NEWS
author nipkow
Fri May 30 18:13:40 2014 +0200 (2014-05-30)
changeset 57136 653e56c6c963
parent 57112 70395c65c0e3
child 57212 f25dad3d6144
permissions -rw-r--r--
must not cancel common factors on both sides of (in)equations in linear arithmetic decicision procedure
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319   * No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by default,
   320     eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322   * No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   323     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   324     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   325     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * Old datatype package:
   328   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   329     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   332     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   333     "case_prod").
   334     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   337   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   338   datatype package.
   339   Renamed constants:
   340     Option.set ~> set_option
   341     Option.map ~> map_option
   342     option_rel ~> rel_option
   343   Renamed theorems:
   344     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   345     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   346     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   347     option.recs ~> option.rec
   348     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   349     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   350     map.simps ~> list.map
   351     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   352     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   353     the.simps ~> option.sel
   354   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   357     sum_map ~> map_sum
   358     map_pair ~> map_prod
   359     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   360     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   361     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   362     set_rel ~> rel_set
   363     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   364     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   365     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   366     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   367 
   368 * New theory:
   369     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   370 
   371 * Theory reorganizations:
   372   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   373 
   374 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   375   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   376   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   377   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   378   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   379   the old default can be restored using
   380   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * SMT module:
   383   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   384     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   385     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   386     elsewhere.
   387 
   388 * Sledgehammer:
   389   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   390   - MaSh overhaul:
   391       - New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on Python
   392         and increase performance and reliability.
   393       - Activation of MaSh now works via the "MaSh" system option (without
   394         requiring restart), instead of former settings variable "MASH".
   395         The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu Plugin
   396         Options / Isabelle / General. Allowed values include "sml" (for the
   397         default SML engine), "py" (for the old Python engine), and "none".
   398   - New option:
   399       smt_proofs
   400   - Renamed options:
   401       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   402       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404 
   405 * Metis:
   406   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   407     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   410 
   411 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   412 
   413 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   414 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   415 
   416 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   417 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   418 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   419 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   420 
   421 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   425 with the given constants.
   426 
   427 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   428 
   429 Fact consolidations:
   430     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   431     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   432     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   433     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   434     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   435     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   436     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   437     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   438     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   439     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   440     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   441     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   442     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   443     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   444     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   445     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   446     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   447     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   448     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   449     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   450     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   451     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   452     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   453     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   454     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   455     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   456     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   457     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   458     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   459     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   460     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   461     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   462     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   463     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   464     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   465     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   466     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   467     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   468     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   469     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   470 
   471 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   472 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   473 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   474 
   475 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   476 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   477 
   478 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   479 
   480 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   481 
   482 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   489 operations on records.
   490 
   491 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   495     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   499     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   500     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   504   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   505   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   506   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   507     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   508   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   509     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   510   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   514     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   515     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   516     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   517     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   519 
   520 * Fact name consolidation:
   521     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   522     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   523     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   524     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   525     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   527 
   528 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   529 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   530 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   531 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   532 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   533 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   534 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   535 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   538 
   539 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   540 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   541 
   542 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   543 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   544 
   545 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   546 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   547 or the brute way with
   548 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   549 
   550 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   551 
   552 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   553 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554 
   555 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   556 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   557 
   558 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   559 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   560 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY
   562 
   563 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   564   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   565   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   566   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   567   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   568   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   569   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   570   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   571   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   572   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   573   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   574   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   575 
   576   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   577 
   578   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   579     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   580     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   581     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   582     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   584 
   585 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   586   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   587 
   588   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   589 
   590   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   591 
   592   - removed constant isDiff
   593 
   594   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   595     syntax.
   596 
   597   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   598 
   599   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   600 
   601   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   602 
   603   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   604 
   605   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   606     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   607 
   608   - Other renamings:
   609     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   610     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   611     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   612     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   613     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   614     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   615     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   619   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   620 
   621 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   622   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   623   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   624 
   625   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   626   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   627   removes
   628     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   629 
   630   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   631     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   632 
   633   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   634 
   635   Renamings:
   636     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   637     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   638     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   639     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   640     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   641     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   642     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   643     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   644     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   645     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   646     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   647     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   648 
   649     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   650     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   651     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   652 
   653   Removed theorems:
   654     complex_zero_def
   655     complex_add_def
   656     complex_minus_def
   657     complex_diff_def
   658     complex_one_def
   659     complex_mult_def
   660     complex_inverse_def
   661     complex_scaleR_def
   662 
   663 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   664 
   665 * Nitpick:
   666   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   667     infinite values.
   668   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   669     "Rep_Integ".
   670   - Removed "std" option.
   671   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   672     "hide_types".
   673 
   674 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   675   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   676   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   677     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   678     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   679     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   680     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   681     intervals.
   682 
   683   - renamed theorems:
   684     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   685     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   686     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   687 
   688 * HOL-Probability:
   689   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   690     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   691 
   692     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   693     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   694     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   695     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   696     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   697     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   698     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   699     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   700     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   701     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   702     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   703     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   704     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   705     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   706     integral_indicator          ~>
   707          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   708     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   709     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   710     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   711 
   712     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   713          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   714 
   715     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   716          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   717 
   718     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   719          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   720 
   721     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   722          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   723          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   724 
   725     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   726          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   727 
   728     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   729          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   730 
   731     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   732          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   733          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   734 
   735     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   736          positive_integral_real_affine
   737 
   738     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   739          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   740 
   741     The following theorems where removed:
   742 
   743     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   744     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   745     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   746     lebesgue_integral_multc
   747     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   748     integral_cmul_indicator
   749     integral_real
   750 
   751   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   752 
   753     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   754       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   755 
   756     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   757 
   758 * Library/Kleene-Algebra was removed because AFP/Kleene_Algebra subsumes it.
   759 
   760 *** Scala ***
   761 
   762 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   763 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   764 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   765 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   766 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   767 
   768 
   769 *** ML ***
   770 
   771 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   772 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   773 
   774 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   775 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   776 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   777 
   778 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   782 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   783 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   785 
   786 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   787 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   788 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   789 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   790 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   791 of schematic variables.
   792 
   793 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   794 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   796 formal context.
   797 
   798 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   799 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   800 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   801 actually belongs to it).
   802 
   803 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   804 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   805 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   806 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   807 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   808 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   809 
   810 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   811 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   814 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   815 
   816 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   817 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   818 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   819 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   820 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   821 
   822 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   823 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   824 purposes.
   825 
   826 
   827 *** System ***
   828 
   829 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   830 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   831 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   832 processing is started.
   833 
   834 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   835 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   836 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   837 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   838 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   839 
   840 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   841 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   842 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   843 
   844 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   845 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   846 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   847 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   848 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   849 settings variable yet.
   850 
   851 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar
   852 functionality may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   853 
   854 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
   855 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
   856 
   857 
   858 
   859 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   860 -------------------------------------
   861 
   862 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   863 
   864 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   865 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   866 
   867 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   868 after edits surrounding the command location.
   869 
   870 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   871 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   872 e.g. out-of-memory).
   873 
   874 
   875 *** System ***
   876 
   877 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   878 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   879 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   880 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   881 
   882 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   883 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   884 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   885 
   886 
   887 
   888 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   889 -------------------------------------
   890 
   891 *** General ***
   892 
   893 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   894 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   895 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   898 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   899 
   900 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   901 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   902 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   903 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   904 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   905 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   906 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   907 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   908 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   909 syntax.
   910 
   911 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   912 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   915 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   916 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   917 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   918 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   919 
   920 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   922 
   923 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   924 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   925 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   926 
   927 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   928 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   929 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   930 
   931 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   932 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   933 
   934 
   935 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   936 
   937 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   938 Documentation panel.
   939 
   940 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   941 documentation.
   942 
   943 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   944 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   945 
   946 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   947 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   948 normal editing and checking process.
   949 
   950 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   951 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   952 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   953 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   954 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   955 
   956 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   957 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   958 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   959 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   960 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   961 
   962 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   963 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   964 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   965 
   966 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   967 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   968 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   969 to resolve conflict.
   970 
   971 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   972 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   973 
   974 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   975 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   976 such command executions while editing.
   977 
   978 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   979 document content.
   980 
   981 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   982 toplevel theorem statements.
   983 
   984 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   985 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   986 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   987 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   988 
   989 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   990 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   991 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   992 
   993 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   994 / Global Options / Appearance".
   995 
   996 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   997 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   998 
   999 
  1000 *** Pure ***
  1001 
  1002 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1003 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1004 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1005 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1006 details.
