NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Oct 02 16:56:02 2013 +0200 (2013-10-02)
changeset 54032 67ed9e57dd03
parent 54029 4edfd0fd5536
child 54033 955c6549b3cb
permissions -rw-r--r--
misc tuning for release;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    14 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    17 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    18 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    19 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    20 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    21 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    22 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    23 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    24 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    25 syntax.
    26 
    27 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    28 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    31 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    32 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    34 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    35 
    36 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    40 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    41 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    44 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    45 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    46 
    47 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    48 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    52 
    53 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    54 Documentation panel.
    55 
    56 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    57 documentation.
    58 
    59 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    60 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    61 
    62 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    63 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    64 normal editing and checking process.
    65 
    66 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    67 timing information.
    68 
    69 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    70 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    71 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    72 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    73 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    74 
    75 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
    76 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    77 such command executions while editing.
    78 
    79 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    80 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    81 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    82 
    83 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    84 document content.
    85 
    86 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    87 toplevel theorem statements.
    88 
    89 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    90 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
    91 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
    92 
    93 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
    94 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
    95 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
    96 
    97 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
    98 / Global Options / Appearance".
    99 
   100 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   101 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   102 
   103 
   104 *** Pure ***
   105 
   106 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
   107 Particularly, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
   108 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.  See
   109 "isar-ref" manual for details.
   110 
   111 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   112 
   113 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   114 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   115 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   116 
   117 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   121 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   122 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   123 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   126 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   127 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   130 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   131 
   132 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   133 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   134 situations.
   135 
   136 
   137 *** HOL ***
   138 
   139 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   140 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   144 
   145 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   146 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   147 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   148 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   149 
   150   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   151 
   152 * Code generator:
   153   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   154     'code_instance'.
   155   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   156     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   157 
   158 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   159 examples.
   160 
   161 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   162 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   163 to distinguish both when desired.
   164 
   165 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   166 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   167 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   168 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   171 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   172 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   173 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   174 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   175 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   176 
   177 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   178 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   179 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   180 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   181 
   182 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   183 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   184 
   185 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   186 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   187 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   188 
   189 * Lifting:
   190   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   191     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in 
   192       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   193       transfer rules
   194     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   195       correspondence relation can be generated
   196     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   197       parametricity
   198     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   199   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   200   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   201     copies
   202   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   203     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   204     anonymous context)
   205   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in 
   206     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   207   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   208     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   209   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps. 
   210     INCOMPATIBILITY
   211 
   212 * Transfer:
   213   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T 
   214     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   215   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   216   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   217     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   218   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   219 
   220 * Reification and reflection:
   221   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   222     "Reification".
   223   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   224   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   226 
   227 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   228   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   229     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   230     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   231   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   232     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   233   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   234     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   235     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   236     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   237     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   238     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   239     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   240     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   241   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   242     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   243   - Fact renames:
   244       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   245       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   249 
   250 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   251 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   252 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   256 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   257 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   258 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   259 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   260 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   261 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   262 lemmas.
   263 
   264 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   265 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   266 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   269 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   270 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   271 
   272 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   273 top and bottom elements.
   274 
   275 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   276 
   277 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   278 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   279 
   280  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   281    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   282    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   283 
   284  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   285    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   286    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   287 
   288    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   289    arbitrary filter.
   290 
   291  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   292    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   293    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   294    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   295    on a compact set.
   296 
   297  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   298    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   299    linear_continuum_topology).
   300 
   301  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   302    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   303    on all sequences converging to x.
   304 
   305  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   306    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   307    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   308    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   309    left or right.
   310 
   311  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   312 
   313      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   314 
   315  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   316    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   317 
   318  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   319    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   320    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   321    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   322    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   323    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   324 
   325  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   326 
   327    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   328 
   329    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   330      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   331 
   332    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   333 
   334    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   335      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   336 
   337    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   338 
   339    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   340 
   341  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   342 
   343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   344 
   345 * Nitpick:
   346   - Added option "spy"
   347   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   348 
   349 * Sledgehammer:
   350   - Renamed option:
   351       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   352     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   354   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   355   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   356 
   357 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   358 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   359 
   360 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   361   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   362   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   363     generated code.
   364   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   365   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   366   - Fact renames:
   367     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   368     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   369     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   370 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   373 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   374 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   375 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   376 
   377 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   378 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   379 
   380 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   383 
   384     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   385     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   386 
   387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   390 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   391 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   392 
   393 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   394 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   395 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   396 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * HOL/BNF:
   399   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   400     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   401     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   402     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   403   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   404     coinduct).
   405   - Renamed keywords:
   406     data ~> datatype_new
   407     codata ~> codatatype
   408     bnf_def ~> bnf
   409   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   410     discs ~> disc
   411     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   412     map_id' ~> map_id
   413     sels ~> sel
   414     set_map' ~> set_map
   415     sets ~> set
   416 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   417 
   418 
   419 *** ML ***
   420 
   421 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   422 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   423 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   424 Examples.thy in particular.
   425 
   426 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   427 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   428 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   429 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   430 
   431 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   432 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   433 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   434 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   438 
   439     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   440     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   441 
   442 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   445 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   446 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   447 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   448 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   449 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   450 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   451 
   452 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   453 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   454 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   455 clasets separately from the context.
   456 
   457 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   459 
   460 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   461 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   462 
   463 
   464 *** System ***
   465 
   466 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   467 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   468 
   469 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   470 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   471 
   472 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   473 settings variable.
   474 
   475 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   476 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   477 always pdf.
   478 
   479 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   480 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   481 
   482 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   483 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   484 
   485 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   486 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   487 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   488 
   489 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   490 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   491 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   492 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   493 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   494 for HTML presentation of theories.
   495 
   496 
   497 
   498 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   499 -----------------------------------
   500 
   501 *** General ***
   502 
   503 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   504 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   505 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   506 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   507 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   508 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   509 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   510 
   511 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   512 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   513 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   514 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   515 
   516 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   517 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   518 
   519 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   520 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   521 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   522 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   523 dependencies properly.
   524 
   525 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   526 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   527 
   528 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   529 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   530 
   531 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   532 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   533 and "class ... context ...".
   534 
   535 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   536 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   537 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   538 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   539 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   540 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   541 
   542 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   543 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   544 
   545 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   546 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   547 
   548 
   549 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   550 
   551 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   552 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   553 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   554 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   555 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   556 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   557 
   558 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   559 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   560 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   561 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   562 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   563 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   564 
   565 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   566 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   567 browser on demand.
   568 
   569 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   570 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   571 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   572 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   573 
   574 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   575 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   576 
   577 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   578 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   579 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   580 potentially infinite message streams.
   581 
   582 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   583 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   584 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   585 schemes.
   586 
   587 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   588 symbols.
   589 
   590 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   591 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   592 
   593 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   594 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   595 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   596 
   597 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   598 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   599 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   600 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   601 
   602 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   603 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   604 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   605 
   606 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   607 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   608 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   609 Isabelle distribution.
   610 
   611 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   612 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   613 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   614 
   615 
   616 *** Pure ***
   617 
   618 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   619 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   620 
   621 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   622 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   623 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   626 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   627 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   628 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   629 with some care where this is really required.
   630 
   631 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   632 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   633 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   634 
   635   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   636 
   637 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   638 a Hasse diagram.
   639 
   640 
   641 *** HOL ***
   642 
   643 * Sledgehammer:
   644 
   645   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   646     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   647   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   648   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   649   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   650   - Renamed options:
   651       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   652       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   653       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   654       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   655 
   656 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   657 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   658 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   659 
   660 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 * Lifting:
   664   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   665   - quot_del attribute
   666   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   667 
   668 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   669 expressions.
   670 
   671 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   672 pointfree expressions.
   673 
   674 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   675 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   676 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   677 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   681 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   682 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   683 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   684 accordingly.
   685 
   686 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   687 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688 
   689 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   690 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   695 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   696 
   697 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   698 
   699 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   700 
   701   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   702   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   703 
   704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   707 
   708   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   709   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   710 
   711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   714 
   715   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   716     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   717     output f x converges to G.
   718 
   719   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   720     infinity (at_bot).
   721 
   722   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   723     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   724 
   725   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   726     at_top".
   727 
   728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   729 
   730 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   731 lattice type classes.
   732 
   733 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   734 
   735     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   736     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   737 
   738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   741 changes as follows.
   742 
   743   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   744 
   745       prefix ~> prefixeq
   746       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   747 
   748   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   749     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   750     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   751     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   752 
   753   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   754     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   755     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   756 
   757   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   758     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   759     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   760     Library/Prefix_Order.
   761 
   762   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   763     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   764 
   765       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   766       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   767       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   768       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   769       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   770       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   771       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   772       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   773       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   774       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   775       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   776       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   777       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   778       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   779       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   780       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   781 
   782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   785 
   786 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   787 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   788 
   789 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   790 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   791 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   792 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   793 
   794   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   795   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   796   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   797   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   798   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   799   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   800   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   801   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   802   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   803   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   804 
   805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   808 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   809 Data").
