NEWS
author haftmann
Sat Mar 22 08:37:43 2014 +0100 (2014-03-22)
changeset 56248 67dc9549fa15
parent 56245 84fc7dfa3cd4
child 56265 785569927666
permissions -rw-r--r--
generalized and strengthened cong rules on compound operators, similar to 1ed737a98198
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    29 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    30 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    31 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    32 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    33 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    34 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    35 proof tools.
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    39 
    40 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    41 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    42 
    43 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    44 auxiliary ML files.
    45 
    46 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    47 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    48 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    49 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    50 antiquotations.
    51 
    52 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    53 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    54 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    55 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    56 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    57 to the system option "completion_limit").
    58 
    59 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    60 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    61 
    62 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    63 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    64 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    65 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    66 
    67 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    68 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    69 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    70 
    71 
    72 *** Pure ***
    73 
    74 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
    75 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
    76 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
    77 renaming needs to be applied:
    78 
    79   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
    80   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
    81   all            ~>  Pure.all
    82   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
    83   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
    84 
    85 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
    86 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
    87 old constants:
    88 
    89 setup {*
    90   fn thy => thy
    91     |> Sign.root_path
    92     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
    93     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
    94     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
    95     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
    96 *}
    97 
    98 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
    99 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   100 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   101 
   102 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   103 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   104 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   105 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   106 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   107 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   108 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   109 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   110 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   111 
   112 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   113 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   114 instantiated theorem.
   115 
   116 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   117 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   118 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   119 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   120 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   121 
   122   attribute_setup standard =
   123     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   124 
   125 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   126 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   127 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   128 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   129 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   130 
   131 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   132 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   133 differently).
   134 
   135 
   136 *** HOL ***
   137 
   138 * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   140 
   141 * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   142 with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalized and replace
   143 former INT_cong, SUP_cong.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   146 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   149 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   153 
   154 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   155   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   156   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   157   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   158   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   159   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160 
   161 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   162   can now deal with conjunctions.
   163   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   164   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   165   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   166 
   167 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * HOL-Word:
   170   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   171   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   172   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   173   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   174   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   175 
   176 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   180 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   181 
   182 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   183 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   186 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   189   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   190   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   191   Theory renamings:
   192     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   193     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   194     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   195     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   196     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   197     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   198     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   199     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   200     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   201     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   202     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   203     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   204     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   205     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   206     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   207     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   208     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   209     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   210     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   211     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   212     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   213     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   214   New theories:
   215     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   216     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   217     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   218     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   219     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   220   Discontinued theories:
   221     BNF/BNF.thy
   222     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   223   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 * New (co)datatype package:
   226   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   227   * Renamed commands:
   228       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   229       primrec_new ~> primrec
   230       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   231     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   233     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   234     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   236     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   237     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238 
   239 * Old datatype package:
   240   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   241     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   242     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   244     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   245     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   246 
   247 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   248   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   249   datatype package.
   250   Renamed constants:
   251     Option.set ~> set_option
   252     Option.map ~> map_option
   253     option_rel ~> rel_option
   254     option_rec ~> case_option
   255   Renamed theorems:
   256     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   257     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   258     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   259     option.recs ~> option.case
   260     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   261     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   262     map.simps ~> list.map
   263     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   264     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   265     the.simps ~> option.sel
   266   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   269     sum_map ~> map_sum
   270     map_pair ~> map_prod
   271     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   272     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   273     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   274     set_rel ~> rel_set
   275     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   276     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   277     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   278     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   279 
   280 * New theory:
   281     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   282 
   283 * Theory reorganizations:
   284   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   285 
   286 * SMT module:
   287   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   288     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   289     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   290     elsewhere.
   291 
   292 * Sledgehammer:
   293   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   294   - New option:
   295       smt_proofs
   296   - Renamed options:
   297       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   298       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   299     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Metis:
   302   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   306 
   307 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   310 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   311 
   312 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   313 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   314 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   315 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   316 
   317 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   321 with the given constants.
   322 
   323 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   324 
   325 Fact consolidations:
   326     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   327     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   328     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   329     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   330     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   331     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   332     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   333     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   334     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   335     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   336     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   337     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   338     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   339     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   340     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   341     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   342     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   343     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   344     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   345     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   346     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   347     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   348     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   349     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   350     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   351     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   352     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   353     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   354     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   355     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   356     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   357     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   358     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   359     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   360     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   361     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   362     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   363     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   364     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   365     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   366 
   367 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   368 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   369 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   370 
   371 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   372 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   373 
   374 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   375 
   376 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   377 
   378 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   385 operations on records.
   386 
   387 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   389 
   390 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   391     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   395     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   396     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   400   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   401   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   402   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   403     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   404   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   405     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   406   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   407 INCOMPATBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   410     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   411     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   412     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   413     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   415 
   416 * Fact name consolidation:
   417     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   418     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   419     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   420     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   421     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   425 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   426 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   427 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   428 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   429 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   430 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   431 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   432 
   433 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   434 
   435 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   436 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   437 
   438 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   439 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   440 
   441 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   442 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   443 or the brute way with
   444 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   445 
   446 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   447 
   448 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   449 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   450 
   451 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   452 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   453 
   454 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   455 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   456 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   457 INCOMPATIBILITY
   458 
   459 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   460   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   461   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   462   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   463   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   464   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   465   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   466   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   467   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   468   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   469   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   470   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   471 
   472   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   473 
   474   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   475     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   476     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   477     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   478     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   482   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   483 
   484   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   485 
   486   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   487 
   488   - removed constant isDiff
   489 
   490   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   491     syntax.
   492 
   493   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   494 
   495   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   496 
   497   - Other renamings:
   498     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   499     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   500     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   501     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   502     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   503     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   507 
   508 * Nitpick:
   509   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   510     infinite values.
   511   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   512     "Rep_Integ".
   513   - Removed "std" option.
   514   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   515     "hide_types".
   516 
   517 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   518   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   519   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   520     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   521     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   522     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   523     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   524     intervals.
   525 
   526 
   527 *** Scala ***
   528 
   529 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   530 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   531 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   532 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   533 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   534 
   535 
   536 *** ML ***
   537 
   538 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   539 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   540 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   541 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   542 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   543 of schematic variables.
   544 
   545 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   546 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   547 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   548 formal context.
   549 
   550 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   551 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   552 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   553 actually belongs to it).
   554 
   555 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   556 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   557 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   558 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   559 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   560 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   561 
   562 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   563 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   566 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   567 
   568 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   569 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   570 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   571 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   572 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   573 
   574 
   575 *** System ***
   576 
   577 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   578 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   579 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   580 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   581 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   582 
   583 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   584 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   585 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   586 
   587 
   588 
   589 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   590 -------------------------------------
   591 
   592 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   593 
   594 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   595 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   596 
   597 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   598 after edits surrounding the command location.
   599 
   600 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   601 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   602 e.g. out-of-memory).
   603 
   604 
   605 *** System ***
   606 
   607 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   608 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   609 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   610 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   611 
   612 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   613 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   614 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   615 
   616 
   617 
   618 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   619 -------------------------------------
   620 
   621 *** General ***
   622 
   623 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   624 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   625 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   628 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   629 
   630 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   631 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   632 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   633 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   634 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   635 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   636 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   637 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   638 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   639 syntax.
   640 
   641 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   642 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   645 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   646 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   647 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   648 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   649 
   650 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   654 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   655 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   656 
   657 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   658 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   659 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   660 
   661 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   662 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   663 
   664 
   665 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   666 
   667 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   668 Documentation panel.
   669 
   670 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   671 documentation.
   672 
   673 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   674 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   675 
   676 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   677 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   678 normal editing and checking process.
   679 
   680 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   681 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   682 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   683 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   684 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   685 
   686 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   687 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   688 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   689 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   690 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   691 
   692 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   693 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   694 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   695 
   696 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   697 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   698 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   699 to resolve conflict.
   700 
   701 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   702 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   703 
   704 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   705 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   706 such command executions while editing.
   707 
   708 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   709 document content.
   710 
   711 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   712 toplevel theorem statements.
   713 
   714 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   715 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   716 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   717 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   718 
   719 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   720 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   721 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   722 
   723 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   724 / Global Options / Appearance".
   725 
   726 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   727 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   728 
   729 
   730 *** Pure ***
   731 
   732 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   733 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   734 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   735 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   736 details.
   737 
   738 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   739 
   740 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   741 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   742 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   743 
   744 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   748 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   749 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   750 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   753 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   754 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   757 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   758 
   759 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   760 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   761 situations.
   762 
   763 
   764 *** HOL ***
   765 
   766 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   767 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   771 
   772 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   773 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   774 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   775 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   776 
   777   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   778 
   779 * Code generator:
   780   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   781     'code_instance'.
   782   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   783     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   784 
   785 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   786 examples.
   787 
   788 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   789 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   790 to distinguish both when desired.
