NEWS
author paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
Fri Jun 13 14:49:59 2014 +0100 (2014-06-13)
changeset 57253 6515cf25de13
parent 57252 19b7ace1c5da
child 57272 fd539459a112
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319   * No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by default,
   320     eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322   * No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   323     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   324     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * Old datatype package:
   328   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   329     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   332     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   333     "case_prod").
   334     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   337   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   338   datatype package.
   339   Renamed constants:
   340     Option.set ~> set_option
   341     Option.map ~> map_option
   342     option_rel ~> rel_option
   343   Renamed theorems:
   344     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   345     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   346     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   347     option.recs ~> option.rec
   348     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   349     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   350     map.simps ~> list.map
   351     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   352     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   353     the.simps ~> option.sel
   354   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   357     sum_map ~> map_sum
   358     map_pair ~> map_prod
   359     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   360     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   361     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   362     set_rel ~> rel_set
   363     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   364     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   365     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   366     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   367 
   368 * New theories:
   369     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   370     Library/Tree
   371 
   372 * Theory reorganizations:
   373   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   374 
   375 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   376   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   377   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   378   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   379   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   380   the old default can be restored using
   381   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 * SMT module:
   384   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   385     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   386     called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also supported as oracles. Yices is no
   387     longer supported, because no version of the solver can handle both
   388     SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   389 
   390 * Sledgehammer:
   391   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   392   - MaSh overhaul:
   393       - New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on Python
   394         and increase performance and reliability.
   395       - Activation of MaSh now works via the "MaSh" system option (without
   396         requiring restart), instead of former settings variable "MASH".
   397         The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu Plugin
   398         Options / Isabelle / General. Allowed values include "sml" (for the
   399         default SML engine), "py" (for the old Python engine), and "none".
   400   - New option:
   401       smt_proofs
   402   - Renamed options:
   403       isar_compress ~> compress
   404       isar_try0 ~> try0
   405     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Metis:
   408   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   409     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   412 
   413 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   416 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   417 
   418 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   419 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   420 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   421 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   422 
   423 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 
   426 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   427 with the given constants.
   428 
   429 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   430 
   431 Fact consolidations:
   432     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   433     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   434     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   435     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   436     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   437     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   438     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   439     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   440     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   441     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   442     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   443     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   444     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   445     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   446     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   447     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   448     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   449     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   450     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   451     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   452     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   453     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   454     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   455     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   456     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   457     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   458     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   459     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   460     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   461     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   462     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   463     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   464     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   465     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   466     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   467     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   468     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   469     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   470     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   471     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   472 
   473 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   474 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   475 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   476 
   477 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   478 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   479 
   480 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   481 
   482 INCOMPATBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   491 operations on records.
   492 
   493 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   495 
   496 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   497     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   501     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   502     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   506   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   507   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   508   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   509     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   510   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   511     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   512   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   514 
   515 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   516     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   517     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   518     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   519     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 * Fact name consolidation:
   523     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   524     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   525     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   526     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   527     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   529 
   530 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   531 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   532 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   533 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   534 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   535 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   536 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   537 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   540 
   541 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   542 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   543 
   544 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   545 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   546 
   547 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   548 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   549 or the brute way with
   550 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   551 
   552 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   553 
   554 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   555 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   558 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   559 
   560 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   561 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   562 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   563 INCOMPATIBILITY
   564 
   565 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   566   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   567   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   568   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   569   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   570   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   571   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   572   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   573   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   574   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   575   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   576   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   577 
   578   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   579 
   580   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   581     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   582     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   583     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   584     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   586 
   587 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   588   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   589 
   590   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   591 
   592   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   593 
   594   - removed constant isDiff
   595 
   596   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   597     syntax.
   598 
   599   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   600 
   601   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   602 
   603   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   604 
   605   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   606 
   607   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   608     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   609 
   610   - Other renamings:
   611     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   612     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   613     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   614     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   615     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   616     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   617     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   621   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   622 
   623 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   624   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   625   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   626 
   627   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   628   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   629   removes
   630     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   631 
   632   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   633     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   634 
   635   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   636 
   637   Renamings:
   638     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   639     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   640     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   641     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   642     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   643     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   644     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   645     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   646     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   647     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   648     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   649     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   650 
   651     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   652     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   653     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   654 
   655   Removed theorems:
   656     complex_zero_def
   657     complex_add_def
   658     complex_minus_def
   659     complex_diff_def
   660     complex_one_def
   661     complex_mult_def
   662     complex_inverse_def
   663     complex_scaleR_def
   664 
   665 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   666 
   667 * Nitpick:
   668   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   669     infinite values.
   670   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   671     "Rep_Integ".
   672   - Removed "std" option.
   673   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   674     "hide_types".
   675 
   676 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   677   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   678   - new theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
   679     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
   680   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   681     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   682     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   683     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   684     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   685     intervals.
   686 
   687   - renamed theorems:
   688     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   689     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   690     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   691 
   692 * HOL-Probability:
   693   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   694     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   695 
   696     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   697     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   698     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   699     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   700     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   701     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   702     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   703     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   704     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   705     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   706     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   707     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   708     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   709     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   710     integral_indicator          ~>
   711          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   712     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   713     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   714     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   715 
   716     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   717          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   718 
   719     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   720          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   721 
   722     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   723          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   724 
   725     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   726          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   727          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   728 
   729     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   730          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   731 
   732     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   733          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   734 
   735     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   736          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   737          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   738 
   739     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   740          positive_integral_real_affine
   741 
   742     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   743          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   744 
   745     The following theorems where removed:
   746 
   747     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   748     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   749     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   750     lebesgue_integral_multc
   751     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   752     integral_cmul_indicator
   753     integral_real
   754 
   755   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   756 
   757     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   758       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   759 
   760     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   761 
   762   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal distributed
   763     random variables.
   764 
   765 * Library/Kleene-Algebra was removed because AFP/Kleene_Algebra subsumes it.
   766 
   767 *** Scala ***
   768 
   769 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   770 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   771 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   772 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   773 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 
   776 *** ML ***
   777 
   778 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   779 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   782 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   783 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   787 
   788 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   789 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   790 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   794 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   795 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   796 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   797 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   798 of schematic variables.
   799 
   800 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   801 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   802 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   803 formal context.
   804 
   805 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   806 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   807 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   808 actually belongs to it).
   809 
   810 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   811 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   812 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   813 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   814 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   815 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   816 
   817 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   818 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   821 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   822 
   823 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   824 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   825 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   826 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   827 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   828 
   829 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   830 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   831 purposes.
   832 
   833 
   834 *** System ***
   835 
   836 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   837 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   838 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   839 processing is started.
   840 
   841 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   842 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   843 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   844 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   845 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   846 
   847 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   848 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   849 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   850 
   851 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   852 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   853 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   854 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   855 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   856 settings variable yet.
   857 
   858 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar
   859 functionality may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   860 
   861 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
   862 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
   863 
   864 
   865 
   866 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   867 -------------------------------------
   868 
   869 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   870 
   871 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   872 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   873 
   874 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   875 after edits surrounding the command location.
   876 
   877 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   878 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   879 e.g. out-of-memory).
   880 
   881 
   882 *** System ***
   883 
   884 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   885 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   886 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   887 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   888 
   889 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   890 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   891 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   892 
   893 
   894 
   895 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   896 -------------------------------------
   897 
   898 *** General ***
   899 
   900 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   901 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   902 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   905 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   906 
   907 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   908 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   909 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   910 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   911 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   912 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   913 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   914 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   915 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   916 syntax.
   917 
   918 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   919 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   920 
   921 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   922 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   923 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   924 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   925 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   926 
   927 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   929 
   930 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   931 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   932 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   933 
   934 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   935 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   936 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   937 
   938 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   939 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   940 
   941 
   942 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   943 
   944 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   945 Documentation panel.
   946 
   947 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   948 documentation.
   949 
   950 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   951 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   952 
   953 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   954 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   955 normal editing and checking process.
   956 
   957 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   958 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   959 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   960 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   961 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   962 
   963 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   964 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   965 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   966 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   967 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   968 
   969 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   970 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   971 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   972 
   973 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   974 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   975 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   976 to resolve conflict.
   977 
   978 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   979 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   980 
   981 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   982 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   983 such command executions while editing.
   984 
   985 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   986 document content.
   987 
   988 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   989 toplevel theorem statements.
   990 
   991 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   992 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   993 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   994 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   995 
   996 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   997 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   998 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   999 
  1000 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1001 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1002 
  1003 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1004 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1005 
  1006 
  1007 *** Pure ***
  1008 
  1009 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1010 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1011 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1012 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1013 details.
  1014 
  1015 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1016 
  1017 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1018 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1019 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1020 
  1021 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1025 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1026 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1027 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1028 
  1029 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1030 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1031 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1032 
  1033 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1034 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1035 
  1036 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1037 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1038 situations.
  1039 
  1040 
  1041 *** HOL ***
  1042 
  1043 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1044 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1048 
  1049 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1050 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1051 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1052 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1053 
  1054   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1055 
  1056 * Code generator:
  1057   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1058     'code_instance'.
  1059   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1060     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1061 
  1062 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1063 examples.
  1064 
  1065 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1066 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1067 to distinguish both when desired.
  1068 
  1069 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1070 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1071 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1072 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1075 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1076 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1077 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1078 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1079 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1082 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1083 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1084 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1085 
  1086 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1087 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1088 
  1089 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1090 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1091 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1092 
  1093 * Lifting:
  1094   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1095     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1096       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1097       transfer rules
  1098     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1099       correspondence relation can be generated
  1100     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1101       parametricity
  1102     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1103   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1104   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1105     copies
  1106   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1107     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1108     anonymous context)
  1109   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1110     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1111   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1112     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1113   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1114     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1115 
  1116 * Transfer:
  1117   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1118     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1119   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1120   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1121     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1122   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1123 
  1124 * Reification and reflection:
  1125   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1126     "Reification".
  1127   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1128   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130 
  1131 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1132   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1133     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1134     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1135   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1136     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1137   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1138     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1139     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1140     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1141     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1142     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1143     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1144     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1145   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1146     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1147   - Fact renames:
  1148       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1149       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1151 
  1152 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1153 
  1154 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1155 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1156 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1158 
  1159 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1160 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1161 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1162 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1163 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1164 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1165 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1166 lemmas.
  1167 
  1168 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1169 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1170 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1171 
  1172 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1173 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1174 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1175 
  1176 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1177 top and bottom elements.
  1178 
  1179 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1180 
  1181 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1182 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1183 
  1184  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1185    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1186    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1187 
  1188  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1189    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1190    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1191 
  1192    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1193    arbitrary filter.
  1194 
  1195  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1196    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1197    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1198    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1199    on a compact set.
  1200 
  1201  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1202    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1203    linear_continuum_topology).
  1204 
  1205  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1206    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1207    on all sequences converging to x.
  1208 
  1209  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1210    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1211    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1212    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1213    left or right.
  1214 
  1215  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1216 
  1217      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1218 
  1219  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1220    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1221 
  1222  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1223    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1224    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1225    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1226    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1227    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1228 
  1229  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1230 
  1231    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1232 
  1233    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1234      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1235 
  1236    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1237 
  1238    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1239      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1240 
  1241    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1242 
  1243    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1244 
  1245  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1246 
  1247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1248 
  1249 * Nitpick:
  1250   - Added option "spy".
  1251   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1252 
  1253 * Sledgehammer:
  1254   - Renamed option:
  1255       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1257   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1258   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1259   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1260 
  1261 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1262 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1263 
  1264 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1265   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1266   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1267     generated code.
  1268   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1269   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1270   - Fact renames:
  1271     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1272     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1273     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1274 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1275 
  1276 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1277 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1278 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1279 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1280 
  1281 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1282 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1283 
  1284 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1287 
  1288     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1289     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1290 
  1291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292 
  1293 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1294 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1295 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1296 
  1297 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1298 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1299 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1300 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * HOL-BNF:
  1303   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1304     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1305     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1306     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1307   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1308     coinduct).
  1309   - Renamed keywords:
  1310     data ~> datatype_new
  1311     codata ~> codatatype
  1312     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1313   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1314     discs ~> disc
  1315     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1316     map_id' ~> map_id
  1317     sels ~> sel
  1318     set_map' ~> set_map
  1319     sets ~> set
  1320 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1321 
  1322 
  1323 *** ML ***
  1324 
  1325 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1326 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1327 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1328 Examples.thy in particular.
  1329 
  1330 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1331 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1332 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1333 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1334 
  1335 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1336 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1337 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1338 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1340 
  1341 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1342 
  1343     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1344     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1345 
  1346 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1349 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1350 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1351 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1352 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1353 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1354 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1355 
  1356 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1357 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1358 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1359 clasets separately from the context.
  1360 
  1361 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1362 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1363 
  1364 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1365 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1366 
  1367 
  1368 *** System ***
  1369 
  1370 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1371 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1372 
  1373 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1374 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1377 settings variable.
  1378 
  1379 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1380 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1381 always pdf.
  1382 
  1383 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1384 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1385 
  1386 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1387 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1388 
  1389 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1390 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1391 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1392 
  1393 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1394 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1395 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1396 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1397 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1398 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1399 
  1400 
  1401 
  1402 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1403 -----------------------------------
  1404 
  1405 *** General ***
  1406 
  1407 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1408 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1409 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1410 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1411 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1412 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1413 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1414 
  1415 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1416 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1417 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1418 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1419 
  1420 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1421 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1422 
  1423 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1424 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1425 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1426 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1427 dependencies properly.
  1428 
  1429 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1430 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1431 
  1432 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1433 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1434 
  1435 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1436 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1437 and "class ... context ...".
  1438 
  1439 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1440 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1441 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1442 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1443 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1444 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1445 
  1446 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1447 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1448 
  1449 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1450 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1451 
  1452 
  1453 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1454 
  1455 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1456 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1457 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1458 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1459 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1460 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1461 
  1462 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1463 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1464 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1465 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1466 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1467 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1468 
  1469 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1470 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1471 browser on demand.
  1472 
  1473 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1474 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1475 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1476 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1477 
  1478 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1479 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1480 
  1481 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1482 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1483 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1484 potentially infinite message streams.
  1485 
  1486 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1487 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1488 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1489 schemes.
  1490 
  1491 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1492 symbols.
  1493 
  1494 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1495 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1496 
  1497 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1498 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1499 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1500 
  1501 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1502 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1503 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1504 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1505 
  1506 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1507 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1508 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1509 
  1510 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1511 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1512 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1513 Isabelle distribution.
  1514 
  1515 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1516 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1517 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1518 
  1519 
  1520 *** Pure ***
  1521 
  1522 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1523 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1524 
  1525 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1526 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1527 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528 
  1529 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1530 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1531 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1532 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1533 with some care where this is really required.
  1534 
  1535 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1536 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1537 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1538 
  1539   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1540 
  1541 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1542 a Hasse diagram.
  1543 
  1544 
  1545 *** HOL ***
  1546 
  1547 * Sledgehammer:
  1548 
  1549   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1550     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1551   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1552   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1553   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1554   - Renamed options:
  1555       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1556       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1557       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1558       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1559 
  1560 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1561 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1562 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1563 
  1564 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Lifting:
  1568   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1569   - quot_del attribute
  1570   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1571 
  1572 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1573 expressions.
  1574 
  1575 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1576 pointfree expressions.
  1577 
  1578 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1579 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1580 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1581 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1585 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1586 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1587 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1588 accordingly.
  1589 
  1590 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1591 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1592 
  1593 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1594 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1599 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1600 
  1601 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1602 
  1603 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1604 
  1605   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1606   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1607 
  1608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1609 
  1610 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1611 
  1612   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1613   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1614 
  1615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1618 
  1619   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1620     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1621     output f x converges to G.
  1622 
  1623   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1624     infinity (at_bot).
  1625 
  1626   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1627     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1628 
  1629   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1630     at_top".
  1631 
  1632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1635 lattice type classes.
  1636 
  1637 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1638 
  1639     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1640     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1641 
  1642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643 
  1644 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1645 changes as follows.
  1646 
  1647   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1648 
  1649       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1650       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1651 
  1652   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1653     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1654     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1655     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1656 
  1657   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1658     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1659     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1660 
  1661   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1662     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1663     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1664     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1665 
  1666   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1667     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1668 
  1669       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1670       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1671       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1672       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1673       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1674       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1675       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1676       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1677       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1678       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1679       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1680       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1681       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1682       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1683       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1684       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1685 
  1686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1689 
  1690 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1691 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1692 
  1693 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1694 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1695 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1696 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1697 
  1698   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1699   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1700   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1701   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1702   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1703   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1704   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1705   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1706   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1707   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1708 
  1709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1710 
  1711 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1712 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1713 Data").
  1714 
  1715 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1716 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1717 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1718 code.