   810 
   811 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   812 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   813 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   814 code.
   815 
   816 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   817 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   818 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   820 
   821 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   822 
   823 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   824 
   825 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   826 
   827   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   828   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   829 
   830 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   831 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   832 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   833 
   834   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   835 
   836     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   837     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   838     cart_base i  removed
   839     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   840 
   841   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   842 
   843   Renamed lemmas:
   844 
   845     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   846     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   847     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   848     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   849     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   850     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   851     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   852     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   853     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   854     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   855 
   856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * HOL/Probability:
   859 
   860   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   861 
   862   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   863     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   864     (borel_measurable_induct).
   865 
   866   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   867     projective family).
   868 
   869 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   870 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   871 
   872 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   873 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   874 datatypes.
   875 
   876 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   877 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   878 
   879 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   880 trees for the code generator.
   881 
   882 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   883 Lifting/Transfer.
   884 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   885 
   886 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888 
   889 
   890 *** Document preparation ***
   891 
   892 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   893 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   894 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   895 
   896 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   897 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   898 
   899 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   900 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   901 document/root.tex.
   902 
   903 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   904 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   905 
   906 
   907 *** ML ***
   908 
   909 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   910 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   911 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   912 
   913 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   914 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   915 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   916 
   917 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   918 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   919 necessarily printing visible text.
   920 
   921 
   922 *** System ***
   923 
   924 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   925 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   926 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   927 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   928 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   929 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   930 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   931 
   932 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   933 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   934 
   935   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   936 
   937 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   938 
   939 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   940 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   941 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   942 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   943 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   944 
   945 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   946 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   947 
   948 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   949 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   950 
   951 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   955 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   956 version of Isabelle.
   957 
   958 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   959 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   960 
   961 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   962 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   963 for home-made settings.
   964 
   965 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   966 
   967 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   968 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   969 configuration.
   970 
   971 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   972 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   973 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   974 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   975 bundled as Isabelle component.
   976 
   977 
   978 
   979 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   980 ------------------------------
   981 
   982 *** General ***
   983 
   984 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   985 
   986   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   987     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   988   - markup for bound variables
   989   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   990   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   991   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   992     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   993 
   994 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   995 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   996 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   997 
   998 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   999 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1000 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1001 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1002 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1003 
  1004   context
  1005     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1006     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1007   begin
  1008 
  1009   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1010 
  1011   end
  1012 
  1013   thm my_trans
  1014 
  1015 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1016 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1017 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1018 
  1019 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1020 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1021 
  1022 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1023 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1024 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1025 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1026 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1027 
  1028 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1029 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1030 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1031 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1032 indices of schematic variables.
  1033 
  1034 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1035 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1036 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1037 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1038 etc. was exploited.
  1039 
  1040 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1041 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1042 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1043 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1044 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1045 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1046 
  1047 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1048 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1049 manual.
  1050 
  1051 
  1052 *** Pure ***
  1053 
  1054 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1055 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1056 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1057 
  1058 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1059 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1060 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1061 undocumented feature.)
  1062 
  1063 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1064 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1065 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1066 
  1067   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1068 
  1069   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1070     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1071 
  1072 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1073 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1074 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1075 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1076 
  1077 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1078 
  1079     num ~> num_token
  1080     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1081     xstr ~> str_token
  1082 
  1083 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1084 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1085 position information via constraints).
  1086 
  1087 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1088 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1089 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1090 
  1091 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1092 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1093 
  1094 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1095 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1096 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1099 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1100 
  1101 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1102 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1103 
  1104   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1105 
  1106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1107 
  1108 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1109 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1112 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1113 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1114 
  1115 
  1116 *** HOL ***
  1117 
  1118 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1119 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1120 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1121 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1122 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1123 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1124 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1125 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1126 possible.
  1127 
  1128 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1129 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1130 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1131 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1132 
  1133 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1134 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1137 
  1138 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1139 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1140 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1141 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1142 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1143 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1144 
  1145   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1146     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1147 
  1148   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1149     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1150     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1151 
  1152   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1153     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1154 
  1155   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1156     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1157     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1158 
  1159   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1160     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1161 
  1162 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1163 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1164 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1165 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1166 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1167 
  1168   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1169     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1170     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1171     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1172     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1173 
  1174     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1175     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1176 
  1177   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1178     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1179     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1180     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1181     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1182     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1183     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1184     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1185 
  1186   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1187     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1188     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1189     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1190 
  1191   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1192     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1193     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1194     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1195 
  1196   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1197     from type nat to type int.
  1198 
  1199 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1200 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1201 
  1202   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1203     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1204     type.  Example syntax:
  1205 
  1206     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1207       is List.insert
  1208 
  1209     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1210     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1211     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1212     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1213     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1214     by the package.
  1215 
  1216   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1217     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1218     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1219     code generation for each constant.
  1220 
  1221   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1222     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1223     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1224     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1225     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1226 
  1227   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1228     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1229     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1230 
  1231 * Quotient package:
  1232 
  1233   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1234     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1235 
  1236   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1237     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1238 
  1239   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1240     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1241     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1242 
  1243   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1244     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1245 
  1246 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1247 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1248 
  1249 * Quickcheck:
  1250 
  1251   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1252     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1253     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1254     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1255     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1256 
  1257     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1258     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1259     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1260 
  1261     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1262     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1263 
  1264     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1265     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1266     show genuine counterexamples.
  1267 
  1268   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1269     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1270 
  1271     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1272     constructors of that type.
  1273 
  1274   - Support for multisets.
  1275 
  1276   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1277 
  1278   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1279     conjectures in a locale context.
  1280 
  1281 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1282 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1283 
  1284 * Sledgehammer:
  1285   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1286     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1287   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1288   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1289     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1290   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1291   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1292   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1293   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1294 
  1295 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1296 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1297 
  1298 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1299 
  1300 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1303 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1304 
  1305   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1306 
  1307 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1308 a list and a nat.
  1309 
  1310 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1311 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1312 
  1313 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1314 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1315 default.
  1316 
  1317 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1318 
  1319   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1320 
  1321 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1322 
  1323 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1324 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1325 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1326 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1327 one_case.
  1328 
  1329 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1330 the result of the fact expression.
  1331 
  1332 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1333 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1334 of some relation theorems:
  1335 
  1336   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1337   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1338   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1339   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1340   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1341   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1342 
  1343 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1344 
  1345 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1346 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1347 
  1348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349 
  1350 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1351 to match the constant's name:
  1352 
  1353   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1354   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1355   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1356   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1357   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1358   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1359   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1360   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1361   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1362   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1363   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1364   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1365   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1366   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1367   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1368   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1369   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1370   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1371   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1372   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1373   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1374   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1375   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1376   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1377 
  1378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1379 
  1380 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1381 and corresponding theorem names:
  1382 
  1383   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1384 
  1385   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1386 
  1387   - Renamed theorems:
  1388 
  1389     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1390     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1391     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1392     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1393     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1394     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1395     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1396     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1397     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1398     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1399     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1400     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1401     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1402     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1403     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1404     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1405     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1406     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1407     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1408     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1409     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1410     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1411     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1412 
  1413     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1414 
  1415     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1416 
  1417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1418 
  1419 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1420 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1421 
  1422   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1423   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1424   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1425   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1426   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1427   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1428   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1429   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1430   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1431   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1432   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1433   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1434   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1435   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1436   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1437   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1438   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1439   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1440   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1441   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1442   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1443 
  1444 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1445 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1448 
  1449 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1450 
  1451   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1452   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1453   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1454   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1455   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1456   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1457   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1458   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1459   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1460   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1461   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1462   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1463   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1464   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1465   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1466   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1467   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1468   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1469 
  1470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1471 
  1472 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1473 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1474 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1475 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1476 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1477 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1478 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1479 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1480 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1481 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1482 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1483 
  1484 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1485 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1486 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1487 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1488 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1489 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1490 
  1491 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1492 through option types.
  1493 
  1494 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1495 relations.
  1496 
  1497 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1498 
  1499 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1500 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1501 
  1502   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1503   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1504   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1505   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1506   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1507   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1508   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1509   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1510   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1511   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1512   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1513   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1514   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1515   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1516   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1517   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1518   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1519   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1520   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1521   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1522   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1523   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1524   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1525   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1526   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1527   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1528   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1529   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1530   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1531   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1532   zless_le ~> less_le
  1533   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1534   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1535   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1536 
  1537 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1538 
  1539   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1540 
  1541 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1542 
  1543 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1544 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1545 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1546 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1548 
  1549 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1550 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1551 
  1552 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1553 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1554 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1555 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1556 follows:
  1557 
  1558   Operations:
  1559   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1560   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1561   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1562   del -> rbt_del
  1563   delete -> rbt_delete
  1564   ins -> rbt_ins
  1565   insert -> rbt_insert
  1566   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1567   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1568   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1569   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1570   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1571   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1572   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1573   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1574   union -> rbt_union
  1575   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1576   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1577 
  1578   Lemmas:
  1579   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1580   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1581   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1582   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1583   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1584   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1585   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1586   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1587   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1588   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1589   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1590   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1591   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1592   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1593   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1594   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1595   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1596   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1597   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1598   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1599   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1600   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1601   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1602   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1603   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1604   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1605   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1606   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1607   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1608   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1609   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1610   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1611   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1612   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1613   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1614   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1615   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1616   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1617   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1618   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1619   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1620   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1621   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1622   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1623   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1624   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1625   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1626   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1627   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1628   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1629   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1630   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1631   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1632   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1633   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1634   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1635   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1636   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1637   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1638   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1639   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1640   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1641   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1642   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1643   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1644   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1645   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1646   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1647   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1648   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1649   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1650   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1651   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1652   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1653   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1654   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1655   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1656   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1657   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1658   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1659   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1660   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1661   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1662 
  1663 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1664 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1665 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667   Changed Operations:
  1668   float_abs -> abs
  1669   float_nprt -> nprt
  1670   float_pprt -> pprt
  1671   pow2 -> use powr
  1672   round_down -> float_round_down
  1673   round_up -> float_round_up
  1674   scale -> exponent
  1675 
  1676   Removed Operations:
  1677   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1678 
  1679   Renamed Lemmas:
  1680   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1681   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1682   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1683   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1684   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1685   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1686   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1687   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1688   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1689   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1690   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1691   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1692   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1693   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1694   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1695   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1696   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1697   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1698   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1699   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1700   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1701   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1702   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1703   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1704   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1705   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1706   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1707   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1708   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1709   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1710   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1711   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1712   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1713   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1714   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1715   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1716 
  1717   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1718   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1719   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1720   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1721   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1722   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1723   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1724   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1725   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1726   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1727 
  1728 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1729 association lists with distinct keys.
  1730 
  1731 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1732 annotated commands.
  1733 
  1734 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1735 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1736 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1737 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1738 
  1739 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1740 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1741 instead.
  1742 
  1743   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1744   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1745   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1746   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1747   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1748   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1749   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1750   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1751   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1752   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1753   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1754   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1755   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1756   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1757   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1758   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1759   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1760   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1761   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1762   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1763   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1764   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1765   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1766   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1767   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1768   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1769   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1770   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1771   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1772   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1773   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1774   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1775   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1776   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1777   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1778   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1779   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1780   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1781   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1782   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1783   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1784 
  1785 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1786 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1787 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1788 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1789 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1790 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1791 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1792 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1793 
  1794 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1795 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1796 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1797 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1798 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1799 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1800 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1801 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1802 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1803 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1804 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1805 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1806 
  1807   Renamed constants:
  1808   measure -> emeasure
  1809   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1810   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1811   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1812   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1813 
  1814   Removed locales:
  1815   completeable_measure_space
  1816   finite_measure_space
  1817   finite_prob_space
  1818   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1819   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1820   finite_sigma_algebra
  1821   measure_space
  1822   pair_finite_prob_space
  1823   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1824   pair_finite_space
  1825   pair_sigma_algebra
  1826   product_sigma_algebra
  1827 
  1828   Removed constants:
  1829   conditional_space
  1830   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1831   image_space
  1832   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1833   pair_measure_generator
  1834   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1835   subvimage
  1836 
  1837   Replacement theorems:
  1838   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1839   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1840   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1841   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1842   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1843   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1844   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1845   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1846   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1847   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1848   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1849   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1850   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1851   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1852   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1853   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1854   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1855   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1856   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1857   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1858   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1859   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1860   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1861   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1862   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1863   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1864   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1865   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1866   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1867   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1868   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1869   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1870   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1871   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1872   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1873   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1874   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1875   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1876   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1877   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1878   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1879   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1880   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1881   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1882   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1883   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1884   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1885   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1886   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1887   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1888   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1889   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1890   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1891   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1892   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1893   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1894   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1895   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1896   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1897   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1898   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1899   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1900   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1901   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1902   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1903   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1904   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1905   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1906   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1907   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1908   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1909   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1910   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1911   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1912   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1913   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1914   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1915   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1916   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1917   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1918   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1919   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1920   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1921   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1922   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1923   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1924   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1925   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1926   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1927   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1928   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1929   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1930   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1931   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1932   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1933   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1934   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1935   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1936   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1937   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1938   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1939   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1940   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1941   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1942   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1943   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1944   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1945   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1946   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1947   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1948   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1949   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1950   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1951   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1952   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1953   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1954   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1955   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1956   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1957   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1958   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1959   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1960   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1961   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1962   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1963   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1964   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1965   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1966 
  1967 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1968 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1969 
  1970 
  1971 *** FOL ***
  1972 
  1973 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1974 
  1975 
  1976 *** ZF ***
  1977 
  1978 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1979 analysis.
  1980 
  1981 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1982 
  1983 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 
  1986 *** ML ***
  1987 
  1988 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1989 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1990 
  1991 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1992 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1993 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1994 
  1995 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1996 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1997 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1998 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1999 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2000 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2001 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2002 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2003 
  2004 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2005 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2006 
  2007 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2008 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2009 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2010 
  2011 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2012 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2015 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2016 context as well.
  2017 
  2018 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2019 
  2020   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2021   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2022   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2023   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2024   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2025   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2026   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2027   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2028   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2029   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2030   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2031   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2032 
  2033 
  2034 *** System ***
  2035 
  2036 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2037 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2038 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2039 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2040 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2041 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2042 the generic user home was intended.
  2043 
  2044 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2045 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2046 
  2047 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2048 (not just JRE).
  2049 
  2050 
  2051 
  2052 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2053 ------------------------------------
  2054 
  2055 *** General ***
  2056 
  2057 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2058 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2059 
  2060   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2061     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2062     files for checking).
  2063 
  2064   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2065     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2066     positions.
  2067 
  2068   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2069     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2070     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2071 
  2072   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2073     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2074     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2075 
  2076   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2077     cores.
  2078 
  2079   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2080     versions (garbage collection).
  2081 
  2082 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2083 including some remaining limitations.
  2084 
  2085 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2086 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2087 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2088 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2089 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2091 
  2092 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2093 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2094 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2095 
  2096 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2097 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2098 usedir option -Q.
  2099 
  2100 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2101 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2102 
  2103   long_names   ~> names_long
  2104   short_names  ~> names_short
  2105   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2106 
  2107 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2108 
  2109   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2110 
  2111 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2112 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2113 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2114 
  2115 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2116 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2117 
  2118 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2119   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2120   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2121   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2122     "Classical Reasoner".
  2123 
  2124 
  2125 *** HOL ***
  2126 
  2127 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2128 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2129 
  2130 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2131 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2132 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2133 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2134 class complete_linorder.
  2135 
  2136 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2137 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2138 
  2139 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2140 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2141 
  2142   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2143   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2144   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2145   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2146   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2147   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2148   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2149   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2150   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2151   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2152   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2153 
  2154 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2155 
  2156   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2157   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2158   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2159   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2160   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2161   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2162   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2163   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2164   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2165   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2166   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2167   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2168   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2169   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2170   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2171   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2172 
  2173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2179 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2180 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2181 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2184 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2185 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2189 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2190 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2191 
  2192 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2193 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2194 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2195 
  2196 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2197 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2198 
  2199 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2200 
  2201     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2202     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2203 
  2204 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2205 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2208 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2209 
  2210 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2211 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2212 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2213 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2214 
  2215   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2216   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2217   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2218   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2219   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2220   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2221   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2222 
  2223 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2224 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2227   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2228   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2229   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2230   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2231   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2232   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2233   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2234   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2235   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2236   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2237   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2238   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2239   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2240   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2241   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2242   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2243   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2244   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2245   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2246   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2247   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2248   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2249   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2250   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2251   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2252   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2253   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2254   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2255   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2256   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2257   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2258   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2259   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2260   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2261   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2262   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2263   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2264   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2265   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2266   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2267   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2268   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2269   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2270   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2271   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2272   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2273   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2274   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2275   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2276   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2277   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2278   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2279   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2280   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2281   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2282   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2283   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2284   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2285   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2286   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2287   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2288   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2289   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2290   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2291   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2292   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2293   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2294   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2295   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2296   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2297   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2298   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2299   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2300   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2301   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2302   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2303   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2304   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2305   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2306   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2307   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2308 
  2309 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2310 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2311 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2312 
  2313 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2314 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2315 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2316 
  2317 * Code generation:
  2318 
  2319   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2320     characters in the target language.
  2321 
  2322   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2323     instead.
  2324 
  2325   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2326 
  2327   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2328     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2329 
  2330       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2331 
  2332 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2335 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2336 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2337 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2338 syntax.
  2339 
  2340 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2341 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2342 
  2343 * Nitpick:
  2344   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2345   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2346   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2347     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Sledgehammer:
  2350   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2351   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2352     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2353   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2354     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2355   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2356     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2357   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2358     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2359   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2360     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Metis:
  2363   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Command 'try':
  2368   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2369     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2371     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2372 
  2373 * Quickcheck:
  2374   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2375     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2376   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2377     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2378   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2379     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2380     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2381     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2382   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2383     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2384 
  2385 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2386 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2387 
  2388 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2389 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2390 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2391 
  2392 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2393 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2395 
  2396 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2397 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2400 arithmetic.
  2401 
  2402 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2403 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2404 and lattice type classes.
  2405 
  2406 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2407 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2408 
  2409 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2410 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2411 
  2412 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2413 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2414 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2417   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2418   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2419   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2420 
  2421 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2422 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2423 constants:
  2424 
  2425   type inat   ~> type enat
  2426   Fin         ~> enat
  2427   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2428   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2429   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2430 
  2431 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2432 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2435 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2436 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2437 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2438 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2439 
  2440 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2441 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2442 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2443 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2444 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2445 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2446 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2447 
  2448   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2449   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2450   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2451   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2452 
  2453 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2454 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2455 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2458   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2459   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2460   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2461   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2462   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2463   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2464   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2465   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2466   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2467   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2468   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2469   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2470   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2471   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2472   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2473   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2474   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2475   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2476   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2477   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2478   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2479   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2480   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2481   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2482   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2483   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2484   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2485   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2486   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2487   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2488   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2489   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2490   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2491   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2492   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2493   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2494   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2495   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2496   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2497   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2498   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2499   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2500   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2501   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2502   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2503   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2504   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2505   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2506   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2507   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2508 
  2509 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2510   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2511   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2512   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2513   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2514     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2519   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2520   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2521   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2522   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2523   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2524   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2525   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2526   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2527   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2528   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2529   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2530   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2531   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2532   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2533   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2534   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2535   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2536   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2537   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2538   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2539   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2540   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2541   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2542   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2543 
  2544 
  2545 *** Document preparation ***
  2546 
  2547 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2548 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2549 same.
  2550 
  2551 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2552 result.
  2553 
  2554 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2555 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2556 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2557 
  2558 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2559 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2560 
  2561 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2562 like this:
  2563 
  2564   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2565   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2566 
  2567 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2568 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2569 layouts.
  2570 
  2571 
  2572 *** ML ***
  2573 
  2574 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2575 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2576 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2577 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2578 under external program control.
  2579 
  2580 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2581 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2582 
  2583 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2584 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2585 (better known as Proof General).
  2586 
  2587 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2588 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2589 
  2590 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2591 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2592 
  2593 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2594 (including quotes etc.).
  2595 
  2596 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2597 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2598 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2599 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2600 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2601 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2602 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2603 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2604 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2605 
  2606 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2607 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2608 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2609 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2610 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2611 
  2612 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2613 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2614 
  2615 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2616 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2617 
  2618 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2619 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2620 
  2621 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2622 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2623 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2624 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2625 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2627 proper Proof.context.
  2628 
  2629 
  2630 *** System ***
  2631 
  2632 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2633 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2634 
  2635 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2636 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2637 
  2638 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2639 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2640 
  2641   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2642   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2643   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2644   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2645   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2646 
  2647 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2648 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2651 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2652 example:
  2653 
  2654   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2655 
  2656 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2657 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2658 
  2659 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2660 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2661 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2662 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2663 
  2664 
  2665 
  2666 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2667 ----------------------------------
  2668 
  2669 *** General ***
  2670 
  2671 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2672 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2673 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2674 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2675 like this:
  2676 
  2677   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2678 
  2679 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2680 
  2681 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2682 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2683 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2684 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2685 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2686 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2687 
  2688 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2689 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2690 the following package declarations:
  2691 
  2692   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2693   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2694 
  2695 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2696 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2697 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2698 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2699 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2700 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2701 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2702 
  2703 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2704 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2705 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2706 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2707 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2708 
  2709 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2710 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2711 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2712 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2713 
  2714 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2715 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2716 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2717 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2718 
  2719   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2720 
  2721   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2722   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2723   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2724   show_types                    show_types
  2725   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2726   show_consts                   show_consts
  2727   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2728 
  2729   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2730   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2731   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2732 
  2733   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2734   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2735 
  2736   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2737 
  2738   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2739   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2740   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2741   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2742   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2743 
  2744 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2745 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2746 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2747 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2748 
  2749 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2753   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2754 
  2755 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2756 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2757 float_token.
  2758 
  2759 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2760 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2764 DejaVu Sans.
  2765 
  2766 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2767 
  2768 
  2769 *** Pure ***
  2770 
  2771 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2772 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2773 time.
  2774 
  2775 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2776 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2779 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2782 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2783 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2784 command already provided this functionality.
  2785 
  2786 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2787 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2788 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2789 without interpretations.
  2790 
  2791 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2792 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2793 
  2794 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2795 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2796 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2797 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2798 
  2799 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2800 'definition' instead.
  2801 
  2802 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2803 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2804 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2805 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2806 
  2807 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2808 constructors.
  2809 
  2810 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2811 the local file system.
  2812 
  2813 
  2814 *** HOL ***
  2815 
  2816 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2817 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2818 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2819 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2820 
  2821   declare [[coercion f]]
  2822 
  2823 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2824 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2825 
  2826   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2827 
  2828 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2829 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2830 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2831 other theories like this:
  2832 
  2833   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2834 
  2835 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2836 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2837 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2838 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2839 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2840 for examples.
  2841 
  2842 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2843 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2846 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2847 
  2848 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2849 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2850 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2851 
  2852 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2853 functorial structure of types.
  2854 
  2855 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2856 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2857 
  2858 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2859 languages.
  2860 
  2861 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2862 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864 
  2865 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2866 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867 
  2868 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2869 combinators any longer.
  2870 
  2871 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2872 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2873 
  2874 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2875 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2876 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2877 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2878 
  2879   record 'a foo = ...
  2880   ...
  2881   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2882 
  2883 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2884 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886 
  2887 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2888 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2889 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2890 
  2891 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2892 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2893 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2894 
  2895 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2896 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897 
  2898 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2899 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2900 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2901 independently.
  2902 
  2903 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2904 counter example search.
  2905 
  2906 * Sledgehammer:
  2907   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2908     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2909     sledgehammer").
  2910   - Renamed commands:
  2911     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2912     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2913     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2914     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915   - Renamed options:
  2916     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2917     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2918     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2919     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2920     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 * Nitpick:
  2923   - Renamed options:
  2924     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2925     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2926     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2928   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2929   - Added "whack" option.
  2930   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2931   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2932   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2933   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2934     higher cardinalities.
  2935   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2936 
  2937 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2938 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2939 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2940 
  2941     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2942 
  2943 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2944 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2945 
  2946 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2947 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2948 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2949 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2950 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2951 "smt_solver".
  2952 
  2953 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2954 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2955 
  2956 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2957 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2958 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2959 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2962   - Renamed:
  2963     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2964     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2965     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966   - Added:
  2967     smt_verbose
  2968     smt_random_seed
  2969     smt_datatypes
  2970     smt_infer_triggers
  2971     smt_monomorph_limit
  2972     cvc3_options
  2973     remote_cvc3_options
  2974     remote_z3_options
  2975     yices_options
  2976 
  2977 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2978 header.
  2979 
  2980 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2981 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2982 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2983 
  2984   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2985 
  2986 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2989 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2990 
  2991 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2994 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2997 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2998 
  2999 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3000 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3003 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3004 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007 
  3008 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3012 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3015 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3016 for congruent(2)).
  3017 
  3018 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3019 
  3020   types
  3021     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3022     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3023 
  3024   constants
  3025     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3026     True ~> HOL.True
  3027     False ~> HOL.False
  3028     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3029     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3030     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3031     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3032     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3033     The ~> HOL.The
  3034     All ~> HOL.All
  3035     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3036     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3037     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3038     If ~> HOL.If
  3039     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3040     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3041     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3042     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3043     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3044     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3045     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3046     op : ~> Set.member
  3047     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3048 
  3049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3052 
  3053     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3054     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3055     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3056     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3057     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3058     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3059     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3060     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3061 
  3062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * More stylized fact names:
  3065 
  3066   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3067   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3068   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3069   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3070 
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3074 
  3075   constants
  3076     null ~> List.null
  3077 
  3078   facts
  3079     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3080     null_empty ~> null_def
  3081 
  3082 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3083 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3084 generation.
  3085 
  3086 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3087 Haskell code.
  3088 
  3089 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3090 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3091 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3094 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3097 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3098 
  3099 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3100 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3101 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3104 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3110 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3111 referred to by its qualified name.
  3112 
  3113   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3114   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3115   product ~>  Enum.product
  3116 
  3117 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3118 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3122 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3123 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3125 
  3126 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3127 sort_key.
  3128 
  3129 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3133 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3134 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3135 
  3136   types
  3137     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3138               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3139               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3140         (depends on your needs)
  3141 
  3142   constants
  3143      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3144      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3145      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3146 
  3147 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3148 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3149 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3150 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3153 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3154 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3155 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3156 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3162 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3163 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3164 
  3165 
  3166 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3167 
  3168 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3169 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3170 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3171 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3172 compatibility.
  3173 
  3174 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3175 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3176 
  3177 
  3178 *** HOLCF ***
  3179 
  3180 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3181 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3182 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3186 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3187 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3190   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3191   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3192 
  3193 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3194 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3195 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3198 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3199 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3200 domain definition now works:
  3201 
  3202   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3203 
  3204 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3205 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3206 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3207 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3208 
  3209   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3210     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3211 
  3212   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3213 
  3214 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3215 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3216 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3217 
  3218 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3219 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3220 
  3221 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3222 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3223 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3224 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3225 
  3226 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3227 
  3228 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231 
  3232 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3236 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3237 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3238 
  3239 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3240 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3241 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3244 still supported as an input translation.
  3245 
  3246 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3247 
  3248   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3249   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3250   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3251   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3252   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3253   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3254   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3255 
  3256 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3257 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3260   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3261   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3262   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3263   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3264   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3265 
  3266 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3267 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3270 
  3271   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3272   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3273   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3274   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3275 
  3276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3279 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3282 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3285   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3286   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3287   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3288   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3289   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3290   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3291   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3292   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3293   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3294   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3295   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3296   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3297   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3298   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3299   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3300   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3301   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3302   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3303   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3304 
  3305 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3308   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3309   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3310   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3311   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3312   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3313   box_less             ~> box_below
  3314   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3315   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3316   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3317   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3318   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3319   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3320   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3321   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3322   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3323   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3324   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3325   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3326   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3327   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3328   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3329   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3330   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3331   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3332   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3333   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3334   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3335   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3336   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3337   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3338   up_less              ~> up_below
  3339   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3340   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3341   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3342   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3343   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3344   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3345   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3346   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3347   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3348   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3349   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3350   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3351   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3352 
  3353 
  3354 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3355 
  3356 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3357 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358 
  3359 
  3360 *** ML ***
  3361 
  3362 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3363 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3364 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3365 
  3366 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3367 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3368 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3369 
  3370 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3371 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3372 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3373 
  3374 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3375 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3376 
  3377 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3378 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3379 
  3380 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3381 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3382 
  3383 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3384 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3385 
  3386 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3387 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3388 almost all situations.
  3389 
  3390 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3391 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3392 Isabelle/ML.
  3393 
  3394 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3395 meaning.
  3396 
  3397 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3398 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3399 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3400 
  3401 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3402 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3403 
  3404 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3405 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3406 
  3407 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3408 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3409 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3410 
  3411 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3412 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3413 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3414 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3415 configuration options.
  3416 
  3417 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3418 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3419 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3420 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3421 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3422 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3423 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3424 
  3425 
  3426 
  3427 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3428 ---------------------------------
  3429 
  3430 *** General ***
  3431 
  3432 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3433 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3434 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3435 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3436 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3437 their full internal name.
  3438 
  3439 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3440 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3441 Some hints on upgrading:
  3442 
  3443   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3444     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3445     which are independent of this issue.
  3446 
  3447   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3448     provides the following special forms:
  3449 
  3450       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3451       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3452       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3453 
  3454     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3455     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3456     extra variables".
  3457 
  3458     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3459     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3460     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3461     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3462     "logic".
  3463 
  3464   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3465     antiquotations:
  3466 
  3467       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3468       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3469       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3470       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3471 
  3472   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3473     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3474     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3475     antiquotations.
  3476 
  3477 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3478 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3479 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3480 diagnose syntax problems.
  3481 
  3482 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3483 
  3484 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3485 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3486 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3487 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3488 
  3489 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3490 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3491 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3492 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3495 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3496 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3497 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3498 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3501 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3502 
  3503 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3504 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3505 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3506 
  3507   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3508 
  3509 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3510 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3511 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3512 
  3513 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3514 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3518 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3519 
  3520 
  3521 *** Pure ***
  3522 
  3523 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3524 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3525 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3526 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3527 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3528 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3529 inspect proof terms.
  3530 
  3531 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3532 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3533 are added internally.  For example:
  3534 
  3535   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3536 
  3537 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3538 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3543 'class' instead.
  3544 
  3545 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3546 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3550 invariants.
  3551 
  3552 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3553 user space functionality any longer.
  3554 
  3555 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3556 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3560 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3561 
  3562 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3563 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3564 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3565 
  3566 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3567 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3568 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3569 
  3570 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3571 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 
  3574 *** HOL ***
  3575 
  3576 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3577 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3578 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3579 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3580 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3581 
  3582 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3583 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3584 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3585 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3586 
  3587   fun
  3588     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3589   where
  3590     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3591 
  3592   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3593     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3594 
  3595   quotient_definition
  3596     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3597 
  3598 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3599 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3600 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3601 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3602 
  3603 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3604 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3605 
  3606 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3607 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3608 
  3609 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3613 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3614 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3615 
  3616 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3617 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3621 
  3622 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3626 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3629 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3630 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3633   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3634   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3635   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3636   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3637   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3638   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3639   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3640   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3641   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3642   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3643   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3644   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3645   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3646   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3647   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3648   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3649   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3650   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3651   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3652   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3653   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3654   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3655   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3656   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3657   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3658   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3659   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3660   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3661   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3662 
  3663 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3664 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3665 
  3666 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3667 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3668 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3669 
  3670 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3671 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3672 
  3673 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3674 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3677 
  3678 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3679 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3680 
  3681 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3682 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683 
  3684 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3685 
  3686 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3687 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3688 
  3689 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3690 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3691 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3692 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3695   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3696   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3697   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3699 
  3700 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3701 lattices):
  3702 
  3703     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3704     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3705 
  3706     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3707 
  3708     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3709     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3710     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3711     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3712     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3713     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3714     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3715     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3716     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3717     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3718     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3719     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3720     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3721 
  3722     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3723     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3724     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3725     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3726     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3727     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3728     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3729     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3730     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3731     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3732     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3733     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3734     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3735     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3736     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3737     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3738     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3739     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3740 
  3741   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3742   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3743 
  3744     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3745     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3746     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3747     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3748     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3749 
  3750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Refined field classes:
  3753   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3754     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3755     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3756   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3760   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3761   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3762   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3763     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3764   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3765     equal_neg_zero.
  3766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3767 
  3768 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3769 sets to lattices:
  3770 
  3771   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3772   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3773   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3774   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3775   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3776   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3777   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3778   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3779   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3780   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3781 
  3782 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3783 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3784 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3785 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3786 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3787 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3790 multiset order:
  3791 
  3792   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3793     <= and <;
  3794   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3795     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3796     multiset_order;
  3797   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3798     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3799     generation;
  3800   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3801     if needed.
  3802 
  3803 Renamed:
  3804 
  3805   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3806   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3807   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3808 
  3809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 
  3811 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3812 
  3813 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3814 
  3815 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3816 
  3817 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3818 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3819 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3820 
  3821   Constants:
  3822   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3823   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3824   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3825   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3826   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3827   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3828   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3829   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3830   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3831   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3832   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3833   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3834   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3835 
  3836   Lemmas:
  3837   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3838   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3839   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3840   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3841   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3842   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3843   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3844   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3845   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3846   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3847   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3848   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3849   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3850 
  3851 * Sledgehammer:
  3852   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3853     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3854     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3855     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3856     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3857     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3858     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3860   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3861     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3862   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3863     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3864     is still experimental.)
  3865   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3866     full-typed mode.
  3867   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3868 
  3869 * Nitpick:
  3870   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3871   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3872   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3873     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3874   - Added support for quotient types.
  3875   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3876     constructs.
  3877   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3878     "termination" proofs).
  3879   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3880   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3881   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3882   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3883     record getters.
  3884   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3885   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3886   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3887   - Added "atoms" option.
  3888   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3889     problems.
  3890   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3891     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3892     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3894     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3898   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3899   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3900   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3901   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3902   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3903   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3904   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3905   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3906   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 
  3909 *** HOLCF ***
  3910 
  3911 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3912 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3913 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3916 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3917 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3918 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3921 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3922 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3923 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3924 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3927 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3928 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3931 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3934   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3935 
  3936 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3937 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3940   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3941   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3942   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3943   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3944 
  3945 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3946 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3949   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3950   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3951 
  3952 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3953 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3957 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3962 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 
  3965 *** ML ***
  3966 
  3967 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3968 
  3969     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3970     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3971 
  3972     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3973     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3974     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3975     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3976 
  3977     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3978     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3979     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3980 
  3981 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3982 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3983 
  3984 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3985 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3986 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3987 
  3988 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3989 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3990 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3991 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3992 
  3993 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3994 the context or even global references.
  3995 
  3996 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3997 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3998 
  3999 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4000 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4001 
  4002   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4003   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4004   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4005   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4006   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4007   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4008   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4009   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4010   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4011   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4012 
  4013 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4014 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4015 
  4016 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4017 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4018 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4019 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4020 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4021 
  4022 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4023 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4024 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4025 Theory_Data version.
  4026 
  4027 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4028 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4029 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4030 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4031 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4032 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4033 explicitly in rare situations.
  4034 
  4035 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4036 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4040 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4041 
  4042 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4043 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4044 quite rare).
  4045 
  4046 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4047 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4050 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4051 terms.
  4052 
  4053 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4054 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4055 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4056 
  4057 
  4058 *** System ***
  4059 
  4060 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4061 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4062 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4063 
  4064 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4065 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4066 respectively.
  4067 
  4068 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4069 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4070 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4071 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4072 
  4073   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4074 
  4075 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4076 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4077 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4078 component.
  4079 
  4080 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4081 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4082 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4083 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4084 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4085 the user for manual installation.
  4086 
  4087 
  4088 
  4089 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4090 -------------------------------------
  4091 
  4092 *** General ***
  4093 
  4094 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4095 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4096 
  4097 
  4098 *** Pure ***
  4099 
  4100 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4101 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4102 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4103 
  4104 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4105 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4106 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4107 
  4108 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4109 interpretation.
  4110 
  4111 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4112 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 
  4115 *** Document preparation ***
  4116 
  4117 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4118 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4119 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4120 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4121 
  4122 
  4123 *** HOL ***
  4124 
  4125 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4126 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4127 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4128 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4129 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4130 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4131 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4132 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4133 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4134 
  4135 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4136 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4137 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4138 
  4139 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4140 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4141 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4142 
  4143 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4144 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4145 
  4146 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4147 
  4148 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4149 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4150 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4151 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4152 
  4153 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4154 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4155 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4156 "mirabelle" utility.
  4157 
  4158 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4159 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4160 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4161 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4162 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4163 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4164 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4165 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4166 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4167 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4168 
  4169 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4170 procedure only.
  4171 
  4172 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4173 
  4174 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4175 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4176 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4177 that fail later.
  4178 
  4179 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4180 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4181 
  4182 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4183 the same method as the approximation method.
  4184 
  4185 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4186 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4187 series expansion.
  4188 
  4189 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4190 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4191 
  4192 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4193 reals.
  4194 
  4195 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4196 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4197 
  4198 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4199 fixpoint theorem.
  4200 
  4201 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4202   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4203     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4204   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4205     accordingly
  4206   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4207     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4208   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4209     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4210 
  4211 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4212 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4213 lattice.
  4214 
  4215 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4216 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4217 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4218 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4219 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4220 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4222 
  4223 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4224   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4225     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4226   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4227     le_inf_iff
  4228   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4229     sup_aci)
  4230   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4231   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4232   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4233     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4234     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4235     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4236     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4237     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4238     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4239     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4240     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4241     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4242     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4243   - authentic syntax for
  4244     Set.Pow
  4245     Set.image
  4246   - mere abbreviations:
  4247     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4248     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4249     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4250     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4251     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4252     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4253     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4254     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4255   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4256 
  4257 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4258 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4259 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4260 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4261 
  4262 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4263 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4264 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4267 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4270 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4271 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4272 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4273 
  4274 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4275 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4276 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4277 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4278 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4279 
  4280 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4281 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4283 
  4284 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4285 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4288 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4289 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4290 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4291 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4292 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4293 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4297     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4298     code_post       replaces    code post
  4299     etc.
  4300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * Renamed methods:
  4303     sizechange -> size_change
  4304     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4305   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4308 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4309 
  4310 * Renamed theorems:
  4311     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4312     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4313     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4314     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4315     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4316   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 
  4325 *** HOLCF ***
  4326 
  4327 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4328 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4329 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4330 
  4331 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4332 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4333 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4334 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4335 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4336 
  4337 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4338 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4339 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4340 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4341 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4342 
  4343 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4344 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4345 constructor are pre-configured.
  4346 
  4347 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4348 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4349 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4350 
  4351 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4352 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4353 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4354 as well.)
  4355 
  4356 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4357 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4358 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4359 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4360 examples.
  4361 
  4362 
  4363 *** ML ***
  4364 
  4365 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4366 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4367 
  4368 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4369 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4370 position, logical grouping etc.
  4371 
  4372 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4373 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4374 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4375 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4376 
  4377 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4378 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4379 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4380 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4381 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4382 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4383 
  4384 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4385 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4386 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4387 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4388 experiments with references.
  4389 
  4390 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4391 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4392 
  4393 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4394 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4395 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4396 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4397 
  4398 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4399 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4400 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4401 
  4402 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4403 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4404 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4405 
  4406 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4412 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4413 
  4414 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4415 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4416 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4417 
  4418 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4419 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4420 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4423 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4424 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4428 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4429 instead of global theory.
  4430 
  4431 
  4432 *** System ***
  4433 
  4434 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4435 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4436 usedir option -q.
  4437 
  4438 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4439 also the system manual.
  4440 
  4441 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4442 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4443 
  4444 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4445 this is always enabled.
  4446 
  4447 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4448 
  4449 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4450 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4451 currently supported on Linux only.
  4452 
  4453 
  4454 
  4455 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4456 --------------------------------
  4457 
  4458 *** General ***
  4459 
  4460 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4461 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4462 
  4463   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4464     "isatool."
  4465 
  4466   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4467     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4468 
  4469   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4470     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4471 
  4472 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4473 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4474 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4475 
  4476 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4477 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4478 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4479 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4480 via "isabelle emacs".
  4481 
  4482 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4483 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4484 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4485 
  4486 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4487 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4488 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4489 
  4490 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4491 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4492 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4493 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4494 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4495 
  4496 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4497 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4498 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4499 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4500 
  4501 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4502 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4503 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4504 
  4505 
  4506 *** Pure ***
  4507 
  4508 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4509 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4510 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4511 
  4512 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4513 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4514 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4515 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4516 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4517 
  4518 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4519 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4520 useful in locale declarations.
  4521 
  4522 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4523 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4524 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4525 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4526 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4527 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4528 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4529 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4530 no longer generated.
  4531 
  4532 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4533 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4534 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4535 
  4536 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4537 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4538 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4539 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4540 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4541 
  4542 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4543 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4544 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4545 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4546 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4547 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4548 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4549 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4550 
  4551 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4552 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4553 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4554 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4555 
  4556 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4559 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4560 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4561 
  4562 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4563 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4564 
  4565 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4566 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4567 in HOL, write
  4568 
  4569     class foo = ...
  4570 
  4571 instead of
  4572 
  4573     class foo = type + ...
  4574 
  4575 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4576 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4579 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4580 
  4581 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4582 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4583 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4584 
  4585 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4586 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4587 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4589 directly in regular applications.
  4590 
  4591 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4592 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4593 
  4594 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4595 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4596 
  4597 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4598 theory context.
  4599 
  4600 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4601 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4602 
  4603 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4604 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4605 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4606 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4607 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4608 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4609 
  4610   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4611 
  4612 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4613 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4614 normalization.
  4615 
  4616 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4617 addressing etc.
  4618 
  4619 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4620 
  4621   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4622   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4623 
  4624 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4625 
  4626   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4627      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4628      parts of the code generator framework).
  4629 
  4630   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4631      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4632      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4633 
  4634 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4635 
  4636 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4637 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4638 
  4639 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4640 patterns, e.g.
  4641 
  4642     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4643 
  4644 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4645 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4646 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4647 hyphen:
  4648 
  4649     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4650 
  4651 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4652 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4653 
  4654 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4655 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4656 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4657 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4658 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4659 higher-order unification.
  4660 
  4661 
  4662 *** Document preparation ***
  4663 
  4664 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4665 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4666 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4667 
  4668 
  4669 *** HOL ***
  4670 
  4671 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4672 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4673 
  4674 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4675 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4676 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4677 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4678 Main, as before.
  4679 
  4680 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4681 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4682 
  4683 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4684 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4685 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4686 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4687 
  4688 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4689 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4690 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4691 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4692 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4693 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4694 
  4695 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4696 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4697 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4698 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4699 
  4700 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4701 menu.
  4702 
  4703 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4704 (contains the empty clause).
  4705 
  4706 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4707 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4708 
  4709 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4710 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4711 
  4712 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4713 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4714 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4717 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4718 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4719 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4720 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4721 
  4722 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4723 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4724 
  4725 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4726 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4727 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4728 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4729 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4730 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4731 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4732 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4733 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4734 
  4735 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4736 
  4737 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4738 
  4739 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4740 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741 
  4742 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4743 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4744 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4745 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4746 
  4747 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4748 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4749 
  4750     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4751     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4752     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4753     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4754     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4755     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4756     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4757     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4758 
  4759 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4760 theory Set.
  4761 
  4762 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4763 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4764 
  4765 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4766 
  4767 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4768 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4769 
  4770 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4771 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4772 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4773 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4774 allowed. For examples see
  4775 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4776 
  4777 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4778 
  4779 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4781 
  4782 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4783 structure:
  4784 
  4785     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4786     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4787     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4788     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4789     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4790     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4791     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4792     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4793     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4794     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4795     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4796     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4797     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4798     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4799     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4800     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4801     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4802     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4803     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4804     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4805     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4806     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4807     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4808     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4809     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4810     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4811     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4812     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4813     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4814     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4815     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4816     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4817     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4818 
  4819     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4820     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4821     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4822     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4823     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4824     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4825     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4826     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4827     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4828     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4829 
  4830     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4831     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4832     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4833     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4834     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4835     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4836 
  4837 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4838 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4839 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4840 
  4841 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4842 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4843 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4844 
  4845 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4846 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4849 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4850 
  4851 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4852 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4853 proofs, e.g.
  4854 
  4855   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4856 
  4857 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4858 
  4859 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4860 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4861 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4862 
  4863 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4864 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4868 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4869 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4873 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4874 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4875 preorder_class.*.
  4876 
  4877 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4878 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4879 
  4880 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4881 
  4882   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4883 
  4884 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4885 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4886 fold_image.
  4887 
  4888 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4889 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4890 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4891 the former will disappear at some point.
  4892 
  4893 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4894 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4895 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4896 
  4897 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4898 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4899 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4900 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4901 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4902 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4903 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4904 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4905 
  4906 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4907 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4908 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4909 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4910 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4911 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4912 
  4913     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4914     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4915     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4916     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4917     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4918     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4919     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4920 
  4921 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4922 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4923 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4924 
  4925 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4926 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4927 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4928 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4929 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4930 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4931 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4932 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4933 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4934 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4935 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4936 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4937 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4938 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4939 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4940 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4941 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4942 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4943 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4944 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4945 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4946 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4947 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4948 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4949 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4950 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4951 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4952 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4953 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4954 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4955 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4956 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4957 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4958 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4959 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4960 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4961 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4962 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4963 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4964 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4965 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4966 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4967 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4968 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4969 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4970 
  4971 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4972 
  4973 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4974 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4975 
  4976 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4977 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4978 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4979 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4980 
  4981 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4982 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4983 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4984 theory RealVector.
  4985 
  4986 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4987 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4988 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4989 and inner products are included.
  4990 
  4991 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4992 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4993 supported.
  4994 
  4995 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4996 first diagonalization argument.
  4997 
  4998 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4999 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5000 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5001 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5002 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5003 
  5004     hide (open) const gcd
  5005     abbreviation gcd where
  5006       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5007     notation (output)
  5008       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5009 
  5010 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5011 
  5012 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5013 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5014 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5017 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5018 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5019 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5020 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5021 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5022 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5023 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5024 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5025 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5026 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5027 cases.
  5028 
  5029 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5030 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5031 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5032 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5033 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5034 
  5035     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5036     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5037     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5038     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5039     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5040 
  5041 
  5042 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5043 
  5044 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5045 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5046 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5047 
  5048 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5049 
  5050 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5051 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5052 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5053 
  5054 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5055 
  5056 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5057 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5058 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5059 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5060 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5061 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5062 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5063 
  5064 
  5065 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5066 
  5067 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5068 
  5069 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5070 theory targets.
  5071 
  5072 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5073 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5074 'inductive' etc.
  5075 
  5076 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5077 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5078 
  5079 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5080 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5081 
  5082 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5083 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5084 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5085 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5086 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5087 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5088 the algorithm W:
  5089 
  5090  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5091  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5092          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5093 
  5094 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5095 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5096 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5097 
  5098 
  5099 *** HOLCF ***
  5100 
  5101 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5102 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5103 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5104 
  5105 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5106 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5107 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5108 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5109 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5110 
  5111 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5112 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5113 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5114 
  5115 
  5116 *** ZF ***
  5117 
  5118 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5119 
  5120 
  5121 *** ML ***
  5122 
  5123 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5124 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5125 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5126 5.2.1!
  5127 
  5128 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5129 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5130 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5131 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5132 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5133 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5134 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5135 
  5136 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5137 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5138 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5139 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5140 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5141 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5142 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5143 
  5144 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5145 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5146 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5147 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5148 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5149 
  5150 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5151 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5152 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5153 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5154 Method.add_method.
  5155 
  5156 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5157 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5158 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5159 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5160 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5161 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5162 
  5163 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5164 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5165 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5166 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5167 examples.
  5168 
  5169 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5170 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5171 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5172 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5173 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5174 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5175 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5176 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5177 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5178 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5179 
  5180 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5181 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5182 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5183 
  5184 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5185 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5186 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5187 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5188 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5189 resort for legacy applications.
  5190 
  5191 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5192 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5193 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5194 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5195 explicit runtime argument.
  5196 
  5197 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5198 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5199 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5200 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5201 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5202 
  5203 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5204 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5205 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5206 theory state.
  5207 
  5208 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5209 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5210 
  5211   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5212   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5213   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5214   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5215   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5216   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5217   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5218   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5219   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5220   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5221 
  5222 
  5223 *** System ***
  5224 
  5225 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5226 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5227 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5228 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5229 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5230 
  5231 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5232 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5233 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5234 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5235 
  5236 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5237 
  5238 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5239 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5240 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5241 prover operations.
  5242 
  5243 
  5244 
  5245 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5246 -------------------------------
  5247 
  5248 *** General ***
  5249 
  5250 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5251 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5252 
  5253 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5254 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5255 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5256 provides a proper context already.
  5257 
  5258 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5259 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5260 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5261 
  5262 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5263 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5264 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5265 swap theory imports.
  5266 
  5267 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5268 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5269 
  5270 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5271 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5272 white space without escapes.
  5273 
  5274 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5275 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5276 "foo_bar".
  5277 
  5278 
  5279 *** Pure ***
  5280 
  5281 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5282 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5283 
  5284 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5285 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5286 
  5287 (1) unused_thms
  5288      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5289 
  5290 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5291      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5292      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5293 
  5294 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5295      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5296      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5297      their ancestors.
  5298 
  5299 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5300 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5301 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5302 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5303 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5304 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5305 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5306 
  5307 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5308 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5309 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5310 
  5311 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5312 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5313 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5314 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5315 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5316 
  5317 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5318 
  5319 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5320 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5321 update of theories within ML code.
  5322 
  5323 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5324 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5325 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5326 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5327 
  5328 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5329 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5330 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5332 
  5333 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5334 
  5335 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5336 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5337 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5338 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5339 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5340 
  5341 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5342 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5343 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5344 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5345 situations.
  5346 
  5347 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5348 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5349 proof text.
  5350 
  5351 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5352 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5353 
  5354 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5355 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5356 predicates.
  5357 
  5358 
  5359 *** Document preparation ***
  5360 
  5361 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5362 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5363 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5364 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5365 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5366 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5367 
  5368 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5369 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5370 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5371 
  5372 
  5373 *** HOL ***
  5374 
  5375 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5376 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5377 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5378 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5379 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5380 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5381 
  5382 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5383 with multithreading.
  5384 
  5385 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5386 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5387 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5388 
  5389 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5390 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5391 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5392 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5393 
  5394 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5395 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5396 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5397 and makes them available separately.  See
  5398 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5399 
  5400 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5401 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5402 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5403 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5404 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5405 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5406 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5407 the declared rules.
  5408 
  5409 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5410 
  5411   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5412 
  5413 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5414 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5415 
  5416 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5417 
  5418   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5419 
  5420   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5421     definitions on => and bool.
  5422 
  5423   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5424     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5425     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5426 
  5427       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5428       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5429       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5430       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5431       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5432       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5433       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5434       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5435 
  5436   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5437     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5438     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5439 
  5440   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5441     The proof pattern
  5442 
  5443       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5444       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5445 
  5446     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5447     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5448 
  5449       have "EX S. P S"
  5450       proof
  5451         show "P S" <...>
  5452       qed
  5453 
  5454   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5455     The proof pattern
  5456 
  5457       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5458       also have "S = T" <...>
  5459       finally have "P T" .
  5460 
  5461     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5462     must be replaced by something like
  5463 
  5464       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5465       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5466       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5467 
  5468   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5469     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5470 
  5471       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5472 
  5473     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5474     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5475     type of the form
  5476 
  5477       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5478 
  5479     rather than
  5480 
  5481       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5482 
  5483 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5484 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5485 
  5486 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5487 
  5488 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5489 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5491 
  5492 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5493 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5494 
  5495 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5496 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5499 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5500 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5501 
  5502 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5503 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5504 
  5505   less_trans
  5506   less_linear
  5507   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5508   le_less_trans
  5509   less_le_trans
  5510   less_not_sym
  5511   less_asym
  5512 
  5513 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5514 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5515 and different variable names.
  5516 
  5517 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5518 
  5519 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5520 finite maps.
  5521 
  5522 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5523 
  5524 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5525 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5526 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5527 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5528 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5529 accordingly.
  5530 
  5531 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5532 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5533 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5534 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5535 
  5536 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5537 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5538 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5539 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5540 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5542 
  5543 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5544 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5545 
  5546 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5547 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5548 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5549 
  5550 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5552 
  5553 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5554 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5555 
  5556 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5557 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5558 
  5559 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5560 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5561 
  5562 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5563 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5567 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5568 
  5569 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5570 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5571 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5572 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5573 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5574 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5575 
  5576 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5577 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5578 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5579 
  5580 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5581 
  5582 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5583 
  5584 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5585 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5586 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5587 
  5588 
  5589 *** ZF ***
  5590 
  5591 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5592 same session:
  5593 
  5594   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5595   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5596   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5597   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5598   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5599   List      -> List_ZF
  5600   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5601 
  5602 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5603 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5604 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5605 
  5606 
  5607 *** ML ***
  5608 
  5609 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5610 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5611 
  5612 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5613 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5614 
  5615 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5616 
  5617 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5618 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5619 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5620 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5621 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5622 
  5623 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5624 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5625 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5626 
  5627 
  5628 *** System ***
  5629 
  5630 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5631 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5632 
  5633 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5634 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5635 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5636 
  5637 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5638 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5639 
  5640 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5641 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5642 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5643 
  5644 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5645 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5646 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5647 
  5648 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5649 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5650 
  5651 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5652 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5653 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5654 script.
  5655 
  5656 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5657 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5658 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5659 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5660 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5661 
  5662 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5663 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5664 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5665 
  5666 
  5667 
  5668 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5669 -----------------------------------
  5670 
  5671 *** General ***
  5672 
  5673 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5674 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5675 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5676 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5677 
  5678 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5679 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5680 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5681 
  5682 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5683 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5684 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5685 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5686 
  5687 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5688 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5689 quotes.
  5690 
  5691 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5692 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5693 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5694 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5695 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5696 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5697 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5698 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5699 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5700 
  5701 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5702 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5703 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5704 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5705 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5706 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5707 
  5708 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5709 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5710 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5711 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5712 
  5713 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5714 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5715 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5716 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5717 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5718 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5719 
  5720 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5721 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5722 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5723 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5724 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5725 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5726 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5727 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5728 
  5729 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5730 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5731 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5732 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5733 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5734 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5735 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5736 
  5737 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5738 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5739 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5740 
  5741 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5742 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5743 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5744 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5745 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5746 limit is imposed.
  5747 
  5748 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5749 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5750 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5751 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5752 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5753 and scalability.
  5754 
  5755 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5756 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5757 
  5758 
  5759 *** Document preparation ***
  5760 
  5761 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5762 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5763 current context.
  5764 
  5765 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5766 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5767 
  5768 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5769 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5770 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5771 
  5772 
  5773 *** Pure ***
  5774 
  5775 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5776 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5777 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5778 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5779 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5780 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5781 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5782 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5783 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5784 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5785 
  5786 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5787 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5788 sketch:
  5789 
  5790     internal compilation:
  5791         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5792     writing SML code to a file:
  5793         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5794     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5795         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5796     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5797         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5798 
  5799     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5800         method ``eval''
  5801 
  5802 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5803 
  5804 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5805 
  5806     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5807     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5808     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5809     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5810 
  5811 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5812 
  5813     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5814       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5815 
  5816     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5817       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5818 
  5819     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5820       {(target)}+
  5821         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5822 
  5823     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5824       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5825         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5826 
  5827 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5828 
  5829 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5830 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5831 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5832 codegen".
  5833 
  5834 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5835 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5836 annotations).
  5837 
  5838 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5839 syntax.
  5840 
  5841 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5842 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5843 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5844 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5845 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5846 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5847 
  5848 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5849 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5850 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5851 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5852 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5853 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5854 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5855 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5856 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5857 equations, see section "definitions".
  5858 
  5859 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5860 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5861 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5862 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5863 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5864 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5865 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5866 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5867 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5868 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5869 
  5870 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5871 configuration options:
  5872 
  5873   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5874   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5875   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5876   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5877   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5878   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5879   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5880   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5881   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5882 
  5883 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5884 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5885 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5886 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5887 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5888 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5889 order.
  5890 
  5891 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5892 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5893 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5894 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5895 context encountered later on.
  5896 
  5897 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5898 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5899 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5900 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5901 
  5902 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5903 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5904 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5905 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5906 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5907 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5908 
  5909 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5910 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5911 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5912 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5913 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5914 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5915 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5916 more permissive.
  5917 
  5918 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5919 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5920 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5921 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5922 maintainability of proof texts.
  5923 
  5924 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5925 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5926 
  5927   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5928   then guess x and y by clarify
  5929 
  5930 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5931 proof tools being involved here.
  5932 
  5933 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5934 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5935 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5936 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5937 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5938 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5939 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5940 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5941 
  5942 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5943 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5944 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5945 
  5946   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5947   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5948   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5949   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5950 
  5951 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5952 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5953 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5954 
  5955 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5956 both named and unnamed ones.
  5957 
  5958 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5959 
  5960   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5961 
  5962 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5963 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5964 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5965 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5966 
  5967 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5968 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5969 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5970 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5971 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5972 
  5973 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5974 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5975 
  5976 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5977 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5978 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5979 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5980 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5981 originally first one.
  5982 
  5983 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5984 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5985 expected.
  5986 
  5987 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5988 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5989 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5990 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5991 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5992 
  5993   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5994     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5995     obtains x where "P x"
  5996 
  5997   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5998     assumes "A & B"
  5999     obtains A and B
  6000 
  6001   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6002     assumes "A | B"
  6003     obtains
  6004       A
  6005     | B
  6006 
  6007 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6008 explicitly:
  6009 
  6010   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6011     obtains "~ thesis"
  6012 
  6013   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6014     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6015 
  6016 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6017 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6018 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6019 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6020 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6021 case_names).
  6022 
  6023 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6024 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6025 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6026 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6027 
  6028 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6029 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6030 top-level lemma.
  6031 
  6032 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6033 introduction rule (default "that").
  6034 
  6035 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6036 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6037 to occur.
  6038 
  6039 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6040 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6041 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6042 representations independently of name spaces.
  6043 
  6044 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6045 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6046 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6047 
  6048 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6049 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6050 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6051 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6052 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6053 current context.
  6054 
  6055 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6056 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6057 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6058 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6059 
  6060   axiomatization
  6061     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6062     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6063 
  6064   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6065   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6066 
  6067   abbreviation
  6068     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6069     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6070 
  6071 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6072 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6073 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6074 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6075 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6076 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6077 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6078 
  6079 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6080 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6081 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6082 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6083 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6084 
  6085 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6086 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6087 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6088 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6089 
  6090 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6091 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6092 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6093 
  6094   definition "K x _ = x"
  6095 
  6096   inductive conj for A B
  6097   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6098 
  6099 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6100 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6101 abbreviations on output.
  6102 
  6103 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6104 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6105 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6106 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6107 
  6108 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6109 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6110 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6111 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6112 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6113 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6114 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6115 
  6116 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6117 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6118 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6119 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6120 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6121 
  6122 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6123 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6124 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6125 
  6126 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6127 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6128 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6129 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6130 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6131 
  6132   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6133     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6134 
  6135 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6136 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6137 partial_order.
  6138 
  6139 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6140 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6141 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6142 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6143 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6144 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6145 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6146 examples.
  6147 
  6148 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6149 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6150 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6151 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6152 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6153 
  6154 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6155 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6156 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6157 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6158 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6159 
  6160   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6161   (induct set: foo bar)
  6162   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6163   (induct type: foo bar)
  6164 
  6165 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6166 new format.
  6167 
  6168 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6169 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6170 
  6171 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6172 considered a legacy feature.
  6173 
  6174 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6175 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6176 
  6177 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6178 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6179 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6180 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6181   
  6182 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6183 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6184 manipulating the claset.
  6185 
  6186 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6187 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6188 least one premise.
  6189 
  6190 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6191 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6192 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6193 rule steps.
  6194 
  6195 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6196 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6197 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6198 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6199 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6200 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6201 
  6202 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6203 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6204 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6205 
  6206 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6207 the graph browser tool.
  6208 
  6209 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6210 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6211 
  6212 
  6213 *** HOL ***
  6214 
  6215 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6216 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6217 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6218 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6219 multi-threading.
  6220   
  6221 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6222 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6223 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6224 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6225 work with multi-threading.
  6226 
  6227 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6228 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6229 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6230 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6231 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6232 
  6233 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6234 
  6235 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6236 equality.
  6237 
  6238 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6239 the new 'class' package:
  6240 
  6241     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6242     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6243     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6244     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6245     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6246     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6247     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6248     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6249     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6250     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6251     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6252     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6253     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6254     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_