   791 
   792 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   793 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   794 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   795 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   798 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   799 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   800 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   801 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   802 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   805 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   806 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   807 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   808 
   809 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   810 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   811 
   812 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   813 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   814 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   815 
   816 * Lifting:
   817   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   818     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   819       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   820       transfer rules
   821     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   822       correspondence relation can be generated
   823     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   824       parametricity
   825     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   826   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   827   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   828     copies
   829   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   830     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   831     anonymous context)
   832   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   833     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   834   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   835     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   836   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   837     INCOMPATIBILITY
   838 
   839 * Transfer:
   840   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   841     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   842   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   843   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   844     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   845   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   846 
   847 * Reification and reflection:
   848   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   849     "Reification".
   850   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   851   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   853 
   854 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   855   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   856     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   857     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   858   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   859     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   860   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   861     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   862     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   863     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   864     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   865     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   866     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   867     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   868   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   869     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   870   - Fact renames:
   871       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   872       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   874 
   875 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   876 
   877 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   878 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   879 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   883 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   884 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   885 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   886 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   887 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   888 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   889 lemmas.
   890 
   891 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   892 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   893 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   896 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   897 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   898 
   899 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   900 top and bottom elements.
   901 
   902 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   903 
   904 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   905 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   906 
   907  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   908    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   909    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   910 
   911  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   912    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   913    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   914 
   915    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   916    arbitrary filter.
   917 
   918  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   919    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   920    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   921    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   922    on a compact set.
   923 
   924  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   925    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   926    linear_continuum_topology).
   927 
   928  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   929    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   930    on all sequences converging to x.
   931 
   932  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   933    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   934    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   935    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   936    left or right.
   937 
   938  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   939 
   940      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   941 
   942  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   943    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   944 
   945  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   946    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   947    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   948    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   949    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   950    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   951 
   952  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   953 
   954    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   955 
   956    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   957      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   958 
   959    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   960 
   961    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   962      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   963 
   964    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   965 
   966    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   967 
   968  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   969 
   970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * Nitpick:
   973   - Added option "spy".
   974   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   975 
   976 * Sledgehammer:
   977   - Renamed option:
   978       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   979     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   981   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   982   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   983 
   984 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   985 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   986 
   987 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   988   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   989   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   990     generated code.
   991   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   992   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   993   - Fact renames:
   994     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   995     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   996     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   997 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1000 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1001 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1002 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1003 
  1004 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1005 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1006 
  1007 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1008 
  1009 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1010 
  1011     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1012     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1013 
  1014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1017 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1018 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1019 
  1020 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1021 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1022 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1023 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1024 
  1025 * HOL-BNF:
  1026   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1027     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1028     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1029     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1030   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1031     coinduct).
  1032   - Renamed keywords:
  1033     data ~> datatype_new
  1034     codata ~> codatatype
  1035     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1036   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1037     discs ~> disc
  1038     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1039     map_id' ~> map_id
  1040     sels ~> sel
  1041     set_map' ~> set_map
  1042     sets ~> set
  1043 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 
  1046 *** ML ***
  1047 
  1048 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1049 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1050 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1051 Examples.thy in particular.
  1052 
  1053 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1054 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1055 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1056 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1057 
  1058 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1059 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1060 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1061 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1065 
  1066     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1067     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1068 
  1069 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1072 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1073 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1074 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1075 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1076 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1077 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1078 
  1079 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1080 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1081 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1082 clasets separately from the context.
  1083 
  1084 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1085 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1086 
  1087 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1088 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1089 
  1090 
  1091 *** System ***
  1092 
  1093 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1094 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1095 
  1096 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1097 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1100 settings variable.
  1101 
  1102 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1103 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1104 always pdf.
  1105 
  1106 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1107 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1108 
  1109 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1110 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1111 
  1112 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1113 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1114 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1115 
  1116 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1117 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1118 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1119 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1120 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1121 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1122 
  1123 
  1124 
  1125 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1126 -----------------------------------
  1127 
  1128 *** General ***
  1129 
  1130 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1131 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1132 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1133 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1134 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1135 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1136 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1137 
  1138 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1139 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1140 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1141 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1142 
  1143 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1144 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1145 
  1146 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1147 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1148 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1149 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1150 dependencies properly.
  1151 
  1152 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1153 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1154 
  1155 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1156 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1157 
  1158 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1159 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1160 and "class ... context ...".
  1161 
  1162 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1163 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1164 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1165 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1166 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1167 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1168 
  1169 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1170 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1171 
  1172 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1173 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1174 
  1175 
  1176 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1177 
  1178 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1179 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1180 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1181 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1182 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1183 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1184 
  1185 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1186 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1187 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1188 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1189 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1190 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1191 
  1192 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1193 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1194 browser on demand.
  1195 
  1196 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1197 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1198 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1199 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1200 
  1201 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1202 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1203 
  1204 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1205 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1206 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1207 potentially infinite message streams.
  1208 
  1209 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1210 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1211 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1212 schemes.
  1213 
  1214 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1215 symbols.
  1216 
  1217 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1218 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1219 
  1220 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1221 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1222 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1223 
  1224 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1225 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1226 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1227 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1228 
  1229 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1230 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1231 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1232 
  1233 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1234 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1235 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1236 Isabelle distribution.
  1237 
  1238 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1239 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1240 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1241 
  1242 
  1243 *** Pure ***
  1244 
  1245 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1246 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1247 
  1248 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1249 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1250 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1253 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1254 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1255 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1256 with some care where this is really required.
  1257 
  1258 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1259 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1260 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1261 
  1262   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1263 
  1264 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1265 a Hasse diagram.
  1266 
  1267 
  1268 *** HOL ***
  1269 
  1270 * Sledgehammer:
  1271 
  1272   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1273     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1274   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1275   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1276   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1277   - Renamed options:
  1278       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1279       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1280       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1281       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1282 
  1283 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1284 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1285 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1286 
  1287 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1289 
  1290 * Lifting:
  1291   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1292   - quot_del attribute
  1293   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1294 
  1295 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1296 expressions.
  1297 
  1298 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1299 pointfree expressions.
  1300 
  1301 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1302 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1303 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1304 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1306 
  1307 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1308 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1309 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1310 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1311 accordingly.
  1312 
  1313 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1314 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1315 
  1316 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1317 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1318 
  1319 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1320 
  1321 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1322 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1323 
  1324 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1325 
  1326 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1327 
  1328   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1329   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1330 
  1331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1332 
  1333 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1334 
  1335   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1336   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1337 
  1338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1339 
  1340 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1341 
  1342   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1343     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1344     output f x converges to G.
  1345 
  1346   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1347     infinity (at_bot).
  1348 
  1349   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1350     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1351 
  1352   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1353     at_top".
  1354 
  1355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1358 lattice type classes.
  1359 
  1360 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1361 
  1362     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1363     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1364 
  1365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1368 changes as follows.
  1369 
  1370   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1371 
  1372       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1373       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1374 
  1375   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1376     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1377     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1378     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1379 
  1380   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1381     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1382     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1383 
  1384   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1385     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1386     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1387     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1388 
  1389   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1390     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1391 
  1392       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1393       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1394       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1395       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1396       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1397       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1398       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1399       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1400       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1401       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1402       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1403       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1404       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1405       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1406       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1407       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1408 
  1409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1410 
  1411 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1412 
  1413 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1414 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1415 
  1416 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1417 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1418 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1419 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1420 
  1421   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1422   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1423   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1424   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1425   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1426   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1427   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1428   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1429   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1430   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1431 
  1432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1433 
  1434 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1435 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1436 Data").
  1437 
  1438 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1439 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1440 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1441 code.
  1442 
  1443 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1444 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1445 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1447 
  1448 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1449 
  1450 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1451 
  1452 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1453 
  1454   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1455   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1456 
  1457 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1458 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1459 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1460 
  1461   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1462 
  1463     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1464     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1465     cart_base i  removed
  1466     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1467 
  1468   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1469 
  1470   Renamed lemmas:
  1471 
  1472     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1473     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1474     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1475     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1476     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1477     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1478     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1479     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1480     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1481     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1482 
  1483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 
  1485 * HOL/Probability:
  1486 
  1487   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1488 
  1489   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1490     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1491     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1492 
  1493   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1494     projective family).
  1495 
  1496 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1497 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1498 
  1499 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1500 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1501 datatypes.
  1502 
  1503 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1504 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1505 
  1506 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1507 trees for the code generator.
  1508 
  1509 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1510 Lifting/Transfer.
  1511 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515 
  1516 
  1517 *** Document preparation ***
  1518 
  1519 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1520 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1521 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1522 
  1523 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1524 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1525 
  1526 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1527 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1528 document/root.tex.
  1529 
  1530 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1531 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1532 
  1533 
  1534 *** ML ***
  1535 
  1536 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1537 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1538 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1539 
  1540 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1541 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1542 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1543 
  1544 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1545 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1546 necessarily printing visible text.