  1719 
  1720 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1721 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1722 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1726 
  1727 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1728 
  1729 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1730 
  1731   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1732   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1733 
  1734 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1735 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1736 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1737 
  1738   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1739 
  1740     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1741     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1742     cart_base i  removed
  1743     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1744 
  1745   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1746 
  1747   Renamed lemmas:
  1748 
  1749     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1750     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1751     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1752     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1753     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1754     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1755     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1756     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1757     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1758     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1759 
  1760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * HOL/Probability:
  1763 
  1764   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1765 
  1766   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1767     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1768     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1769 
  1770   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1771     projective family).
  1772 
  1773 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1774 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1775 
  1776 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1777 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1778 datatypes.
  1779 
  1780 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1781 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1782 
  1783 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1784 trees for the code generator.
  1785 
  1786 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1787 Lifting/Transfer.
  1788 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1789 
  1790 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 
  1794 *** Document preparation ***
  1795 
  1796 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1797 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1798 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1799 
  1800 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1801 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1802 
  1803 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1804 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1805 document/root.tex.
  1806 
  1807 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1808 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1809 
  1810 
  1811 *** ML ***
  1812 
  1813 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1814 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1815 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1816 
  1817 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1818 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1819 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1820 
  1821 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1822 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1823 necessarily printing visible text.
  1824 
  1825 
  1826 *** System ***
  1827 
  1828 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1829 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1830 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1831 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1832 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1833 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1834 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1835 
  1836 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1837 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1838 
  1839   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1840 
  1841 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1842 
  1843 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1844 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1845 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1846 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1847 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1848 
  1849 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1850 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1851 
  1852 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1853 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1854 
  1855 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1857 
  1858 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1859 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1860 version of Isabelle.
  1861 
  1862 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1863 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1864 
  1865 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1866 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1867 for home-made settings.
  1868 
  1869 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1870 
  1871 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1872 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1873 configuration.
  1874 
  1875 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1876 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1877 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1878 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1879 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1880 
  1881 
  1882 
  1883 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1884 ------------------------------
  1885 
  1886 *** General ***
  1887 
  1888 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1889 
  1890   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1891     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1892   - markup for bound variables
  1893   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1894   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1895   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1896     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1897 
  1898 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1899 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1900 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1901 
  1902 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1903 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1904 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1905 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1906 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1907 
  1908   context
  1909     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1910     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1911   begin
  1912 
  1913   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1914 
  1915   end
  1916 
  1917   thm my_trans
  1918 
  1919 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1920 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1921 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1922 
  1923 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1924 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1925 
  1926 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1927 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1928 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1929 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1930 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1931 
  1932 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1933 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1934 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1935 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1936 indices of schematic variables.
  1937 
  1938 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1939 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1940 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1941 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1942 etc. was exploited.
  1943 
  1944 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1945 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1946 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1947 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1948 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1949 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1950 
  1951 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1952 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1953 manual.
  1954 
  1955 
  1956 *** Pure ***
  1957 
  1958 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1959 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1960 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1961 
  1962 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1963 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1964 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1965 undocumented feature.)
  1966 
  1967 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1968 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1969 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1970 
  1971   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1972 
  1973   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1974     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1975 
  1976 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1977 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1978 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1979 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1980 
  1981 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1982 
  1983     num ~> num_token
  1984     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1985     xstr ~> str_token
  1986 
  1987 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1988 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1989 position information via constraints).
  1990 
  1991 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1992 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1993 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1996 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1997 
  1998 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1999 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2000 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2003 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2004 
  2005 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2006 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2007 
  2008   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2009 
  2010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2011 
  2012 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2013 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2014 
  2015 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2016 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2017 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2018 
  2019 
  2020 *** HOL ***
  2021 
  2022 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2023 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2024 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2025 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2026 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2027 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2028 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2029 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2030 possible.
  2031 
  2032 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2033 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2034 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2035 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2036 
  2037 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2038 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2041 
  2042 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2043 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2044 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2045 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2046 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2047 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2048 
  2049   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2050     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2051 
  2052   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2053     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2054     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2055 
  2056   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2057     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2058 
  2059   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2060     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2061     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2062 
  2063   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2064     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2065 
  2066 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2067 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2068 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2069 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2070 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2071 
  2072   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2073     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2074     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2075     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2076     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2077 
  2078     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2079     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2080 
  2081   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2082     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2083     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2084     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2085     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2086     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2087     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2088     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2089 
  2090   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2091     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2092     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2093     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2094 
  2095   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2096     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2097     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2098     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2099 
  2100   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2101     from type nat to type int.
  2102 
  2103 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2104 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2105 
  2106   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2107     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2108     type.  Example syntax:
  2109 
  2110     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2111       is List.insert
  2112 
  2113     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2114     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2115     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2116     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2117     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2118     by the package.
  2119 
  2120   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2121     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2122     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2123     code generation for each constant.
  2124 
  2125   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2126     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2127     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2128     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2129     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2130 
  2131   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2132     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2133     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2134 
  2135 * Quotient package:
  2136 
  2137   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2138     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2139 
  2140   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2141     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2142 
  2143   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2144     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2145     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2148     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2149 
  2150 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2151 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2152 
  2153 * Quickcheck:
  2154 
  2155   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2156     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2157     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2158     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2159     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2160 
  2161     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2162     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2163     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2164 
  2165     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2166     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2167 
  2168     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2169     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2170     show genuine counterexamples.
  2171 
  2172   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2173     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2174 
  2175     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2176     constructors of that type.
  2177 
  2178   - Support for multisets.
  2179 
  2180   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2181 
  2182   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2183     conjectures in a locale context.
  2184 
  2185 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2186 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2187 
  2188 * Sledgehammer:
  2189   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2190     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2191   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2192   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2193     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2194   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2195   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2196   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2197   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2198 
  2199 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2200 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2201 
  2202 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2203 
  2204 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2207 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2208 
  2209   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2210 
  2211 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2212 a list and a nat.
  2213 
  2214 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2215 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2216 
  2217 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2218 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2219 default.
  2220 
  2221 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2222 
  2223   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2224 
  2225 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2226 
  2227 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2228 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2229 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2230 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2231 one_case.
  2232 
  2233 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2234 the result of the fact expression.
  2235 
  2236 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2237 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2238 of some relation theorems:
  2239 
  2240   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2241   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2242   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2243   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2244   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2245   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2246 
  2247 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2248 
  2249 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2250 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2251 
  2252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2255 to match the constant's name:
  2256 
  2257   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2258   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2259   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2260   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2261   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2262   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2263   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2264   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2265   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2266   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2267   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2268   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2269   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2270   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2271   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2272   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2273   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2274   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2275   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2276   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2277   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2278   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2279   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2280   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2281 
  2282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2285 and corresponding theorem names:
  2286 
  2287   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2288 
  2289   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2290 
  2291   - Renamed theorems:
  2292 
  2293     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2294     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2295     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2296     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2297     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2298     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2299     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2300     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2301     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2302     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2303     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2304     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2305     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2306     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2307     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2308     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2309     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2310     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2311     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2312     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2313     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2314     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2315     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2316 
  2317     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2318 
  2319     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2320 
  2321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2322 
  2323 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2324 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2325 
  2326   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2327   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2328   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2329   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2330   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2331   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2332   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2333   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2334   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2335   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2336   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2337   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2338   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2339   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2340   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2341   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2342   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2343   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2344   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2345   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2346   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2347 
  2348 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2349 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2354 
  2355   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2356   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2357   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2358   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2359   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2360   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2361   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2362   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2363   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2364   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2365   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2366   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2367   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2368   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2369   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2370   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2371   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2372   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2373 
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2377 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2378 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2379 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2380 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2381 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2382 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2383 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2384 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2385 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2386 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2387 
  2388 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2389 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2390 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2391 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2392 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2393 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2394 
  2395 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2396 through option types.
  2397 
  2398 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2399 relations.
  2400 
  2401 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2404 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2405 
  2406   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2407   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2408   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2409   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2410   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2411   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2412   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2413   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2414   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2415   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2416   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2417   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2418   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2419   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2420   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2421   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2422   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2423   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2424   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2425   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2426   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2427   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2428   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2429   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2430   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2431   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2432   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2433   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2434   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2435   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2436   zless_le ~> less_le
  2437   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2438   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2439   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2440 
  2441 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2442 
  2443   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2444 
  2445 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2446 
  2447 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2448 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2449 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2450 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2454 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2455 
  2456 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2457 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2458 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2459 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2460 follows:
  2461 
  2462   Operations:
  2463   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2464   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2465   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2466   del -> rbt_del
  2467   delete -> rbt_delete
  2468   ins -> rbt_ins
  2469   insert -> rbt_insert
  2470   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2471   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2472   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2473   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2474   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2475   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2476   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2477   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2478   union -> rbt_union
  2479   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2480   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2481 
  2482   Lemmas:
  2483   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2484   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2485   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2486   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2487   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2488   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2489   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2490   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2491   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2492   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2493   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2494   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2495   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2496   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2497   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2498   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2499   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2500   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2501   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2502   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2503   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2504   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2505   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2506   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2507   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2508   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2509   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2510   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2511   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2512   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2513   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2514   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2515   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2516   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2517   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2518   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2519   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2520   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2521   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2522   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2523   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2524   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2525   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2526   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2527   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2528   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2529   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2530   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2531   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2532   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2533   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2534   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2535   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2536   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2537   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2538   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2539   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2540   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2541   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2542   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2543   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2544   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2545   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2546   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2547   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2548   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2549   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2550   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2551   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2552   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2553   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2554   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2555   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2556   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2557   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2558   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2559   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2560   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2561   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2562   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2563   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2564   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2565   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2566 
  2567 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2568 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2569 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571   Changed Operations:
  2572   float_abs -> abs
  2573   float_nprt -> nprt
  2574   float_pprt -> pprt
  2575   pow2 -> use powr
  2576   round_down -> float_round_down
  2577   round_up -> float_round_up
  2578   scale -> exponent
  2579 
  2580   Removed Operations:
  2581   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2582 
  2583   Renamed Lemmas:
  2584   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2585   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2586   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2587   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2588   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2589   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2590   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2591   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2592   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2593   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2594   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2595   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2596   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2597   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2598   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2599   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2600   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2601   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2602   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2603   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2604   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2605   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2606   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2607   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2608   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2609   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2610   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2611   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2612   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2613   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2614   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2615   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2616   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2617   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2618   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2619   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2620 
  2621   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2622   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2623   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2624   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2625   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2626   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2627   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2628   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2629   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2630   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2631 
  2632 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2633 association lists with distinct keys.
  2634 
  2635 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2636 annotated commands.
  2637 
  2638 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2639 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2640 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2641 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2644 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2645 instead.
  2646 
  2647   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2648   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2649   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2650   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2651   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2652   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2653   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2654   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2655   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2656   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2657   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2658   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2659   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2660   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2661   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2662   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2663   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2664   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2665   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2666   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2667   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2668   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2669   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2670   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2671   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2672   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2673   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2674   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2675   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2676   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2677   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2678   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2679   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2680   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2681   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2682   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2683   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2684   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2685   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2686   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2687   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2688 
  2689 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2690 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2691 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2692 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2693 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2694 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2695 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2696 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2697 
  2698 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2699 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2700 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2701 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2702 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2703 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2704 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2705 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2706 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2707 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2708 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2709 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2710 
  2711   Renamed constants:
  2712   measure -> emeasure
  2713   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2714   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2715   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2716   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2717 
  2718   Removed locales:
  2719   completeable_measure_space
  2720   finite_measure_space
  2721   finite_prob_space
  2722   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2723   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2724   finite_sigma_algebra
  2725   measure_space
  2726   pair_finite_prob_space
  2727   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2728   pair_finite_space
  2729   pair_sigma_algebra
  2730   product_sigma_algebra
  2731 
  2732   Removed constants:
  2733   conditional_space
  2734   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2735   image_space
  2736   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2737   pair_measure_generator
  2738   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2739   subvimage
  2740 
  2741   Replacement theorems:
  2742   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2743   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2744   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2745   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2746   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2747   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2748   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2749   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2750   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2751   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2752   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2753   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2754   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2755   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2756   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2757   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2758   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2759   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2760   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2761   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2762   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2763   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2764   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2765   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2766   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2767   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2768   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2769   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2770   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2771   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2772   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2773   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2774   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2775   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2776   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2777   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2778   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2779   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2780   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2781   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2782   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2783   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2784   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2785   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2786   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2787   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2788   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2789   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2790   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2791   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2792   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2793   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2794   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2795   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2796   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2797   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2798   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2799   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2800   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2801   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2802   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2803   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2804   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2805   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2806   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2807   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2808   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2809   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2810   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2811   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2812   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2813   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2814   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2815   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2816   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2817   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2818   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2819   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2820   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2821   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2822   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2823   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2824   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2825   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2826   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2827   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2828   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2829   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2830   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2831   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2832   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2833   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2834   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2835   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2836   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2837   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2838   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2839   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2840   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2841   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2842   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2843   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2844   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2845   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2846   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2847   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2848   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2849   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2850   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2851   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2852   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2853   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2854   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2855   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2856   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2857   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2858   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2859   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2860   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2861   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2862   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2863   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2864   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2865   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2866   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2867   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2868   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2869   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2870 
  2871 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2872 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2873 
  2874 
  2875 *** FOL ***
  2876 
  2877 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2878 
  2879 
  2880 *** ZF ***
  2881 
  2882 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2883 analysis.
  2884 
  2885 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2886 
  2887 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 
  2890 *** ML ***
  2891 
  2892 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2893 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2894 
  2895 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2896 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2897 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2898 
  2899 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2900 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2901 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2902 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2903 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2904 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2905 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2906 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2907 
  2908 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2909 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2910 
  2911 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2912 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2913 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2914 
  2915 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2916 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2917 
  2918 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2919 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2920 context as well.
  2921 
  2922 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2923 
  2924   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2925   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2926   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2927   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2928   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2929   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2930   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2931   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2932   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2933   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2934   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2935   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2936 
  2937 
  2938 *** System ***
  2939 
  2940 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2941 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2942 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2943 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2944 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2945 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2946 the generic user home was intended.
  2947 
  2948 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2949 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2950 
  2951 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2952 (not just JRE).
  2953 
  2954 
  2955 
  2956 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2957 ------------------------------------
  2958 
  2959 *** General ***
  2960 
  2961 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2962 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2963 
  2964   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2965     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2966     files for checking).
  2967 
  2968   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2969     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2970     positions.
  2971 
  2972   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2973     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2974     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2975 
  2976   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2977     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2978     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2979 
  2980   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2981     cores.
  2982 
  2983   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2984     versions (garbage collection).
  2985 
  2986 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2987 including some remaining limitations.
  2988 
  2989 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2990 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2991 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2992 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2993 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2997 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2998 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2999 
  3000 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3001 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3002 usedir option -Q.
  3003 
  3004 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3005 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3006 
  3007   long_names   ~> names_long
  3008   short_names  ~> names_short
  3009   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3010 
  3011 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3012 
  3013   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3014 
  3015 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3016 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3017 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3018 
  3019 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3020 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3021 
  3022 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3023   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3024   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3025   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3026     "Classical Reasoner".
  3027 
  3028 
  3029 *** HOL ***
  3030 
  3031 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3032 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3035 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3036 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3037 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3038 class complete_linorder.
  3039 
  3040 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3041 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3042 
  3043 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3044 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3045 
  3046   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3047   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3048   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3049   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3050   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3051   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3052   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3053   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3054   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3055   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3056   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3057 
  3058 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3059 
  3060   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3061   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3062   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3063   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3064   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3065   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3066   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3067   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3068   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3069   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3070   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3071   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3072   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3073   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3074   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3075   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3076 
  3077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3083 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3084 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3085 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3088 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3089 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3093 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3094 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3095 
  3096 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3097 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3098 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3101 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3102 
  3103 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3104 
  3105     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3106     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3107 
  3108 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3109 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110 
  3111 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3112 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3115 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3116 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3117 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3120   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3121   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3122   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3123   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3124   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3125   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3126 
  3127 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3128 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3131   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3132   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3133   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3134   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3135   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3136   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3137   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3138   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3139   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3140   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3141   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3142   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3143   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3144   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3145   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3146   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3147   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3148   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3149   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3150   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3151   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3152   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3153   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3154   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3155   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3156   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3157   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3158   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3159   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3160   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3161   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3162   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3163   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3164   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3165   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3166   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3167   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3168   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3169   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3170   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3171   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3172   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3173   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3174   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3175   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3176   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3177   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3178   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3179   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3180   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3181   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3182   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3183   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3184   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3185   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3186   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3187   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3188   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3189   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3190   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3191   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3192   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3193   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3194   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3195   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3196   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3197   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3198   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3199   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3200   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3201   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3202   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3203   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3204   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3205   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3206   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3207   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3208   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3209   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3210   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3211   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3212 
  3213 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3214 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3215 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3216 
  3217 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3218 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3219 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3220 
  3221 * Code generation:
  3222 
  3223   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3224     characters in the target language.
  3225 
  3226   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3227     instead.
  3228 
  3229   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3230 
  3231   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3232     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3233 
  3234       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3235 
  3236 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3237 
  3238 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3239 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3240 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3241 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3242 syntax.
  3243 
  3244 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3245 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3246 
  3247 * Nitpick:
  3248   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3249   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3250   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3251     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * Sledgehammer:
  3254   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3255   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3256     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3257   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3258     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3259   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3260     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3262     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3263   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3264     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265 
  3266 * Metis:
  3267   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3269     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 * Command 'try':
  3272   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3273     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3275     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3276 
  3277 * Quickcheck:
  3278   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3279     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3280   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3281     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3282   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3283     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3284     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3285     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3286   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3287     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3288 
  3289 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3290 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3291 
  3292 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3293 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3294 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3295 
  3296 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3297 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3299 
  3300 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3301 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3302 
  3303 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3304 arithmetic.
  3305 
  3306 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3307 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3308 and lattice type classes.
  3309 
  3310 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3311 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3312 
  3313 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3314 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3315 
  3316 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3317 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3318 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3319 
  3320   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3321   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3322   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3323   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3324 
  3325 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3326 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3327 constants:
  3328 
  3329   type inat   ~> type enat
  3330   Fin         ~> enat
  3331   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3332   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3333   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3334 
  3335 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3336 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3339 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3340 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3341 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3342 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3343 
  3344 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3345 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3346 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3347 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3348 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3349 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3350 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3351 
  3352   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3353   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3354   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3355   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3356 
  3357 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3358 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3359 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3362   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3363   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3364   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3365   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3366   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3367   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3368   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3369   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3370   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3371   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3372   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3373   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3374   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3375   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3376   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3377   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3378   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3379   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3380   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3381   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3382   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3383   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3384   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3385   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3386   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3387   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3388   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3389   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3390   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3391   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3392   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3393   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3394   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3395   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3396   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3397   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3398   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3399   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3400   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3401   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3402   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3403   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3404   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3405   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3406   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3407   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3408   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3409   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3410   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3411   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3412 
  3413 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3414   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3415   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3416   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3417   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3418     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3423   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3424   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3425   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3426   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3427   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3428   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3429   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3430   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3431   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3432   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3433   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3434   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3435   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3436   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3437   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3438   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3439   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3440   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3441   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3442   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3443   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3444   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3445   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3446   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3447 
  3448 
  3449 *** Document preparation ***
  3450 
  3451 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3452 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3453 same.
  3454 
  3455 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3456 result.
  3457 
  3458 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3459 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3460 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3461 
  3462 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3463 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3464 
  3465 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3466 like this:
  3467 
  3468   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3469   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3470 
  3471 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3472 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3473 layouts.
  3474 
  3475 
  3476 *** ML ***
  3477 
  3478 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3479 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3480 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3481 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3482 under external program control.
  3483 
  3484 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3485 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3486 
  3487 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3488 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3489 (better known as Proof General).
  3490 
  3491 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3492 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3493 
  3494 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3495 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3496 
  3497 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3498 (including quotes etc.).
  3499 
  3500 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3501 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3502 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3503 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3504 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3505 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3506 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3507 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3508 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3509 
  3510 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3511 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3512 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3513 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3514 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3515 
  3516 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3517 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3518 
  3519 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3520 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3521 
  3522 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3523 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3524 
  3525 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3526 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3527 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3528 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3529 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3530 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3531 proper Proof.context.
  3532 
  3533 
  3534 *** System ***
  3535 
  3536 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3537 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3538 
  3539 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3540 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3541 
  3542 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3543 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3544 
  3545   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3546   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3547   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3548   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3549   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3550 
  3551 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3552 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3555 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3556 example:
  3557 
  3558   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3559 
  3560 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3561 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3562 
  3563 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3564 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3565 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3566 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3567 
  3568 
  3569 
  3570 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3571 ----------------------------------
  3572 
  3573 *** General ***
  3574 
  3575 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3576 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3577 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3578 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3579 like this:
  3580 
  3581   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3582 
  3583 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3584 
  3585 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3586 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3587 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3588 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3589 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3590 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3591 
  3592 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3593 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3594 the following package declarations:
  3595 
  3596   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3597   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3598 
  3599 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3600 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3601 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3602 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3603 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3604 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3605 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3606 
  3607 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3608 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3609 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3610 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3611 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3612 
  3613 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3614 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3615 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3616 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3617 
  3618 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3619 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3620 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3621 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3622 
  3623   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3624 
  3625   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3626   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3627   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3628   show_types                    show_types
  3629   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3630   show_consts                   show_consts
  3631   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3632 
  3633   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3634   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3635   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3636 
  3637   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3638   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3639 
  3640   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3641 
  3642   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3643   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3644   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3645   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3646   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3647 
  3648 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3649 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3650 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3651 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3652 
  3653 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3657   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3658 
  3659 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3660 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3661 float_token.
  3662 
  3663 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3664 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3668 DejaVu Sans.
  3669 
  3670 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3671 
  3672 
  3673 *** Pure ***
  3674 
  3675 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3676 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3677 time.
  3678 
  3679 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3680 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3683 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684 
  3685 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3686 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3687 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3688 command already provided this functionality.
  3689 
  3690 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3691 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3692 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3693 without interpretations.
  3694 
  3695 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3696 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3697 
  3698 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3699 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3700 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3701 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3702 
  3703 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3704 'definition' instead.
  3705 
  3706 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3707 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3708 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3709 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3710 
  3711 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3712 constructors.
  3713 
  3714 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3715 the local file system.
  3716 
  3717 
  3718 *** HOL ***
  3719 
  3720 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3721 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3722 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3723 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3724 
  3725   declare [[coercion f]]
  3726 
  3727 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3728 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3729 
  3730   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3731 
  3732 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3733 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3734 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3735 other theories like this:
  3736 
  3737   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3738 
  3739 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3740 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3741 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3742 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3743 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3744 for examples.
  3745 
  3746 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3747 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3750 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3751 
  3752 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3753 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3754 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3755 
  3756 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3757 functorial structure of types.
  3758 
  3759 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3760 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3761 
  3762 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3763 languages.
  3764 
  3765 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3766 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3770 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3773 combinators any longer.
  3774 
  3775 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3776 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3777 
  3778 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3779 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3780 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3781 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3782 
  3783   record 'a foo = ...
  3784   ...
  3785   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3786 
  3787 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3788 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3792 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3793 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3794 
  3795 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3796 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3797 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3798 
  3799 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3800 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3803 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3804 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3805 independently.
  3806 
  3807 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3808 counter example search.
  3809 
  3810 * Sledgehammer:
  3811   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3812     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3813     sledgehammer").
  3814   - Renamed commands:
  3815     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3816     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3817     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3818     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819   - Renamed options:
  3820     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3821     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3822     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3823     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3824     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3825 
  3826 * Nitpick:
  3827   - Renamed options:
  3828     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3829     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3830     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3832   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3833   - Added "whack" option.
  3834   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3835   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3836   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3837   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3838     higher cardinalities.
  3839   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3840 
  3841 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3842 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3843 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3844 
  3845     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3846 
  3847 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3848 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3849 
  3850 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3851 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3852 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3853 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3854 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3855 "smt_solver".
  3856 
  3857 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3858 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3859 
  3860 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3861 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3862 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3863 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3866   - Renamed:
  3867     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3868     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3869     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870   - Added:
  3871     smt_verbose
  3872     smt_random_seed
  3873     smt_datatypes
  3874     smt_infer_triggers
  3875     smt_monomorph_limit
  3876     cvc3_options
  3877     remote_cvc3_options
  3878     remote_z3_options
  3879     yices_options
  3880 
  3881 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3882 header.
  3883 
  3884 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3885 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3886 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3887 
  3888   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3889 
  3890 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3893 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3898 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899 
  3900 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3901 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3902 
  3903 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3904 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3907 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3908 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3916 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3919 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3920 for congruent(2)).
  3921 
  3922 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3923 
  3924   types
  3925     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3926     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3927 
  3928   constants
  3929     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3930     True ~> HOL.True
  3931     False ~> HOL.False
  3932     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3933     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3934     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3935     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3936     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3937     The ~> HOL.The
  3938     All ~> HOL.All
  3939     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3940     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3941     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3942     If ~> HOL.If
  3943     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3944     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3945     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3946     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3947     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3948     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3949     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3950     op : ~> Set.member
  3951     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3952 
  3953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3956 
  3957     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3958     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3959     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3960     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3961     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3962     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3963     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3964     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3965 
  3966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * More stylized fact names:
  3969 
  3970   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3971   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3972   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3973   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3974 
  3975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3978 
  3979   constants
  3980     null ~> List.null
  3981 
  3982   facts
  3983     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3984     null_empty ~> null_def
  3985 
  3986 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3987 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3988 generation.
  3989 
  3990 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3991 Haskell code.
  3992 
  3993 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3994 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3995 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3998 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4001 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4002 
  4003 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4004 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4005 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4008 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4014 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4015 referred to by its qualified name.
  4016 
  4017   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4018   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4019   product ~>  Enum.product
  4020 
  4021 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4022 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024 
  4025 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4026 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4027 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4031 sort_key.
  4032 
  4033 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4037 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4038 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4039 
  4040   types
  4041     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4042               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4043               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4044         (depends on your needs)
  4045 
  4046   constants
  4047      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4048      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4049      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4050 
  4051 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4052 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4053 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4054 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4057 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4058 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4059 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4060 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4066 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4067 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4068 
  4069 
  4070 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4071 
  4072 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4073 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4074 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4075 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4076 compatibility.
  4077 
  4078 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4079 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4080 
  4081 
  4082 *** HOLCF ***
  4083 
  4084 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4085 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4086 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088 
  4089 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4090 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4091 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4094   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4095   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4096 
  4097 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4098 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4099 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4100 
  4101 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4102 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4103 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4104 domain definition now works:
  4105 
  4106   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4107 
  4108 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4109 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4110 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4111 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4112 
  4113   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4114     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4115 
  4116   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4117 
  4118 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4119 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4120 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4121 
  4122 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4123 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4126 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4127 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4128 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4129 
  4130 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4131 
  4132 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4135 
  4136 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4140 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4141 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4142 
  4143 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4144 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4145 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4148 still supported as an input translation.
  4149 
  4150 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4151 
  4152   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4153   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4154   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4155   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4156   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4157   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4158   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4159 
  4160 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4161 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4164   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4165   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4166   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4167   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4168   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4169 
  4170 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4171 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4174 
  4175   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4176   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4177   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4178   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4179 
  4180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4181 
  4182 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4183 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4184 
  4185 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4186 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4189   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4190   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4191   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4192   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4193   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4194   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4195   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4196   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4197   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4198   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4199   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4200   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4201   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4202   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4203   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4204   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4205   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4206   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4207   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4208 
  4209 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4212   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4213   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4214   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4215   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4216   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4217   box_less             ~> box_below
  4218   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4219   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4220   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4221   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4222   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4223   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4224   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4225   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4226   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4227   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4228   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4229   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4230   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4231   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4232   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4233   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4234   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4235   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4236   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4237   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4238   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4239   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4240   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4241   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4242   up_less              ~> up_below
  4243   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4244   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4245   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4246   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4247   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4248   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4249   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4250   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4251   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4252   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4253   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4254   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4255   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4256 
  4257 
  4258 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4259 
  4260 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4261 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4262 
  4263 
  4264 *** ML ***
  4265 
  4266 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4267 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4268 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4269 
  4270 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4271 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4272 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4273 
  4274 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4275 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4276 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4277 
  4278 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4279 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4280 
  4281 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4282 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4283 
  4284 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4285 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4286 
  4287 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4288 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4289 
  4290 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4291 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4292 almost all situations.
  4293 
  4294 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4295 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4296 Isabelle/ML.
  4297 
  4298 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4299 meaning.
  4300 
  4301 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4302 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4303 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4304 
  4305 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4306 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4307 
  4308 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4309 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4310 
  4311 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4312 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4313 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4314 
  4315 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4316 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4317 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4318 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4319 configuration options.
  4320 
  4321 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4322 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4323 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4324 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4325 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4326 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4327 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4328 
  4329 
  4330 
  4331 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4332 ---------------------------------
  4333 
  4334 *** General ***
  4335 
  4336 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4337 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4338 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4339 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4340 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4341 their full internal name.
  4342 
  4343 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4344 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4345 Some hints on upgrading:
  4346 
  4347   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4348     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4349     which are independent of this issue.
  4350 
  4351   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4352     provides the following special forms:
  4353 
  4354       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4355       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4356       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4357 
  4358     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4359     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4360     extra variables".
  4361 
  4362     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4363     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4364     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4365     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4366     "logic".
  4367 
  4368   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4369     antiquotations:
  4370 
  4371       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4372       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4373       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4374       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4375 
  4376   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4377     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4378     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4379     antiquotations.
  4380 
  4381 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4382 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4383 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4384 diagnose syntax problems.
  4385 
  4386 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4387 
  4388 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4389 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4390 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4391 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4392 
  4393 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4394 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4395 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4396 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4397 
  4398 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4399 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4400 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4401 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4402 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4405 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4406 
  4407 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4408 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4409 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4410 
  4411   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4412 
  4413 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4414 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4415 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4416 
  4417 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4418 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4422 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4423 
  4424 
  4425 *** Pure ***
  4426 
  4427 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4428 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4429 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4430 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4431 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4432 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4433 inspect proof terms.
  4434 
  4435 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4436 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4437 are added internally.  For example:
  4438 
  4439   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4440 
  4441 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4442 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4447 'class' instead.
  4448 
  4449 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4450 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4454 invariants.
  4455 
  4456 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4457 user space functionality any longer.
  4458 
  4459 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4460 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4464 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4465 
  4466 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4467 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4468 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4469 
  4470 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4471 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4472 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4473 
  4474 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4475 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476 
  4477 
  4478 *** HOL ***
  4479 
  4480 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4481 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4482 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4483 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4484 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4485 
  4486 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4487 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4488 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4489 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4490 
  4491   fun
  4492     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4493   where
  4494     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4495 
  4496   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4497     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4498 
  4499   quotient_definition
  4500     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4501 
  4502 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4503 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4504 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4505 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4506 
  4507 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4508 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4509 
  4510 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4511 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4512 
  4513 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4515 
  4516 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4517 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4518 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4519 
  4520 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4521 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4525 
  4526 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4528 
  4529 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4530 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4531 
  4532 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4533 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4534 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4535 
  4536   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4537   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4538   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4539   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4540   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4541   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4542   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4543   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4544   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4545   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4546   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4547   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4548   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4549   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4550   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4551   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4552   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4553   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4554   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4555   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4556   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4557   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4558   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4559   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4560   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4561   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4562   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4563   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4564   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4565   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4566 
  4567 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4568 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4569 
  4570 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4571 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4572 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4573 
  4574 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4575 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4576 
  4577 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4578 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4579 
  4580 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4581 
  4582 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4583 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4586 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4591 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4592 
  4593 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4594 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4595 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4596 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4599   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4600   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4601   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4603 
  4604 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4605 lattices):
  4606 
  4607     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4608     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4609 
  4610     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4611 
  4612     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4613     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4614     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4615     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4616     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4617     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4618     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4619     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4620     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4621     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4622     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4623     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4624     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4625 
  4626     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4627     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4628     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4629     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4630     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4631     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4632     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4633     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4634     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4635     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4636     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4637     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4638     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4639     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4640     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4641     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4642     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4643     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4644 
  4645   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4646   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4647 
  4648     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4649     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4650     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4651     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4652     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4653 
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Refined field classes:
  4657   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4658     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4659     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4660   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4662 
  4663 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4664   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4665   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4666   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4667     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4668   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4669     equal_neg_zero.
  4670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4671 
  4672 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4673 sets to lattices:
  4674 
  4675   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4676   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4677   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4678   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4679   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4680   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4681   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4682   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4683   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4684   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4685 
  4686 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4687 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4688 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4689 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4690 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4691 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4694 multiset order:
  4695 
  4696   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4697     <= and <;
  4698   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4699     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4700     multiset_order;
  4701   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4702     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4703     generation;
  4704   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4705     if needed.
  4706 
  4707 Renamed:
  4708 
  4709   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4710   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4711   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4712 
  4713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4714 
  4715 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4716 
  4717 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4718 
  4719 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4720 
  4721 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4722 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4723 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4724 
  4725   Constants:
  4726   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4727   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4728   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4729   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4730   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4731   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4732   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4733   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4734   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4735   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4736   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4737   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4738   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4739 
  4740   Lemmas:
  4741   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4742   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4743   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4744   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4745   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4746   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4747   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4748   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4749   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4750   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4751   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4752   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4753   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4754 
  4755 * Sledgehammer:
  4756   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4757     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4758     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4759     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4760     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4761     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4762     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4764   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4765     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4766   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4767     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4768     is still experimental.)
  4769   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4770     full-typed mode.
  4771   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4772 
  4773 * Nitpick:
  4774   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4775   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4776   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4777     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4778   - Added support for quotient types.
  4779   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4780     constructs.
  4781   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4782     "termination" proofs).
  4783   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4784   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4785   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4786   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4787     record getters.
  4788   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4789   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4790   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4791   - Added "atoms" option.
  4792   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4793     problems.
  4794   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4795     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4796     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4797   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4798     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4800 
  4801 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4802   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4803   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4804   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4805   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4806   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4807   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4808   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4809   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4810   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812 
  4813 *** HOLCF ***
  4814 
  4815 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4816 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4817 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4820 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4821 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4822 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4825 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4826 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4827 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4828 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4829 
  4830 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4831 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4832 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4833 
  4834 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4835 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4838   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4839 
  4840 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4841 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4844   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4845   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4846   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4847   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4848 
  4849 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4850 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4853   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4854   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4855 
  4856 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4857 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4861 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4862 
  4863 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4864 
  4865 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4866 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4867 
  4868 
  4869 *** ML ***
  4870 
  4871 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4872 
  4873     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4874     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4875 
  4876     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4877     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4878     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4879     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4880 
  4881     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4882     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4883     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4884 
  4885 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4886 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4887 
  4888 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4889 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4890 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4891 
  4892 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4893 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4894 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4895 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4896 
  4897 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4898 the context or even global references.
  4899 
  4900 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4901 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4902 
  4903 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4904 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4905 
  4906   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4907   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4908   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4909   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4910   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4911   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4912   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4913   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4914   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4915   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4916 
  4917 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4918 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4919 
  4920 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4921 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4922 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4923 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4924 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4925 
  4926 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4927 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4928 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4929 Theory_Data version.
  4930 
  4931 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4932 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4933 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4934 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4935 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4936 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4937 explicitly in rare situations.
  4938 
  4939 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4940 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4942 
  4943 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4944 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4947 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4948 quite rare).
  4949 
  4950 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4951 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4952 
  4953 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4954 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4955 terms.
  4956 
  4957 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4958 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4959 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4960 
  4961 
  4962 *** System ***
  4963 
  4964 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4965 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4966 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4967 
  4968 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4969 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4970 respectively.
  4971 
  4972 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4973 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4974 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4975 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4976 
  4977   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4978 
  4979 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4980 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4981 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4982 component.
  4983 
  4984 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4985 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4986 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4987 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4988 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4989 the user for manual installation.
  4990 
  4991 
  4992 
  4993 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4994 -------------------------------------
  4995 
  4996 *** General ***
  4997 
  4998 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4999 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5000 
  5001 
  5002 *** Pure ***
  5003 
  5004 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5005 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5006 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5007 
  5008 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5009 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5010 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5011 
  5012 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5013 interpretation.
  5014 
  5015 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5016 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5017 
  5018 
  5019 *** Document preparation ***
  5020 
  5021 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5022 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5023 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5024 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5025 
  5026 
  5027 *** HOL ***
  5028 
  5029 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5030 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5031 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5032 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5033 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5034 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5035 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5036 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5037 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5038 
  5039 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5040 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5041 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5042 
  5043 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5044 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5045 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5046 
  5047 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5048 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5049 
  5050 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5051 
  5052 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5053 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5054 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5055 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5056 
  5057 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5058 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5059 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5060 "mirabelle" utility.
  5061 
  5062 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5063 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5064 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5065 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5066 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5067 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5068 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5069 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5070 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5071 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5072 
  5073 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5074 procedure only.
  5075 
  5076 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5077 
  5078 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5079 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5080 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5081 that fail later.
  5082 
  5083 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5084 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5085 
  5086 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5087 the same method as the approximation method.
  5088 
  5089 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5090 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5091 series expansion.
  5092 
  5093 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5094 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5095 
  5096 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5097 reals.
  5098 
  5099 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5100 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5101 
  5102 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5103 fixpoint theorem.
  5104 
  5105 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5106   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5107     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5108   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5109     accordingly
  5110   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5111     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5112   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5113     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5114 
  5115 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5116 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5117 lattice.
  5118 
  5119 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5120 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5121 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5122 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5123 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5124 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5126 
  5127 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5128   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5129     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5130   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5131     le_inf_iff
  5132   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5133     sup_aci)
  5134   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5135   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5136   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5137     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5138     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5139     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5140     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5141     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5142     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5143     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5144     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5145     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5146     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5147   - authentic syntax for
  5148     Set.Pow
  5149     Set.image
  5150   - mere abbreviations:
  5151     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5152     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5153     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5154     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5155     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5156     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5157     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5158     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5159   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5160 
  5161 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5162 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5163 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5164 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5165 
  5166 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5167 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5168 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5169 
  5170 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5171 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5174 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5175 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5176 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5177 
  5178 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5179 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5180 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5181 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5182 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5183 
  5184 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5185 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5187 
  5188 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5189 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5190 
  5191 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5192 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5193 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5194 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5195 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5196 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5197 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5199 
  5200 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5201     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5202     code_post       replaces    code post
  5203     etc.
  5204   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5205 
  5206 * Renamed methods:
  5207     sizechange -> size_change
  5208     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5209   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5210 
  5211 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5212 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5213 
  5214 * Renamed theorems:
  5215     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5216     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5217     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5218     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5219     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5220   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5221 
  5222 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5224 
  5225 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5227 
  5228 
  5229 *** HOLCF ***
  5230 
  5231 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5232 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5233 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5234 
  5235 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5236 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5237 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5238 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5239 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5240 
  5241 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5242 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5243 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5244 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5245 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5246 
  5247 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5248 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5249 constructor are pre-configured.
  5250 
  5251 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5252 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5253 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5254 
  5255 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5256 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5257 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5258 as well.)
  5259 
  5260 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5261 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5262 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5263 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5264 examples.
  5265 
  5266 
  5267 *** ML ***
  5268 
  5269 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5270 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5271 
  5272 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5273 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5274 position, logical grouping etc.
  5275 
  5276 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5277 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5278 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5279 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5280 
  5281 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5282 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5283 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5284 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5285 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5286 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5287 
  5288 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5289 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5290 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5291 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5292 experiments with references.
  5293 
  5294 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5295 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5296 
  5297 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5298 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5299 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5300 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5301 
  5302 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5303 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5304 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5305 
  5306 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5307 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5308 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5311 
  5312 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314 
  5315 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5316 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5317 
  5318 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5319 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5320 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5321 
  5322 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5323 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5324 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5325 
  5326 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5327 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5328 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5330 
  5331 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5332 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5333 instead of global theory.
  5334 
  5335 
  5336 *** System ***
  5337 
  5338 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5339 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5340 usedir option -q.
  5341 
  5342 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5343 also the system manual.
  5344 
  5345 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5346 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5347 
  5348 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5349 this is always enabled.
  5350 
  5351 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5352 
  5353 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5354 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5355 currently supported on Linux only.
  5356 
  5357 
  5358 
  5359 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5360 --------------------------------
  5361 
  5362 *** General ***
  5363 
  5364 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5365 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5366 
  5367   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5368     "isatool."
  5369 
  5370   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5371     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5372 
  5373   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5374     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5375 
  5376 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5377 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5378 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5379 
  5380 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5381 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5382 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5383 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5384 via "isabelle emacs".
  5385 
  5386 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5387 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5388 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5389 
  5390 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5391 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5392 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5393 
  5394 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5395 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5396 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5397 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5398 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5399 
  5400 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5401 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5402 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5403 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5404 
  5405 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5406 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5407 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5408 
  5409 
  5410 *** Pure ***
  5411 
  5412 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5413 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5414 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5415 
  5416 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5417 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5418 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5419 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5420 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5421 
  5422 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5423 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5424 useful in locale declarations.
  5425 
  5426 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5427 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5428 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5429 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5430 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5431 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5432 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5433 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5434 no longer generated.
  5435 
  5436 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5437 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5438 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5439 
  5440 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5441 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5442 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5443 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5444 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5445 
  5446 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5447 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5448 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5449 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5450 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5451 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5452 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5453 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5454 
  5455 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5456 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5457 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5458 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5459 
  5460 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5461 
  5462 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5463 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5464 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5465 
  5466 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5467 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5468 
  5469 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5470 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5471 in HOL, write
  5472 
  5473     class foo = ...
  5474 
  5475 instead of
  5476 
  5477     class foo = type + ...
  5478 
  5479 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5480 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5481 
  5482 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5483 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5484 
  5485 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5486 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5487 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5488 
  5489 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5490 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5491 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5492 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5493 directly in regular applications.
  5494 
  5495 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5496 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5497 
  5498 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5499 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5500 
  5501 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5502 theory context.
  5503 
  5504 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5505 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5506 
  5507 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5508 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5509 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5510 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5511 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5512 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5513 
  5514   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5515 
  5516 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5517 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5518 normalization.
  5519 
  5520 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5521 addressing etc.
  5522 
  5523 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5524 
  5525   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5526   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5527 
  5528 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5529 
  5530   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5531      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5532      parts of the code generator framework).
  5533 
  5534   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5535      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5536      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5537 
  5538 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5539 
  5540 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5541 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5542 
  5543 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5544 patterns, e.g.
  5545 
  5546     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5547 
  5548 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5549 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5550 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5551 hyphen:
  5552 
  5553     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5554 
  5555 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5556 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5557 
  5558 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5559 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5560 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5561 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5562 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5563 higher-order unification.
  5564 
  5565 
  5566 *** Document preparation ***
  5567 
  5568 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5569 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5570 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5571 
  5572 
  5573 *** HOL ***
  5574 
  5575 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5576 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5577 
  5578 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5579 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5580 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5581 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5582 Main, as before.
  5583 
  5584 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5585 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5586 
  5587 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5588 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5589 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5590 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5591 
  5592 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5593 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5594 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5595 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5596 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5597 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5598 
  5599 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5600 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5601 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5602 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5603 
  5604 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5605 menu.
  5606 
  5607 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5608 (contains the empty clause).
  5609 
  5610 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5611 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5612 
  5613 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5614 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5615 
  5616 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5617 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5618 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5619 
  5620 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5621 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5622 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5623 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5624 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5625 
  5626 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5627 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5628 
  5629 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5630 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5631 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5632 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5633 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5634 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5635 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5636 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5637 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5638 
  5639 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5640 
  5641 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5642 
  5643 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5644 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5645 
  5646 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5647 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5648 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5649 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5650 
  5651 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5652 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5653 
  5654     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5655     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5656     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5657     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5658     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5659     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5660     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5661     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5662 
  5663 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5664 theory Set.
  5665 
  5666 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5667 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5668 
  5669 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5670 
  5671 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5672 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5673 
  5674 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5675 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5676 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5677 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5678 allowed. For examples see
  5679 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5680 
  5681 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5682 
  5683 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5687 structure:
  5688 
  5689     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5690     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5691     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5692     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5693     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5694     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5695     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5696     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5697     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5698     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5699     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5700     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5701     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5702     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5703     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5704     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5705     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5706     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5707     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5708     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5709     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5710     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5711     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5712     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5713     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5714     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5715     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5716     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5717     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5718     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5719     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5720     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5721     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5722 
  5723     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5724     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5725     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5726     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5727     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5728     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5729     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5730     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5731     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5732     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5733 
  5734     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5735     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5736     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5737     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5738     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5739     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5740 
  5741 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5742 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5743 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5744 
  5745 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5746 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5747 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5748 
  5749 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5750 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5751 
  5752 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5753 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5754 
  5755 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5756 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5757 proofs, e.g.
  5758 
  5759   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5760 
  5761 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5762 
  5763 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5764 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5765 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5766 
  5767 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5768 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5770 
  5771 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5772 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5773 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5775 
  5776 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5777 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5778 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5779 preorder_class.*.
  5780 
  5781 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5782 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5783 
  5784 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5785 
  5786   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5787 
  5788 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5789 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5790 fold_image.
  5791 
  5792 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5793 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5794 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5795 the former will disappear at some point.
  5796 
  5797 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5798 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5799 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5800 
  5801 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5802 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5803 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5804 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5805 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5806 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5807 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5808 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5809 
  5810 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5811 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5812 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5813 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5814 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5815 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5816 
  5817     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5818     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5819     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5820     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5821     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5822     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5823     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5824 
  5825 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5826 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5827 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5828 
  5829 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5830 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5831 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5832 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5833 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5834 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5835 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5836 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5837 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5838 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5839 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5840 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5841 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5842 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5843 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5844 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5845 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5846 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5847 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5848 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5849 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5850 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5851 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5852 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5853 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5854 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5855 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5856 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5857 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5858 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5859 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5860 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5861 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5862 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5863 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5864 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5865 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5866 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5867 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5868 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5869 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5870 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5871 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5872 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5873 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5874 
  5875 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5876 
  5877 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5878 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5879 
  5880 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5881 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5882 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5883 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5884 
  5885 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5886 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5887 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5888 theory RealVector.
  5889 
  5890 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5891 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5892 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5893 and inner products are included.
  5894 
  5895 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5896 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5897 supported.
  5898 
  5899 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5900 first diagonalization argument.
  5901 
  5902 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5903 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5904 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5905 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5906 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5907 
  5908     hide (open) const gcd
  5909     abbreviation gcd where
  5910       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5911     notation (output)
  5912       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5913 
  5914 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5915 
  5916 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5917 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5918 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5919 
  5920 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5921 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5922 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5923 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5924 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5925 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5926 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5927 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5928 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5929 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5930 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5931 cases.
  5932 
  5933 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5934 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5935 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5936 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5937 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5938 
  5939     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5940     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5941     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5942     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5943     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5944 
  5945 
  5946 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5947 
  5948 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5949 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5950 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5951 
  5952 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5953 
  5954 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5955 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5956 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5957 
  5958 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5959 
  5960 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5961 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5962 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5963 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5964 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5965 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5966 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5967 
  5968 
  5969 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5970 
  5971 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5972 
  5973 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5974 theory targets.
  5975 
  5976 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5977 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5978 'inductive' etc.
  5979 
  5980 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5981 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5982 
  5983 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5984 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5985 
  5986 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5987 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5988 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5989 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5990 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5991 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5992 the algorithm W:
  5993 
  5994  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5995  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5996          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5997 
  5998 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5999 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  6000 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  6001 
  6002 
  6003 *** HOLCF ***
  6004 
  6005 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6006 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6007 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6008 
  6009 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6010 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6011 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6012 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6013 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6014 
  6015 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6016 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6017 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6018 
  6019 
  6020 *** ZF ***
  6021 
  6022 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6023 
  6024 
  6025 *** ML ***
  6026 
  6027 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6028 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6029 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6030 5.2.1!
  6031 
  6032 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6033 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6034 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6035 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6036 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6037 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6038 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6039 
  6040 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6041 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6042 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6043 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6044 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6045 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6046 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6047 
  6048 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6049 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6050 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6051 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6052 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6053 
  6054 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6055 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6056 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6057 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6058 Method.add_method.
  6059 
  6060 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6061 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6062 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6063 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6064 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6065 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6066 
  6067 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6068 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6069 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6070 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6071 examples.
  6072 
  6073 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6074 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6075 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6076 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6077 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6078 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6079 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6080 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6081 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6082 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6083 
  6084 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6085 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6086 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6087 
  6088 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6089 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6090 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6091 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6092 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6093 resort for legacy applications.
  6094 
  6095 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6096 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6097 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6098 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6099 explicit runtime argument.
  6100 
  6101 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6102 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6103 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6104 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6105 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6106 
  6107 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6108 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6109 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6110 theory state.
  6111 
  6112 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6113 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6114 
  6115   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6116   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6117   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6118   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6119   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6120   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6121   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6122   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6123   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6124   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6125 
  6126 
  6127 *** System ***
  6128 
  6129 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6130 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6131 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6132 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6133 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6134 
  6135 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6136 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6137 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6138 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6139 
  6140 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6141 
  6142 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6143 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6144 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6145 prover operations.
  6146 
  6147 
  6148 
  6149 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6150 -------------------------------
  6151 
  6152 *** General ***
  6153 
  6154 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6155 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6156 
  6157 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6158 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6159 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6160 provides a proper context already.
  6161 
  6162 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6163 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6164 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6165 
  6166 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6167 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6168 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6169 swap theory imports.
  6170 
  6171 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6172 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6173 
  6174 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6175 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6176 white space without escapes.
  6177 
  6178 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6179 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6180 "foo_bar".
  6181 
  6182 
  6183 *** Pure ***
  6184 
  6185 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6186 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6187 
  6188 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6189 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6190 
  6191 (1) unused_thms
  6192      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6193 
  6194 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6195      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6196      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6197 
  6198 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6199      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6200      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6201      their ancestors.
  6202 
  6203 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6204 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6205 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6206 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6207 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6208 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6209 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6210 
  6211 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6212 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6213 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6214 
  6215 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6216 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6217 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6218 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6219 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6220 
  6221 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6222 
  6223 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6224 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6225 update of theories within ML code.
  6226 
  6227 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6228 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6229 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6230 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6231 
  6232 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6233 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6234 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6236 
  6237 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6238 
  6239 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6240 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6241 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6242 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6243 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6244 
  6245 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6246 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6247 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6248 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6249 situations.
  6250 
  6251 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6252 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6253 proof text.
  6254 
  6255 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6256 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6257 
  6258 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6259 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale