ML ***
  3372 
  3373 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3374 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3375 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3376 
  3377 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3378 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3379 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3380 
  3381 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3382 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3383 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3384 
  3385 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3386 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3387 
  3388 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3389 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3390 
  3391 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3392 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3393 
  3394 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3395 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3396 
  3397 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3398 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3399 almost all situations.
  3400 
  3401 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3402 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3403 Isabelle/ML.
  3404 
  3405 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3406 meaning.
  3407 
  3408 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3409 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3410 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3411 
  3412 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3413 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3414 
  3415 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3416 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3417 
  3418 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3419 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3420 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3421 
  3422 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3423 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3424 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3425 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3426 configuration options.
  3427 
  3428 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3429 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3430 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3431 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3432 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3433 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3434 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3435 
  3436 
  3437 
  3438 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3439 ---------------------------------
  3440 
  3441 *** General ***
  3442 
  3443 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3444 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3445 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3446 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3447 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3448 their full internal name.
  3449 
  3450 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3451 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3452 Some hints on upgrading:
  3453 
  3454   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3455     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3456     which are independent of this issue.
  3457 
  3458   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3459     provides the following special forms:
  3460 
  3461       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3462       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3463       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3464 
  3465     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3466     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3467     extra variables".
  3468 
  3469     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3470     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3471     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3472     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3473     "logic".
  3474 
  3475   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3476     antiquotations:
  3477 
  3478       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3479       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3480       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3481       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3482 
  3483   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3484     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3485     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3486     antiquotations.
  3487 
  3488 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3489 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3490 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3491 diagnose syntax problems.
  3492 
  3493 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3494 
  3495 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3496 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3497 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3498 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3499 
  3500 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3501 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3502 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3503 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3506 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3507 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3508 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3509 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3512 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3513 
  3514 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3515 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3516 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3517 
  3518   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3519 
  3520 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3521 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3522 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3523 
  3524 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3525 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3529 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3530 
  3531 
  3532 *** Pure ***
  3533 
  3534 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3535 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3536 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3537 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3538 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3539 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3540 inspect proof terms.
  3541 
  3542 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3543 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3544 are added internally.  For example:
  3545 
  3546   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3547 
  3548 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3549 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3554 'class' instead.
  3555 
  3556 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3557 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3561 invariants.
  3562 
  3563 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3564 user space functionality any longer.
  3565 
  3566 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3567 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3571 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3572 
  3573 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3574 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3575 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3576 
  3577 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3578 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3579 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3580 
  3581 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3582 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 
  3585 *** HOL ***
  3586 
  3587 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3588 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3589 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3590 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3591 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3592 
  3593 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3594 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3595 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3596 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3597 
  3598   fun
  3599     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3600   where
  3601     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3602 
  3603   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3604     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3605 
  3606   quotient_definition
  3607     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3608 
  3609 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3610 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3611 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3612 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3613 
  3614 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3615 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3616 
  3617 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3618 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3619 
  3620 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3622 
  3623 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3624 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3625 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3626 
  3627 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3628 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3637 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3640 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3641 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3642 
  3643   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3644   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3645   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3646   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3647   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3648   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3649   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3650   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3651   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3652   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3653   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3654   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3655   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3656   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3657   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3658   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3659   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3660   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3661   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3662   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3663   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3664   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3665   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3666   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3667   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3668   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3669   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3670   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3671   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3672   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3673 
  3674 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3675 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3676 
  3677 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3678 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3679 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3680 
  3681 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3682 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3683 
  3684 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3685 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686 
  3687 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3688 
  3689 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3690 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3693 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3698 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3699 
  3700 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3701 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3702 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3703 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3706   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3707   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3708   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3710 
  3711 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3712 lattices):
  3713 
  3714     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3715     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3716 
  3717     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3718 
  3719     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3720     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3721     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3722     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3723     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3724     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3725     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3726     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3727     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3728     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3729     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3730     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3731     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3732 
  3733     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3734     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3735     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3736     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3737     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3738     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3739     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3740     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3741     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3742     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3743     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3744     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3745     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3746     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3747     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3748     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3749     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3750     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3751 
  3752   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3753   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3754 
  3755     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3756     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3757     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3758     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3759     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3760 
  3761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Refined field classes:
  3764   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3765     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3766     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3767   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3771   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3772   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3773   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3774     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3775   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3776     equal_neg_zero.