  1547 
  1548 
  1549 *** System ***
  1550 
  1551 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1552 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1553 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1554 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1555 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1556 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1557 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1558 
  1559 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1560 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1561 
  1562   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1563 
  1564 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1565 
  1566 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1567 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1568 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1569 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1570 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1571 
  1572 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1573 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1574 
  1575 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1576 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1577 
  1578 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1582 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1583 version of Isabelle.
  1584 
  1585 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1586 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1587 
  1588 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1589 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1590 for home-made settings.
  1591 
  1592 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1593 
  1594 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1595 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1596 configuration.
  1597 
  1598 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1599 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1600 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1601 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1602 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1603 
  1604 
  1605 
  1606 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1607 ------------------------------
  1608 
  1609 *** General ***
  1610 
  1611 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1612 
  1613   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1614     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1615   - markup for bound variables
  1616   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1617   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1618   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1619     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1620 
  1621 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1622 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1623 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1624 
  1625 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1626 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1627 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1628 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1629 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1630 
  1631   context
  1632     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1633     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1634   begin
  1635 
  1636   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1637 
  1638   end
  1639 
  1640   thm my_trans
  1641 
  1642 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1643 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1644 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1645 
  1646 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1647 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1648 
  1649 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1650 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1651 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1652 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1653 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1654 
  1655 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1656 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1657 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1658 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1659 indices of schematic variables.
  1660 
  1661 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1662 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1663 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1664 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1665 etc. was exploited.
  1666 
  1667 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1668 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1669 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1670 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1671 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1672 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1673 
  1674 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1675 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1676 manual.
  1677 
  1678 
  1679 *** Pure ***
  1680 
  1681 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1682 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1683 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1684 
  1685 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1686 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1687 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1688 undocumented feature.)
  1689 
  1690 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1691 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1692 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1693 
  1694   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1695 
  1696   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1697     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1698 
  1699 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1700 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1701 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1702 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1703 
  1704 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1705 
  1706     num ~> num_token
  1707     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1708     xstr ~> str_token
  1709 
  1710 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1711 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1712 position information via constraints).
  1713 
  1714 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1715 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1716 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1719 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1720 
  1721 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1722 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1723 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1726 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1729 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1730 
  1731   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1732 
  1733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1734 
  1735 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1736 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1737 
  1738 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1739 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1740 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1741 
  1742 
  1743 *** HOL ***
  1744 
  1745 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1746 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1747 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1748 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1749 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1750 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1751 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1752 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1753 possible.
  1754 
  1755 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1756 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1757 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1758 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1759 
  1760 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1761 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1764 
  1765 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1766 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1767 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1768 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1769 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1770 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1771 
  1772   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1773     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1774 
  1775   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1776     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1777     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1778 
  1779   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1780     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1781 
  1782   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1783     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1784     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1785 
  1786   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1787     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1788 
  1789 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1790 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1791 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1792 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1793 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1794 
  1795   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1796     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1797     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1798     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1799     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1800 
  1801     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1802     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1803 
  1804   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1805     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1806     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1807     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1808     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1809     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1810     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1811     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1812 
  1813   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1814     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1815     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1816     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1817 
  1818   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1819     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1820     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1821     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1822 
  1823   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1824     from type nat to type int.
  1825 
  1826 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1827 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1828 
  1829   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1830     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1831     type.  Example syntax:
  1832 
  1833     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1834       is List.insert
  1835 
  1836     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1837     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1838     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1839     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1840     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1841     by the package.
  1842 
  1843   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1844     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1845     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1846     code generation for each constant.
  1847 
  1848   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1849     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1850     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1851     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1852     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1853 
  1854   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1855     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1856     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1857 
  1858 * Quotient package:
  1859 
  1860   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1861     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1862 
  1863   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1864     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1865 
  1866   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1867     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1868     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1869 
  1870   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1871     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1872 
  1873 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1874 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1875 
  1876 * Quickcheck:
  1877 
  1878   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1879     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1880     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1881     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1882     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1883 
  1884     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1885     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1886     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1887 
  1888     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1889     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1890 
  1891     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1892     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1893     show genuine counterexamples.
  1894 
  1895   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1896     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1897 
  1898     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1899     constructors of that type.
  1900 
  1901   - Support for multisets.
  1902 
  1903   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1904 
  1905   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1906     conjectures in a locale context.
  1907 
  1908 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1909 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1910 
  1911 * Sledgehammer:
  1912   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1913     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1914   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1915   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1916     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1917   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1918   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1919   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1920   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1921 
  1922 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1923 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1924 
  1925 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1926 
  1927 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1928 
  1929 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1930 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1931 
  1932   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1933 
  1934 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1935 a list and a nat.
  1936 
  1937 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1938 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1939 
  1940 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1941 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1942 default.
  1943 
  1944 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1945 
  1946   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1947 
  1948 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1949 
  1950 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1951 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1952 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1953 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1954 one_case.
  1955 
  1956 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1957 the result of the fact expression.
  1958 
  1959 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1960 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1961 of some relation theorems:
  1962 
  1963   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1964   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1965   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1966   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1967   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1968   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1969 
  1970 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1971 
  1972 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1973 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1974 
  1975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1978 to match the constant's name:
  1979 
  1980   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1981   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1982   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1983   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1984   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1985   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1986   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1987   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1988   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1989   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1990   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1991   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1992   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1993   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1994   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1995   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1996   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1997   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1998   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1999   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2000   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2001   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2002   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2003   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2004 
  2005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2006 
  2007 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2008 and corresponding theorem names:
  2009 
  2010   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2011 
  2012   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2013 
  2014   - Renamed theorems:
  2015 
  2016     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2017     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2018     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2019     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2020     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2021     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2022     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2023     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2024     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2025     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2026     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2027     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2028     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2029     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2030     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2031     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2032     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2033     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2034     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2035     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2036     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2037     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2038     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2039 
  2040     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2041 
  2042     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2043 
  2044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2045 
  2046 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2047 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2048 
  2049   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2050   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2051   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2052   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2053   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2054   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2055   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2056   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2057   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2058   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2059   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2060   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2061   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2062   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2063   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2064   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2065   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2066   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2067   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2068   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2069   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2070 
  2071 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2072 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2073 
  2074 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2077 
  2078   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2079   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2080   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2081   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2082   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2083   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2084   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2085   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2086   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2087   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2088   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2089   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2090   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2091   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2092   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2093   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2094   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2095   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2096 
  2097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2100 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2101 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2102 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2103 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2104 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2105 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2106 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2107 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2108 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2109 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2110 
  2111 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2112 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2113 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2114 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2115 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2116 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2117 
  2118 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2119 through option types.
  2120 
  2121 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2122 relations.
  2123 
  2124 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2127 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2128 
  2129   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2130   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2131   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2132   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2133   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2134   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2135   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2136   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2137   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2138   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2139   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2140   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2141   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2142   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2143   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2144   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2145   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2146   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2147   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2148   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2149   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2150   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2151   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2152   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2153   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2154   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2155   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2156   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2157   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2158   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2159   zless_le ~> less_le
  2160   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2161   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2162   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2163 
  2164 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2165 
  2166   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2167 
  2168 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2169 
  2170 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2171 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2172 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2173 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2177 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2178 
  2179 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2180 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2181 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2182 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2183 follows:
  2184 
  2185   Operations:
  2186   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2187   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2188   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2189   del -> rbt_del
  2190   delete -> rbt_delete
  2191   ins -> rbt_ins
  2192   insert -> rbt_insert
  2193   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2194   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2195   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2196   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2197   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2198   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2199   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2200   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2201   union -> rbt_union
  2202   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2203   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2204 
  2205   Lemmas:
  2206   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2207   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2208   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2209   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2210   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2211   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2212   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2213   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2214   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2215   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2216   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2217   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2218   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2219   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2220   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2221   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2222   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2223   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2224   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2225   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2226   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2227   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2228   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2229   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2230   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2231   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2232   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2233   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2234   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2235   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2236   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2237   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2238   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2239   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2240   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2241   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2242   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2243   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2244   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2245   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2246   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2247   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2248   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2249   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2250   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2251   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2252   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2253   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2254   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2255   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2256   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2257   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2258   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2259   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2260   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2261   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2262   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2263   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2264   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2265   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2266   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2267   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2268   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2269   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2270   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2271   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2272   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2273   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2274   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2275   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2276   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2277   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2278   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2279   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2280   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2281   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2282   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2283   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2284   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2285   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2286   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2287   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2288   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2289 
  2290 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2291 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2292 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294   Changed Operations:
  2295   float_abs -> abs
  2296   float_nprt -> nprt
  2297   float_pprt -> pprt
  2298   pow2 -> use powr
  2299   round_down -> float_round_down
  2300   round_up -> float_round_up
  2301   scale -> exponent
  2302 
  2303   Removed Operations:
  2304   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2305 
  2306   Renamed Lemmas:
  2307   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2308   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2309   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2310   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2311   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2312   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2313   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2314   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2315   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2316   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2317   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2318   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2319   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2320   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2321   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2322   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2323   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2324   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2325   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2326   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2327   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2328   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2329   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2330   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2331   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2332   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2333   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2334   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2335   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2336   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2337   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2338   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2339   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2340   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2341   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2342   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2343 
  2344   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2345   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2346   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2347   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2348   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2349   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2350   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2351   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2352   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2353   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2354 
  2355 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2356 association lists with distinct keys.
