NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Aug 17 17:35:07 2012 +0200 (2012-08-17)
changeset 48844 6408fb6f7d81
parent 48792 4aa5b965f70e
child 48890 d72ca5742f80
permissions -rw-r--r--
some explanations on isabelle components;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    19 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    20 
    21 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    22 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    23 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    27 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    28 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    29 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    30 with some care where this is really required.
    31 
    32 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    33 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    34 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    35 
    36   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    37 
    38 
    39 *** HOL ***
    40 
    41 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    42 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    43 
    44 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    45 expressions.
    46 
    47 * Quickcheck:
    48 
    49   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    50     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    51     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    52 
    53 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    54 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    55 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    56 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    57 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    58 
    59 * Sledgehammer:
    60 
    61   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    62     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    63   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    64   - Renamed options:
    65       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    66       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    67 
    68 
    69 *** Document preparation ***
    70 
    71 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    72 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    73 
    74 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
    75 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
    76 document/root.tex.
    77 
    78 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
    79 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    80 
    81 
    82 *** System ***
    83 
    84 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
    85 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
    86 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
    87 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
    88 
    89 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
    90 
    91 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
    92 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
    93 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
    94 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
    95 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
    96 
    97 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
    98 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
    99 
   100   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   101 
   102 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   103 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   104 
   105 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   106 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   107 "isabelle usedir".
   108 
   109 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   110 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   111 version of Isabelle.
   112 
   113 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   114 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   115 configuration.
   116 
   117 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   118 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   119 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   120 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   121 bundled as Isabelle component.
   122 
   123 
   124 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   125 ------------------------------
   126 
   127 *** General ***
   128 
   129 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   130 
   131   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   132     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   133   - markup for bound variables
   134   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   135   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   136   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   137     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   138 
   139 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   140 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   141 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   142 
   143 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   144 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   145 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   146 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   147 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   148 
   149   context
   150     fixes x y z :: 'a
   151     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   152   begin
   153 
   154   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   155 
   156   end
   157 
   158   thm my_trans
   159 
   160 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   161 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   162 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   163 
   164 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   165 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   166 
   167 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   168 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   169 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   170 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   171 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   172 
   173 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   174 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   175 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   176 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   177 indices of schematic variables.
   178 
   179 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   180 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   181 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   182 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   183 etc. was exploited.
   184 
   185 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   186 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   187 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   188 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   189 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   190 of the material of that old tutorial.
   191 
   192 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   193 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   194 manual.
   195 
   196 
   197 *** Pure ***
   198 
   199 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   200 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   201 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   202 
   203 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   204 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   205 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   206 undocumented feature.)
   207 
   208 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   209 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   210 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   211 
   212   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   213 
   214   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   215     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   216 
   217 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   218 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   219 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   220 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   221 
   222 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   223 
   224     num ~> num_token
   225     xnum ~> xnum_token
   226     xstr ~> str_token
   227 
   228 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   229 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   230 position information via constraints).
   231 
   232 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   233 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   234 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   237 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   238 
   239 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   240 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   241 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   244 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   247 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   248 
   249   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   250 
   251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   254 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   257 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   258 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   259 
   260 
   261 *** HOL ***
   262 
   263 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   264 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   265 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   266 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   267 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   268 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   269 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   270 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   271 possible.
   272 
   273 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   274 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   275 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   276 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   277 
   278 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   279 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   282 
   283 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   284 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   285 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   286 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   287 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   288 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   289 
   290   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   291     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   292 
   293   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   294     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   295     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   296 
   297   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   298     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   299 
   300   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   301     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   302     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   303 
   304   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   305     Redefine using other integer operations.
   306 
   307 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   308 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   309 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   310 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   311 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   312 
   313   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   314     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   315     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   316     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   317     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   318 
   319     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   320     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   321 
   322   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   323     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   324     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   325     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   326     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   327     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   328     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   329     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   330 
   331   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   332     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   333     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   334     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   335 
   336   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   337     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   338     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   339     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   340 
   341   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   342     from type nat to type int.
   343 
   344 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   345 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   346 
   347   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   348     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   349     type.  Example syntax:
   350 
   351     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   352       is List.insert
   353 
   354     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   355     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   356     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   357     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   358     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   359     by the package.
   360 
   361   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   362     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   363     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   364     code generation for each constant.
   365 
   366   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   367     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   368     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   369     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   370     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   371 
   372   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   373     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   374     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   375 
   376 * Quotient package:
   377 
   378   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   379     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   380 
   381   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   382     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   383 
   384   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   385     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   386     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   389     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   392 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   393 
   394 * Quickcheck:
   395 
   396   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   397     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   398     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   399     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   400     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   401 
   402     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   403     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   404     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   405 
   406     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   407     continues searching for genuine ones.
   408 
   409     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   410     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   411     show genuine counterexamples.
   412 
   413   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   414     value generators for a given type and operations.
   415 
   416     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   417     constructors of that type.
   418 
   419   - Support for multisets.
   420 
   421   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   422 
   423   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   424     conjectures in a locale context.
   425 
   426 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   427 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   428 
   429 * Sledgehammer:
   430   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   431     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   432   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   433   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   434     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   435   - Sped up the minimizer.
   436   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   437   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   438   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   439 
   440 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   441 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   442 
   443 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   444 
   445 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   448 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   449 
   450   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   451 
   452 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   453 a list and a nat.
   454 
   455 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   456 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   457 
   458 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   459 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   460 default.
   461 
   462 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   463 
   464   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   465 
   466 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   467 
   468 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   469 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   470 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   471 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   472 one_case.
   473 
   474 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   475 the result of the fact expression.
   476 
   477 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   478 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   479 of some relation theorems:
   480 
   481   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   482   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   483   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   484   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   485   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   486   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   487 
   488 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   489 
   490 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   491 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   492 
   493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   494 
   495 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   496 to match the constant's name:
   497 
   498   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   499   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   500   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   501   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   502   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   503   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   504   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   505   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   506   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   507   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   508   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   509   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   510   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   511   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   512   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   513   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   514   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   515   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   516   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   517   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   518   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   519   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   520   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   521   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   522 
   523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   526 and corresponding theorem names:
   527 
   528   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   529 
   530   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   531 
   532   - Renamed theorems:
   533 
   534     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   535     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   536     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   537     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   538     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   539     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   540     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   541     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   542     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   543     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   544     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   545     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   546     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   547     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   548     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   549     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   550     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   551     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   552     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   553     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   554     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   555     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   556     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   557 
   558     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   559 
   560     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   561 
   562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   563 
   564 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   565 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   566 
   567   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   568   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   569   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   570   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   571   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   572   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   573   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   574   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   575   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   576   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   577   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   578   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   579   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   580   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   581   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   582   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   583   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   584   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   585   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   586   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   587   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   588 
   589 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   590 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   591 
   592 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   595 
   596   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   597   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   598   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   599   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   600   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   601   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   602   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   603   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   604   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   605   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   606   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   607   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   608   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   609   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   610   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   611   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   612   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   613   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   614 
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   618 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   619 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   620 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   621 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   622 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   623 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   624 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   625 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   626 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   627 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   628 
   629 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   630 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   631 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   632 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   633 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   634 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   635 
   636 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   637 through option types.
   638 
   639 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   640 relations.
   641 
   642 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   645 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   646 
   647   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   648   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   649   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   650   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   651   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   652   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   653   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   654   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   655   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   656   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   657   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   658   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   659   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   660   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   661   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   662   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   663   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   664   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   665   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   666   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   667   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   668   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   669   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   670   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   671   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   672   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   673   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   674   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   675   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   676   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   677   zless_le ~> less_le
   678   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   679   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   680   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   681 
   682 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   683 
   684   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   685 
   686 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   687 
   688 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   689 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   690 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   691 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   695 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   696 
   697 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   698 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   699 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   700 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   701 follows:
   702 
   703   Operations:
   704   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   705   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   706   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   707   del -> rbt_del
   708   delete -> rbt_delete
   709   ins -> rbt_ins
   710   insert -> rbt_insert
   711   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   712   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   713   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   714   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   715   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   716   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   717   tree_less -> rbt_less
   718   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   719   union -> rbt_union
   720   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   721   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   722 
   723   Lemmas:
   724   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   725   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   726   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   727   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   728   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   729   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   730   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   731   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   732   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   733   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   734   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   735   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   736   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   737   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   738   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   739   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   740   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   741   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   742   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   743   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   744   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   745   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   746   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   747   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   748   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   749   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   750   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   751   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   752   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   753   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   754   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   755   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   756   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   757   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   758   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   759   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   760   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   761   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   762   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   763   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   764   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   765   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   766   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   767   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   768   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   769   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   770   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   771   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   772   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   773   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   774   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   775   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   776   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   777   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   778   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   779   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   780   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   781   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   782   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   783   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   784   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   785   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   786   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   787   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   788   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   789   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   790   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   791   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   792   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   793   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   794   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   795   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   796   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   797   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   798   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   799   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   800   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   801   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   802   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   803   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   804   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   805   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   806   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   807 
   808 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   809 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   810 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   811 
   812   Changed Operations:
   813   float_abs -> abs
   814   float_nprt -> nprt
   815   float_pprt -> pprt
   816   pow2 -> use powr
   817   round_down -> float_round_down
   818   round_up -> float_round_up
   819   scale -> exponent
   820 
   821   Removed Operations:
   822   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   823 
   824   Renamed Lemmas:
   825   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   826   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   827   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   828   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   829   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   830   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   831   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   832   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   833   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   834   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   835   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   836   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   837   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   838   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   839   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   840   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   841   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   842   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   843   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   844   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   845   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   846   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   847   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   848   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   849   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   850   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   851   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   852   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   853   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   854   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   855   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   856   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   857   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   858   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   859   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   860   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   861 
   862   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   863   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   864   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   865   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   866   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   867   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   868   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   869   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   870   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   871   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   872 
   873 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   874 association lists with distinct keys.