  3777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3780 sets to lattices:
  3781 
  3782   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3783   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3784   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3785   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3786   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3787   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3788   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3789   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3790   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3791   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3792 
  3793 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3794 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3795 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3796 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3797 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3798 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3801 multiset order:
  3802 
  3803   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3804     <= and <;
  3805   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3806     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3807     multiset_order;
  3808   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3809     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3810     generation;
  3811   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3812     if needed.
  3813 
  3814 Renamed:
  3815 
  3816   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3817   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3818   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3819 
  3820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3823 
  3824 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3825 
  3826 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3827 
  3828 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3829 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3830 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832   Constants:
  3833   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3834   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3835   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3836   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3837   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3838   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3839   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3840   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3841   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3842   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3843   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3844   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3845   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3846 
  3847   Lemmas:
  3848   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3849   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3850   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3851   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3852   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3853   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3854   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3855   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3856   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3857   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3858   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3859   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3860   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3861 
  3862 * Sledgehammer:
  3863   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3864     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3865     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3866     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3867     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3868     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3869     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3871   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3872     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3873   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3874     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3875     is still experimental.)
  3876   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3877     full-typed mode.
  3878   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3879 
  3880 * Nitpick:
  3881   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3882   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3883   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3884     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3885   - Added support for quotient types.
  3886   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3887     constructs.
  3888   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3889     "termination" proofs).
  3890   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3891   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3892   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3893   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3894     record getters.
  3895   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3896   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3897   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3898   - Added "atoms" option.
  3899   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3900     problems.
  3901   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3902     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3903     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3905     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3909   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3910   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3911   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3912   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3913   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3914   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3915   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3916   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3917   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 
  3920 *** HOLCF ***
  3921 
  3922 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3923 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3924 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3927 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3928 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3929 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3932 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3933 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3934 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3935 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3938 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3939 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3942 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3945   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3946 
  3947 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3948 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3951   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3952   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3953   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3954   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3955 
  3956 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3957 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3960   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3961   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3962 
  3963 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3964 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3968 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3973 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 
  3976 *** ML ***
  3977 
  3978 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3979 
  3980     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3981     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3982 
  3983     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3984     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3985     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3986     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3987 
  3988     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3989     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3990     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3991 
  3992 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3993 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3994 
  3995 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3996 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3997 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3998 
  3999 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4000 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4001 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4002 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4003 
  4004 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4005 the context or even global references.
  4006 
  4007 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4008 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4009 
  4010 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4011 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4012 
  4013   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4014   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4015   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4016   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4017   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4018   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4019   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4020   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4021   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4022   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4023 
  4024 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4025 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4026 
  4027 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4028 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4029 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4030 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4031 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4032 
  4033 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4034 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4035 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4036 Theory_Data version.
  4037 
  4038 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4039 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4040 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4041 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4042 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4043 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4044 explicitly in rare situations.
  4045 
  4046 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4047 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4051 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4054 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4055 quite rare).
  4056 
  4057 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4058 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4061 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4062 terms.
  4063 
  4064 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4065 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4066 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4067 
  4068 
  4069 *** System ***
  4070 
  4071 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4072 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4073 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4074 
  4075 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4076 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4077 respectively.
  4078 
  4079 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4080 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4081 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4082 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4083 
  4084   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4085 
  4086 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4087 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4088 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4089 component.
  4090 
  4091 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4092 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4093 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4094 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4095 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4096 the user for manual installation.
  4097 
  4098 
  4099 
  4100 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4101 -------------------------------------
  4102 
  4103 *** General ***
  4104 
  4105 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4106 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4107 
  4108 
  4109 *** Pure ***
  4110 
  4111 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4112 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4113 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4114 
  4115 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4116 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4117 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4118 
  4119 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4120 interpretation.
  4121 
  4122 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4123 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 
  4126 *** Document preparation ***
  4127 
  4128 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4129 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4130 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4131 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4132 
  4133 
  4134 *** HOL ***
  4135 
  4136 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4137 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4138 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4139 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4140 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4141 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4142 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4143 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4144 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4145 
  4146 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4147 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4148 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4149 
  4150 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4151 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4152 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4153 
  4154 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4155 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4156 
  4157 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4158 
  4159 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4160 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4161 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4162 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4163 
  4164 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4165 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4166 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4167 "mirabelle" utility.