  1007 
  1008 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1009 
  1010 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1011 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1012 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1013 
  1014 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016 
  1017 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1018 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1019 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1020 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1023 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1024 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1027 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1028 
  1029 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1030 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1031 situations.
  1032 
  1033 
  1034 *** HOL ***
  1035 
  1036 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1037 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1039 
  1040 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1041 
  1042 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1043 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1044 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1045 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1046 
  1047   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1048 
  1049 * Code generator:
  1050   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1051     'code_instance'.
  1052   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1053     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1054 
  1055 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1056 examples.
  1057 
  1058 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1059 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1060 to distinguish both when desired.
  1061 
  1062 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1063 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1064 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1065 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1068 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1069 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1070 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1071 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1072 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1075 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1076 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1077 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1078 
  1079 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1080 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1081 
  1082 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1083 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1084 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1085 
  1086 * Lifting:
  1087   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1088     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1089       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1090       transfer rules
  1091     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1092       correspondence relation can be generated
  1093     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1094       parametricity
  1095     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1096   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1097   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1098     copies
  1099   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1100     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1101     anonymous context)
  1102   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1103     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1104   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1105     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1106   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1107     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1108 
  1109 * Transfer:
  1110   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1111     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1112   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1113   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1114     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1115   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1116 
  1117 * Reification and reflection:
  1118   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1119     "Reification".
  1120   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1121   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1125   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1126     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1127     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1128   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1129     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1130   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1131     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1132     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1133     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1134     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1135     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1136     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1137     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1138   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1139     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1140   - Fact renames:
  1141       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1142       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1144 
  1145 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1146 
  1147 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1148 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1149 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1151 
  1152 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1153 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1154 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1155 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1156 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1157 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1158 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1159 lemmas.
  1160 
  1161 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1162 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1163 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1164 
  1165 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1166 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1167 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1168 
  1169 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1170 top and bottom elements.
  1171 
  1172 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1173 
  1174 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1175 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1176 
  1177  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1178    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1179    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1180 
  1181  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1182    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1183    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1184 
  1185    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1186    arbitrary filter.
  1187 
  1188  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1189    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1190    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1191    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1192    on a compact set.
  1193 
  1194  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1195    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1196    linear_continuum_topology).
  1197 
  1198  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1199    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1200    on all sequences converging to x.
  1201 
  1202  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1203    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1204    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1205    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1206    left or right.
  1207 
  1208  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1209 
  1210      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1211 
  1212  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1213    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1214 
  1215  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1216    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1217    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1218    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1219    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1220    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1221 
  1222  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1223 
  1224    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1225 
  1226    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1227      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1228 
  1229    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1230 
  1231    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1232      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1233 
  1234    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1235 
  1236    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1237 
  1238  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1239 
  1240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242 * Nitpick:
  1243   - Added option "spy".
  1244   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1245 
  1246 * Sledgehammer:
  1247   - Renamed option:
  1248       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1250   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1251   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1252   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1253 
  1254 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1255 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1256 
  1257 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1258   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1259   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1260     generated code.
  1261   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1262   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1263   - Fact renames:
  1264     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1265     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1266     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1267 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1270 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1271 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1272 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1273 
  1274 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1275 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1276 
  1277 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1278 
  1279 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1280 
  1281     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1282     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1283 
  1284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1287 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1288 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1289 
  1290 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1291 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1292 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1293 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * HOL-BNF:
  1296   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1297     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1298     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1299     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1300   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1301     coinduct).
  1302   - Renamed keywords:
  1303     data ~> datatype_new
  1304     codata ~> codatatype
  1305     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1306   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1307     discs ~> disc
  1308     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1309     map_id' ~> map_id
  1310     sels ~> sel
  1311     set_map' ~> set_map
  1312     sets ~> set
  1313 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1314 
  1315 
  1316 *** ML ***
  1317 
  1318 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1319 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1320 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1321 Examples.thy in particular.
  1322 
  1323 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1324 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1325 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1326 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1327 
  1328 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1329 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1330 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1331 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1333 
  1334 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1335 
  1336     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1337     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1338 
  1339 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1340 
  1341 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1342 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1343 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1344 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1345 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1346 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1347 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1348 
  1349 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1350 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1351 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1352 clasets separately from the context.
  1353 
  1354 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1355 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1356 
  1357 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1358 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1359 
  1360 
  1361 *** System ***
  1362 
  1363 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1364 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1365 
  1366 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1367 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1368 
  1369 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1370 settings variable.
  1371 
  1372 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1373 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1374 always pdf.
  1375 
  1376 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1377 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1378 
  1379 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1380 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1381 
  1382 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1383 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1384 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1385 
  1386 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1387 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1388 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1389 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1390 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1391 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1392 
  1393 
  1394 
  1395 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1396 -----------------------------------
  1397 
  1398 *** General ***
  1399 
  1400 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1401 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1402 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1403 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1404 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1405 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1406 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1407 
  1408 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1409 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1410 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1411 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1412 
  1413 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1414 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1415 
  1416 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1417 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1418 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1419 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1420 dependencies properly.
  1421 
  1422 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1423 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1424 
  1425 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1426 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1427 
  1428 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1429 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1430 and "class ... context ...".
  1431 
  1432 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1433 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1434 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1435 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1436 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1437 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1438 
  1439 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1440 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1441 
  1442 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1443 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1444 
  1445 
  1446 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1447 
  1448 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1449 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1450 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1451 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1452 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1453 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1454 
  1455 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1456 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1457 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1458 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1459 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1460 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1461 
  1462 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1463 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1464 browser on demand.
  1465 
  1466 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1467 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1468 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1469 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1470 
  1471 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1472 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1473 
  1474 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1475 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1476 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1477 potentially infinite message streams.
  1478 
  1479 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1480 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1481 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1482 schemes.
  1483 
  1484 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1485 symbols.
  1486 
  1487 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1488 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1489 
  1490 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1491 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1492 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1493 
  1494 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1495 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1496 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1497 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1498 
  1499 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1500 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1501 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1502 
  1503 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1504 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1505 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1506 Isabelle distribution.
  1507 
  1508 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1509 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1510 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1511 
  1512 
  1513 *** Pure ***
  1514 
  1515 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1516 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1517 
  1518 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1519 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1520 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521 
  1522 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1523 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1524 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1525 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1526 with some care where this is really required.
  1527 
  1528 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1529 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1530 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1531 
  1532   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1533 
  1534 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1535 a Hasse diagram.
  1536 
  1537 
  1538 *** HOL ***
  1539 
  1540 * Sledgehammer:
  1541 
  1542   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1543     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1544   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1545   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1546   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1547   - Renamed options:
  1548       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1549       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1550       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1551       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1552 
  1553 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1554 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1555 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1556 
  1557 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1559 
  1560 * Lifting:
  1561   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1562   - quot_del attribute
  1563   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1564 
  1565 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1566 expressions.
  1567 
  1568 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1569 pointfree expressions.
  1570 
  1571 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1572 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1573 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1574 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1578 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1579 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1580 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1581 accordingly.
  1582 
  1583 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1584 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1585 
  1586 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1587 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588 
  1589 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1592 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1593 
  1594 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1595 
  1596 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1597 
  1598   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1599   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1600 
  1601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1604 
  1605   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1606   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1607 
  1608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1609 
  1610 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1611 
  1612   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1613     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1614     output f x converges to G.
  1615 
  1616   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1617     infinity (at_bot).
  1618 
  1619   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1620     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1621 
  1622   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1623     at_top".
  1624 
  1625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1628 lattice type classes.
  1629 
  1630 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1631 
  1632     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1633     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1634 
  1635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1638 changes as follows.
  1639 
  1640   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1641 
  1642       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1643       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1644 
  1645   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1646     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1647     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1648     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1649 
  1650   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1651     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1652     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1653 
  1654   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1655     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1656     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1657     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1658 
  1659   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1660     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1661 
  1662       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1663       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1664       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1665       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1666       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1667       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1668       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1669       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1670       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1671       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1672       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1673       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1674       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1675       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1676       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1677       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1678 
  1679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1682 
  1683 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1684 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1685 
  1686 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1687 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1688 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1689 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1690 
  1691   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1692   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1693   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1694   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1695   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1696   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1697   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1698   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1699   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1700   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1701 
  1702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1705 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1706 Data").
  1707 
  1708 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1709 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1710 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1711 code.