  2357 
  2358 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2359 annotated commands.
  2360 
  2361 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2362 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2363 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2364 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2367 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2368 instead.
  2369 
  2370   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2371   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2372   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2373   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2374   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2375   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2376   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2377   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2378   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2379   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2380   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2381   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2382   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2383   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2384   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2385   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2386   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2387   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2388   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2389   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2390   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2391   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2392   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2393   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2394   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2395   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2396   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2397   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2398   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2399   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2400   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2401   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2402   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2403   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2404   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2405   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2406   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2407   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2408   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2409   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2410   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2411 
  2412 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2413 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2414 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2415 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2416 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2417 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2418 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2419 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2420 
  2421 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2422 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2423 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2424 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2425 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2426 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2427 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2428 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2429 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2430 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2431 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2432 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434   Renamed constants:
  2435   measure -> emeasure
  2436   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2437   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2438   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2439   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2440 
  2441   Removed locales:
  2442   completeable_measure_space
  2443   finite_measure_space
  2444   finite_prob_space
  2445   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2446   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2447   finite_sigma_algebra
  2448   measure_space
  2449   pair_finite_prob_space
  2450   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2451   pair_finite_space
  2452   pair_sigma_algebra
  2453   product_sigma_algebra
  2454 
  2455   Removed constants:
  2456   conditional_space
  2457   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2458   image_space
  2459   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2460   pair_measure_generator
  2461   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2462   subvimage
  2463 
  2464   Replacement theorems:
  2465   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2466   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2467   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2468   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2469   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2470   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2471   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2472   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2473   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2474   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2475   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2476   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2477   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2478   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2479   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2480   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2481   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2482   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2483   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2484   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2485   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2486   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2487   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2488   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2489   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2490   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2491   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2492   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2493   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2494   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2495   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2496   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2497   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2498   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2499   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2500   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2501   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2502   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2503   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2504   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2505   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2506   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2507   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2508   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2509   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2510   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2511   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2512   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2513   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2514   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2515   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2516   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2517   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2518   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2519   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2520   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2521   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2522   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2523   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2524   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2525   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2526   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2527   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2528   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2529   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2530   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2531   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2532   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2533   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2534   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2535   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2536   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2537   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2538   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2539   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2540   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2541   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2542   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2543   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2544   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2545   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2546   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2547   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2548   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2549   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2550   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2551   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2552   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2553   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2554   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2555   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2556   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2557   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2558   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2559   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2560   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2561   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2562   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2563   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2564   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2565   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2566   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2567   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2568   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2569   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2570   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2571   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2572   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2573   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2574   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2575   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2576   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2577   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2578   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2579   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2580   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2581   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2582   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2583   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2584   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2585   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2586   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2587   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2588   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2589   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2590   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2591   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2592   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2593 
  2594 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2595 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2596 
  2597 
  2598 *** FOL ***
  2599 
  2600 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2601 
  2602 
  2603 *** ZF ***
  2604 
  2605 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2606 analysis.
  2607 
  2608 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2609 
  2610 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612 
  2613 *** ML ***
  2614 
  2615 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2616 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2617 
  2618 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2619 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2620 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2621 
  2622 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2623 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2624 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2625 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2626 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2627 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2628 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2629 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2630 
  2631 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2632 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2633 
  2634 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2635 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2636 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2637 
  2638 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2639 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2642 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2643 context as well.
  2644 
  2645 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2646 
  2647   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2648   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2649   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2650   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2651   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2652   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2653   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2654   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2655   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2656   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2657   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2658   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2659 
  2660 
  2661 *** System ***
  2662 
  2663 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2664 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2665 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2666 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2667 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2668 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2669 the generic user home was intended.
  2670 
  2671 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2672 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2673 
  2674 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2675 (not just JRE).
  2676 
  2677 
  2678 
  2679 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2680 ------------------------------------
  2681 
  2682 *** General ***
  2683 
  2684 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2685 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2686 
  2687   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2688     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2689     files for checking).
  2690 
  2691   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2692     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2693     positions.
  2694 
  2695   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2696     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2697     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2698 
  2699   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2700     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2701     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2702 
  2703   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2704     cores.
  2705 
  2706   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2707     versions (garbage collection).
  2708 
  2709 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2710 including some remaining limitations.
  2711 
  2712 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2713 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2714 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2715 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2716 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2718 
  2719 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2720 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2721 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2722 
  2723 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2724 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2725 usedir option -Q.
  2726 
  2727 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2728 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2729 
  2730   long_names   ~> names_long
  2731   short_names  ~> names_short
  2732   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2733 
  2734 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2735 
  2736   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2737 
  2738 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2739 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2740 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2741 
  2742 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2743 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2744 
  2745 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2746   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2747   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2748   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2749     "Classical Reasoner".
  2750 
  2751 
  2752 *** HOL ***
  2753 
  2754 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2755 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2758 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2759 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2760 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2761 class complete_linorder.
  2762 
  2763 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2764 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2765 
  2766 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2767 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2768 
  2769   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2770   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2771   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2772   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2773   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2774   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2775   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2776   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2777   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2778   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2779   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2780 
  2781 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2782 
  2783   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2784   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2785   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2786   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2787   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2788   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2789   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2790   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2791   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2792   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2793   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2794   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2795   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2796   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2797   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2798   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2799 
  2800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2801 
  2802 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2806 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2807 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2808 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2811 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2812 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2814 
  2815 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2816 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2817 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2818 
  2819 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2820 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2821 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2822 
  2823 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2824 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2825 
  2826 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2827 
  2828     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2829     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2830 
  2831 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2832 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833 
  2834 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2835 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2838 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2839 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2840 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2841 
  2842   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2843   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2844   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2845   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2846   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2847   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2848   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2849 
  2850 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2851 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852 
  2853   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2854   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2855   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2856   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2857   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2858   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2859   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2860   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2861   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2862   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2863   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2864   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2865   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2866   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2867   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2868   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2869   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2870   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2871   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2872   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2873   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2874   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2875   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2876   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2877   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2878   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2879   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2880   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2881   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2882   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2883   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2884   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2885   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2886   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2887   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2888   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2889   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2890   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2891   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2892   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2893   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2894   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2895   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2896   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2897   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2898   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2899   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2900   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2901   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2902   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2903   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2904   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2905   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2906   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2907   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2908   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2909   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2910   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2911   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2912   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2913   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2914   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2915   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2916   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2917   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2918   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2919   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2920   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2921   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2922   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2923   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2924   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2925   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2926   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2927   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2928   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2929   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2930   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2931   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2932   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2933   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2934   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2935 
  2936 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2937 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2938 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2939 
  2940 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2941 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2942 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2943 
  2944 * Code generation:
  2945 
  2946   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2947     characters in the target language.
  2948 
  2949   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2950     instead.
  2951 
  2952   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2953 
  2954   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2955     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2956 
  2957       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2958 
  2959 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2962 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2963 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2964 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2965 syntax.
  2966 
  2967 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2968 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2969 
  2970 * Nitpick:
  2971   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2972   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2973   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2974     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975 
  2976 * Sledgehammer:
  2977   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2978   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2979     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2980   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2981     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2982   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2983     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2985     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2986   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2987     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2988 
  2989 * Metis:
  2990   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2992     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2993 
  2994 * Command 'try':
  2995   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2996     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2997   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2998     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2999 
  3000 * Quickcheck:
  3001   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3002     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3003   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3004     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3005   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3006     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3007     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3008     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3009   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3010     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3011 
  3012 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3013 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3014 
  3015 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3016 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3017 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3018 
  3019 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3020 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3024 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3027 arithmetic.
  3028 
  3029 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3030 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3031 and lattice type classes.
  3032 
  3033 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3034 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3035 
  3036 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3037 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3038 
  3039 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3040 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3041 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3044   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3045   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3046   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3047 
  3048 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3049 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3050 constants:
  3051 
  3052   type inat   ~> type enat
  3053   Fin         ~> enat
  3054   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3055   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3056   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3057 
  3058 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3059 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3062 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3063 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3064 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3065 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3066 
  3067 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3068 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3069 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3070 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3071 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3072 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3073 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3074 
  3075   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3076   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3077   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3078   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3079 
  3080 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3081 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3082 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3085   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3086   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3087   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3088   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3089   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3090   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3091   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3092   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3093   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3094   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3095   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3096   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3097   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3098   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3099   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3100   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3101   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3102   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3103   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3104   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3105   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3106   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3107   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3108   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3109   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3110   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3111   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3112   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3113   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3114   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3115   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3116   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3117   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3118   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3119   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3120   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3121   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3122   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3123   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3124   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3125   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3126   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3127   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3128   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3129   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3130   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3131   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3132   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3133   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3134   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3135 
  3136 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3137   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3138   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3139   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3140   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3141     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3146   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3147   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3148   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3149   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3150   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3151   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3152   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3153   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3154   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3155   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3156   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3157   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3158   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3159   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3160   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3161   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3162   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3163   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3164   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3165   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3166   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3167   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3168   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3169   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3170 
  3171 
  3172 *** Document preparation ***
  3173 
  3174 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3175 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3176 same.
  3177 
  3178 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3179 result.
  3180 
  3181 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3182 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3183 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3184 
  3185 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3186 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3187 
  3188 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3189 like this:
  3190 
  3191   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3192   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3193 
  3194 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3195 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3196 layouts.
  3197 
  3198 
  3199 *** ML ***
  3200 
  3201 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3202 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3203 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3204 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3205 under external program control.
  3206 
  3207 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3208 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3209 
  3210 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3211 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3212 (better known as Proof General).
  3213 
  3214 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3215 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3216 
  3217 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3218 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3219 
  3220 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3221 (including quotes etc.).
  3222 
  3223 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3224 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3225 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3226 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3227 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3228 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3229 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3230 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3231 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3232 
  3233 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3234 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3235 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3236 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3237 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3238 
  3239 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3240 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3241 
  3242 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3243 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3244 
  3245 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3246 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3247 
  3248 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3249 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3250 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3251 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3252 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3253 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3254 proper Proof.context.
  3255 
  3256 
  3257 *** System ***
  3258 
  3259 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3260 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3261 
  3262 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3263 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3264 
  3265 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3266 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3267 
  3268   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3269   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3270   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3271   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3272   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3273 
  3274 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3275 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276 
  3277 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3278 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3279 example:
  3280 
  3281   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3282 
  3283 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3284 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3285 
  3286 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3287 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3288 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3289 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3290 
  3291 
  3292 
  3293 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3294 ----------------------------------
  3295 
  3296 *** General ***
  3297 
  3298 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3299 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3300 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3301 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3302 like this:
  3303 
  3304   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3305 
  3306 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3307 
  3308 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3309 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3310 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3311 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3312 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3313 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3314 
  3315 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3316 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3317 the following package declarations:
  3318 
  3319   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3320   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3321 
  3322 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3323 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3324 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3325 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3326 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3327 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3328 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3329 
  3330 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3331 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3332 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3333 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3334 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3335 
  3336 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3337 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3338 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3339 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3340 
  3341 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3342 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3343 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3344 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3345 
  3346   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3347 
  3348   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3349   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3350   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3351   show_types                    show_types
  3352   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3353   show_consts                   show_consts
  3354   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3355 
  3356   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3357   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3358   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3359 
  3360   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3361   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3362 
  3363   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3364 
  3365   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3366   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3367   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3368   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3369   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3370 
  3371 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3372 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3373 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3374 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3375 
  3376 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3380   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3381 
  3382 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3383 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3384 float_token.
  3385 
  3386 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3387 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3391 DejaVu Sans.
  3392 
  3393 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3394 
  3395 
  3396 *** Pure ***
  3397 
  3398 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3399 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3400 time.
  3401 
  3402 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3403 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3406 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 
  3408 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3409 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3410 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3411 command already provided this functionality.
  3412 
  3413 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3414 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3415 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3416 without interpretations.
  3417 
  3418 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3419 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3420 
  3421 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3422 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3423 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3424 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3425 
  3426 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3427 'definition' instead.
  3428 
  3429 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3430 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3431 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3432 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3433 
  3434 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3435 constructors.
  3436 
  3437 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3438 the local file system.
  3439 
  3440 
  3441 *** HOL ***
  3442 
  3443 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3444 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3445 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3446 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3447 
  3448   declare [[coercion f]]
  3449 
  3450 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3451 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3452 
  3453   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3454 
  3455 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3456 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3457 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3458 other theories like this:
  3459 
  3460   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3461 
  3462 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3463 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3464 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3465 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3466 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3467 for examples.
  3468 
  3469 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3470 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3473 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3474 
  3475 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3476 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3477 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3478 
  3479 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3480 functorial structure of types.
  3481 
  3482 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3483 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3484 
  3485 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3486 languages.
  3487 
  3488 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3489 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3493 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3496 combinators any longer.
  3497 
  3498 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3499 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3500 
  3501 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3502 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3503 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3504 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3505 
  3506   record 'a foo = ...
  3507   ...
  3508   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3509 
  3510 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3511 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3515 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3516 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3517 
  3518 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3519 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3520 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3521 
  3522 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3523 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3526 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3527 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3528 independently.
  3529 
  3530 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3531 counter example search.
  3532 
  3533 * Sledgehammer:
  3534   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3535     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3536     sledgehammer").
  3537   - Renamed commands:
  3538     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3539     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3540     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3541     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542   - Renamed options:
  3543     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3544     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3545     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3546     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3547     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Nitpick:
  3550   - Renamed options:
  3551     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3552     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3553     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3555   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3556   - Added "whack" option.
  3557   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3558   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3559   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3560   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3561     higher cardinalities.
  3562   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3563 
  3564 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3565 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3566 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3567 
  3568     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3569 
  3570 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3571 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3572 
  3573 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3574 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3575 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3576 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3577 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3578 "smt_solver".
  3579 
  3580 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3581 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3582 
  3583 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3584 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3585 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3586 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3589   - Renamed:
  3590     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3591     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3592     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593   - Added:
  3594     smt_verbose
  3595     smt_random_seed
  3596     smt_datatypes
  3597     smt_infer_triggers
  3598     smt_monomorph_limit
  3599     cvc3_options
  3600     remote_cvc3_options
  3601     remote_z3_options
  3602     yices_options
  3603 
  3604 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3605 header.
  3606 
  3607 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3608 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3609 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3610 
  3611   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3612 
  3613 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3616 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3621 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3622 
  3623 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3624 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3625 
  3626 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3627 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3628 
  3629 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3630 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3631 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3639 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3642 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3643 for congruent(2)).
  3644 
  3645 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3646 
  3647   types
  3648     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3649     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3650 
  3651   constants
  3652     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3653     True ~> HOL.True
  3654     False ~> HOL.False
  3655     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3656     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3657     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3658     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3659     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3660     The ~> HOL.The
  3661     All ~> HOL.All
  3662     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3663     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3664     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3665     If ~> HOL.If
  3666     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3667     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3668     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3669     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3670     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3671     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3672     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3673     op : ~> Set.member
  3674     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3675 
  3676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3679 
  3680     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3681     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3682     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3683     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3684     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3685     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3686     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3687     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3688 
  3689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 * More stylized fact names:
  3692 
  3693   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3694   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3695   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3696   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3697 
  3698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3699 
  3700 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3701 
  3702   constants
  3703     null ~> List.null
  3704 
  3705   facts
  3706     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3707     null_empty ~> null_def
  3708 
  3709 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3710 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3711 generation.
  3712 
  3713 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3714 Haskell code.
  3715 
  3716 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3717 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3718 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3721 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3724 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3725 
  3726 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3727 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3728 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3729 
  3730 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3731 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3737 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3738 referred to by its qualified name.
  3739 
  3740   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3741   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3742   product ~>  Enum.product
  3743 
  3744 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3745 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3747 
  3748 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3749 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3750 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3754 sort_key.
  3755 
  3756 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3760 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3761 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3762 
  3763   types
  3764     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3765               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3766               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3767         (depends on your needs)
  3768 
  3769   constants
  3770      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3771      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3772      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3773 
  3774 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3775 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3776 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3777 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3780 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3781 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3782 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3783 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3789 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3790 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3791 
  3792 
  3793 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3794 
  3795 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3796 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3797 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3798 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3799 compatibility.
  3800 
  3801 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3802 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3803 
  3804 
  3805 *** HOLCF ***
  3806 
  3807 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3808 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3809 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3813 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3814 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3817   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3818   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3819 
  3820 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3821 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3822 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3825 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3826 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3827 domain definition now works:
  3828 
  3829   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3830 
  3831 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3832 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3833 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3834 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3835 
  3836   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3837     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3838 
  3839   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3840 
  3841 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3842 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3843 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3844 
  3845 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3846 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3847 
  3848 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3849 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3850 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3851 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3852 
  3853 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3854 
  3855 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3861 
  3862 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3863 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3864 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3865 
  3866 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3867 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3868 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3871 still supported as an input translation.
  3872 
  3873 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3874 
  3875   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3876   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3877   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3878   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3879   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3880   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3881   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3882 
  3883 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3884 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3887   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3888   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3889   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3890   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3891   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3892 
  3893 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3894 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3897 
  3898   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3899   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3900   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3901   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3902 
  3903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3906 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3909 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3912   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3913   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3914   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3915   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3916   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3917   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3918   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3919   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3920   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3921   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3922   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3923   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3924   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3925   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3926   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3927   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3928   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3929   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3930   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3931 
  3932 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3935   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3936   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3937   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3938   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3939   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3940   box_less             ~> box_below
  3941   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3942   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3943   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3944   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3945   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3946   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3947   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3948   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3949   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3950   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3951   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3952   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3953   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3954   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3955   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3956   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3957   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3958   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3959   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3960   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3961   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3962   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3963   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3964   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3965   up_less              ~> up_below
  3966   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3967   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3968   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3969   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3970   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3971   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3972   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3973   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3974   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3975   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3976   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3977   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3978   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3979 
  3980 
  3981 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3982 
  3983 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3984 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3985 
  3986 
  3987 *** ML ***
  3988 
  3989 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3990 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3991 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3992 
  3993 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3994 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3995 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3996 
  3997 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3998 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3999 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4000 
  4001 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4002 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4003 
  4004 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4005 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4006 
  4007 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4008 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4009 
  4010 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4011 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4012 
  4013 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4014 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4015 almost all situations.
  4016 
  4017 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4018 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4019 Isabelle/ML.
  4020 
  4021 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4022 meaning.
  4023 
  4024 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4025 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4026 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4027 
  4028 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4029 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4030 
  4031 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4032 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4033 
  4034 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4035 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4036 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4037 
  4038 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4039 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4040 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4041 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4042 configuration options.
  4043 
  4044 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4045 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4046 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4047 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4048 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4049 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4050 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4051 
  4052 
  4053 
  4054 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4055 ---------------------------------
  4056 
  4057 *** General ***
  4058 
  4059 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4060 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4061 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4062 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4063 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4064 their full internal name.
  4065 
  4066 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4067 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4068 Some hints on upgrading:
  4069 
  4070   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4071     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4072     which are independent of this issue.
  4073 
  4074   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4075     provides the following special forms:
  4076 
  4077       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4078       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4079       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4080 
  4081     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4082     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4083     extra variables".
  4084 
  4085     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4086     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4087     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4088     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4089     "logic".
  4090 
  4091   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4092     antiquotations:
  4093 
  4094       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4095       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4096       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4097       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4098 
  4099   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4100     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4101     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4102     antiquotations.
  4103 
  4104 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4105 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4106 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4107 diagnose syntax problems.
  4108 
  4109 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4110 
  4111 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4112 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4113 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4114 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4115 
  4116 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4117 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4118 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4119 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4122 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4123 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4124 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4125 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4126 
  4127 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4128 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4129 
  4130 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4131 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4132 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4133 
  4134   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4135 
  4136 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4137 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4138 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4139 
  4140 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4141 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4143 
  4144 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4145 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4146 
  4147 
  4148 *** Pure ***
  4149 
  4150 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4151 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4152 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4153 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4154 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4155 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4156 inspect proof terms.
  4157 
  4158 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4159 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4160 are added internally.  For example:
  4161 
  4162   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4163 
  4164 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4165 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4166 
  4167 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4170 'class' instead.
  4171 
  4172 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4173 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4177 invariants.
  4178 
  4179 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4180 user space functionality any longer.
  4181 
  4182 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4183 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4187 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4188 
  4189 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4190 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4191 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4192 
  4193 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4194 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4195 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4196 
  4197 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4198 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 
  4201 *** HOL ***
  4202 
  4203 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4204 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4205 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4206 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4207 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4208 
  4209 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4210 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4211 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4212 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4213 
  4214   fun
  4215     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4216   where
  4217     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4218 
  4219   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4220     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4221 
  4222   quotient_definition
  4223     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4224 
  4225 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4226 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4227 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4228 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4229 
  4230 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4231 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4232 
  4233 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4234 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4235 
  4236 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4238 
  4239 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4240 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4241 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4242 
  4243 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4244 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4253 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4256 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4257 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4260   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4261   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4262   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4263   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4264   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4265   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4266   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4267   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4268   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4269   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4270   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4271   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4272   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4273   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4274   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4275   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4276   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4277   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4278   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4279   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4280   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4281   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4282   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4283   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4284   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4285   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4286   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4287   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4288   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4289 
  4290 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4291 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4292 
  4293 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4294 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4295 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4296 
  4297 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4298 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4299 
  4300 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4301 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302 
  4303 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4304 
  4305 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4306 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4309 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4314 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4315 
  4316 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4317 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4318 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4319 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4322   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4323   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4324   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4328 lattices):
  4329 
  4330     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4331     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4332 
  4333     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4334 
  4335     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4336     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4337     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4338     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4339     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4340     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4341     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4342     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4343     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4344     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4345     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4346     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4347     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4348 
  4349     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4350     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4351     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4352     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4353     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4354     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4355     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4356     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4357     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4358     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4359     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4360     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4361     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4362     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4363     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4364     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4365     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4366     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4367 
  4368   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4369   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4370 
  4371     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4372     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4373     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4374     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4375     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4376 
  4377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * Refined field classes:
  4380   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4381     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4382     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4383   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4385 
  4386 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4387   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4388   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4389   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4390     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4391   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4392     equal_neg_zero.
  4393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4396 sets to lattices:
  4397 
  4398   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4399   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4400   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4401   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4402   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4403   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4404   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4405   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4406   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4407   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4408 
  4409 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4410 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4411 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4412 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4413 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4414 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4417 multiset order:
  4418 
  4419   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4420     <= and <;
  4421   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4422     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4423     multiset_order;
  4424   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4425     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4426     generation;
  4427   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4428     if needed.
  4429 
  4430 Renamed:
  4431 
  4432   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4433   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4434   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4435 
  4436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4437 
  4438 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4439 
  4440 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4441 
  4442 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4443 
  4444 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4445 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4446 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448   Constants:
  4449   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4450   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4451   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4452   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4453   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4454   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4455   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4456   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4457   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4458   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4459   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4460   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4461   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4462 
  4463   Lemmas:
  4464   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4465   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4466   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4467   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4468   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4469   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4470   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4471   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4472   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4473   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4474   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4475   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4476   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4477 
  4478 * Sledgehammer:
  4479   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4480     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4481     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4482     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4483     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4484     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4485     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4486   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4487   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4488     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4489   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4490     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4491     is still experimental.)
  4492   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4493     full-typed mode.
  4494   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4495 
  4496 * Nitpick:
  4497   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4498   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4499   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4500     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4501   - Added support for quotient types.
  4502   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4503     constructs.
  4504   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4505     "termination" proofs).
  4506   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4507   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4508   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4509   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4510     record getters.
  4511   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4512   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4513   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4514   - Added "atoms" option.
  4515   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4516     problems.
  4517   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4518     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4519     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4521     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4523 
  4524 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4525   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4526   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4527   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4528   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4529   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4530   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4531   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4532   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4533   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4534 
  4535 
  4536 *** HOLCF ***
  4537 
  4538 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4539 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4540 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4541 
  4542 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4543 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4544 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4545 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4546 
  4547 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4548 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4549 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4550 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4551 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 
  4553 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4554 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4555 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4558 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4559 
  4560   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4561   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4562 
  4563 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4564 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565 
  4566   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4567   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4568   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4569   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4570   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4571 
  4572 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4573 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4576   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4577   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4578 
  4579 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4580 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4584 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4589 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 
  4592 *** ML ***
  4593 
  4594 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4595 
  4596     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4597     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4598 
  4599     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4600     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4601     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4602     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4603 
  4604     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4605     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4606     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4607 
  4608 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4609 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4610 
  4611 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4612 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4613 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4614 
  4615 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4616 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4617 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4618 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4619 
  4620 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4621 the context or even global references.
  4622 
  4623 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4624 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4625 
  4626 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4627 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4628 
  4629   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4630   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4631   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4632   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4633   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4634   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4635   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4636   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4637   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4638   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4639 
  4640 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4641 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4642 
  4643 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4644 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4645 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4646 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4647 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4648 
  4649 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4650 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4651 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4652 Theory_Data version.
  4653 
  4654 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4655 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4656 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4657 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4658 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4659 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4660 explicitly in rare situations.
  4661 
  4662 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4663 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4667 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4668 
  4669 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4670 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4671 quite rare).
  4672 
  4673 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4674 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4677 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4678 terms.
  4679 
  4680 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4681 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4682 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4683 
  4684 
  4685 *** System ***
  4686 
  4687 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4688 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4689 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4690 
  4691 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4692 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4693 respectively.
  4694 
  4695 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4696 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4697 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4698 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4699 
  4700   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4701 
  4702 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4703 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4704 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4705 component.
  4706 
  4707 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4708 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4709 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4710 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4711 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4712 the user for manual installation.
  4713 
  4714 
  4715 
  4716 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4717 -------------------------------------
  4718 
  4719 *** General ***
  4720 
  4721 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4722 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4723 
  4724 
  4725 *** Pure ***
  4726 
  4727 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4728 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4729 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4730 
  4731 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4732 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4733 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4734 
  4735 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4736 interpretation.
  4737 
  4738 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4739 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741 
  4742 *** Document preparation ***
  4743 
  4744 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4745 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4746 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4747 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4748 
  4749 
  4750 *** HOL ***
  4751 
  4752 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4753 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4754 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4755 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4756 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4757 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4758 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4759 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4760 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4761 
  4762 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4763 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4764 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4765 
  4766 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4767 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4768 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4769 
  4770 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4771 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4772 
  4773 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4774 
  4775 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4776 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4777 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4778 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4779 
  4780 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4781 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4782 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4783 "mirabelle" utility.
  4784 
  4785 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4786 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4787 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4788 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4789 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4790 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4791 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4792 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4793 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4794 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4795 
  4796 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4797 procedure only.
  4798 
  4799 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4800 
  4801 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4802 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4803 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4804 that fail later.
  4805 
  4806 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4807 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4808 
  4809 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4810 the same method as the approximation method.
  4811 
  4812 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4813 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4814 series expansion.
  4815 
  4816 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4817 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4818 
  4819 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4820 reals.
  4821 
  4822 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4823 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4824 
  4825 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4826 fixpoint theorem.
  4827 
  4828 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4829   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4830     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4831   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4832     accordingly
  4833   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4834     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4835   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4836     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4837 
  4838 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4839 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4840 lattice.
  4841 
  4842 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4843 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4844 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4845 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4846 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4847 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4851   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4852     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4853   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4854     le_inf_iff
  4855   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4856     sup_aci)
  4857   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4858   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4859   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4860     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4861     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4862     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4863     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4864     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4865     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4866     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4867     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4868     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4869     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4870   - authentic syntax for
  4871     Set.Pow
  4872     Set.image
  4873   - mere abbreviations:
  4874     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4875     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4876     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4877     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4878     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4879     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4880     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4881     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4882   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4883 
  4884 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4885 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4886 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4887 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4888 
  4889 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4890 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4891 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4892 
  4893 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4894 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4895 
  4896 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4897 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4898 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4899 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4902 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4903 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4904 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4905 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4906 
  4907 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4908 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4912 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4913 
  4914 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4915 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4916 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4917 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4918 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4919 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4920 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4922 
  4923 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4924     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4925     code_post       replaces    code post
  4926     etc.
  4927   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4928 
  4929 * Renamed methods:
  4930     sizechange -> size_change
  4931     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4932   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4933 
  4934 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4935 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4936 
  4937 * Renamed theorems:
  4938     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4939     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4940     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4941     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4942     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4943   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4944 
  4945 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4947 
  4948 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4950 
  4951 
  4952 *** HOLCF ***
  4953 
  4954 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4955 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4956 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4957 
  4958 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4959 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4960 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4961 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4962 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4963 
  4964 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4965 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4966 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4967 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4968 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4969 
  4970 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4971 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4972 constructor are pre-configured.
  4973 
  4974 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4975 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4976 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4977 
  4978 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4979 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4980 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4981 as well.)
  4982 
  4983 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4984 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4985 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4986 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4987 examples.
  4988 
  4989 
  4990 *** ML ***
  4991 
  4992 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4993 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4994 
  4995 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4996 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4997 position, logical grouping etc.
  4998 
  4999 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5000 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5001 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5002 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5003 
  5004 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5005 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5006 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5007 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5008 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5009 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5010 
  5011 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5012 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5013 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5014 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5015 experiments with references.
  5016 
  5017 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5018 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5019 
  5020 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5021 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5022 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5023 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5024 
  5025 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5026 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5027 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5028 
  5029 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5030 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5031 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5032 
  5033 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5034 
  5035 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5037 
  5038 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5039 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5040 
  5041 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5042 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5043 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5044 
  5045 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5046 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5047 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5048 
  5049 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5050 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5051 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5053 
  5054 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5055 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5056 instead of global theory.
  5057 
  5058 
  5059 *** System ***
  5060 
  5061 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5062 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5063 usedir option -q.
  5064 
  5065 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5066 also the system manual.
  5067 
  5068 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5069 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5070 
  5071 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5072 this is always enabled.
  5073 
  5074 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5075 
  5076 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5077 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5078 currently supported on Linux only.
  5079 
  5080 
  5081 
  5082 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5083 --------------------------------
  5084 
  5085 *** General ***
  5086 
  5087 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5088 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5089 
  5090   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5091     "isatool."
  5092 
  5093   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5094     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5095 
  5096   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5097     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5098 
  5099 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5100 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5101 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5102 
  5103 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5104 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5105 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5106 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5107 via "isabelle emacs".
  5108 
  5109 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5110 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5111 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5112 
  5113 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5114 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5115 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5116 
  5117 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5118 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5119 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5120 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5121 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5122 
  5123 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5124 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5125 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5126 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5127 
  5128 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5129 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5130 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5131 
  5132 
  5133 *** Pure ***
  5134 
  5135 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5136 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5137 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5138 
  5139 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5140 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5141 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5142 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5143 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5144 
  5145 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5146 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5147 useful in locale declarations.
  5148 
  5149 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5150 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5151 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5152 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5153 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5154 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5155 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5156 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5157 no longer generated.
  5158 
  5159 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5160 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5161 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5162 
  5163 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5164 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5165 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5166 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5167 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5168 
  5169 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5170 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5171 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5172 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5173 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5174 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5175 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5176 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5177 
  5178 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5179 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5180 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5181 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5182 
  5183 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5186 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5187 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5188 
  5189 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5190 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5191 
  5192 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5193 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5194 in HOL, write
  5195 
  5196     class foo = ...
  5197 
  5198 instead of
  5199 
  5200     class foo = type + ...
  5201 
  5202 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5203 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5204 
  5205 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5206 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5207 
  5208 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5209 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5210 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5211 
  5212 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5213 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5214 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5215 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5216 directly in regular applications.
  5217 
  5218 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5219 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5220 
  5221 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5222 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5223 
  5224 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5225 theory context.
  5226 
  5227 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5228 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5229 
  5230 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5231 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5232 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5233 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5234 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5235 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5236 
  5237   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5238 
  5239 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5240 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5241 normalization.
  5242 
  5243 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5244 addressing etc.
  5245 
  5246 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5247 
  5248   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5249   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5250 
  5251 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5252 
  5253   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5254      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5255      parts of the code generator framework).
  5256 
  5257   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5258      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5259      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5260 
  5261 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5262 
  5263 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5264 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5265 
  5266 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5267 patterns, e.g.
  5268 
  5269     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5270 
  5271 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5272 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5273 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5274 hyphen:
  5275 
  5276     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5277 
  5278 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5279 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5280 
  5281 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5282 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5283 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5284 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5285 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5286 higher-order unification.
  5287 
  5288 
  5289 *** Document preparation ***
  5290 
  5291 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5292 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5293 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5294 
  5295 
  5296 *** HOL ***
  5297 
  5298 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5299 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5300 
  5301 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5302 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5303 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5304 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5305 Main, as before.
  5306 
  5307 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5308 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5309 
  5310 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5311 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5312 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5313 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5314 
  5315 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5316 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5317 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5318 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5319 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5320 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5321 
  5322 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5323 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5324 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5325 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5326 
  5327 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5328 menu.
  5329 
  5330 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5331 (contains the empty clause).
  5332 
  5333 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5334 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5335 
  5336 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5337 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5338 
  5339 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5340 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5341 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5342 
  5343 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5344 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5345 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5346 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5347 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5348 
  5349 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5350 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5351 
  5352 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5353 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5354 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5355 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5356 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5357 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5358 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5359 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5360 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5361 
  5362 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5363 
  5364 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5365 
  5366 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5367 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5368 
  5369 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5370 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5371 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5372 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5373 
  5374 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5375 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5376 
  5377     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5378     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5379     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5380     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5381     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5382     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5383     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5384     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5385 
  5386 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5387 theory Set.
  5388 
  5389 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5390 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5391 
  5392 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5393 
  5394 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5395 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5396 
  5397 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5398 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5399 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5400 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5401 allowed. For examples see
  5402 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5403 
  5404 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5405 
  5406 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5408 
  5409 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5410 structure:
  5411 
  5412     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5413     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5414     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5415     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5416     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5417     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5418     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5419     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5420     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5421     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5422     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5423     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5424     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5425     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5426     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5427     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5428     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5429     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5430     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5431     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5432     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5433     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5434     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5435     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5436     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5437     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5438     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5439     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5440     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5441     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5442     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5443     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5444     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5445 
  5446     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5447     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5448     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5449     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5450     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5451     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5452     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5453     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5454     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5455     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5456 
  5457     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5458     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5459     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5460     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5461     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5462     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5463 
  5464 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5465 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5466 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5467 
  5468 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5469 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5470 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5471 
  5472 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5473 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5474 
  5475 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5476 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5477 
  5478 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5479 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5480 proofs, e.g.
  5481 
  5482   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5483 
  5484 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5485 
  5486 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5487 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5488 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489 
  5490 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5491 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5495 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5496 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5498 
  5499 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5500 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5501 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5502 preorder_class.*.
  5503 
  5504 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5505 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5506 
  5507 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5508 
  5509   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5510 
  5511 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5512 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5513 fold_image.
  5514 
  5515 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5516 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5517 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5518 the former will disappear at some point.
  5519 
  5520 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5521 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5522 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5523 
  5524 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5525 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5526 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5527 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5528 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5529 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5530 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5531 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5532 
  5533 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5534 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5535 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5536 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5537 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5538 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5539 
  5540     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5541     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5542     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5543     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5544     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5545     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5546     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5547 
  5548 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5549 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5550 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5551 
  5552 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5553 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5554 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5555 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5556 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5557 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5558 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5559 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5560 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5561 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5562 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5563 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5564 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5565 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5566 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5567 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5568 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5569 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5570 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5571 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5572 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5573 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5574 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5575 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5576 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5577 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5578 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5579 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5580 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5581 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5582 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5583 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5584 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5585 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5586 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5587 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5588 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5589 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5590 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5591 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5592 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5593 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5594 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5595 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5596 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5597 
  5598 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5599 
  5600 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5601 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5602 
  5603 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5604 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5605 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5606 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5607 
  5608 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5609 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5610 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5611 theory RealVector.
  5612 
  5613 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5614 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5615 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5616 and inner products are included.
  5617 
  5618 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5619 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5620 supported.
  5621 
  5622 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5623 first diagonalization argument.
  5624 
  5625 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5626 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5627 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5628 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5629 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5630 
  5631     hide (open) const gcd
  5632     abbreviation gcd where
  5633       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5634     notation (output)
  5635       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5636 
  5637 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5638 
  5639 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5640 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5641 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5642 
  5643 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5644 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5645 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5646 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5647 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5648 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5649 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5650 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5651 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5652 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5653 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5654 cases.
  5655 
  5656 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5657 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5658 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5659 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5660 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5661 
  5662     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5663     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5664     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5665     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5666     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5667 
  5668 
  5669 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5670 
  5671 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5672 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5673 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5674 
  5675 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5676 
  5677 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5678 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5679 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5680 
  5681 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5682 
  5683 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5684 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5685 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5686 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5687 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5688 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5689 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5690 
  5691 
  5692 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5693 
  5694 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5695 
  5696 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5697 theory targets.
  5698 
  5699 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5700 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5701 'inductive' etc.
  5702 
  5703 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5704 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5705 
  5706 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5707 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5708 
  5709 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5710 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5711 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5712 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5713 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5714 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5715 the algorithm W:
  5716 
  5717  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5718  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5719          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5720 
  5721 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5722 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5723 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5724 
  5725 
  5726 *** HOLCF ***
  5727 
  5728 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5729 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5730 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5731 
  5732 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5733 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5734 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5735 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5736 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5737 
  5738 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5739 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5740 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 
  5743 *** ZF ***
  5744 
  5745 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5746 
  5747 
  5748 *** ML ***
  5749 
  5750 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5751 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5752 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5753 5.2.1!
  5754 
  5755 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5756 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5757 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5758 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5759 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5760 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5761 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5762 
  5763 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5764 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5765 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5766 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5767 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5768 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5769 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5770 
  5771 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5772 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5773 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5774 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5775 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5776 
  5777 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5778 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5779 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5780 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5781 Method.add_method.
  5782 
  5783 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5784 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5785 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5786 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5787 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5788 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5789 
  5790 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5791 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5792 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5793 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5794 examples.
  5795 
  5796 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5797 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5798 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5799 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5800 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5801 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5802 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5803 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5804 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5805 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5806 
  5807 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5808 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5809 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5810 
  5811 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5812 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5813 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5814 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5815 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5816 resort for legacy applications.
  5817 
  5818 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5819 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5820 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5821 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5822 explicit runtime argument.
  5823 
  5824 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5825 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5826 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5827 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5828 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5829 
  5830 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5831 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5832 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5833 theory state.
  5834 
  5835 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5836 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5837 
  5838   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5839   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5840   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5841   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5842   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5843   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5844   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5845   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5846   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5847   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5848 
  5849 
  5850 *** System ***
  5851 
  5852 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5853 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5854 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5855 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5856 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5857 
  5858 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5859 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5860 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5861 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5862 
  5863 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5864 
  5865 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5866 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5867 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5868 prover operations.
  5869 
  5870 
  5871 
  5872 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5873 -------------------------------
  5874 
  5875 *** General ***
  5876 
  5877 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5878 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5879 
  5880 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5881 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5882 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5883 provides a proper context already.
  5884 
  5885 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5886 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5887 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5888 
  5889 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5890 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5891 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5892 swap theory imports.
  5893 
  5894 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5895 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5896 
  5897 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5898 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5899 white space without escapes.
  5900 
  5901 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5902 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5903 "foo_bar".
  5904 
  5905 
  5906 *** Pure ***
  5907 
  5908 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5909 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5910 
  5911 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5912 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5913 
  5914 (1) unused_thms
  5915      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5916 
  5917 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5918      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5919      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5920 
  5921 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5922      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5923      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5924      their ancestors.
  5925 
  5926 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5927 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5928 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5929 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5930 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5931 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5932 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5933 
  5934 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5935 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5936 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5937 
  5938 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5939 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5940 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5941 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5942 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5943 
  5944 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5945 
  5946 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5947 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5948 update of theories within ML code.
  5949 
  5950 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5951 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5952 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5953 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5954 
  5955 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5956 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5957 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5961 
  5962 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5963 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5964 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5965 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5966 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5967 
  5968 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5969 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5970 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5971 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5972 situations.
  5973 
  5974 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5975 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5976 proof text.
  5977 
  5978 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5979 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5980 
  5981 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5982 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5983 predicates.
  5984 
  5985 
  5986 *** Document preparation ***
  5987 
  5988 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5989 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5990 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5991 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5992 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5993 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5994 
  5995 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5996 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5997 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5998 
  5999 
  6000 *** HOL ***
  6001 
  6002 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6003 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6004 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6005 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6006 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6007 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6008 
  6009 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6010 with multithreading.
  6011 
  6012 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6013 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6014 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6015 
  6016 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6017 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6018 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6019 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6020 
  6021 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6022 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6023 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6024 and makes them available separately.  See
  6025 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6026 
  6027 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6028 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6029 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6030 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6031 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6032 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6033 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6034 the declared rules.
  6035 
  6036 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6037 
  6038   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6039 
  6040 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6041 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6042 
  6043 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6044 
  6045   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6046 
  6047   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6048     definitions on => and bool.
  6049 
  6050   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6051     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6052     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6053 
  6054       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6055       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6056       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6057       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6058       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6059       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6060       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6061       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6062 
  6063   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6064     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6065     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6066 
  6067   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6068     The proof pattern
  6069 
  6070       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6071       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6072 
  6073     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6074     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6075 
  6076       have "EX S. P S"
  6077       proof
  6078         show "P S" <...>
  6079       qed
  6080 
  6081   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6082     The proof pattern
  6083 
  6084       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6085       also have "S = T" <...>
  6086       finally have "P T" .
  6087 
  6088     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6089     must be replaced by something like
  6090 
  6091       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6092       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6093       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6094 
  6095   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6096     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6097 
  6098       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6099 
  6100     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6101     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6102     type of the form
  6103 
  6104       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6105 
  6106     rather than
  6107 
  6108       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6109 
  6110 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6111 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6112 
  6113 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6114 
  6115 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6116 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6118 
  6119 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6120 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6121 
  6122 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6123 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6124 
  6125 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6126 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6127 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6128 
  6129 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6130 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6131 
  6132   less_trans
  6133   less_linear
  6134   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6135   le_less_trans
  6136   less_le_trans
  6137   less_not_sym
  6138   less_asym
  6139 
  6140 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6141 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6142 and different variable names.
  6143 
  6144 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6145 
  6146 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6147 finite maps.
  6148 
  6149 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6150 
  6151 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6152 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6153 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6154 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6155 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6156 accordingly.
  6157 
  6158 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6159 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6160 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6161 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6162 
  6163 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6164 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6165 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6166 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6167 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6169 
  6170 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6171 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6172 
  6173 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6174 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6175 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6176 
  6177 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6179 
  6180 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6181 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6182 
  6183 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6184 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6185 
  6186 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6187 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6188 
  6189 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6190 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6194 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6195 
  6196 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6197 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6198 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6199 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6200 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6201 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6204 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6205 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6206 
  6207 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6208 
  6209 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6210 
  6211 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6212 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6213 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6214 
  6215 
  6216 *** ZF ***
  6217 
  6218 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6219 same session:
  6220 
  6221   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6222   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6223   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6224   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6225   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6226   List      -> List_ZF
  6227   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6228 
  6229 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6230 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6231 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6232 
  6233 
  6234 *** ML ***
  6235 
  6236 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6237 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6238 
  6239 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6240 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6241 
  6242 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6243 
  6244 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6245 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6246 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6247 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6248 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6249 
  6250 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6251 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6252 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6253 
  6254 
  6255 *** System ***
  6256 
  6257 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6258 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6259 
  6260 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6261 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6262 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6263 
  6264 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6265 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6266 
  6267 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6268 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6269 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6270 
  6271 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6272 provides