  4168 
  4169 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4170 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4171 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4172 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4173 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4174 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4175 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4176 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4177 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4178 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4179 
  4180 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4181 procedure only.
  4182 
  4183 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4184 
  4185 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4186 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4187 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4188 that fail later.
  4189 
  4190 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4191 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4192 
  4193 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4194 the same method as the approximation method.
  4195 
  4196 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4197 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4198 series expansion.
  4199 
  4200 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4201 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4202 
  4203 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4204 reals.
  4205 
  4206 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4207 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4208 
  4209 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4210 fixpoint theorem.
  4211 
  4212 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4213   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4214     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4215   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4216     accordingly
  4217   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4218     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4219   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4220     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4221 
  4222 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4223 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4224 lattice.
  4225 
  4226 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4227 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4228 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4229 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4230 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4231 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4233 
  4234 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4235   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4236     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4237   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4238     le_inf_iff
  4239   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4240     sup_aci)
  4241   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4242   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4243   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4244     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4245     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4246     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4247     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4248     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4249     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4250     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4251     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4252     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4253     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4254   - authentic syntax for
  4255     Set.Pow
  4256     Set.image
  4257   - mere abbreviations:
  4258     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4259     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4260     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4261     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4262     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4263     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4264     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4265     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4266   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4267 
  4268 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4269 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4270 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4271 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4272 
  4273 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4274 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4275 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4276 
  4277 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4278 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4281 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4282 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4283 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4286 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4287 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4288 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4289 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4290 
  4291 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4292 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4296 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4297 
  4298 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4299 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4300 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4301 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4302 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4303 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4304 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4308     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4309     code_post       replaces    code post
  4310     etc.
  4311   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Renamed methods:
  4314     sizechange -> size_change
  4315     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4316   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4319 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4320 
  4321 * Renamed theorems:
  4322     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4323     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4324     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4325     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4326     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4327   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4331 
  4332 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4334 
  4335 
  4336 *** HOLCF ***
  4337 
  4338 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4339 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4340 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4341 
  4342 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4343 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4344 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4345 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4346 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4347 
  4348 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4349 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4350 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4351 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4352 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4353 
  4354 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4355 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4356 constructor are pre-configured.
  4357 
  4358 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4359 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4360 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4361 
  4362 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4363 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4364 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4365 as well.)
  4366 
  4367 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4368 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4369 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4370 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4371 examples.
  4372 
  4373 
  4374 *** ML ***
  4375 
  4376 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4377 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4378 
  4379 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4380 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4381 position, logical grouping etc.
  4382 
  4383 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4384 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4385 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4386 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4387 
  4388 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4389 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4390 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4391 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4392 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4393 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4394 
  4395 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4396 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4397 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4398 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4399 experiments with references.
  4400 
  4401 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4402 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4403 
  4404 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4405 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4406 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4407 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4408 
  4409 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4410 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4411 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4412 
  4413 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4414 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4415 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4418 
  4419 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4423 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4424 
  4425 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4426 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4427 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4428 
  4429 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4430 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4431 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4434 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4435 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4437 
  4438 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4439 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4440 instead of global theory.
  4441 
  4442 
  4443 *** System ***
  4444 
  4445 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4446 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4447 usedir option -q.
  4448 
  4449 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4450 also the system manual.
  4451 
  4452 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4453 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4454 
  4455 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4456 this is always enabled.
  4457 
  4458 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4459 
  4460 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4461 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4462 currently supported on Linux only.
  4463 
  4464 
  4465 
  4466 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4467 --------------------------------
  4468 
  4469 *** General ***
  4470 
  4471 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4472 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4473 
  4474   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4475     "isatool."
  4476 
  4477   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4478     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4479 
  4480   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4481     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4482 
  4483 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4484 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4485 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4486 
  4487 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4488 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4489 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4490 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4491 via "isabelle emacs".
  4492 
  4493 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4494 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4495 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4496 
  4497 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4498 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4499 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4500 
  4501 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4502 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4503 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4504 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4505 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4506 
  4507 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4508 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4509 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4510 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4511 
  4512 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4513 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4514 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4515 
  4516 
  4517 *** Pure ***
  4518 
  4519 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4520 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4521 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4522 
  4523 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4524 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4525 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4526 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4527 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4528 
  4529 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4530 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4531 useful in locale declarations.
  4532 
  4533 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4534 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4535 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4536 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4537 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4538 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4539 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4540 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4541 no longer generated.
  4542 
  4543 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4544 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4545 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4546 
  4547 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4548 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4549 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4550 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4551 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4552 
  4553 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4554 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4555 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4556 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4557 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4558 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4559 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4560 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4561 
  4562 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4563 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4564 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4565 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4566 
  4567 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568 
  4569 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4570 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4571 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4572 
  4573 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4574 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4577 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4578 in HOL, write
  4579 
  4580     class foo = ...
  4581 
  4582 instead of
  4583 
  4584     class foo = type + ...
  4585 
  4586 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4587 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4590 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4591 
  4592 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4593 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4594 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4595 
  4596 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4597 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4598 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4599 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4600 directly in regular applications.
  4601 
  4602 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4603 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4604 
  4605 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4606 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4607 
  4608 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4609 theory context.
  4610 
  4611 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4612 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4615 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4616 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4617 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4618 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4619 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4620 
  4621   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4622 
  4623 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4624 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4625 normalization.
  4626 
  4627 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4628 addressing etc.
  4629 
  4630 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4631 
  4632   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4633   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4634 
  4635 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4636 
  4637   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4638      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4639      parts of the code generator framework).
  4640 
  4641   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4642      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4643      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4644 
  4645 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4648 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4649 
  4650 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4651 patterns, e.g.
  4652 
  4653     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4654 
  4655 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4656 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4657 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4658 hyphen:
  4659 
  4660     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4661 
  4662 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4663 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4664 
  4665 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4666 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4667 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4668 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4669 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4670 higher-order unification.
  4671 
  4672 
  4673 *** Document preparation ***
  4674 
  4675 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4676 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4677 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4678 
  4679 
  4680 *** HOL ***
  4681 
  4682 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4683 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4684 
  4685 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4686 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4687 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4688 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4689 Main, as before.
  4690 
  4691 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4692 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4693 
  4694 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4695 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4696 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4697 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4698 
  4699 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4700 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4701 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4702 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4703 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4704 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4705 
  4706 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4707 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4708 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4709 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4710 
  4711 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4712 menu.
  4713 
  4714 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4715 (contains the empty clause).
  4716 
  4717 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4718 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4719 
  4720 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4721 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4722 
  4723 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4724 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4725 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4728 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4729 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4730 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4731 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4732 
  4733 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4734 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4735 
  4736 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4737 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4738 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4739 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4740 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4741 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4742 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4743 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4744 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4745 
  4746 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4747 
  4748 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4749 
  4750 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4751 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4752 
  4753 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4754 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4755 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4756 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4757 
  4758 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4759 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4760 
  4761     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4762     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4763     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4764     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4765     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4766     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4767     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4768     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4769 
  4770 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4771 theory Set.
  4772 
  4773 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4774 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4775 
  4776 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4777 
  4778 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4779 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4780 
  4781 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4782 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4783 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4784 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4785 allowed. For examples see
  4786 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4787 
  4788 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4789 
  4790 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4792 
  4793 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4794 structure:
  4795 
  4796     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4797     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4798     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4799     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4800     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4801     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4802     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4803     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4804     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4805     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4806     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4807     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4808     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4809     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4810     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4811     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4812     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4813     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4814     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4815     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4816     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4817     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4818     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4819     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4820     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4821     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4822     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4823     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4824     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4825     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4826     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4827     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4828     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4829 
  4830     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4831     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4832     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4833     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4834     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4835     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4836     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4837     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4838     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4839     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4840 
  4841     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4842     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4843     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4844     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4845     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4846     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4847 
  4848 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4849 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4850 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4851 
  4852 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4853 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4854 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4855 
  4856 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4857 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4858 
  4859 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4860 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4861 
  4862 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4863 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4864 proofs, e.g.