  1712 
  1713 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1714 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1715 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1719 
  1720 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1721 
  1722 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1723 
  1724   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1725   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1726 
  1727 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1728 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1729 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1730 
  1731   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1732 
  1733     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1734     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1735     cart_base i  removed
  1736     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1737 
  1738   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1739 
  1740   Renamed lemmas:
  1741 
  1742     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1743     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1744     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1745     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1746     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1747     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1748     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1749     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1750     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1751     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1752 
  1753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1754 
  1755 * HOL/Probability:
  1756 
  1757   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1758 
  1759   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1760     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1761     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1762 
  1763   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1764     projective family).
  1765 
  1766 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1767 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1768 
  1769 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1770 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1771 datatypes.
  1772 
  1773 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1774 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1775 
  1776 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1777 trees for the code generator.
  1778 
  1779 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1780 Lifting/Transfer.
  1781 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786 
  1787 *** Document preparation ***
  1788 
  1789 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1790 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1791 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1792 
  1793 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1794 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1795 
  1796 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1797 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1798 document/root.tex.
  1799 
  1800 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1801 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1802 
  1803 
  1804 *** ML ***
  1805 
  1806 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1807 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1808 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1809 
  1810 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1811 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1812 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1813 
  1814 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1815 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1816 necessarily printing visible text.
  1817 
  1818 
  1819 *** System ***
  1820 
  1821 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1822 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1823 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1824 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1825 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1826 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1827 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1828 
  1829 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1830 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1831 
  1832   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1833 
  1834 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1835 
  1836 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1837 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1838 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1839 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1840 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1841 
  1842 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1843 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1844 
  1845 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1846 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1847 
  1848 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1850 
  1851 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1852 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1853 version of Isabelle.
  1854 
  1855 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1856 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1857 
  1858 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1859 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1860 for home-made settings.
  1861 
  1862 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1863 
  1864 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1865 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1866 configuration.
  1867 
  1868 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1869 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1870 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1871 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1872 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1873 
  1874 
  1875 
  1876 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1877 ------------------------------
  1878 
  1879 *** General ***
  1880 
  1881 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1882 
  1883   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1884     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1885   - markup for bound variables
  1886   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1887   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1888   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1889     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1890 
  1891 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1892 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1893 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1894 
  1895 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1896 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1897 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1898 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1899 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1900 
  1901   context
  1902     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1903     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1904   begin
  1905 
  1906   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1907 
  1908   end
  1909 
  1910   thm my_trans
  1911 
  1912 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1913 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1914 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1915 
  1916 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1917 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1918 
  1919 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1920 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1921 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1922 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1923 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1924 
  1925 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1926 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1927 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1928 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1929 indices of schematic variables.
  1930 
  1931 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1932 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1933 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1934 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1935 etc. was exploited.
  1936 
  1937 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1938 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1939 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1940 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1941 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1942 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1943 
  1944 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1945 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1946 manual.
  1947 
  1948 
  1949 *** Pure ***
  1950 
  1951 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1952 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1953 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1954 
  1955 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1956 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1957 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1958 undocumented feature.)
  1959 
  1960 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1961 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1962 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1963 
  1964   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1965 
  1966   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1967     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1968 
  1969 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1970 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1971 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1972 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1973 
  1974 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1975 
  1976     num ~> num_token
  1977     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1978     xstr ~> str_token
  1979 
  1980 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1981 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1982 position information via constraints).
  1983 
  1984 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1985 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1986 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1989 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1990 
  1991 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1992 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1993 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1996 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997 
  1998 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1999 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2000 
  2001   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2002 
  2003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2004 
  2005 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2006 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2007 
  2008 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2009 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2010 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2011 
  2012 
  2013 *** HOL ***
  2014 
  2015 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2016 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2017 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2018 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2019 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2020 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2021 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2022 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2023 possible.
  2024 
  2025 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2026 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2027 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2028 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2029 
  2030 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2031 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2034 
  2035 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2036 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2037 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2038 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2039 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2040 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2041 
  2042   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2043     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2044 
  2045   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2046     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2047     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2048 
  2049   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2050     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2051 
  2052   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2053     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2054     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2055 
  2056   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2057     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2058 
  2059 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2060 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2061 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2062 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2063 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2064 
  2065   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2066     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2067     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2068     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2069     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2070 
  2071     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2072     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2073 
  2074   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2075     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2076     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2077     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2078     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2079     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2080     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2081     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2082 
  2083   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2084     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2085     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2086     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2087 
  2088   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2089     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2090     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2091     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2092 
  2093   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2094     from type nat to type int.
  2095 
  2096 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2097 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2098 
  2099   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2100     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2101     type.  Example syntax:
  2102 
  2103     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2104       is List.insert
  2105 
  2106     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2107     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2108     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2109     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2110     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2111     by the package.
  2112 
  2113   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2114     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2115     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2116     code generation for each constant.
  2117 
  2118   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2119     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2120     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2121     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2122     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2123 
  2124   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2125     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2126     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2127 
  2128 * Quotient package:
  2129 
  2130   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2131     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2132 
  2133   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2134     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2135 
  2136   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2137     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2138     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2139 
  2140   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2141     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2144 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2145 
  2146 * Quickcheck:
  2147 
  2148   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2149     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2150     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2151     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2152     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2153 
  2154     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2155     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2156     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2157 
  2158     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2159     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2160 
  2161     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2162     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2163     show genuine counterexamples.
  2164 
  2165   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2166     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2167 
  2168     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2169     constructors of that type.
  2170 
  2171   - Support for multisets.
  2172 
  2173   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2174 
  2175   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2176     conjectures in a locale context.
  2177 
  2178 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2179 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2180 
  2181 * Sledgehammer:
  2182   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2183     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2184   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2185   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2186     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2187   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2188   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2189   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2190   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2191 
  2192 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2193 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2194 
  2195 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2196 
  2197 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2198 
  2199 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2200 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2201 
  2202   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2203 
  2204 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2205 a list and a nat.
  2206 
  2207 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2208 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2209 
  2210 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2211 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2212 default.
  2213 
  2214 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2215 
  2216   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2217 
  2218 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2219 
  2220 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2221 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2222 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2223 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2224 one_case.
  2225 
  2226 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2227 the result of the fact expression.
  2228 
  2229 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2230 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2231 of some relation theorems:
  2232 
  2233   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2234   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2235   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2236   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2237   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2238   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2239 
  2240 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2241 
  2242 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2243 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2244 
  2245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2246 
  2247 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2248 to match the constant's name:
  2249 
  2250   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2251   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2252   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2253   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2254   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2255   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2256   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2257   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2258   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2259   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2260   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2261   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2262   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2263   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2264   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2265   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2266   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2267   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2268   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2269   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2270   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2271   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2272   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2273   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2274 
  2275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2278 and corresponding theorem names:
  2279 
  2280   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2281 
  2282   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2283 
  2284   - Renamed theorems:
  2285 
  2286     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2287     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2288     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2289     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2290     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2291     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2292     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2293     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2294     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2295     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2296     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2297     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2298     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2299     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2300     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2301     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2302     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2303     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2304     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2305     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2306     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2307     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2308     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2309 
  2310     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2311 
  2312     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2313 
  2314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2317 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2318 
  2319   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2320   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2321   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2322   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2323   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2324   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2325   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2326   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2327   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2328   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2329   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2330   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2331   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2332   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2333   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2334   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2335   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2336   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2337   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2338   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2339   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2340 
  2341 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2342 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2347 
  2348   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2349   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2350   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2351   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2352   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2353   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2354   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2355   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2356   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2357   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2358   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2359   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2360   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2361   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2362   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2363   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2364   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2365   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2366 
  2367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2368 
  2369 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2370 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2371 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2372 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2373 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2374 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2375 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2376 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2377 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2378 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2379 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2380 
  2381 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2382 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2383 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2384 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2385 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2386 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2387 
  2388 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2389 through option types.
  2390 
  2391 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2392 relations.