   875 
   876 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   877 annotated commands.
   878 
   879 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   880 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   881 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   882 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   883 
   884 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   885 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   886 instead.
   887 
   888   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   889   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   890   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   891   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   892   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   893   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   894   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   895   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   896   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   897   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   898   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   899   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   900   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   901   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   902   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   903   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   904   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   905   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   906   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   907   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   908   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   909   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   910   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   911   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   912   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   913   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   914   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   915   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   916   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   917   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   918   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   919   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   920   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   921   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   922   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   923   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   924   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   925   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   926   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   927   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   928   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   929 
   930 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   931 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   932 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   933 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   934 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   935 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   936 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   937 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   938 
   939 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   940 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   941 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   942 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   943 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   944 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   945 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   946 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   947 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   948 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   949 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   950 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952   Renamed constants:
   953   measure -> emeasure
   954   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   955   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   956   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   957   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   958 
   959   Removed locales:
   960   completeable_measure_space
   961   finite_measure_space
   962   finite_prob_space
   963   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   964   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   965   finite_sigma_algebra
   966   measure_space
   967   pair_finite_prob_space
   968   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   969   pair_finite_space
   970   pair_sigma_algebra
   971   product_sigma_algebra
   972 
   973   Removed constants:
   974   conditional_space
   975   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   976   image_space
   977   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   978   pair_measure_generator
   979   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   980   subvimage
   981 
   982   Replacement theorems:
   983   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   984   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   985   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   986   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   987   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   988   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   989   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   990   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   991   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   992   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   993   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   994   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   995   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   996   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   997   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   998   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   999   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1000   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1001   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1002   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1003   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1004   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1005   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1006   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1007   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1008   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1009   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1010   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1011   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1012   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1013   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1014   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1015   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1016   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1017   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1018   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1019   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1020   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1021   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1022   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1023   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1024   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1025   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1026   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1027   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1028   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1029   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1030   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1031   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1032   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1033   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1034   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1035   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1036   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1037   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1038   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1039   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1040   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1041   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1042   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1043   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1044   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1045   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1046   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1047   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1048   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1049   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1050   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1051   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1052   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1053   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1054   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1055   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1056   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1057   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1058   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1059   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1060   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1061   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1062   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1063   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1064   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1065   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1066   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1067   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1068   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1069   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1070   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1071   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1072   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1073   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1074   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1075   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1076   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1077   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1078   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1079   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1080   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1081   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1082   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1083   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1084   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1085   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1086   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1087   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1088   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1089   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1090   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1091   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1092   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1093   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1094   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1095   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1096   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1097   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1098   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1099   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1100   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1101   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1102   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1103   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1104   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1105   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1106   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1107   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1108   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1109   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1110   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1111 
  1112 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1113 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1114 
  1115 
  1116 *** FOL ***
  1117 
  1118 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1119 
  1120 
  1121 *** ZF ***
  1122 
  1123 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1124 analysis.
  1125 
  1126 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1127 
  1128 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 
  1131 *** ML ***
  1132 
  1133 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1134 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1135 
  1136 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1137 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1138 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1139 
  1140 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1141 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1142 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1143 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1144 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1145 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1146 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1147 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1148 
  1149 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1150 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1151 
  1152 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1153 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1154 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1155 
  1156 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1157 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1158 
  1159 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1160 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1161 context as well.
  1162 
  1163 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1164 
  1165   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1166   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1167   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1168   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1169   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1170   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1171   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1172   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1173   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1174   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1175   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1176   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1177 
  1178 
  1179 *** System ***
  1180 
  1181 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1182 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1183 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1184 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1185 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1186 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1187 the generic user home was intended.
  1188 
  1189 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1190 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1191 
  1192 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1193 (not just JRE).
  1194 
  1195 
  1196 
  1197 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1198 ------------------------------------
  1199 
  1200 *** General ***
  1201 
  1202 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1203 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1204 
  1205   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1206     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1207     files for checking).
  1208 
  1209   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1210     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1211     positions.
  1212 
  1213   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1214     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1215     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1216 
  1217   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1218     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1219     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1220 
  1221   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1222     cores.
  1223 
  1224   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1225     versions (garbage collection).
  1226 
  1227 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1228 including some remaining limitations.
  1229 
  1230 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1231 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1232 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1233 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1234 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1236 
  1237 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1238 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1239 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1240 
  1241 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1242 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1243 usedir option -Q.
  1244 
  1245 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1246 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1247 
  1248   long_names   ~> names_long
  1249   short_names  ~> names_short
  1250   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1251 
  1252 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1253 
  1254   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1255 
  1256 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1257 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1258 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1259 
  1260 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1261 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1262 
  1263 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1264   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1265   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1266   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1267     "Classical Reasoner".
  1268 
  1269 
  1270 *** HOL ***
  1271 
  1272 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1273 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1276 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1277 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1278 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1279 class complete_linorder.
  1280 
  1281 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1282 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1283 
  1284 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1285 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1286 
  1287   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1288   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1289   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1290   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1291   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1292   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1293   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1294   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1295   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1296   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1297   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1298 
  1299 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1300 
  1301   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1302   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1303   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1304   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1305   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1306   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1307   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1308   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1309   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1310   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1311   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1312   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1313   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1314   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1315   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1316   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1317 
  1318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1324 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1325 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1326 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1329 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1330 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1332 
  1333 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1334 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1335 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1336 
  1337 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1338 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1339 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1340 
  1341 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1342 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1343 
  1344 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1345 
  1346     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1347     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1348 
  1349 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1350 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1351 
  1352 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1353 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1354 
  1355 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1356 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1357 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1358 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1359 
  1360   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1361   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1362   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1363   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1364   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1365   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1366   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1367 
  1368 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1369 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1370 
  1371   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1372   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1373   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1374   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1375   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1376   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1377   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1378   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1379   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1380   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1381   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1382   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1383   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1384   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1385   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1386   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1387   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1388   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1389   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1390   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1391   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1392   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1393   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1394   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1395   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1396   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1397   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1398   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1399   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1400   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1401   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1402   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1403   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1404   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1405   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1406   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1407   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1408   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1409   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1410   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1411   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1412   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1413   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1414   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1415   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1416   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1417   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1418   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1419   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1420   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1421   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1422   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1423   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1424   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1425   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1426   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1427   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1428   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1429   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1430   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1431   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1432   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1433   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1434   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1435   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1436   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1437   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1438   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1439   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1440   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1441   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1442   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1443   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1444   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1445   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1446   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1447   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1448   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1449   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1450   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1451   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1452   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1453 
  1454 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1455 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1456 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1457 
  1458 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1459 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1460 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1461 
  1462 * Code generation:
  1463 
  1464   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1465     characters in the target language.
  1466 
  1467   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1468     instead.
  1469 
  1470   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1471 
  1472   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1473     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1474 
  1475       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1476 
  1477 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1480 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1481 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1482 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1483 syntax.
  1484 
  1485 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1486 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1487 
  1488 * Nitpick:
  1489   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1490   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1491   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1492     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Sledgehammer:
  1495   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1496   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1497     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1498   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1499     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1500   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1501     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1502   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1503     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1504   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1505     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * Metis:
  1508   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1510     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Command 'try':
  1513   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1514     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1516     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1517 
  1518 * Quickcheck:
  1519   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1520     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1521   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1522     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1523   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1524     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1525     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1526     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1527   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1528     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1529 
  1530 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1531 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1532 
  1533 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1534 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1535 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1536 
  1537 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1538 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1540 
  1541 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1542 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1545 arithmetic.
  1546 
  1547 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1548 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1549 and lattice type classes.
  1550 
  1551 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1552 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1553 
  1554 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1555 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1556 
  1557 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1558 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1559 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1562   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1563   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1564   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1565 
  1566 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1567 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1568 constants:
  1569 
  1570   type inat   ~> type enat
  1571   Fin         ~> enat
  1572   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1573   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1574   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1575 
  1576 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1577 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1580 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1581 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1582 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1583 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1584 
  1585 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1586 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1587 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1588 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1589 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1590 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1591 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1592 
  1593   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1594   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1595   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1596   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1597 
  1598 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1599 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1600 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1601 
  1602   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1603   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1604   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1605   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1606   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1607   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1608   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1609   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1610   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1611   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1612   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1613   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1614   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1615   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1616   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1617   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1618   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1619   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1620   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1621   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1622   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1623   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1624   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1625   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1626   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1627   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1628   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1629   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1630   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1631   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1632   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1633   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1634   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1635   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1636   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1637   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1638   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1639   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1640   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1641   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1642   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1643   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1644   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1645   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1646   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1647   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1648   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1649   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1650   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1651   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1652   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1653 
  1654 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1655   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1656   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1657   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1658   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1659     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1660 
  1661 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1664   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1665   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1666   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1667   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1668   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1669   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1670   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1671   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1672   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1673   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1674   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1675   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1676   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1677   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1678   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1679   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1680   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1681   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1682   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1683   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1684   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1685   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1686   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1687   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1688 
  1689 
  1690 *** Document preparation ***
  1691 
  1692 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1693 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1694 same.
  1695 
  1696 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1697 result.
  1698 
  1699 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1700 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1701 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1702 
  1703 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1704 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1705 
  1706 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1707 like this:
  1708 
  1709   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1710   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1711 
  1712 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1713 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1714 layouts.
  1715 
  1716 
  1717 *** ML ***
  1718 
  1719 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1720 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1721 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1722 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1723 under external program control.
  1724 
  1725 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1726 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1727 
  1728 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1729 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1730 (better known as Proof General).
  1731 
  1732 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1733 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1734 
  1735 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1736 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1737 
  1738 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1739 (including quotes etc.).
  1740 
  1741 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1742 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1743 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1744 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1745 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1746 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1747 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1748 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1749 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1750 
  1751 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1752 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1753 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1754 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1755 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1756 
  1757 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1758 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1759 
  1760 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1761 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1762 
  1763 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1764 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1765 
  1766 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1767 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1768 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1769 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1770 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1771 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1772 proper Proof.context.
  1773 
  1774 
  1775 *** System ***
  1776 
  1777 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1778 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1779 
  1780 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1781 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1782 
  1783 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1784 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1785 
  1786   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1787   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1788   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1789   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1790   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1791 
  1792 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1793 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1796 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1797 example:
  1798 
  1799   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1800 
  1801 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1802 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1803 
  1804 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1805 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1806 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1807 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1808 
  1809 
  1810 
  1811 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1812 ----------------------------------
  1813 
  1814 *** General ***
  1815 
  1816 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1817 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1818 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1819 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1820 like this:
  1821 
  1822   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1823 
  1824 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1825 
  1826 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1827 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1828 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1829 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1830 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1831 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1832 
  1833 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1834 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1835 the following package declarations:
  1836 
  1837   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1838   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1839 
  1840 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1841 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1842 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1843 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1844 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1845 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1846 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1847 
  1848 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1849 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1850 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1851 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1852 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1853 
  1854 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1855 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1856 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1857 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1858 
  1859 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1860 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1861 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1862 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1863 
  1864   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1865 
  1866   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1867   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1868   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1869   show_types                    show_types
  1870   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1871   show_consts                   show_consts
  1872   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1873 
  1874   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1875   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1876   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1877 
  1878   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1879   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1880 
  1881   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1882 
  1883   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1884   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1885   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1886   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1887   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1888 
  1889 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1890 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1891 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1892 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1893 
  1894 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1898   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1899 
  1900 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1901 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1902 float_token.
  1903 
  1904 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1905 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1909 DejaVu Sans.
  1910 
  1911 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1912 
  1913 
  1914 *** Pure ***
  1915 
  1916 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1917 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1918 time.
  1919 
  1920 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1921 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1922 
  1923 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1924 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1927 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1928 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1929 command already provided this functionality.
  1930 
  1931 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1932 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1933 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1934 without interpretations.
  1935 
  1936 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1937 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1938 
  1939 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1940 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1941 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1942 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1943 
  1944 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1945 'definition' instead.
  1946 
  1947 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1948 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1949 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1950 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1951 
  1952 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1953 constructors.
  1954 
  1955 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1956 the local file system.
  1957 
  1958 
  1959 *** HOL ***
  1960 
  1961 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1962 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1963 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1964 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1965 
  1966   declare [[coercion f]]
  1967 
  1968 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1969 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1970 
  1971   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1972 
  1973 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1974 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1975 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1976 other theories like this:
  1977 
  1978   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1979 
  1980 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1981 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1982 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1983 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1984 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1985 for examples.
  1986 
  1987 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1988 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989 
  1990 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1991 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1992 
  1993 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1994 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1995 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1996 
  1997 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1998 functorial structure of types.
  1999 
  2000 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2001 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2002 
  2003 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2004 languages.
  2005 
  2006 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2007 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2009 
  2010 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2011 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2014 combinators any longer.
  2015 
  2016 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2017 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2018 
  2019 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2020 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2021 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2022 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2023 
  2024   record 'a foo = ...
  2025   ...
  2026   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2027 
  2028 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2029 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2033 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2034 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2035 
  2036 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2037 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2038 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2039 
  2040 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2041 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2044 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2045 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2046 independently.
  2047 
  2048 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2049 counter example search.
  2050 
  2051 * Sledgehammer:
  2052   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2053     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2054     sledgehammer").
  2055   - Renamed commands:
  2056     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2057     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2058     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2059     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2060   - Renamed options:
  2061     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2062     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2063     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2064     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2065     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2066 
  2067 * Nitpick:
  2068   - Renamed options:
  2069     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2070     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2071     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2072   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2073   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2074   - Added "whack" option.
  2075   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2076   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2077   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2078   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2079     higher cardinalities.
  2080   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2081 
  2082 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2083 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2084 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2085 
  2086     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2087 
  2088 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2089 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2090 
  2091 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2092 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2093 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2094 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2095 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2096 "smt_solver".
  2097 
  2098 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2099 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2100 
  2101 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2102 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2103 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2104 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2105 
  2106 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2107   - Renamed:
  2108     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2109     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2110     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111   - Added:
  2112     smt_verbose
  2113     smt_random_seed
  2114     smt_datatypes
  2115     smt_infer_triggers
  2116     smt_monomorph_limit
  2117     cvc3_options
  2118     remote_cvc3_options
  2119     remote_z3_options
  2120     yices_options
  2121 
  2122 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2123 header.
  2124 
  2125 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2126 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2127 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2128 
  2129   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2130 
  2131 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2134 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2135 
  2136 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2137 
  2138 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2139 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2142 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2143 
  2144 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2145 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2148 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2149 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2150 
  2151 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2157 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2160 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2161 for congruent(2)).
  2162 
  2163 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2164 
  2165   types
  2166     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2167     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2168 
  2169   constants
  2170     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2171     True ~> HOL.True
  2172     False ~> HOL.False
  2173     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2174     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2175     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2176     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2177     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2178     The ~> HOL.The
  2179     All ~> HOL.All
  2180     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2181     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2182     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2183     If ~> HOL.If
  2184     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2185     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2186     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2187     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2188     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2189     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2190     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2191     op : ~> Set.member
  2192     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2193 
  2194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2195 
  2196 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2197 
  2198     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2199     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2200     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2201     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2202     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2203     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2204     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2205     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2206 
  2207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * More stylized fact names:
  2210 
  2211   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2212   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2213   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2214   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2215 
  2216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2219 
  2220   constants
  2221     null ~> List.null
  2222 
  2223   facts
  2224     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2225     null_empty ~> null_def
  2226 
  2227 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2228 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2229 generation.
  2230 
  2231 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2232 Haskell code.
  2233 
  2234 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2235 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2236 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2239 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2242 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2243 
  2244 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2245 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2246 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2249 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250 
  2251 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2255 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2256 referred to by its qualified name.
  2257 
  2258   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2259   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2260   product ~>  Enum.product
  2261 
  2262 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2263 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2267 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2268 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2272 sort_key.
  2273 
  2274 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2278 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2279 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2280 
  2281   types
  2282     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2283               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2284               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2285         (depends on your needs)
  2286 
  2287   constants
  2288      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2289      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2290      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2291 
  2292 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2293 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2294 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2295 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2298 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2299 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2300 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2301 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2307 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2308 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2309 
  2310 
  2311 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2312 
  2313 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2314 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2315 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2316 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2317 compatibility.
  2318 
  2319 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2320 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2321 
  2322 
  2323 *** HOLCF ***
  2324 
  2325 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2326 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2327 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2331 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2332 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2335   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2336   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2337 
  2338 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2339 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2340 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2343 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2344 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2345 domain definition now works:
  2346 
  2347   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2348 
  2349 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2350 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2351 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2352 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2353 
  2354   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2355     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2356 
  2357   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2358 
  2359 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2360 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2361 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2364 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2367 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2368 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2369 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2370 
  2371 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2372 
  2373 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2374 
  2375 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2381 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2382 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2383 
  2384 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2385 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2386 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2387 
  2388 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2389 still supported as an input translation.
  2390 
  2391 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2392 
  2393   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2394   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2395   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2396   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2397   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2398   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2399   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2400 
  2401 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2402 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2405   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2406   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2407   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2408   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2409   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2410 
  2411 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2412 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2413 
  2414 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2415 
  2416   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2417   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2418   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2419   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2420 
  2421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2422 
  2423 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2424 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2425 
  2426 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2427 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2430   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2431   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2432   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2433   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2434   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2435   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2436   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2437   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2438   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2439   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2440   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2441   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2442   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2443   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2444   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2445   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2446   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2447   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2448   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2449 
  2450 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451 
  2452   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2453   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2454   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2455   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2456   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2457   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2458   box_less             ~> box_below
  2459   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2460   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2461   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2462   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2463   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2464   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2465   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2466   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2467   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2468   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2469   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2470   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2471   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2472   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2473   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2474   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2475   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2476   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2477   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2478   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2479   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2480   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2481   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2482   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2483   up_less              ~> up_below
  2484   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2485   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2486   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2487   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2488   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2489   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2490   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2491   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2492   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2493   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2494   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2495   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2496   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2497 
  2498 
  2499 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2500 
  2501 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2502 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 
  2505 *** ML ***
  2506 
  2507 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2508 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2509 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2510 
  2511 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2512 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2513 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2514 
  2515 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2516 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2517 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2518 
  2519 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2520 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2521 
  2522 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2523 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2524 
  2525 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2526 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2527 
  2528 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2529 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2530 
  2531 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2532 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2533 almost all situations.
  2534 
  2535 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2536 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2537 Isabelle/ML.
  2538 
  2539 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2540 meaning.
  2541 
  2542 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2543 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2544 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2545 
  2546 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2547 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2548 
  2549 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2550 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2551 
  2552 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2553 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2554 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2555 
  2556 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2557 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2558 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2559 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2560 configuration options.
  2561 
  2562 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2563 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2564 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2565 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2566 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2567 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2568 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2569 
  2570 
  2571 
  2572 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2573 ---------------------------------
  2574 
  2575 *** General ***
  2576 
  2577 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2578 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2579 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2580 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2581 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2582 their full internal name.
  2583 
  2584 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2585 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2586 Some hints on upgrading:
  2587 
  2588   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2589     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2590     which are independent of this issue.
  2591 
  2592   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2593     provides the following special forms:
  2594 
  2595       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2596       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2597       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2598 
  2599     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2600     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2601     extra variables".
  2602 
  2603     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2604     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2605     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2606     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2607     "logic".
  2608 
  2609   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2610     antiquotations:
  2611 
  2612       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2613       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2614       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2615       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2616 
  2617   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2618     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2619     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2620     antiquotations.
  2621 
  2622 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2623 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2624 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2625 diagnose syntax problems.
  2626 
  2627 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2628 
  2629 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2630 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2631 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2632 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2633 
  2634 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2635 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2636 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2637 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2640 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2641 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2642 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2643 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2646 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2647 
  2648 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2649 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2650 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2651 
  2652   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2653 
  2654 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2655 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2656 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2657 
  2658 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2659 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2663 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2664 
  2665 
  2666 *** Pure ***
  2667 
  2668 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2669 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2670 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2671 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2672 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2673 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2674 inspect proof terms.
  2675 
  2676 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2677 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2678 are added internally.  For example:
  2679 
  2680   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2681 
  2682 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2683 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2684 
  2685 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2686 
  2687 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2688 'class' instead.
  2689 
  2690 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2691 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2695 invariants.
  2696 
  2697 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2698 user space functionality any longer.
  2699 
  2700 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2701 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2705 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2706 
  2707 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2708 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2709 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2710 
  2711 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2712 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2713 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2714 
  2715 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2716 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 
  2719 *** HOL ***
  2720 
  2721 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2722 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2723 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2724 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2725 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2726 
  2727 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2728 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2729 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2730 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2731 
  2732   fun
  2733     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2734   where
  2735     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2736 
  2737   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2738     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2739 
  2740   quotient_definition
  2741     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2742 
  2743 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2744 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2745 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2746 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2747 
  2748 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2749 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2750 
  2751 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2752 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2753 
  2754 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2758 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2759 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2760 
  2761 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2762 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763 
  2764 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2769 
  2770 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2771 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2772 
  2773 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2774 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2775 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2776 
  2777   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2778   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2779   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2780   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2781   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2782   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2783   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2784   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2785   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2786   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2787   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2788   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2789   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2790   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2791   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2792   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2793   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2794   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2795   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2796   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2797   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2798   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2799   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2800   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2801   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2802   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2803   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2804   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2805   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2806   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2807 
  2808 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2809 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2810 
  2811 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2812 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2813 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2814 
  2815 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2816 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2817 
  2818 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2819 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2820 
  2821 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2822 
  2823 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2824 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2827 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2832 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2833 
  2834 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2835 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2836 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2837 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838 
  2839 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2840   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2841   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2842   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2846 lattices):
  2847 
  2848     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2849     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2850 
  2851     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2852 
  2853     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2854     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2855     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2856     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2857     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2858     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2859     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2860     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2861     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2862     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2863     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2864     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2865     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2866 
  2867     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2868     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2869     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2870     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2871     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2872     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2873     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2874     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2875     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2876     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2877     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2878     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2879     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2880     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2881     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2882     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2883     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2884     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2885 
  2886   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2887   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2888 
  2889     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2890     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2891     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2892     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2893     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2894 
  2895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897 * Refined field classes:
  2898   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2899     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2900     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2901   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2905   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2906   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2907   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2908     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2909   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2910     equal_neg_zero.
  2911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2914 sets to lattices:
  2915 
  2916   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2917   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2918   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2919   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2920   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2921   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2922   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2923   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2924   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2925   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2926 
  2927 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2928 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2929 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2930 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2931 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2932 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2935 multiset order:
  2936 
  2937   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2938     <= and <;
  2939   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2940     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2941     multiset_order;
  2942   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2943     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2944     generation;
  2945   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2946     if needed.
  2947 
  2948 Renamed:
  2949 
  2950   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2951   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2952   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2953 
  2954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2957 
  2958 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2959 
  2960 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2961 
  2962 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2963 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2964 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965 
  2966   Constants:
  2967   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2968   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2969   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2970   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2971   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2972   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2973   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2974   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2975   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2976   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2977   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2978   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2979   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2980 
  2981   Lemmas:
  2982   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2983   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2984   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2985   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2986   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2987   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2988   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2989   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2990   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2991   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2992   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2993   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2994   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2995 
  2996 * Sledgehammer:
  2997   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2998     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2999     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3000     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3001     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3002     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3003     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3005   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3006     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3007   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3008     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3009     is still experimental.)
  3010   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3011     full-typed mode.
  3012   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3013 
  3014 * Nitpick:
  3015   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3016   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3017   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3018     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3019   - Added support for quotient types.
  3020   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3021     constructs.
  3022   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3023     "termination" proofs).
  3024   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3025   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3026   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3027   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3028     record getters.
  3029   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3030   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3031   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3032   - Added "atoms" option.
  3033   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3034     problems.
  3035   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3036     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3037     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3038   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3039     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3041 
  3042 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3043   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3044   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3045   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3046   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3047   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3048   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3049   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3050   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3051   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 
  3054 *** HOLCF ***
  3055 
  3056 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3057 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3058 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3061 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3062 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3063 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3066 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3067 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3068 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3069 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3072 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3073 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3076 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3079   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3080 
  3081 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3082 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3085   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3086   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3087   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3088   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3089 
  3090 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3091 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3094   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3095   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3096 
  3097 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3098 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100 
  3101 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3102 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103 
  3104 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3107 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 
  3110 *** ML ***
  3111 
  3112 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3113 
  3114     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3115     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3116 
  3117     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3118     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3119     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3120     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3121 
  3122     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3123     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3124     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3125 
  3126 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3127 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3128 
  3129 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3130 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3131 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3132 
  3133 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3134 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3135 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3136 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3137 
  3138 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3139 the context or even global references.
  3140 
  3141 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3142 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3143 
  3144 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3145 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3146 
  3147   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3148   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3149   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3150   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3151   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3152   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3153   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3154   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3155   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3156   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3157 
  3158 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3159 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3160 
  3161 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3162 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3163 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3164 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3165 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3166 
  3167 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3168 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3169 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3170 Theory_Data version.
  3171 
  3172 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3173 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3174 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3175 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3176 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3177 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3178 explicitly in rare situations.
  3179 
  3180 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3181 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3185 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3188 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3189 quite rare).
  3190 
  3191 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3192 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3195 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3196 terms.
  3197 
  3198 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3199 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3200 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3201 
  3202 
  3203 *** System ***
  3204 
  3205 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3206 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3207 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3208 
  3209 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3210 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3211 respectively.
  3212 
  3213 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3214 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3215 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3216 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3217 
  3218   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3219 
  3220 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3221 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3222 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3223 component.
  3224 
  3225 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3226 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3227 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3228 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3229 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3230 the user for manual installation.
  3231 
  3232 
  3233 
  3234 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3235 -------------------------------------
  3236 
  3237 *** General ***
  3238 
  3239 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3240 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3241 
  3242 
  3243 *** Pure ***
  3244 
  3245 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3246 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3247 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3248 
  3249 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3250 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3251 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3252 
  3253 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3254 interpretation.
  3255 
  3256 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3257 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 
  3260 *** Document preparation ***
  3261 
  3262 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3263 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3264 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3265 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3266 
  3267 
  3268 *** HOL ***
  3269 
  3270 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3271 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3272 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3273 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3274 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3275 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3276 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3277 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3278 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3279 
  3280 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3281 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3282 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3283 
  3284 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3285 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3286 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3287 
  3288 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3289 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3290 
  3291 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3292 
  3293 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3294 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3295 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3296 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3297 
  3298 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3299 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3300 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3301 "mirabelle" utility.
  3302 
  3303 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3304 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3305 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3306 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3307 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3308 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3309 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3310 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3311 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3312 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3313 
  3314 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3315 procedure only.
  3316 
  3317 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3318 
  3319 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3320 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3321 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3322 that fail later.
  3323 
  3324 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3325 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3326 
  3327 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3328 the same method as the approximation method.
  3329 
  3330 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3331 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3332 series expansion.
  3333 
  3334 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3335 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3336 
  3337 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3338 reals.
  3339 
  3340 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3341 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3342 
  3343 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3344 fixpoint theorem.
  3345 
  3346 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3347   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3348     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3349   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3350     accordingly
  3351   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3352     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3353   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3354     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3355 
  3356 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3357 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3358 lattice.
  3359 
  3360 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3361 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3362 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3363 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3364 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3365 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3369   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3370     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3371   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3372     le_inf_iff
  3373   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3374     sup_aci)
  3375   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3376   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3377   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3378     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3379     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3380     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3381     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3382     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3383     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3384     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3385     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3386     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3387     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3388   - authentic syntax for
  3389     Set.Pow
  3390     Set.image
  3391   - mere abbreviations:
  3392     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3393     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3394     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3395     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3396     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3397     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3398     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3399     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3400   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3401 
  3402 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3403 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3404 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3405 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3406 
  3407 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3408 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3409 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3412 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3415 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3416 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3417 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3420 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3421 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3422 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3423 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3424 
  3425 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3426 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3430 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3433 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3434 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3435 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3436 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3437 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3438 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3442     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3443     code_post       replaces    code post
  3444     etc.
  3445   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * Renamed methods:
  3448     sizechange -> size_change
  3449     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3450   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451 
  3452 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3453 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3454 
  3455 * Renamed theorems:
  3456     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3457     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3458     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3459     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3460     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3461   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3468 
  3469 
  3470 *** HOLCF ***
  3471 
  3472 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3473 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3474 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3475 
  3476 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3477 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3478 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3479 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3480 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3481 
  3482 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3483 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3484 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3485 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3486 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3487 
  3488 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3489 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3490 constructor are pre-configured.
  3491 
  3492 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3493 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3494 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3495 
  3496 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3497 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3498 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3499 as well.)
  3500 
  3501 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3502 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3503 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3504 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3505 examples.
  3506 
  3507 
  3508 *** ML ***
  3509 
  3510 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3511 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3512 
  3513 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3514 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3515 position, logical grouping etc.
  3516 
  3517 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3518 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3519 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3520 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3521 
  3522 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3523 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3524 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3525 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3526 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3527 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3528 
  3529 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3530 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3531 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3532 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3533 experiments with references.
  3534 
  3535 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3536 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3537 
  3538 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3539 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3540 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3541 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3542 
  3543 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3544 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3545 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3546 
  3547 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3548 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3549 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3557 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3558 
  3559 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3560 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3561 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3562 
  3563 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3564 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3565 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3568 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3569 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3573 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3574 instead of global theory.
  3575 
  3576 
  3577 *** System ***
  3578 
  3579 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3580 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3581 usedir option -q.
  3582 
  3583 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3584 also the system manual.
  3585 
  3586 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3587 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3588 
  3589 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3590 this is always enabled.
  3591 
  3592 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3593 
  3594 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3595 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3596 currently supported on Linux only.
  3597 
  3598 
  3599 
  3600 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3601 --------------------------------
  3602 
  3603 *** General ***
  3604 
  3605 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3606 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3607 
  3608   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3609     "isatool."
  3610 
  3611   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3612     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3613 
  3614   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3615     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3616 
  3617 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3618 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3619 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3620 
  3621 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3622 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3623 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3624 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3625 via "isabelle emacs".
  3626 
  3627 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3628 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3629 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3630 
  3631 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3632 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3633 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3634 
  3635 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3636 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3637 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3638 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3639 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3640 
  3641 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3642 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3643 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3644 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3645 
  3646 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3647 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3648 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3649 
  3650 
  3651 *** Pure ***
  3652 
  3653 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3654 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3655 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3656 
  3657 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3658 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3659 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3660 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3661 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3662 
  3663 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3664 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3665 useful in locale declarations.
  3666 
  3667 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3668 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3669 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3670 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3671 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3672 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3673 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3674 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3675 no longer generated.
  3676 
  3677 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3678 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3679 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3680 
  3681 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3682 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3683 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3684 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3685 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3686 
  3687 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3689 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3690 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3691 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3692 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3693 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3694 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3695 
  3696 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3697 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3698 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3699 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3700 
  3701 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3702 
  3703 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3704 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3705 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3706 
  3707 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3708 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709 
  3710 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3711 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3712 in HOL, write
  3713 
  3714     class foo = ...
  3715 
  3716 instead of
  3717 
  3718     class foo = type + ...
  3719 
  3720 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3721 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3724 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3725 
  3726 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3727 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3728 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3729 
  3730 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3731 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3732 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3733 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3734 directly in regular applications.
  3735 
  3736 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3737 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3738 
  3739 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3740 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3741 
  3742 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3743 theory context.
  3744 
  3745 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3746 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3747 
  3748 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3749 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3750 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3751 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3752 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3753 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3754 
  3755   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3756 
  3757 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3758 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3759 normalization.
  3760 
  3761 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3762 addressing etc.
  3763 
  3764 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3765 
  3766   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3767   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3768 
  3769 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3770 
  3771   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3772      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3773      parts of the code generator framework).
  3774 
  3775   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3776      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3777      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3778 
  3779 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3782 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3785 patterns, e.g.
  3786 
  3787     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3788 
  3789 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3790 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3791 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3792 hyphen:
  3793 
  3794     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3795 
  3796 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3797 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3798 
  3799 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3800 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3801 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3802 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3803 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3804 higher-order unification.
  3805 
  3806 
  3807 *** Document preparation ***
  3808 
  3809 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3810 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3811 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3812 
  3813 
  3814 *** HOL ***
  3815 
  3816 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3817 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3818 
  3819 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3820 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3821 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3822 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3823 Main, as before.
  3824 
  3825 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3826 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3827 
  3828 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3829 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3830 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3831 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3832 
  3833 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3834 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3835 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3836 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3837 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3838 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3839 
  3840 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3841 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3842 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3843 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3844 
  3845 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3846 menu.
  3847 
  3848 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3849 (contains the empty clause).
  3850 
  3851 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3852 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3853 
  3854 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3855 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3856 
  3857 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3858 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3859 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3862 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3863 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3864 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3865 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3866 
  3867 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3868 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3869 
  3870 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3871 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3872 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3873 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3874 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3875 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3876 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3877 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3878 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3879 
  3880 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3881 
  3882 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3883 
  3884 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3885 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3888 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3889 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3890 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3891 
  3892 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3893 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3894 
  3895     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3896     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3897     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3898     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3899     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3900     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3901     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3902     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3903 
  3904 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3905 theory Set.
  3906 
  3907 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3908 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3909 
  3910 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3911 
  3912 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3913 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3914 
  3915 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3916 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3917 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3918 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3919 allowed. For examples see
  3920 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3921 
  3922 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3923 
  3924 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3928 structure:
  3929 
  3930     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3931     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3932     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3933     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3934     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3935     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3936     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3937     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3938     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3939     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3940     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3941     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3942     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3943     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3944     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3945     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3946     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3947     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3948     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3949     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3950     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3951     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3952     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3953     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3954     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3955     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3956     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3957     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3958     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3959     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3960     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3961     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3962     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3963 
  3964     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3965     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3966     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3967     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3968     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3969     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3970     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3971     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3972     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3973     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3974 
  3975     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3976     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3977     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3978     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3979     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3980     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3981 
  3982 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3983 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3984 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3985 
  3986 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3987 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3988 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3989 
  3990 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3991 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3994 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3995 
  3996 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3997 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3998 proofs, e.g.
  3999 
  4000   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4001 
  4002 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4003 
  4004 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4005 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4006 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4009 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4013 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4014 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4018 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4019 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4020 preorder_class.*.
  4021 
  4022 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4023 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4024 
  4025 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4026 
  4027   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4028 
  4029 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4030 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4031 fold_image.
  4032 
  4033 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4034 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4035 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4036 the former will disappear at some point.
  4037 
  4038 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4039 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4040 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4041 
  4042 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4043 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4044 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4045 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4046 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4047 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4048 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4049 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4050 
  4051 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4052 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4053 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4054 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4055 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4056 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4057 
  4058     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4059     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4060     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4061     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4062     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4063     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4064     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4065 
  4066 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4067 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4068 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4069 
  4070 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4071 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4072 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4073 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4074 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4075 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4076 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4077 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4078 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4079 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4080 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4081 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4082 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4083 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4084 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4085 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4086 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4087 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4088 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4089 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4090 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4091 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4092 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4093 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4094 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4095 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4096 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4097 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4098 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4099 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4100 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4101 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4102 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4103 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4104 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4105 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4106 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4107 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4108 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4109 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4110 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4111 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4112 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4113 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4114 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4115 
  4116 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4119 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4120 
  4121 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4122 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4123 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4124 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4125 
  4126 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4127 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4128 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4129 theory RealVector.
  4130 
  4131 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4132 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4133 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4134 and inner products are included.
  4135 
  4136 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4137 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4138 supported.
  4139 
  4140 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4141 first diagonalization argument.
  4142 
  4143 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4144 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4145 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4146 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4147 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4148 
  4149     hide (open) const gcd
  4150     abbreviation gcd where
  4151       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4152     notation (output)
  4153       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4154 
  4155 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4156 
  4157 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4158 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4159 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4162 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4163 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4164 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4165 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4166 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4167 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4168 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4169 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4170 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4171 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4172 cases.
  4173 
  4174 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4175 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4176 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4177 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4178 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4179 
  4180     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4181     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4182     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4183     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4184     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4185 
  4186 
  4187 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4188 
  4189 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4190 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4191 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4192 
  4193 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4194 
  4195 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4196 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4197 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4198 
  4199 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4200 
  4201 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4202 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4203 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4204 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4205 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4206 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4207 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4208 
  4209 
  4210 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4211 
  4212 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4213 
  4214 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4215 theory targets.
  4216 
  4217 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4218 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4219 'inductive' etc.
  4220 
  4221 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4222 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4223 
  4224 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4225 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4226 
  4227 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4228 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4229 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4230 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4231 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4232 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4233 the algorithm W:
  4234 
  4235  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4236  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4237          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4238 
  4239 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4240 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4241 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4242 
  4243 
  4244 *** HOLCF ***
  4245 
  4246 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4247 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4248 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4249 
  4250 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4251 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4252 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4253 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4254 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4257 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4258 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4259 
  4260 
  4261 *** ZF ***
  4262 
  4263 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4264 
  4265 
  4266 *** ML ***
  4267 
  4268 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4269 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4270 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4271 5.2.1!
  4272 
  4273 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4274 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4275 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4276 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4277 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4278 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4279 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4280 
  4281 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4282 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4283 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4284 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4285 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4286 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4287 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4288 
  4289 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4290 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4291 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4292 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4293 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4294 
  4295 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4296 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4297 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4298 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4299 Method.add_method.
  4300 
  4301 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4302 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4303 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4304 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4305 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4306 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4307 
  4308 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4309 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4310 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4311 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4312 examples.
  4313 
  4314 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4315 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4316 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4317 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4318 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4319 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4320 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4321 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4322 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4323 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4324 
  4325 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4326 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4327 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4328 
  4329 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4330 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4331 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4332 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4333 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4334 resort for legacy applications.
  4335 
  4336 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4337 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4338 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4339 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4340 explicit runtime argument.
  4341 
  4342 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4343 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4344 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4345 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4346 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4349 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4350 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4351 theory state.
  4352 
  4353 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4354 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4355 
  4356   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4357   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4358   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4359   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4360   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4361   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4362   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4363   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4364   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4365   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4366 
  4367 
  4368 *** System ***
  4369 
  4370 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4371 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4372 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4373 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4374 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4375 
  4376 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4377 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4378 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4379 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4380 
  4381 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4382 
  4383 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4384 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4385 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4386 prover operations.
  4387 
  4388 
  4389 
  4390 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4391 -------------------------------
  4392 
  4393 *** General ***
  4394 
  4395 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4396 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4397 
  4398 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4399 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4400 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4401 provides a proper context already.
  4402 
  4403 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4404 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4405 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4406 
  4407 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4408 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4409 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4410 swap theory imports.
  4411 
  4412 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4413 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4414 
  4415 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4416 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4417 white space without escapes.
  4418 
  4419 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4420 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4421 "foo_bar".
  4422 
  4423 
  4424 *** Pure ***
  4425 
  4426 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4427 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4428 
  4429 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4430 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4431 
  4432 (1) unused_thms
  4433      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4434 
  4435 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4436      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4437      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4438 
  4439 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4440      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4441      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4442      their ancestors.
  4443 
  4444 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4445 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4446 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4447 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4448 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4449 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4450 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4451 
  4452 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4453 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4454 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4455 
  4456 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4457 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4458 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4459 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4460 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4461 
  4462 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4463 
  4464 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4465 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4466 update of theories within ML code.
  4467 
  4468 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4469 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4470 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4471 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4472 
  4473 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4474 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4475 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4477 
  4478 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4479 
  4480 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4481 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4482 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4483 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4484 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4485 
  4486 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4487 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4488 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4489 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4490 situations.
  4491 
  4492 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4493 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4494 proof text.
  4495 
  4496 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4497 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4498 
  4499 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4500 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4501 predicates.
  4502 
  4503 
  4504 *** Document preparation ***
  4505 
  4506 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4507 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4508 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4509 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4510 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4511 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4512 
  4513 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4514 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4515 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4516 
  4517 
  4518 *** HOL ***
  4519 
  4520 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4521 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4522 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4523 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4524 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4525 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4526 
  4527 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4528 with multithreading.
  4529 
  4530 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4531 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4532 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4533 
  4534 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4535 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4536 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4537 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4538 
  4539 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4540 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4541 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4542 and makes them available separately.  See
  4543 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4544 
  4545 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4546 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4547 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4548 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4549 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4550 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4551 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4552 the declared rules.
  4553 
  4554 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4555 
  4556   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4557 
  4558 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4559 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4560 
  4561 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4562 
  4563   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4564 
  4565   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4566     definitions on => and bool.
  4567 
  4568   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4569     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4570     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4571 
  4572       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4573       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4574       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4575       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4576       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4577       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4578       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4579       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4580 
  4581   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4582     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4583     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4584 
  4585   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4586     The proof pattern
  4587 
  4588       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4589       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4590 
  4591     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4592     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4593 
  4594       have "EX S. P S"
  4595       proof
  4596         show "P S" <...>
  4597       qed
  4598 
  4599   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4600     The proof pattern
  4601 
  4602       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4603       also have "S = T" <...>
  4604       finally have "P T" .
  4605 
  4606     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4607     must be replaced by something like
  4608 
  4609       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4610       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4611       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4612 
  4613   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4614     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4615 
  4616       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4617 
  4618     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4619     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4620     type of the form
  4621 
  4622       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4623 
  4624     rather than
  4625 
  4626       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4627 
  4628 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4629 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4630 
  4631 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4634 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4638 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4639 
  4640 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4641 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4644 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4645 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4648 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4649 
  4650   less_trans
  4651   less_linear
  4652   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4653   le_less_trans
  4654   less_le_trans
  4655   less_not_sym
  4656   less_asym
  4657 
  4658 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4659 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4660 and different variable names.
  4661 
  4662 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4663 
  4664 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4665 finite maps.
  4666 
  4667 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4668 
  4669 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4670 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4671 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4672 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4673 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4674 accordingly.
  4675 
  4676 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4677 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4678 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4679 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4680 
  4681 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4682 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4683 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4684 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4685 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4689 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4690 
  4691 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4692 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4693 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4694 
  4695 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4697 
  4698 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4699 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4700 
  4701 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4702 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4705 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4708 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4712 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4715 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4716 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4717 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4718 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4719 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4720 
  4721 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4722 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4723 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4724 
  4725 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4726 
  4727 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4728 
  4729 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4730 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4731 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4732 
  4733 
  4734 *** ZF ***
  4735 
  4736 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4737 same session:
  4738 
  4739   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4740   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4741   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4742   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4743   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4744   List      -> List_ZF
  4745   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4746 
  4747 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4748 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4749 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 *** ML ***
  4753 
  4754 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4755 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4756 
  4757 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4758 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4759 
  4760 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4761 
  4762 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4763 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4764 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4765 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4766 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4769 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4770 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4771 
  4772 
  4773 *** System ***
  4774 
  4775 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4776 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4777 
  4778 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4779 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4780 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4781 
  4782 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4783 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4784 
  4785 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4786 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4787 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4788 
  4789 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4790 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4791 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4792 
  4793 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4794 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4795 
  4796 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4797 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4798 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4799 script.
  4800 
  4801 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4802 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4803 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4804 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4805 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4806 
  4807 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4808 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4809 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4810 
  4811 
  4812 
  4813 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4814 -----------------------------------
  4815 
  4816 *** General ***
  4817 
  4818 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4819 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4820 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4821 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4822 
  4823 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4824 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4825 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4828 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4829 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4830 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4833 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4834 quotes.
  4835 
  4836 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4837 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4838 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4839 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4840 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4841 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4842 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4843 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4844 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4845 
  4846 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4847 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4848 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4849 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4850 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4851 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4852 
  4853 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4854 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4855 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4856 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4857 
  4858 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4859 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4860 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4861 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4862 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4863 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4864 
  4865 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4866 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4867 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4868 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4869 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4870 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4871 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4872 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4873 
  4874 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4875 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4876 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4877 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4878 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4879 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4880 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4881 
  4882 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4883 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4884 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4885 
  4886 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4887 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4888 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4889 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4890 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4891 limit is imposed.
  4892 
  4893 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4894 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4895 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4896 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4897 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4898 and scalability.
  4899 
  4900 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4901 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4902 
  4903 
  4904 *** Document preparation ***
  4905 
  4906 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4907 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4908 current context.
  4909 
  4910 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4911 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4912 
  4913 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4914 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4915 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4916 
  4917 
  4918 *** Pure ***
  4919 
  4920 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4921 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4922 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4923 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4924 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4925 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4926 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4927 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4928 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4929 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4930 
  4931 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4932 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4933 sketch:
  4934 
  4935     internal compilation:
  4936         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4937     writing SML code to a file:
  4938         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4939     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4940         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4941     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4942         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4943 
  4944     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4945         method ``eval''
  4946 
  4947 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4948 
  4949 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4950 
  4951     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4952     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4953     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4954     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4955 
  4956 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4957 
  4958     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4959       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4960 
  4961     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4962       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4963 
  4964     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4965       {(target)}+
  4966         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4967 
  4968     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4969       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4970         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4971 
  4972 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4973 
  4974 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4975 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4976 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4977 codegen".
  4978 
  4979 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4980 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4981 annotations).
  4982 
  4983 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4984 syntax.
  4985 
  4986 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4987 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4988 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4989 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4990 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4991 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4992 
  4993 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4994 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4995 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4996 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4997 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4998 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4999 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5000 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5001 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5002 equations, see section "definitions".
  5003 
  5004 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5005 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5006 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5007 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5008 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5009 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5010 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5011 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5012 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5013 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5014 
  5015 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5016 configuration options:
  5017 
  5018   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5019   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5020   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5021   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5022   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5023   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5024   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5025   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5026   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5027 
  5028 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5029 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5030 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5031 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5032 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5033 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5034 order.
  5035 
  5036 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5037 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5038 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5039 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5040 context encountered later on.
  5041 
  5042 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5043 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5044 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5045 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5046 
  5047 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5048 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5049 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5050 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5051 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5052 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5053 
  5054 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5055 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5056 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5057 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5058 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5059 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5060 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5061 more permissive.
  5062 
  5063 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5064 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5065 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5066 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5067 maintainability of proof texts.
  5068 
  5069 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5070 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5071 
  5072   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5073   then guess x and y by clarify
  5074 
  5075 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5076 proof tools being involved here.
  5077 
  5078 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5079 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5080 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5081 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5082 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5083 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5084 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5085 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5086 
  5087 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5088 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5089 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5090 
  5091   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5092   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5093   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5094   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5095 
  5096 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5097 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5098 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5099 
  5100 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5101 both named and unnamed ones.
  5102 
  5103 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5104 
  5105   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5106 
  5107 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5108 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5109 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5110 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5111 
  5112 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5113 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5114 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5115 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5116 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5117 
  5118 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5119 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5120 
  5121 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5122 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5123 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5124 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5125 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5126 originally first one.
  5127 
  5128 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5129 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5130 expected.
  5131 
  5132 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5133 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5134 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5135 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5136 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5137 
  5138   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5139     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5140     obtains x where "P x"
  5141 
  5142   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5143     assumes "A & B"
  5144     obtains A and B
  5145 
  5146   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5147     assumes "A | B"
  5148     obtains
  5149       A
  5150     | B
  5151 
  5152 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5153 explicitly:
  5154 
  5155   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5156     obtains "~ thesis"
  5157 
  5158   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5159     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5160 
  5161 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5162 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5163 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5164 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5165 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5166 case_names).
  5167 
  5168 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5169 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5170 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5171 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5172 
  5173 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5174 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5175 top-level lemma.
  5176 
  5177 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5178 introduction rule (default "that").
  5179 
  5180 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5181 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5182 to occur.
  5183 
  5184 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5185 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5186 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5187 representations independently of name spaces.
  5188 
  5189 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5190 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5191 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5194 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5195 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5196 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5197 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5198 current context.
  5199 
  5200 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5201 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5202 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5203 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5204 
  5205   axiomatization
  5206     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5207     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5208 
  5209   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5210   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5211 
  5212   abbreviation
  5213     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5214     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5215 
  5216 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5217 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5218 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5219 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5220 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5221 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5222 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5223 
  5224 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5225 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5226 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5227 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5228 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5229 
  5230 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5231 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5232 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5233 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5234 
  5235 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5236 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5237 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5238 
  5239   definition "K x _ = x"
  5240 
  5241   inductive conj for A B
  5242   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5243 
  5244 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5245 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5246 abbreviations on output.
  5247 
  5248 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5249 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5250 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5251 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5252 
  5253 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5254 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5255 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5256 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5257 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5258 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5259 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5260 
  5261 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5262 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5263 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5264 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5265 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5266 
  5267 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5268 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5269 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5270 
  5271 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5272 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5273 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5274 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5275 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5276 
  5277   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5278     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5279 
  5280 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5281 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5282 partial_order.
  5283 
  5284 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5285 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5286 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5287 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5288 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5289 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5290 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5291 examples.
  5292 
  5293 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5294 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5295 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5296 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5297 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5298 
  5299 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5300 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5301 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5302 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5303 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5304 
  5305   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5306   (induct set: foo bar)
  5307   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5308   (induct type: foo bar)
  5309 
  5310 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5311 new format.
  5312 
  5313 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5314 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5315 
  5316 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5317 considered a legacy feature.
  5318 
  5319 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5320 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5321 
  5322 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5323 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5324 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5325 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5326   
  5327 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5328 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5329 manipulating the claset.
  5330 
  5331 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5332 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5333 least one premise.
  5334 
  5335 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5336 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5337 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5338 rule steps.
  5339 
  5340 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5341 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5342 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5343 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5344 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5345 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5346 
  5347 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5348 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5349 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5350 
  5351 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5352 the graph browser tool.
  5353 
  5354 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5355 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5356 
  5357 
  5358 *** HOL ***
  5359 
  5360 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5361 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5362 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5363 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5364 multi-threading.
  5365   
  5366 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5367 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5368 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5369 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5370 work with multi-threading.
  5371 
  5372 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5373 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5374 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5375 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5376 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5377 
  5378 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5379 
  5380 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5381 equality.
  5382 
  5383 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5384 the new 'class' package:
  5385 
  5386     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5387     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5388     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5389     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5390     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5391     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5392     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5393     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5394     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5395     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5396     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5397     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5398     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5399     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5400     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5401     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5402     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5403     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5404     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5405     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5406 
  5407 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5408 
  5409 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5410 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5411 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5412 names.
  5413 
  5414 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5415 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5416 
  5417 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5418 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5419 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5420 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5421 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5422 
  5423 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5424 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5425 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5426 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5427 
  5428 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5429 
  5430 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5431 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5432 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5433 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5435 
  5436 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5437 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5438 
  5439 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5440 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5441 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5442 
  5443 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5444 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5445 
  5446 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5447 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5448 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5449 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5450 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5451 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5452 in the current context.
  5453 
  5454 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5455 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5457 
  5458 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5459 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5460 
  5461 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5462 
  5463     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5464     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5465 
  5466     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5467       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5468     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5469     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5470 
  5471     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5472     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5473 
  5474   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5475 
  5476     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5477     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5478     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5479     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5480     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5481     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5482     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5483     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5484     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5485     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5486     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5487     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5488     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5489     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5490     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5491     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5492     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5493     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5494     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5495     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5496     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5497     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5498     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5499     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5500     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5501     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5502     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5503     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5504     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5505     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5506     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5507     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5508     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5509     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5510     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5511 
  5512     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5513     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5514     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5515     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5516     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5517     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5518     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5519     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5520     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5521     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5522     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5523     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5524     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5525     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5526     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5527     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5528     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5529 
  5530     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5531     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5532     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5533     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5534     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5535     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5536     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5537     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5538     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5539     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5540     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5541     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5542     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5543     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5544     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5545     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5546     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5547     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5548     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5549     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5550     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5551     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5552     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5553     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5554     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5555     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5556     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5557     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5558 
  5559     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5560     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5561     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5562     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5563     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5564     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5565 
  5566     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5567     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5568     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5569     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5570 
  5571     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5572     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5573 
  5574     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5575     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5576 
  5577 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5578 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5579 
  5580 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5581 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5582 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5583 "*.size".
  5584 
  5585 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5587 
  5588 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5589 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5590 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5593 
  5594 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5595 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5596 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5597 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5598 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5599 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5600 numerals on all operations.
  5601 
  5602 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5603 
  5604 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5605 
  5606 * Code generator library theories:
  5607   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5608     languages.
  5609   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5610     languages.
  5611   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5612     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5613   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5614   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5615     denominator).
  5616   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5617     representable by rational numbers.
  5618   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5619     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5620     includes Code_Integer.
  5621   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5622     target-language built-in integers.
  5623   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5624     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5625 
  5626 * New package for inductive predicates
  5627 
  5628   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5629 
  5630     inductive
  5631       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5632       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5633     where
  5634       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5635     | ...
  5636 
  5637   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5638 
  5639     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5640 
  5641     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5642     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5643 
  5644     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5645     intros
  5646       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5647       ...
  5648 
  5649   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5650   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5651 
  5652     inductive_set
  5653       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5654       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5655     where
  5656       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5657     | ...
  5658 
  5659   or
  5660 
  5661     inductive_set
  5662       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5663       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5664       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5665     where
  5666       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5667     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5668     | ...
  5669 
  5670   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5671 
  5672   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5673   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5674 
  5675   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5676 
  5677   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5678     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5679     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5680     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5681     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5682 
  5683   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5684     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5685     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5686     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5687     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5688     statements of the form
  5689 
  5690       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5691 
  5692     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5693     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5694 
  5695       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5696 
  5697   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5698 
  5699       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5700         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5701         ==> ... ==> P
  5702 
  5703     for predicates and
  5704 
  5705       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5706         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5707         ==> ... ==> P
  5708 
  5709     for sets rather than
  5710 
  5711       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5712         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5713         ==> ... ==> P
  5714 
  5715     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5716     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5717     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5718 
  5719   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5720     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5721     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5722 
  5723 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5724 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5725 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5726 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5727 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5728 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5729 
  5730 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5731 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5732 
  5733 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5734 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5735 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5736 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5737 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5738 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5739 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5740 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5741 variable.
  5742 
  5743 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5744 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5745 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5746 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5747   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5748   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5749 
  5750 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5751 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5752 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5753 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5754 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5755 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5756 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5757 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5758 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5759 
  5760 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5761 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5762 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5763 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5764 rat, etc.
  5765 
  5766 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5767 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5768 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5769 
  5770 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5771 
  5772 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5773 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5774 
  5775 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5776 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5777 
  5778 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5779 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5780 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5781 
  5782 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5783 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5785 
  5786 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5787 
  5788 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5789 
  5790 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5791 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5792 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5793 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5794 
  5795 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5796 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5797 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5798 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5799 
  5800 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5801 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5802 algebraic operations.
  5803 
  5804 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5806 
  5807 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5809 
  5810 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5811 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5812 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5813 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5814 adapted.
  5815  
  5816 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5817 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5818 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5819 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5820 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5821 
  5822 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5823 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5824 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5825 
  5826 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5827 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5828 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5829 
  5830 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5831 
  5832 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5833 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5834 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5835   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5836       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5837   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5838   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5839   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5840 
  5841 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5842 
  5843 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5844 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5845 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5846 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5847 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5848 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5849 
  5850 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5851 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5852 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5853 
  5854 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5855 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5856 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5858 
  5859 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5860 
  5861 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5862 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5863 
  5864 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5865 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5866 
  5867 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5868 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5869 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5870 
  5871 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5872 True/False.
  5873 
  5874 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5875 
  5876 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5877 
  5878 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5879 ``rule'' method.
  5880 
  5881 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5882 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5883 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5884 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5885 
  5886 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5887 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5888 
  5889 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5890 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5891 
  5892 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5893 Library.
  5894 
  5895 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5896 
  5897 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5898 as greatest fixed-point.
  5899 
  5900 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5901 association lists.
  5902 
  5903 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5904 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5905 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5906 
  5907 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5908 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5909 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5910 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5911 behavior.
  5912 
  5913 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5914 
  5915 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5916 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5917 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5918 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5919 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5920 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5921 
  5922 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5923 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5924 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5925 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5926 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5927 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5928 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5929 
  5930 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5931 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5932 
  5933 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5934 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5935 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5936 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5937 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5938 
  5939 
  5940 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5941 
  5942 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5943 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5944 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5945 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5949 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5950 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5951 
  5952 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5953 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5954 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5957 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5958 
  5959 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5960 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5961 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5963 
  5964   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5965   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5966   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5967   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5968   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5969   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5970   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5971   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5972   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5973   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5974   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5975   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5976   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5977   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5978   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5979 
  5980 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5981 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5982 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5983 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5984 
  5985   approx        <-- capprox
  5986   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5987   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5988   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5989   monad         <-- cmonad
  5990   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5991   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5992   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5993   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5994 
  5995 
  5996 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5997 
  5998 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5999 
  6000 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6002 
  6003 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6004 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6005 
  6006 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6007 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6008 of algebraic structures.
  6009 
  6010 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6011 
  6012 
  6013 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6014 
  6015 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6016 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6017 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6018 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6019 
  6020 
  6021 *** ML ***
  6022 
  6023 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6024 (even on SML/NJ).
  6025 
  6026 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6027 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6028 compile-time.  For example:
  6029 
  6030 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6031 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6032 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6033 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6034 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6035 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6036 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6037 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6038 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6039 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6040 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6041 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6042 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6043 ML {* @{context} *}
  6044 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6045 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6046 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6047 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6048 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6049 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6050 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6051 
  6052 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6053 
  6054 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6055 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6056 
  6057 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6058 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6059 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6060 
  6061 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6062 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6063 
  6064 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6065 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6066 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6067 
  6068 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6069 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6070 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6071 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6072 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6073 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6074 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6075 declarations and definitions.
  6076 
  6077 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6078 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6079 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6080 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6081 
  6082 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6083 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6084 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6085 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6086 
  6087 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6088 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6089 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6090 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6091 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6092 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6093 
  6094 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6095 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6096 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6097 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6098 attributes, methods, etc.
  6099 
  6100 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6101 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6102 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6103 fold_map combinators.
  6104 
  6105 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6106 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6107 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6108 derivation.
  6109 
  6110 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6111 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6112 achieve the old behaviour.
  6113 
  6114 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6115 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6116 statements.
  6117 
  6118 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6119 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6120 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6121 
  6122 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6123 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6124 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6125 
  6126   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6127   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6128   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6129 
  6130 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6131 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6132 
  6133 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6134 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6135 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6136 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6137 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6138 
  6139 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6140 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6141 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6142 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6143 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6144 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6145 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6146 in a locale context).
  6147 
  6148 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6149 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6150 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6151 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6152 
  6153 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6154 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6155 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6156 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6157 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6158 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6159 
  6160 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6161 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6162 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6163 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6164 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6165 
  6166   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6167 
  6168 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6169 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6170 this:
  6171 
  6172   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6173 
  6174 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6175 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6176 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6177 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6178 
  6179 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6180 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6181 
  6182 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6183 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6184 
  6185 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6186 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6187 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6188 batch mode.
  6189 
  6190 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6191 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6192 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6193 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6194 
  6195 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6196 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6197 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6198 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6199 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6200 
  6201 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6202 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6203 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6204 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6205 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6206 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6207 
  6208 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6209 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6210 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6212 
  6213 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6214 "Trueprop" etc.
  6215 
  6216 
  6217 *** System ***
  6218 
  6219 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6220 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6221 Isabelle installations.
  6222 
  6223 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6224 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6225 code.
  6226 
  6227 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6228 
  6229 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6230 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6231 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6232 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6233 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6234 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6235 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6236 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6237 Implementation manual.
  6238 
  6239