  4865 
  4866   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4867 
  4868 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4869 
  4870 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4871 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4872 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4873 
  4874 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4875 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4879 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4880 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4884 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4885 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4886 preorder_class.*.
  4887 
  4888 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4889 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4890 
  4891 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4892 
  4893   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4894 
  4895 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4896 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4897 fold_image.
  4898 
  4899 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4900 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4901 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4902 the former will disappear at some point.
  4903 
  4904 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4905 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4906 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4907 
  4908 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4909 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4910 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4911 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4912 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4913 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4914 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4915 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4916 
  4917 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4918 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4919 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4920 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4921 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4922 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4923 
  4924     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4925     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4926     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4927     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4928     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4929     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4930     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4931 
  4932 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4933 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4934 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4935 
  4936 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4937 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4938 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4939 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4940 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4941 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4942 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4943 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4944 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4945 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4946 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4947 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4948 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4949 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4950 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4951 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4952 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4953 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4954 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4955 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4956 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4957 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4958 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4959 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4960 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4961 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4962 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4963 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4964 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4965 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4966 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4967 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4968 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4969 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4970 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4971 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4972 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4973 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4974 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4975 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4976 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4977 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4978 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4979 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4980 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4981 
  4982 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4983 
  4984 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4985 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4986 
  4987 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4988 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4989 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4990 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4991 
  4992 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4993 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4994 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4995 theory RealVector.
  4996 
  4997 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4998 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4999 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5000 and inner products are included.
  5001 
  5002 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5003 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5004 supported.
  5005 
  5006 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5007 first diagonalization argument.
  5008 
  5009 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5010 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5011 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5012 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5013 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5014 
  5015     hide (open) const gcd
  5016     abbreviation gcd where
  5017       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5018     notation (output)
  5019       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5020 
  5021 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5022 
  5023 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5024 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5025 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 
  5027 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5028 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5029 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5030 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5031 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5032 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5033 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5034 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5035 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5036 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5037 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5038 cases.
  5039 
  5040 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5041 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5042 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5043 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5044 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5045 
  5046     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5047     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5048     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5049     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5050     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5051 
  5052 
  5053 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5054 
  5055 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5056 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5057 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5058 
  5059 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5060 
  5061 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5062 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5063 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5064 
  5065 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5066 
  5067 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5068 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5069 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5070 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5071 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5072 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5073 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5074 
  5075 
  5076 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5077 
  5078 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5079 
  5080 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5081 theory targets.
  5082 
  5083 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5084 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5085 'inductive' etc.
  5086 
  5087 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5088 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5089 
  5090 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5091 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5092 
  5093 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5094 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5095 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5096 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5097 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5098 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5099 the algorithm W:
  5100 
  5101  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5102  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5103          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5104 
  5105 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5106 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5107 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5108 
  5109 
  5110 *** HOLCF ***
  5111 
  5112 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5113 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5114 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5115 
  5116 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5117 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5118 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5119 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5120 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5121 
  5122 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5123 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5124 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 
  5127 *** ZF ***
  5128 
  5129 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5130 
  5131 
  5132 *** ML ***
  5133 
  5134 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5135 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5136 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5137 5.2.1!
  5138 
  5139 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5140 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5141 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5142 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5143 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5144 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5145 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5146 
  5147 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5148 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5149 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5150 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5151 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5152 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5153 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5154 
  5155 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5156 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5157 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5158 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5159 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5160 
  5161 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5162 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5163 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5164 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5165 Method.add_method.
  5166 
  5167 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5168 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5169 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5170 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5171 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5172 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5173 
  5174 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5175 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5176 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5177 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5178 examples.
  5179 
  5180 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5181 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5182 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5183 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5184 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5185 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5186 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5187 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5188 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5189 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5190 
  5191 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5192 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5193 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5194 
  5195 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5196 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5197 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5198 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5199 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5200 resort for legacy applications.
  5201 
  5202 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5203 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5204 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5205 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5206 explicit runtime argument.
  5207 
  5208 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5209 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5210 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5211 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5212 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5213 
  5214 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5215 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5216 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5217 theory state.
  5218 
  5219 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5220 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5221 
  5222   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5223   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5224   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5225   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5226   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5227   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5228   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5229   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5230   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5231   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5232 
  5233 
  5234 *** System ***
  5235 
  5236 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5237 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5238 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5239 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5240 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5241 
  5242 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5243 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5244 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5245 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5246 
  5247 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5248 
  5249 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5250 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5251 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5252 prover operations.
  5253 
  5254 
  5255 
  5256 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5257 -------------------------------
  5258 
  5259 *** General ***
  5260 
  5261 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5262 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5263 
  5264 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5265 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5266 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5267 provides a proper context already.
  5268 
  5269 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5270 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5271 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5272 
  5273 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5274 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5275 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5276 swap theory imports.
  5277 
  5278 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5279 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5280 
  5281 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5282 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5283 white space without escapes.
  5284 
  5285 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5286 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5287 "foo_bar".
  5288 
  5289 
  5290 *** Pure ***
  5291 
  5292 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5293 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5294 
  5295 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5296 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5297 
  5298 (1) unused_thms
  5299      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5300 
  5301 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5302      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5303      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5304 
  5305 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5306      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5307      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5308      their ancestors.
  5309 
  5310 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5311 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5312 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5313 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5314 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5315 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5316 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5317 
  5318 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5319 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5320 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5321 
  5322 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5323 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5324 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5325 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5326 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5327 
  5328 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5329 
  5330 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5331 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5332 update of theories within ML code.
  5333 
  5334 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5335 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5336 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5337 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5338 
  5339 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5340 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5341 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5343 
  5344 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5345 
  5346 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5347 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5348 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5349 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5350 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5351 
  5352 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5353 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5354 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5355 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5356 situations.
  5357 
  5358 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5359 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5360 proof text.
  5361 
  5362 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5363 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5364 
  5365 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5366 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5367 predicates.
  5368 
  5369 
  5370 *** Document preparation ***
  5371 
  5372 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5373 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5374 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5375 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5376 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5377 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5378 
  5379 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5380 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5381 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5382 
  5383 
  5384 *** HOL ***
  5385 
  5386 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5387 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5388 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5389 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5390 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5391 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5392 
  5393 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5394 with multithreading.
  5395 
  5396 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5397 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5398 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5399 
  5400 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5401 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5402 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5403 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404 
  5405 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5406 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5407 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5408 and makes them available separately.  See
  5409 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5410 
  5411 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5412 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5413 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5414 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5415 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5416 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5417 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5418 the declared rules.
  5419 
  5420 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5421 
  5422   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5423 
  5424 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5425 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5426 
  5427 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5428 
  5429   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5430 
  5431   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5432     definitions on => and bool.
  5433 
  5434   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5435     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5436     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5437 
  5438       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5439       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5440       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5441       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5442       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5443       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5444       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5445       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5446 
  5447   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5448     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5449     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5450 
  5451   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5452     The proof pattern
  5453 
  5454       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5455       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5456 
  5457     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5458     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5459 
  5460       have "EX S. P S"
  5461       proof
  5462         show "P S" <...>
  5463       qed
  5464 
  5465   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5466     The proof pattern
  5467 
  5468       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5469       also have "S = T" <...>
  5470       finally have "P T" .
  5471 
  5472     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5473     must be replaced by something like
  5474 
  5475       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5476       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5477       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5478 
  5479   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5480     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5481 
  5482       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5483 
  5484     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5485     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5486     type of the form
  5487 
  5488       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5489 
  5490     rather than
  5491 
  5492       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5493 
  5494 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5495 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5496 
  5497 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5498 
  5499 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5500 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5504 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5507 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5510 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5511 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5512 
  5513 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5514 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5515 
  5516   less_trans
  5517   less_linear
  5518   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5519   le_less_trans
  5520   less_le_trans
  5521   less_not_sym
  5522   less_asym
  5523 
  5524 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5525 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5526 and different variable names.
  5527 
  5528 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5529 
  5530 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5531 finite maps.
  5532 
  5533 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5534 
  5535 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5536 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5537 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5538 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5539 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5540 accordingly.