  2393 
  2394 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2395 
  2396 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2397 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2398 
  2399   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2400   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2401   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2402   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2403   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2404   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2405   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2406   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2407   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2408   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2409   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2410   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2411   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2412   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2413   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2414   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2415   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2416   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2417   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2418   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2419   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2420   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2421   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2422   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2423   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2424   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2425   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2426   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2427   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2428   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2429   zless_le ~> less_le
  2430   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2431   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2432   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2433 
  2434 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2435 
  2436   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2437 
  2438 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2439 
  2440 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2441 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2442 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2443 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2447 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2448 
  2449 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2450 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2451 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2452 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2453 follows:
  2454 
  2455   Operations:
  2456   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2457   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2458   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2459   del -> rbt_del
  2460   delete -> rbt_delete
  2461   ins -> rbt_ins
  2462   insert -> rbt_insert
  2463   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2464   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2465   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2466   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2467   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2468   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2469   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2470   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2471   union -> rbt_union
  2472   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2473   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2474 
  2475   Lemmas:
  2476   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2477   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2478   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2479   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2480   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2481   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2482   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2483   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2484   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2485   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2486   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2487   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2488   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2489   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2490   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2491   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2492   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2493   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2494   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2495   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2496   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2497   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2498   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2499   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2500   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2501   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2502   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2503   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2504   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2505   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2506   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2507   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2508   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2509   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2510   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2511   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2512   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2513   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2514   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2515   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2516   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2517   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2518   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2519   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2520   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2521   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2522   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2523   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2524   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2525   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2526   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2527   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2528   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2529   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2530   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2531   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2532   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2533   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2534   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2535   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2536   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2537   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2538   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2539   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2540   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2541   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2542   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2543   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2544   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2545   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2546   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2547   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2548   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2549   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2550   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2551   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2552   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2553   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2554   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2555   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2556   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2557   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2558   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2559 
  2560 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2561 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2562 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564   Changed Operations:
  2565   float_abs -> abs
  2566   float_nprt -> nprt
  2567   float_pprt -> pprt
  2568   pow2 -> use powr
  2569   round_down -> float_round_down
  2570   round_up -> float_round_up
  2571   scale -> exponent
  2572 
  2573   Removed Operations:
  2574   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2575 
  2576   Renamed Lemmas:
  2577   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2578   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2579   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2580   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2581   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2582   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2583   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2584   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2585   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2586   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2587   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2588   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2589   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2590   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2591   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2592   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2593   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2594   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2595   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2596   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2597   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2598   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2599   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2600   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2601   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2602   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2603   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2604   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2605   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2606   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2607   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2608   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2609   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2610   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2611   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2612   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2613 
  2614   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2615   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2616   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2617   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2618   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2619   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2620   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2621   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2622   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2623   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2624 
  2625 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2626 association lists with distinct keys.
  2627 
  2628 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2629 annotated commands.
  2630 
  2631 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2632 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2633 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2634 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2637 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2638 instead.
  2639 
  2640   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2641   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2642   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2643   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2644   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2645   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2646   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2647   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2648   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2649   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2650   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2651   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2652   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2653   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2654   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2655   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2656   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2657   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2658   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2659   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2660   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2661   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2662   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2663   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2664   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2665   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2666   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2667   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2668   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2669   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2670   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2671   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2672   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2673   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2674   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2675   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2676   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2677   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2678   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2679   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2680   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2681 
  2682 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2683 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2684 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2685 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2686 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2687 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2688 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2689 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2690 
  2691 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2692 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2693 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2694 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2695 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2696 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2697 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2698 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2699 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2700 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2701 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2702 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704   Renamed constants:
  2705   measure -> emeasure
  2706   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2707   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2708   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2709   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2710 
  2711   Removed locales:
  2712   completeable_measure_space
  2713   finite_measure_space
  2714   finite_prob_space
  2715   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2716   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2717   finite_sigma_algebra
  2718   measure_space
  2719   pair_finite_prob_space
  2720   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2721   pair_finite_space
  2722   pair_sigma_algebra
  2723   product_sigma_algebra
  2724 
  2725   Removed constants:
  2726   conditional_space
  2727   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2728   image_space
  2729   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2730   pair_measure_generator
  2731   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2732   subvimage
  2733 
  2734   Replacement theorems:
  2735   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2736   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2737   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2738   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2739   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2740   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2741   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2742   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2743   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2744   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2745   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2746   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2747   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2748   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2749   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2750   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2751   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2752   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2753   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2754   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2755   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2756   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2757   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2758   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2759   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2760   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2761   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2762   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2763   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2764   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2765   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2766   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2767   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2768   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2769   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2770   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2771   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2772   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2773   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2774   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2775   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2776   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2777   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2778   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2779   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2780   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2781   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2782   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2783   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2784   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2785   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2786   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2787   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2788   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2789   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2790   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2791   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2792   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2793   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2794   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2795   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2796   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2797   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2798   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2799   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2800   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2801   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2802   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2803   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2804   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2805   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2806   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2807   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2808   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2809   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2810   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2811   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2812   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2813   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2814   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2815   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2816   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2817   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2818   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2819   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2820   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2821   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2822   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2823   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2824   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2825   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2826   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2827   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2828   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2829   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2830   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2831   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2832   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2833   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2834   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2835   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2836   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2837   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2838   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2839   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2840   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2841   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2842   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2843   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2844   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2845   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2846   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2847   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2848   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2849   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2850   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2851   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2852   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2853   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2854   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2855   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2856   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2857   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2858   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2859   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2860   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2861   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2862   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2863 
  2864 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2865 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2866 
  2867 
  2868 *** FOL ***
  2869 
  2870 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2871 
  2872 
  2873 *** ZF ***
  2874 
  2875 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2876 analysis.
  2877 
  2878 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2879 
  2880 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 
  2883 *** ML ***
  2884 
  2885 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2886 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2887 
  2888 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2889 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2890 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2891 
  2892 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2893 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2894 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2895 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2896 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2897 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2898 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2899 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2900 
  2901 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2902 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2903 
  2904 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2905 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2906 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2907 
  2908 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2909 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2910 
  2911 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2912 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2913 context as well.
  2914 
  2915 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2916 
  2917   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2918   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2919   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2920   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2921   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2922   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2923   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2924   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2925   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2926   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2927   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2928   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2929 
  2930 
  2931 *** System ***
  2932 
  2933 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2934 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2935 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2936 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2937 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2938 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2939 the generic user home was intended.
  2940 
  2941 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2942 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2943 
  2944 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2945 (not just JRE).
  2946 
  2947 
  2948 
  2949 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2950 ------------------------------------
  2951 
  2952 *** General ***
  2953 
  2954 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2955 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2956 
  2957   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2958     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2959     files for checking).
  2960 
  2961   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2962     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2963     positions.
  2964 
  2965   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2966     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2967     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2968 
  2969   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2970     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2971     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2972 
  2973   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2974     cores.
  2975 
  2976   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2977     versions (garbage collection).
  2978 
  2979 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2980 including some remaining limitations.
  2981 
  2982 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2983 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2984 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2985 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2986 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2988 
  2989 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2990 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2991 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2992 
  2993 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2994 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2995 usedir option -Q.
  2996 
  2997 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2998 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2999 
  3000   long_names   ~> names_long
  3001   short_names  ~> names_short
  3002   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3003 
  3004 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3005 
  3006   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3007 
  3008 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3009 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3010 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3011 
  3012 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3013 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3014 
  3015 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3016   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3017   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3018   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3019     "Classical Reasoner".
  3020 
  3021 
  3022 *** HOL ***
  3023 
  3024 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3025 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3028 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3029 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3030 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3031 class complete_linorder.
  3032 
  3033 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3034 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3035 
  3036 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3037 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3038 
  3039   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3040   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3041   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3042   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3043   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3044   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3045   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3046   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3047   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3048   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3049   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3050 
  3051 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3052 
  3053   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3054   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3055   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3056   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3057   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3058   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3059   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3060   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3061   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3062   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3063   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3064   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3065   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3066   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3067   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3068   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3069 
  3070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3076 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3077 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3078 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3081 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3082 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3086 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3087 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3088 
  3089 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3090 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3091 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3094 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3095 
  3096 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3097 
  3098     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3099     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3100 
  3101 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3102 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103 
  3104 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3105 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106 
  3107 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3108 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3109 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3110 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3113   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3114   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3115   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3116   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3117   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3118   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3119 
  3120 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3121 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3124   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3125   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3126   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3127   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3128   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3129   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3130   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3131   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3132   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3133   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3134   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3135   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3136   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3137   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3138   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3139   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3140   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3141   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3142   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3143   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3144   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3145   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3146   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3147   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3148   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3149   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3150   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3151   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3152   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3153   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3154   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3155   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3156   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3157   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3158   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3159   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3160   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3161   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3162   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3163   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3164   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3165   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3166   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3167   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3168   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3169   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3170   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3171   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3172   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3173   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3174   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3175   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3176   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3177   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3178   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3179   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3180   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3181   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3182   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3183   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3184   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3185   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3186   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3187   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3188   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3189   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3190   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3191   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3192   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3193   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3194   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3195   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3196   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3197   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3198   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3199   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3200   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3201   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3202   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3203   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3204   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3205 
  3206 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3207 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3208 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3209 
  3210 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3211 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3212 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3213 
  3214 * Code generation:
  3215 
  3216   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3217     characters in the target language.
  3218 
  3219   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3220     instead.
  3221 
  3222   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3223 
  3224   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3225     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3226 
  3227       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3228 
  3229 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3232 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3233 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3234 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3235 syntax.
  3236 
  3237 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3238 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3239 
  3240 * Nitpick:
  3241   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3242   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3243   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3244     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * Sledgehammer:
  3247   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3248   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3249     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3250   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3251     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3252   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3255     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3256   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3257     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Metis:
  3260   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3262     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Command 'try':
  3265   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3266     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3268     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3269 
  3270 * Quickcheck:
  3271   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3272     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3273   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3274     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3275   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3276     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3277     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3278     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3279   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3280     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3281 
  3282 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3283 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3284 
  3285 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3286 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3287 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3288 
  3289 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3290 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3294 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3297 arithmetic.
  3298 
  3299 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3300 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3301 and lattice type classes.
  3302 
  3303 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3304 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3305 
  3306 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3307 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3308 
  3309 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3310 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3311 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3314   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3315   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3316   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3317 
  3318 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3319 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3320 constants:
  3321 
  3322   type inat   ~> type enat
  3323   Fin         ~> enat
  3324   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3325   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3326   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3327 
  3328 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3329 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330 
  3331 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3332 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3333 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3334 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3335 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3336 
  3337 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3338 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3339 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3340 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3341 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3342 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3343 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3344 
  3345   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3346   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3347   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3348   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3349 
  3350 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3351 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3352 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3353 
  3354   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3355   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3356   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3357   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3358   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3359   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3360   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3361   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3362   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3363   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3364   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3365   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3366   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3367   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3368   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3369   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3370   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3371   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3372   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3373   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3374   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3375   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3376   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3377   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3378   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3379   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3380   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3381   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3382   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3383   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3384   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3385   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3386   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3387   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3388   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3389   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3390   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3391   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3392   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3393   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3394   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3395   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3396   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3397   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3398   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3399   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3400   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3401   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3402   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3403   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3404   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3405 
  3406 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3407   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3408   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3409   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3410   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3411     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3416   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3417   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3418   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3419   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3420   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3421   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3422   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3423   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3424   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3425   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3426   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3427   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3428   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3429   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3430   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3431   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3432   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3433   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3434   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3435   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3436   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3437   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3438   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3439   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3440 
  3441 
  3442 *** Document preparation ***
  3443 
  3444 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3445 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3446 same.
  3447 
  3448 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3449 result.
  3450 
  3451 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3452 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3453 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3454 
  3455 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3456 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3457 
  3458 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3459 like this:
  3460 
  3461   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3462   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3463 
  3464 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3465 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3466 layouts.
  3467 
  3468 
  3469 *** ML ***
  3470 
  3471 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3472 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3473 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3474 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3475 under external program control.
  3476 
  3477 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3478 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3479 
  3480 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3481 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3482 (better known as Proof General).
  3483 
  3484 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3485 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3486 
  3487 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3488 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3489 
  3490 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3491 (including quotes etc.).
  3492 
  3493 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3494 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3495 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3496 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3497 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3498 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3499 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3500 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3501 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3502 
  3503 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3504 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3505 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3506 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3507 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3508 
  3509 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3510 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3511 
  3512 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3513 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3514 
  3515 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3516 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3517 
  3518 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3519 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3520 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3521 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3522 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3523 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3524 proper Proof.context.
  3525 
  3526 
  3527 *** System ***
  3528 
  3529 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3530 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3531 
  3532 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3533 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3534 
  3535 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3536 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3537 
  3538   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3539   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3540   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3541   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3542   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3543 
  3544 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3545 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3548 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3549 example:
  3550 
  3551   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3552 
  3553 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3554 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3555 
  3556 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3557 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3558 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3559 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3560 
  3561 
  3562 
  3563 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3564 ----------------------------------
  3565 
  3566 *** General ***
  3567 
  3568 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3569 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3570 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3571 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3572 like this:
  3573 
  3574   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3575 
  3576 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3577 
  3578 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3579 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3580 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3581 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3582 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3583 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3584 
  3585 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3586 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3587 the following package declarations:
  3588 
  3589   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3590   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3591 
  3592 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3593 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3594 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3595 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3596 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3597 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3598 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3599 
  3600 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3601 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3602 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3603 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3604 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3605 
  3606 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3607 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3608 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3609 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3610 
  3611 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3612 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3613 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3614 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3615 
  3616   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3617 
  3618   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3619   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3620   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3621   show_types                    show_types
  3622   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3623   show_consts                   show_consts
  3624   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3625 
  3626   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3627   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3628   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3629 
  3630   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3631   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3632 
  3633   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3634 
  3635   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3636   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3637   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3638   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3639   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3640 
  3641 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3642 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3643 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3644 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3645 
  3646 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3650   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3651 
  3652 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3653 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3654 float_token.
  3655 
  3656 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3657 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3659 
  3660 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3661 DejaVu Sans.
  3662 
  3663 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3664 
  3665 
  3666 *** Pure ***
  3667 
  3668 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3669 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3670 time.
  3671 
  3672 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3673 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3674 
  3675 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3676 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3679 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3680 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3681 command already provided this functionality.
  3682 
  3683 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3684 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3685 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3686 without interpretations.
  3687 
  3688 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3689 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3690 
  3691 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3692 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3693 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3694 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3695 
  3696 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3697 'definition' instead.
  3698 
  3699 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3700 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3701 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3702 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3703 
  3704 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3705 constructors.
  3706 
  3707 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3708 the local file system.
  3709 
  3710 
  3711 *** HOL ***
  3712 
  3713 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3714 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3715 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3716 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3717 
  3718   declare [[coercion f]]
  3719 
  3720 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3721 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3722 
  3723   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3724 
  3725 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3726 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3727 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3728 other theories like this:
  3729 
  3730   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3731 
  3732 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3733 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3734 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3735 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3736 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3737 for examples.
  3738 
  3739 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3740 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3743 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3744 
  3745 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3746 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3747 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3748 
  3749 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3750 functorial structure of types.
  3751 
  3752 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3753 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3754 
  3755 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3756 languages.
  3757 
  3758 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3759 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3763 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3766 combinators any longer.
  3767 
  3768 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3769 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3770 
  3771 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3772 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3773 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3774 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3775 
  3776   record 'a foo = ...
  3777   ...
  3778   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3779 
  3780 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3781 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3785 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3786 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3787 
  3788 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3789 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3790 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3791 
  3792 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3793 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3796 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3797 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3798 independently.
  3799 
  3800 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3801 counter example search.
  3802 
  3803 * Sledgehammer:
  3804   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3805     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3806     sledgehammer").
  3807   - Renamed commands:
  3808     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3809     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3810     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3811     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812   - Renamed options:
  3813     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3814     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3815     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3816     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3817     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Nitpick:
  3820   - Renamed options:
  3821     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3822     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3823     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3825   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3826   - Added "whack" option.
  3827   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3828   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3829   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3830   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3831     higher cardinalities.
  3832   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3833 
  3834 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3835 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3836 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3837 
  3838     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3839 
  3840 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3841 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3842 
  3843 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3844 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3845 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3846 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3847 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3848 "smt_solver".
  3849 
  3850 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3851 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3852 
  3853 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3854 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3855 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3856 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3859   - Renamed:
  3860     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3861     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3862     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863   - Added:
  3864     smt_verbose
  3865     smt_random_seed
  3866     smt_datatypes
  3867     smt_infer_triggers
  3868     smt_monomorph_limit
  3869     cvc3_options
  3870     remote_cvc3_options
  3871     remote_z3_options
  3872     yices_options
  3873 
  3874 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3875 header.
  3876 
  3877 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3878 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3880 
  3881   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3882 
  3883 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3886 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3891 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3894 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3895 
  3896 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3897 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3900 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3901 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3909 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3912 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3913 for congruent(2)).
  3914 
  3915 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3916 
  3917   types
  3918     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3919     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3920 
  3921   constants
  3922     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3923     True ~> HOL.True
  3924     False ~> HOL.False
  3925     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3926     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3927     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3928     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3929     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3930     The ~> HOL.The
  3931     All ~> HOL.All
  3932     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3933     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3934     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3935     If ~> HOL.If
  3936     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3937     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3938     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3939     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3940     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3941     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3942     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3943     op : ~> Set.member
  3944     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3945 
  3946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3949 
  3950     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3951     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3952     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3953     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3954     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3955     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3956     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3957     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3958 
  3959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * More stylized fact names:
  3962 
  3963   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3964   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3965   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3966   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3967 
  3968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3971 
  3972   constants
  3973     null ~> List.null
  3974 
  3975   facts
  3976     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3977     null_empty ~> null_def
  3978 
  3979 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3980 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3981 generation.
  3982 
  3983 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3984 Haskell code.
  3985 
  3986 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3987 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3988 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3991 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3994 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3995 
  3996 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3997 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3998 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4001 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002 
  4003 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005 
  4006 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4007 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4008 referred to by its qualified name.
  4009 
  4010   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4011   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4012   product ~>  Enum.product
  4013 
  4014 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4015 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4019 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4020 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4024 sort_key.
  4025 
  4026 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4030 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4031 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4032 
  4033   types
  4034     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4035               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4036               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4037         (depends on your needs)
  4038 
  4039   constants
  4040      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4041      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4042      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4043 
  4044 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4045 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4046 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4047 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4050 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4051 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4052 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4053 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4059 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4060 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4061 
  4062 
  4063 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4064 
  4065 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4066 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4067 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4068 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4069 compatibility.
  4070 
  4071 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4072 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4073 
  4074 
  4075 *** HOLCF ***
  4076 
  4077 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4078 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4079 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4083 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4084 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085 
  4086   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4087   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4088   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4089 
  4090 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4091 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4092 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4095 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4096 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4097 domain definition now works:
  4098 
  4099   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4100 
  4101 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4102 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4103 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4104 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4105 
  4106   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4107     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4108 
  4109   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4110 
  4111 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4112 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4113 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4116 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4119 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4120 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4121 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4122 
  4123 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4124 
  4125 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4126 
  4127 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4133 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4134 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4135 
  4136 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4137 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4138 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4141 still supported as an input translation.
  4142 
  4143 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4144 
  4145   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4146   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4147   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4148   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4149   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4150   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4151   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4152 
  4153 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4154 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4155 
  4156   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4157   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4158   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4159   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4160   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4161   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4162 
  4163 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4164 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4167 
  4168   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4169   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4170   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4171   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4172 
  4173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4176 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4177 
  4178 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4179 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4180 
  4181   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4182   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4183   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4184   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4185   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4186   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4187   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4188   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4189   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4190   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4191   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4192   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4193   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4194   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4195   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4196   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4197   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4198   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4199   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4200   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4201 
  4202 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4205   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4206   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4207   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4208   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4209   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4210   box_less             ~> box_below
  4211   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4212   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4213   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4214   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4215   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4216   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4217   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4218   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4219   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4220   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4221   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4222   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4223   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4224   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4225   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4226   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4227   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4228   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4229   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4230   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4231   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4232   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4233   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4234   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4235   up_less              ~> up_below
  4236   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4237   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4238   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4239   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4240   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4241   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4242   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4243   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4244   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4245   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4246   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4247   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4248   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4249 
  4250 
  4251 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4252 
  4253 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4254 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 
  4257 *** ML ***
  4258 
  4259 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4260 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4261 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4262 
  4263 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4264 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4265 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4266 
  4267 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4268 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4269 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4270 
  4271 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4272 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4273 
  4274 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4275 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4276 
  4277 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4278 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4279 
  4280 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4281 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4282 
  4283 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4284 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4285 almost all situations.
  4286 
  4287 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4288 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4289 Isabelle/ML.
  4290 
  4291 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4292 meaning.
  4293 
  4294 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4295 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4296 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4297 
  4298 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4299 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4300 
  4301 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4302 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4303 
  4304 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4305 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4306 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4307 
  4308 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4309 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4310 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4311 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4312 configuration options.
  4313 
  4314 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4315 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4316 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4317 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4318 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4319 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4320 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4321 
  4322 
  4323 
  4324 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4325 ---------------------------------
  4326 
  4327 *** General ***
  4328 
  4329 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4330 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4331 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4332 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4333 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4334 their full internal name.
  4335 
  4336 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4337 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4338 Some hints on upgrading:
  4339 
  4340   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4341     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4342     which are independent of this issue.
  4343 
  4344   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4345     provides the following special forms:
  4346 
  4347       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4348       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4349       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4350 
  4351     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4352     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4353     extra variables".
  4354 
  4355     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4356     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4357     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4358     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4359     "logic".
  4360 
  4361   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4362     antiquotations:
  4363 
  4364       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4365       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4366       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4367       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4368 
  4369   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4370     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4371     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4372     antiquotations.
  4373 
  4374 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4375 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4376 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4377 diagnose syntax problems.
  4378 
  4379 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4380 
  4381 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4382 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4383 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4384 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4385 
  4386 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4387 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4388 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4389 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4390 
  4391 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4392 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4393 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4394 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4395 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4398 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4399 
  4400 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4401 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4402 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4403 
  4404   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4405 
  4406 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4407 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4408 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4409 
  4410 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4411 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4413 
  4414 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4415 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4416 
  4417 
  4418 *** Pure ***
  4419 
  4420 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4421 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4422 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4423 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4424 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4425 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4426 inspect proof terms.
  4427 
  4428 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4429 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4430 are added internally.  For example:
  4431 
  4432   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4433 
  4434 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4435 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4440 'class' instead.
  4441 
  4442 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4443 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4447 invariants.
  4448 
  4449 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4450 user space functionality any longer.
  4451 
  4452 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4453 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4455 
  4456 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4457 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4458 
  4459 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4460 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4461 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4462 
  4463 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4464 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4465 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4466 
  4467 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4468 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4469 
  4470 
  4471 *** HOL ***
  4472 
  4473 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4474 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4475 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4476 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4477 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4478 
  4479 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4480 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4481 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4482 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4483 
  4484   fun
  4485     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4486   where
  4487     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4488 
  4489   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4490     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4491 
  4492   quotient_definition
  4493     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4494 
  4495 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4496 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4497 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4498 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4499 
  4500 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4501 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4502 
  4503 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4504 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4505 
  4506 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4508 
  4509 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4510 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4511 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4512 
  4513 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4514 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4515 
  4516 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518 
  4519 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4523 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4526 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4527 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4528 
  4529   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4530   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4531   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4532   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4533   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4534   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4535   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4536   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4537   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4538   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4539   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4540   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4541   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4542   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4543   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4544   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4545   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4546   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4547   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4548   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4549   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4550   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4551   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4552   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4553   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4554   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4555   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4556   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4557   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4558   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4559 
  4560 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4561 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4562 
  4563 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4564 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4565 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4566 
  4567 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4568 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4569 
  4570 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4571 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4574 
  4575 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4576 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4579 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4584 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4585 
  4586 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4587 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4588 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4589 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4592   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4593   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4594   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596 
  4597 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4598 lattices):
  4599 
  4600     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4601     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4602 
  4603     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4604 
  4605     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4606     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4607     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4608     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4609     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4610     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4611     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4612     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4613     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4614     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4615     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4616     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4617     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4618 
  4619     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4620     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4621     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4622     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4623     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4624     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4625     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4626     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4627     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4628     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4629     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4630     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4631     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4632     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4633     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4634     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4635     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4636     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4637 
  4638   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4639   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4640 
  4641     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4642     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4643     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4644     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4645     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4646 
  4647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Refined field classes:
  4650   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4651     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4652     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4653   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4657   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4658   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4659   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4660     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4661   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4662     equal_neg_zero.
  4663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4666 sets to lattices:
  4667 
  4668   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4669   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4670   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4671   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4672   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4673   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4674   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4675   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4676   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4677   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4678 
  4679 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4680 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4681 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4682 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4683 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4684 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4687 multiset order:
  4688 
  4689   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4690     <= and <;
  4691   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4692     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4693     multiset_order;
  4694   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4695     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4696     generation;
  4697   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4698     if needed.
  4699 
  4700 Renamed:
  4701 
  4702   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4703   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4704   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4705 
  4706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4707 
  4708 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4709 
  4710 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4711 
  4712 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4713 
  4714 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4715 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4716 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4717 
  4718   Constants:
  4719   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4720   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4721   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4722   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4723   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4724   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4725   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4726   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4727   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4728   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4729   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4730   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4731   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4732 
  4733   Lemmas:
  4734   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4735   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4736   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4737   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4738   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4739   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4740   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4741   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4742   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4743   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4744   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4745   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4746   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4747 
  4748 * Sledgehammer:
  4749   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4750     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4751     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4752     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4753     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4754     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4755     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4757   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4758     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4759   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4760     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4761     is still experimental.)
  4762   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4763     full-typed mode.
  4764   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4765 
  4766 * Nitpick:
  4767   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4768   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4769   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4770     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4771   - Added support for quotient types.
  4772   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4773     constructs.
  4774   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4775     "termination" proofs).
  4776   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4777   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4778   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4779   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4780     record getters.
  4781   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4782   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4783   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4784   - Added "atoms" option.
  4785   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4786     problems.
  4787   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4788     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4789     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4791     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4792   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4795   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4796   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4797   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4798   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4799   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4800   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4801   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4802   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4803   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 
  4806 *** HOLCF ***
  4807 
  4808 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4809 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4810 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4813 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4814 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4815 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4818 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4819 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4820 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4821 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4824 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4825 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4828 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4829 
  4830   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4831   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4832 
  4833 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4834 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4837   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4838   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4839   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4840   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4841 
  4842 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4843 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4844 
  4845   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4846   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4847   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4848 
  4849 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4850 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4854 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4859 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4860 
  4861 
  4862 *** ML ***
  4863 
  4864 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4865 
  4866     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4867     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4868 
  4869     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4870     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4871     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4872     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4873 
  4874     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4875     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4876     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4877 
  4878 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4879 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4880 
  4881 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4882 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4883 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4884 
  4885 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4886 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4887 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4888 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4889 
  4890 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4891 the context or even global references.
  4892 
  4893 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4894 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4895 
  4896 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4897 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4898 
  4899   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4900   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4901   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4902   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4903   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4904   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4905   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4906   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4907   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4908   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4909 
  4910 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4911 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4912 
  4913 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4914 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4915 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4916 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4917 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4918 
  4919 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4920 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4921 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4922 Theory_Data version.
  4923 
  4924 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4925 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4926 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4927 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4928 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4929 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4930 explicitly in rare situations.
  4931 
  4932 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4933 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4935 
  4936 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4937 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4938 
  4939 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4940 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4941 quite rare).
  4942 
  4943 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4944 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4947 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4948 terms.
  4949 
  4950 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4951 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4952 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4953 
  4954 
  4955 *** System ***
  4956 
  4957 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4958 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4959 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4960 
  4961 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4962 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4963 respectively.
  4964 
  4965 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4966 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4967 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4968 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4969 
  4970   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4971 
  4972 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4973 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4974 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4975 component.
  4976 
  4977 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4978 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4979 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4980 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4981 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4982 the user for manual installation.
  4983 
  4984 
  4985 
  4986 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4987 -------------------------------------
  4988 
  4989 *** General ***
  4990 
  4991 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4992 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4993 
  4994 
  4995 *** Pure ***
  4996 
  4997 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4998 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4999 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5000 
  5001 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5002 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5003 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5004 
  5005 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5006 interpretation.
  5007 
  5008 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5009 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5010 
  5011 
  5012 *** Document preparation ***
  5013 
  5014 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5015 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5016 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5017 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5018 
  5019 
  5020 *** HOL ***
  5021 
  5022 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5023 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5024 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5025 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5026 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5027 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5028 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5029 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5030 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5031 
  5032 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5033 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5034 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5035 
  5036 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5037 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5038 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5039 
  5040 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5041 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5042 
  5043 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5044 
  5045 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5046 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5047 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5048 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5049 
  5050 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5051 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5052 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5053 "mirabelle" utility.
  5054 
  5055 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5056 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5057 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5058 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5059 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5060 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5061 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5062 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5063 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5064 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5065 
  5066 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5067 procedure only.
  5068 
  5069 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5070 
  5071 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5072 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5073 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5074 that fail later.
  5075 
  5076 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5077 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5078 
  5079 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5080 the same method as the approximation method.
  5081 
  5082 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5083 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5084 series expansion.
  5085 
  5086 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5087 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5088 
  5089 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5090 reals.
  5091 
  5092 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5093 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5094 
  5095 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5096 fixpoint theorem.
  5097 
  5098 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5099   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5100     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5101   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5102     accordingly
  5103   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5104     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5105   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5106     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5107 
  5108 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5109 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5110 lattice.
  5111 
  5112 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5113 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5114 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5115 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5116 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5117 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5121   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5122     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5123   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5124     le_inf_iff
  5125   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5126     sup_aci)
  5127   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5128   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5129   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5130     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5131     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5132     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5133     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5134     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5135     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5136     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5137     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5138     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5139     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5140   - authentic syntax for
  5141     Set.Pow
  5142     Set.image
  5143   - mere abbreviations:
  5144     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5145     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5146     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5147     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5148     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5149     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5150     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5151     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5152   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5153 
  5154 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5155 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5156 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5157 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5158 
  5159 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5160 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5161 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5162 
  5163 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5164 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5165 
  5166 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5167 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5168 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5169 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5170 
  5171 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5172 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5173 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5174 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5175 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5176 
  5177 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5178 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5180 
  5181 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5182 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5183 
  5184 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5185 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5186 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5187 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5188 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5189 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5190 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5194     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5195     code_post       replaces    code post
  5196     etc.
  5197   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5198 
  5199 * Renamed methods:
  5200     sizechange -> size_change
  5201     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5202   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5205 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5206 
  5207 * Renamed theorems:
  5208     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5209     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5210     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5211     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5212     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5213   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5214 
  5215 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5217 
  5218 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5220 
  5221 
  5222 *** HOLCF ***
  5223 
  5224 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5225 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5226 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5227 
  5228 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5229 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5230 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5231 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5232 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5233 
  5234 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5235 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5236 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5237 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5238 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5239 
  5240 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5241 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5242 constructor are pre-configured.
  5243 
  5244 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5245 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5246 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5247 
  5248 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5249 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5250 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5251 as well.)
  5252 
  5253 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5254 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5255 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5256 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5257 examples.
  5258 
  5259 
  5260 *** ML ***
  5261 
  5262 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5263 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5264 
  5265 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5266 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5267 position, logical grouping etc.
  5268 
  5269 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5270 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5271 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5272 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5273 
  5274 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5275 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5276 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5277 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5278 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5279 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5280 
  5281 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5282 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5283 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5284 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5285 experiments with references.
  5286 
  5287 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5288 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5289 
  5290 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5291 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5292 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5293 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5294 
  5295 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5296 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5297 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5298 
  5299 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5300 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5301 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5302 
  5303 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5304 
  5305 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5309 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5310 
  5311 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5312 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5313 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5314 
  5315 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5316 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5317 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5318 
  5319 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5320 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5321 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5323 
  5324 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5325 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5326 instead of global theory.
  5327 
  5328 
  5329 *** System ***
  5330 
  5331 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5332 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5333 usedir option -q.
  5334 
  5335 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5336 also the system manual.
  5337 
  5338 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5339 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5340 
  5341 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5342 this is always enabled.
  5343 
  5344 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5345 
  5346 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5347 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5348 currently supported on Linux only.
  5349 
  5350 
  5351 
  5352 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5353 --------------------------------
  5354 
  5355 *** General ***
  5356 
  5357 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5358 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5359 
  5360   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5361     "isatool."
  5362 
  5363   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5364     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5365 
  5366   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5367     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5368 
  5369 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5370 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5371 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5372 
  5373 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5374 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5375 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5376 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5377 via "isabelle emacs".
  5378 
  5379 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5380 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5381 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5382 
  5383 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5384 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5385 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5386 
  5387 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5388 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5389 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5390 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5391 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5392 
  5393 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5394 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5395 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5396 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5397 
  5398 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5399 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5400 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5401 
  5402 
  5403 *** Pure ***
  5404 
  5405 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5406 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5407 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5408 
  5409 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5410 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5411 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5412 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5413 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5414 
  5415 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5416 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5417 useful in locale declarations.
  5418 
  5419 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5420 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5421 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5422 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5423 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5424 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5425 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5426 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5427 no longer generated.
  5428 
  5429 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5430 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5431 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5432 
  5433 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5434 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5435 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5436 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5437 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5438 
  5439 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5440 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5441 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5442 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5443 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5444 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5445 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5446 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5447 
  5448 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5449 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5450 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5451 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5452 
  5453 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5454 
  5455 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5456 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5457 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5458 
  5459 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5460 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5461 
  5462 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5463 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5464 in HOL, write
  5465 
  5466     class foo = ...
  5467 
  5468 instead of
  5469 
  5470     class foo = type + ...
  5471 
  5472 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5473 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5474 
  5475 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5476 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5477 
  5478 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5479 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5480 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5481 
  5482 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5483 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5484 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5485 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5486 directly in regular applications.
  5487 
  5488 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5489 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5490 
  5491 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5492 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5493 
  5494 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5495 theory context.
  5496 
  5497 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5498 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5499 
  5500 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5501 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5502 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5503 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5504 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5505 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5506 
  5507   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5508 
  5509 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5510 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5511 normalization.
  5512 
  5513 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5514 addressing etc.
  5515 
  5516 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5517 
  5518   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5519   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5520 
  5521 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5522 
  5523   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5524      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5525      parts of the code generator framework).
  5526 
  5527   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5528      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5529      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5530 
  5531 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5532 
  5533 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5534 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5535 
  5536 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5537 patterns, e.g.
  5538 
  5539     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5540 
  5541 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5542 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5543 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5544 hyphen:
  5545 
  5546     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5547 
  5548 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5549 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5550 
  5551 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5552 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5553 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5554 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5555 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5556 higher-order unification.
  5557 
  5558 
  5559 *** Document preparation ***
  5560 
  5561 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5562 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5563 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5564 
  5565 
  5566 *** HOL ***
  5567 
  5568 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5569 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5570 
  5571 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5572 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5573 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5574 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5575 Main, as before.
  5576 
  5577 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5578 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5579 
  5580 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5581 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5582 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5583 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5584 
  5585 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5586 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5587 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5588 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5589 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5590 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5591 
  5592 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5593 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5594 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5595 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5596 
  5597 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5598 menu.
  5599 
  5600 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5601 (contains the empty clause).
  5602 
  5603 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5604 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5605 
  5606 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5607 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5608 
  5609 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5610 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5611 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5612 
  5613 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5614 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5615 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5616 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5617 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5618 
  5619 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5620 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5621 
  5622 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5623 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5624 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5625 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5626 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5627 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5628 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5629 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5630 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5631 
  5632 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5633 
  5634 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5635 
  5636 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5637 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5638 
  5639 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5640 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5641 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5642 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5643 
  5644 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5645 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5646 
  5647     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5648     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5649     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5650     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5651     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5652     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5653     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5654     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5655 
  5656 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5657 theory Set.
  5658 
  5659 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5660 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5661 
  5662 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5663 
  5664 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5665 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5666 
  5667 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5668 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5669 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5670 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5671 allowed. For examples see
  5672 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5673 
  5674 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5675 
  5676 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5678 
  5679 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5680 structure:
  5681 
  5682     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5683     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5684     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5685     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5686     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5687     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5688     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5689     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5690     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5691     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5692     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5693     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5694     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5695     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5696     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5697     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5698     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5699     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5700     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5701     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5702     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5703     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5704     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5705     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5706     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5707     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5708     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5709     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5710     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5711     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5712     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5713     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5714     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5715 
  5716     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5717     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5718     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5719     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5720     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5721     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5722     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5723     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5724     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5725     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5726 
  5727     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5728     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5729     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5730     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5731     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5732     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5733 
  5734 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5735 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5736 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5737 
  5738 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5739 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5740 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5741 
  5742 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5743 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5744 
  5745 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5746 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5747 
  5748 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5749 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5750 proofs, e.g.
  5751 
  5752   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5753 
  5754 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5755 
  5756 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5757 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5758 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5759 
  5760 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5761 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5763 
  5764 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5765 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5766 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5768 
  5769 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5770 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5771 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5772 preorder_class.*.
  5773 
  5774 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5775 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5776 
  5777 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5778 
  5779   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5780 
  5781 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5782 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5783 fold_image.
  5784 
  5785 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5786 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5787 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5788 the former will disappear at some point.
  5789 
  5790 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5791 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5792 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5793 
  5794 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5795 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5796 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5797 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5798 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5799 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5800 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5801 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5802 
  5803 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5804 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5805 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5806 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5807 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5808 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5809 
  5810     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5811     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5812     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5813     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5814     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5815     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5816     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5817 
  5818 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5819 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5820 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5821 
  5822 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5823 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5824 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5825 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5826 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5827 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5828 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5829 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5830 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5831 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5832 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5833 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5834 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5835 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5836 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5837 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5838 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5839 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5840 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5841 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5842 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5843 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5844 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5845 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5846 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5847 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5848 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5849 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5850 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5851 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5852 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5853 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5854 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5855 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5856 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5857 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5858 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5859 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5860 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5861 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5862 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5863 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5864 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5865 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5866 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5867 
  5868 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5869 
  5870 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5871 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5872 
  5873 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5874 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5875 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5876 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5877 
  5878 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5879 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5880 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5881 theory RealVector.
  5882 
  5883 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5884 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5885 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5886 and inner products are included.
  5887 
  5888 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5889 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5890 supported.
  5891 
  5892 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5893 first diagonalization argument.
  5894 
  5895 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5896 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5897 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5898 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5899 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5900 
  5901     hide (open) const gcd
  5902     abbreviation gcd where
  5903       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5904     notation (output)
  5905       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5906 
  5907 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5908 
  5909 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5910 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5911 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5912 
  5913 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5914 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5915 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5916 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5917 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5918 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5919 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5920 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5921 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5922 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5923 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5924 cases.
  5925 
  5926 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5927 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5928 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5929 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5930 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5931 
  5932     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5933     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5934     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5935     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5936     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5937 
  5938 
  5939 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5940 
  5941 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5942 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5943 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5944 
  5945 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5946 
  5947 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5948 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5949 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5950 
  5951 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5952 
  5953 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5954 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5955 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5956 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5957 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5958 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5959 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5960 
  5961 
  5962 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5963 
  5964 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5965 
  5966 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5967 theory targets.
  5968 
  5969 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5970 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5971 'inductive' etc.
  5972 
  5973 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5974 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5975 
  5976 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5977 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5978 
  5979 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5980 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5981 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5982 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5983 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5984 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5985 the algorithm W:
  5986 
  5987  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5988  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5989          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5990 
  5991 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5992 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5993 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5994 
  5995 
  5996 *** HOLCF ***
  5997 
  5998 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5999 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6000 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6001 
  6002 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6003 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6004 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6005 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6006 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6007 
  6008 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6009 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6010 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6011 
  6012 
  6013 *** ZF ***
  6014 
  6015 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6016 
  6017 
  6018 *** ML ***
  6019 
  6020 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6021 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6022 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6023 5.2.1!
  6024 
  6025 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6026 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6027 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6028 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6029 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6030 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6031 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6032 
  6033 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6034 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6035 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6036 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6037 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6038 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6039 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6040 
  6041 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6042 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6043 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6044 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6045 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6046 
  6047 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6048 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6049 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6050 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6051 Method.add_method.
  6052 
  6053 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6054 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6055 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6056 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6057 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6058 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6059 
  6060 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6061 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6062 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6063 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6064 examples.
  6065 
  6066 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6067 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6068 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6069 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6070 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6071 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6072 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6073 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6074 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6075 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6076 
  6077 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6078 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6079 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6080 
  6081 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6082 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6083 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6084 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6085 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6086 resort for legacy applications.
  6087 
  6088 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6089 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6090 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6091 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6092 explicit runtime argument.
  6093 
  6094 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6095 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6096 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6097 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6098 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6099 
  6100 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6101 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6102 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6103 theory state.
  6104 
  6105 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6106 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6107 
  6108   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6109   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6110   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6111   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6112   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6113   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6114   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6115   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6116   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6117   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6118 
  6119 
  6120 *** System ***
  6121 
  6122 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6123 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6124 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6125 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6126 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6127 
  6128 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6129 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6130 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6131 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6132 
  6133 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6134 
  6135 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6136 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6137 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6138 prover operations.
  6139 
  6140 
  6141 
  6142 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6143 -------------------------------
  6144 
  6145 *** General ***
  6146 
  6147 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6148 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6149 
  6150 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6151 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6152 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6153 provides a proper context already.
  6154 
  6155 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6156 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6157 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6158 
  6159 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6160 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6161 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6162 swap theory imports.
  6163 
  6164 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6165 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6166 
  6167 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6168 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6169 white space without escapes.
  6170 
  6171 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6172 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6173 "foo_bar".
  6174 
  6175 
  6176 *** Pure ***
  6177 
  6178 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6179 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6180 
  6181 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6182 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6183 
  6184 (1) unused_thms
  6185      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6186 
  6187 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6188      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6189      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6190 
  6191 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6192      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6193      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6194      their ancestors.
  6195 
  6196 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6197 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6198 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6199 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6200 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6201 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6202 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6203 
  6204 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6205 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6206 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6207 
  6208 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6209 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6210 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6211 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6212 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6213 
  6214 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6215 
  6216 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6217 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6218 update of theories within ML code.
  6219 
  6220 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6221 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6222 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6223 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6224 
  6225 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6226 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6227 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6229 
  6230 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6231 
  6232 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6233 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6234 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6235 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6236 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6237 
  6238 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6239 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6240 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6241 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6242 situations.
  6243 
  6244 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6245 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6246 proof text.
  6247 
  6248 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6249 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6250 
  6251 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6252 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6253 predicates.
  6254 
  6255 
  6256 *** Document preparation ***
  6257 
  6258 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6259 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6260 ob