  5541 
  5542 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5543 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5544 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5545 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5546 
  5547 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5548 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5549 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5550 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5551 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5553 
  5554 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5555 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5556 
  5557 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5558 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5559 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5560 
  5561 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5565 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5566 
  5567 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5568 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5569 
  5570 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5571 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5572 
  5573 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5574 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5576 
  5577 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5578 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5579 
  5580 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5581 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5582 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5583 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5584 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5585 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5586 
  5587 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5588 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5589 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5590 
  5591 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5592 
  5593 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5594 
  5595 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5596 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5597 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5598 
  5599 
  5600 *** ZF ***
  5601 
  5602 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5603 same session:
  5604 
  5605   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5606   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5607   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5608   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5609   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5610   List      -> List_ZF
  5611   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5612 
  5613 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5614 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5615 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5616 
  5617 
  5618 *** ML ***
  5619 
  5620 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5621 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5622 
  5623 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5624 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5625 
  5626 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5627 
  5628 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5629 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5630 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5631 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5632 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5633 
  5634 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5635 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5636 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5637 
  5638 
  5639 *** System ***
  5640 
  5641 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5642 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5643 
  5644 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5645 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5646 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5647 
  5648 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5649 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5650 
  5651 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5652 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5653 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5654 
  5655 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5656 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5657 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5658 
  5659 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5660 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5661 
  5662 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5663 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5664 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5665 script.
  5666 
  5667 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5668 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5669 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5670 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5671 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5672 
  5673 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5674 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5675 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5676 
  5677 
  5678 
  5679 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5680 -----------------------------------
  5681 
  5682 *** General ***
  5683 
  5684 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5685 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5686 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5687 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5688 
  5689 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5690 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5691 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5692 
  5693 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5694 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5695 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5696 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5697 
  5698 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5699 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5700 quotes.
  5701 
  5702 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5703 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5704 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5705 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5706 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5707 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5708 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5709 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5710 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5711 
  5712 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5713 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5714 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5715 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5716 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5717 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5718 
  5719 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5720 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5721 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5722 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5723 
  5724 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5725 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5726 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5727 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5728 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5729 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5730 
  5731 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5732 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5733 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5734 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5735 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5736 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5737 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5738 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5739 
  5740 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5741 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5742 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5743 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5744 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5745 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5746 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5747 
  5748 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5749 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5750 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5751 
  5752 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5753 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5754 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5755 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5756 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5757 limit is imposed.
  5758 
  5759 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5760 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5761 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5762 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5763 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5764 and scalability.
  5765 
  5766 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5767 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5768 
  5769 
  5770 *** Document preparation ***
  5771 
  5772 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5773 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5774 current context.
  5775 
  5776 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5777 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5778 
  5779 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5780 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5781 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5782 
  5783 
  5784 *** Pure ***
  5785 
  5786 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5787 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5788 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5789 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5790 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5791 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5792 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5793 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5794 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5795 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5796 
  5797 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5798 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5799 sketch:
  5800 
  5801     internal compilation:
  5802         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5803     writing SML code to a file:
  5804         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5805     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5806         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5807     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5808         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5809 
  5810     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5811         method ``eval''
  5812 
  5813 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5814 
  5815 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5816 
  5817     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5818     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5819     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5820     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5821 
  5822 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5823 
  5824     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5825       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5826 
  5827     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5828       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5829 
  5830     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5831       {(target)}+
  5832         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5833 
  5834     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5835       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5836         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5837 
  5838 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5839 
  5840 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5841 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5842 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5843 codegen".
  5844 
  5845 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5846 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5847 annotations).
  5848 
  5849 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5850 syntax.
  5851 
  5852 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5853 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5854 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5855 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5856 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5857 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5858 
  5859 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5860 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5861 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5862 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5863 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5864 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5865 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5866 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5867 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5868 equations, see section "definitions".
  5869 
  5870 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5871 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5872 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5873 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5874 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5875 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5876 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5877 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5878 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5879 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5880 
  5881 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5882 configuration options:
  5883 
  5884   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5885   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5886   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5887   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5888   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5889   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5890   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5891   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5892   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5893 
  5894 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5895 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5896 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5897 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5898 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5899 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5900 order.
  5901 
  5902 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5903 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5904 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5905 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5906 context encountered later on.
  5907 
  5908 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5909 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5910 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5911 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5912 
  5913 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5914 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5915 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5916 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5917 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5918 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5919 
  5920 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5921 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5922 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5923 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5924 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5925 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5926 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5927 more permissive.
  5928 
  5929 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5930 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5931 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5932 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5933 maintainability of proof texts.
  5934 
  5935 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5936 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5937 
  5938   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5939   then guess x and y by clarify
  5940 
  5941 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5942 proof tools being involved here.
  5943 
  5944 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5945 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5946 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5947 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5948 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5949 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5950 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5951 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5952 
  5953 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5954 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5955 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5956 
  5957   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5958   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5959   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5960   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5961 
  5962 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5963 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5964 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5965 
  5966 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5967 both named and unnamed ones.
  5968 
  5969 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5970 
  5971   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5972 
  5973 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5974 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5975 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5976 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5977 
  5978 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5979 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5980 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5981 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5982 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5983 
  5984 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5985 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5986 
  5987 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5988 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5989 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5990 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5991 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5992 originally first one.
  5993 
  5994 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5995 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5996 expected.
  5997 
  5998 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5999 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6000 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6001 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6002 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6003 
  6004   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6005     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6006     obtains x where "P x"
  6007 
  6008   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6009     assumes "A & B"
  6010     obtains A and B
  6011 
  6012   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6013     assumes "A | B"
  6014     obtains
  6015       A
  6016     | B
  6017 
  6018 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6019 explicitly:
  6020 
  6021   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6022     obtains "~ thesis"
  6023 
  6024   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6025     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6026 
  6027 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6028 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6029 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6030 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6031 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6032 case_names).
  6033 
  6034 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6035 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6036 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6037 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6038 
  6039 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6040 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6041 top-level lemma.
  6042 
  6043 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6044 introduction rule (default "that").
  6045 
  6046 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6047 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6048 to occur.
  6049 
  6050 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6051 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6052 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6053 representations independently of name spaces.
  6054 
  6055 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6056 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6057 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6058 
  6059 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6060 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6061 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6062 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6063 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6064 current context.
  6065 
  6066 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6067 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6068 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6069 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6070 
  6071   axiomatization
  6072     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6073     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6074 
  6075   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6076   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6077 
  6078   abbreviation
  6079     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6080     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6081 
  6082 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6083 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6084 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6085 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6086 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6087 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6088 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6089 
  6090 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6091 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6092 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6093 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6094 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6095 
  6096 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6097 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6098 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6099 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6100 
  6101 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6102 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6103 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6104 
  6105   definition "K x _ = x"
  6106 
  6107   inductive conj for A B
  6108   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6109 
  6110 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6111 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6112 abbreviations on output.
  6113 
  6114 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6115 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6116 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6117 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6118 
  6119 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6120 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6121 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6122 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6123 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6124 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6125 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6126 
  6127 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6128 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6129 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6130 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6131 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6132 
  6133 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6134 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6135 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6136 
  6137 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6138 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6139 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6140 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6141 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6142 
  6143   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6144     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6145 
  6146 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6147 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6148 partial_order.
  6149 
  6150 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6151 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6152 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6153 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6154 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6155 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6156 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6157 examples.
  6158 
  6159 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6160 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6161 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6162 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6163 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6164 
  6165 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6166 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6167 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6168 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6169 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6170 
  6171   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6172   (induct set: foo bar)
  6173   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6174   (induct type: foo bar)
  6175 
  6176 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6177 new format.
  6178 
  6179 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6180 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6181 
  6182 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6183 considered a legacy feature.
  6184 
  6185 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6186 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6187 
  6188 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6189 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6190 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6191 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6192   
  6193 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6194 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6195 manipulating the claset.
  6196 
  6197 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6198 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6199 least one premise.
  6200 
  6201 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6202 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6203 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6204 rule steps.
  6205 
  6206 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6207 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6208 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6209 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6210 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6211 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6212 
  6213 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6214 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6215 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6216 
  6217 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6218 the graph browser tool.
  6219 
  6220 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6221 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6222 
  6223 
  6224 *** HOL ***
  6225 
  6226 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6227 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6228 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6229 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6230 multi-threading.
  6231   
  6232 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6233 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6234 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6235 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6236 work with multi-threading.
  6237 
  6238 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6239 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6240 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6241 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6242 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6243 
  6244 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6245 
  6246 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6247 equality.
  6248 
  6249 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6250 the new 'class' package:
  6251 
  6252     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6253     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6254     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero