NEWS
author paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
Wed Apr 01 14:48:38 2015 +0100 (2015-04-01)
changeset 59870 68d6b6aa4450
parent 59868 b1cd0c962780
child 59903 9d70a39d1cf3
permissions -rw-r--r--
HOL Light Libraries for complex Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    10 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    11 
    12 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
    13 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
    14 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
    15 different index.
    16 
    17 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    18 theory context.
    19 
    20 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    21 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    22 supersedes functor Named_Thms, but with a subtle change of semantics due
    23 to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    24 
    25 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    26 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    27 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    28 
    29 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    30 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    31 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    32 
    33 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    34 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    35 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    36 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    37 
    38 
    39 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    40 
    41 * Old graph browser (Java/AWT 1.0) is superseded by improved graphview
    42 panel, which also includes PDF output.
    43 
    44 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    45 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    46 
    47 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    48 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    49 in the buffer.
    50 
    51 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    52 marker, SideKick parser.
    53 
    54 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    55 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be opened
    56 in the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
    57 
    58 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
    59 Options / Text Area).
    60 
    61 
    62 *** Pure ***
    63 
    64 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
    65 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
    66 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
    67 
    68 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
    69 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
    70 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
    71 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
    72 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
    73 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
    74 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
    75 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
    76 
    77 * Command "class_deps" takes optional sort arguments constraining
    78 the search space.
    79 
    80 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigend numerals: categories "num"
    81 and "float" are unsigend.  INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
    82 of numeral signs, particulary in expressions involving infix syntax like
    83 "(- 1) ^ n".
    84 
    85 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
    86 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
    87 token category instead.
    88 
    89 
    90 *** HOL ***
    91 
    92 * Given up separate type class no_zero_divisors in favour of fully algebraic
    93 semiring_no_zero_divisors.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    94 
    95 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
    96 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    97 
    98 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
    99 `inverse 0 = 0`.  Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   100 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero.
   101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   102 
   103 * Type classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify
   104 explicit additive inverse operation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * New proof method "rewrite" (in ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   107   single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   108 
   109 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any "'{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}"
   110   type, so in particular on "real" and "complex" uniformly.
   111   Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be needed.
   112 
   113 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin, cos, tan, exp,
   114   Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   115 
   116 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort that admits
   117   numeric types including nat, int, real and complex. INCOMPATIBILITY:
   118   an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type constraint, and the combination
   119   "real (fact k)" is likely to be unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary,
   120   then use "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   121 
   122 * removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling",
   123   use "nat o floor" and "nat o ceiling" instead.
   124   A few of the lemmas have been retained and adapted: in their names
   125   "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   126 
   127 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping
   128 the type class hierarchy:
   129   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   130   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   131   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   132   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   133 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   136   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   137   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   138 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   141 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   142 
   143 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   144 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   145 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   146 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality
   150 
   151 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   152   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   153   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   154   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   155 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   158 and part of HOL-Main.
   159   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   161 
   162 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1
   163 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   166   non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   167   field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try
   168   to add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps.
   169 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   172 Fact rename:
   173     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   177 (again), where the previous strategy (nbe after ML) serves as default.
   178 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   179 
   180 * New (co)datatype package:
   181   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   182     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   183     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   184     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186   - Renamed theorems:
   187       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   188       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   189       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   190       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   191       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   192       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   193       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   194       sel_map ~> map_sel
   195       sel_set ~> set_sel
   196       sel_split ~> split_sel
   197       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   198       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   199       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   200     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   201   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   202     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   203     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   205     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   206     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   208     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   209     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   210     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   211     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   212     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   213     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214   - Renamed theories:
   215       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   216       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   217       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   218       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   219       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   220       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   221     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223 * Old datatype package:
   224   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   225     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   226     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   227     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   228     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229   - Renamed theorems:
   230       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   231     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232   - Renamed theory:
   233       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   234     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   237 
   238 * Nitpick:
   239   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and nonstrict subset
   240     operations.
   241 
   242 * Sledgehammer:
   243   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   244     default.
   245   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   246     Removed subcommand:
   247       min
   248   - The proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   249     dramatically improved.
   250   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   251 
   252 * Old and new SMT modules:
   253   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   254     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   255     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   256     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   257     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   258     point to it.
   259     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   261     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   262   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   263     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   264   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   265     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   266 
   267 * List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to Cons_nth_drop_Suc
   268 
   269 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   270 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   271 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   272 
   273 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   274 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   275 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   276 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   279   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   280   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   281     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   282   - Renamed
   283       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   284     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   285   - Added attributes:
   286       image_mset.id [simp]
   287       image_mset_id [simp]
   288       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   289       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   290       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   291       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   292       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   293       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   294     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295 
   296 * HOL-Decision_Procs:
   297   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[approximation] for
   298     inequalities of transcendental functions.
   299     Uses hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover
   300     potential counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the
   301     'approximation' method.
   302     See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   303     examples.
   304 
   305 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   306   - applies destructor rules repeatetly
   307   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   308   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   309     projection
   310 
   311 
   312 *** Document preparation ***
   313 
   314 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   315 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   316 
   317 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   318 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   319 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   320 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   321 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   322 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   323 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   324 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   327 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   328 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   329 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   330 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   331 
   332 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   333 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   334 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   335 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   336 
   337 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   338 style.
   339 
   340 
   341 *** ML ***
   342 
   343 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   344 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   345 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347 
   348 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   349 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   350 Thm.term_of etc.
   351 
   352 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   353 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   354 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   355 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   356 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   357 nested.
   358 
   359 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   360 Input.source (with formal position information).
   361 
   362 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   363 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   364 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365 
   366 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   367 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   368 
   369 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are
   370 available as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of
   371 quadruples.
   372 
   373 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   375 
   376 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala):
   377 subtle change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378 
   379 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   380 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   381 
   382 
   383 *** System ***
   384 
   385 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   386 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   389 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   390 
   391 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   392 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   393 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   394 
   395 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   396 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   397 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   398 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   399 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   400 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   401 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted.  Minor
   404 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_semicolons" to remove obsolete
   405 semicolons from theory sources.
   406 
   407 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   408 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   409 
   410 
   411 
   412 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   413 ---------------------------------
   414 
   415 *** General ***
   416 
   417 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   418 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   419 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   420 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   421 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   422 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   423 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   424 some examples.
   425 
   426 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   427 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   428 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   429 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   430 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   431 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   432 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   433 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   434 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   435 
   436 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   437 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   438 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   439 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   440 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   441 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   442 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   443 proof tools.
   444 
   445 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   446 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   447 supports input via ` (backquote).
   448 
   449 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   450 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   451 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   452 
   453 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   454 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   455 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   456 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   459 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   460 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   464 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   465 
   466 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   467 not check existence within the file-system.
   468 
   469 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   470 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   471 
   472 
   473 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   474 
   475 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   476 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   477 buffer.
   478 
   479 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   480 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   481 
   482 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   483 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   484 
   485 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   486 auxiliary ML files.
   487 
   488 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   489 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   490 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   491 
   492 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   493 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   494 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   495 
   496 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   497 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   498 
   499 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   500 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   501 caret".
   502 
   503 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   504 completion popup and context-menu.
   505 
   506 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   507 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   508 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   509 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   510 
   511 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   512 to highlight text via regular expression.
   513 
   514 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   515 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   516 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   517 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   518 
   519 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   520 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   521 
   522 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   523 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   524 
   525 * Improved monitor panel.
   526 
   527 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   528 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   529 
   530 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   531 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   532 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   533 
   534 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   535 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   536 within the context.
   537 
   538 
   539 *** Pure ***
   540 
   541 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   542 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   543 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   544 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   545 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   546 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   547 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   548 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   549 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   550 
   551 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   552 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   553 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   554 renaming needs to be applied:
   555 
   556   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   557   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   558   all            ~>  Pure.all
   559   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   560   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   561 
   562 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   563 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   564 old constants:
   565 
   566 setup {*
   567   fn thy => thy
   568     |> Sign.root_path
   569     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   570     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   571     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   572     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   573 *}
   574 
   575 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   576 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   577 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   578 
   579 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   580 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   581 instantiated theorem.
   582 
   583 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   584 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   585 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   586 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   587 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   588 
   589   attribute_setup standard =
   590     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   591 
   592 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   593 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   594 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   595 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   596 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   597 
   598 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   599 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   600 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   601 
   602 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   603 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   604 
   605 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   606 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   607 
   608 
   609 *** HOL ***
   610 
   611 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   612 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   621 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   625 
   626 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   627 with the given constants.
   628 
   629 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   630 operations on records.
   631 
   632 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   633 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   638 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   639 
   640 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   641 
   642 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   643 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   644 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   645 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   646 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   649 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   652   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   653   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   654   part of theory "Main".
   655 
   656   Theory renamings:
   657     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   658     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   659     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   660     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   661     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   662     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   663     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   664     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   665     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   666     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   667     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   668     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   669     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   670     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   671     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   672     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   673     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   674     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   675     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   676     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   677     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   678     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   679 
   680   New theories:
   681     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   682     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   683     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   684     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   685     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   686 
   687   Discontinued theories:
   688     BNF/BNF.thy
   689     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   690 
   691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * New (co)datatype package:
   694   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   695   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   696     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   697   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   698     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   699   - Renamed commands:
   700       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   701       primrec_new ~> primrec
   702       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   703     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   705     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   706     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   708     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   709     using "prim(co)rec".
   710     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   712     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   713     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   715     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   716     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   717     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * Old datatype package:
   720   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   721     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   722     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   724     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   725     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   726 
   727 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   728   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   729   BNF-based datatype package.
   730 
   731   Renamed constants:
   732     Option.set ~> set_option
   733     Option.map ~> map_option
   734     option_rel ~> rel_option
   735 
   736   Renamed theorems:
   737     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   738     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   739     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   740     option.recs ~> option.rec
   741     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   742     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   743     map.simps ~> list.map
   744     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   745     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   746     the.simps ~> option.sel
   747 
   748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   751     sum_map ~> map_sum
   752     map_pair ~> map_prod
   753     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   754     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   755     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   756     set_rel ~> rel_set
   757     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   758     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   759     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   760     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   761 
   762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   763 
   764 * Lifting and Transfer:
   765   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   766   - stronger reflexivity prover
   767   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   768   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   769     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   770     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   771       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   772       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   773       automatically
   774     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   775     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   776       automatically for datatypes
   777   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   778     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   779       more
   780       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   781     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   782       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   783       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   785       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   786       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   787   - registration of code equations is more robust
   788     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   790     form
   791     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   793     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   794   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   795     Code_Numeral.natural
   796     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   797   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   798     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   801 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   802 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   803 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   804 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   805 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   806 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   809 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   810 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   811 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   812 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   813 
   814 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   815 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   816 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   817 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   818 
   819 * Sledgehammer:
   820   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   821   - MaSh overhaul:
   822     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   823       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   824     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   825       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   826       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   827       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   828   - New option:
   829       smt_proofs
   830   - Renamed options:
   831       isar_compress ~> compress
   832       isar_try0 ~> try0
   833 
   834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835 
   836 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   837 
   838 * Nitpick:
   839   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   840     take infinite values.
   841   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   842     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   843   - Removed "std" option.
   844   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   845     "hide_types".
   846 
   847 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   848 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   851 
   852 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   853   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   854   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   855     SUP instead uniformly.
   856   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   857     or SUP and Sup.
   858   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   859   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   860   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   861     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   862     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   863 
   864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   867 
   868 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   869 
   870   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   871   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   872   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   873   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   874 
   875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   878 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   879 
   880 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   881 
   882     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   883     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   884     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   885     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   886     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   887     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   888     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   889     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   890     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   891     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   892     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   893     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   894     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   895     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   896     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   897     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   898     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   899     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   900     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   901     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   902     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   903     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   904     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   905     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   906     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   907     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   908     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   909     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   910     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   911     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   912     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   913     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   914     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   915     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   916     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   917     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   918     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   919     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   920     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   921     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   922     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   923     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   924     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   925     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   926     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   927     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   928     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   929     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   930     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   931     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   932     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   933     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   934     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   935     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   936     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   937     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   938     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   939     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   940     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   941 
   942   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   943   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   944   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   945     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   946 
   947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   948 
   949 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   950 
   951   Fact consolidations:
   952     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   953     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   954     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   955     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   956     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   957     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   958     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   959     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   960     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   961     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   962     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   963     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   964     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   965     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   966     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   967     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   968     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   969     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   970     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   971     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   972     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   973     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   974     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   975     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   976     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   977     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   978     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   979     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   980     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   981     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   982     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   983     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   984     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   985     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   986     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   987     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   988     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   989     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   990     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   991     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   992 
   993 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   994 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   995 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   996 
   997 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
   998 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   999 
  1000 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1001 
  1002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1005 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1006 
  1007 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1011     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1012 
  1013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1016   consolidation:
  1017     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1018     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1019 
  1020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1023   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1024   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1025   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1026     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1027   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1028     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1029   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1030 
  1031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1032 
  1033 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1034 
  1035     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1036     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1037     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1038     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1039     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1040     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1041     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1042     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1043     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1044     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1045     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1046     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1047     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1048 
  1049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1050 
  1051 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1052 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1053 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1054 
  1055 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1056     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1057     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1058     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1059     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1060 
  1061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1062 
  1063 * Fact name consolidation:
  1064     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1065     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1066     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1067     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1068     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1069 
  1070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1073 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1074 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1075 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1076 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1077 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1078 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1082 
  1083 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1084 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1085 
  1086 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1087 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1088 
  1089 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1090 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1091 or the brute way with
  1092 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1093 
  1094 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1095 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1096 stating boundedness of sets.
  1097 
  1098 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1099 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1100 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1101 
  1102 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1103   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1104   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1105   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1106   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1107   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1108   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1109   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1110   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1111   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1112   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1113   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1114 
  1115   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1116 
  1117   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1118 
  1119     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1120     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1121     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1122     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1123     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1124 
  1125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1128   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1129 
  1130   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1131 
  1132   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1133 
  1134   - removed constant isDiff
  1135 
  1136   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1137     input syntax.
  1138 
  1139   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1140 
  1141   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1142 
  1143   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1144 
  1145   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1146 
  1147   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1148     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1149     has_vector_derivative.
  1150 
  1151   - Other renamings:
  1152     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1153     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1154     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1155     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1156     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1157     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1158     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1159 
  1160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1161 
  1162 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1163 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1164 in continuous_intros.
  1165 
  1166 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1167 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1168 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1169 
  1170 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1171 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1172 especially removes
  1173 
  1174     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1175 
  1176 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1177     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1178 
  1179 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1180 
  1181   Renamings:
  1182     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1183     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1184     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1185     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1186     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1187     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1188     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1189     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1190     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1191     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1192     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1193     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1194 
  1195     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1196     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1197     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1198 
  1199   Removed theorems:
  1200     complex_zero_def
  1201     complex_add_def
  1202     complex_minus_def
  1203     complex_diff_def
  1204     complex_one_def
  1205     complex_mult_def
  1206     complex_inverse_def
  1207     complex_scaleR_def
  1208 
  1209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1210 
  1211 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1212 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1213 
  1214 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1215 
  1216 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1217 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1218 
  1219 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1220 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1221 
  1222 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1223 
  1224 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * HOL-Word:
  1228   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1229     of "word_arith_wis".
  1230   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1231     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1232     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1233 
  1234 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1235   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1236   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1237   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1238     (except the AFP)
  1239 
  1240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1243   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1244   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1245     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1246   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1247     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1248     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1249     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1250     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1251     intervals.
  1252   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1253     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1254     - renamed theorems:
  1255         interval ~> box
  1256         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1257         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1258         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1259         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1260         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1261         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1262         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1263         open_interval ~> open_box
  1264         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1265         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1266         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1267         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1268         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1269         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1270         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1271         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1272         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1273         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1274         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1275         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1276         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1277         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1278         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1279         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1280         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1281         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1282         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1283         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1284         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1285         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1286         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1287         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1288 
  1289     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1290         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1291         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1292         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1293         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1294         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1295         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1296         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1297         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1298         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1299         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1300         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1301         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1302         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1303         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1304         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1305         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1306         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1307 
  1308   - renamed theorems:
  1309     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1310     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1311     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1312 
  1313 * HOL-Probability:
  1314   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1315 
  1316     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1317       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1318 
  1319     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1320 
  1321   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1322     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1323 
  1324     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1325     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1326     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1327     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1328     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1329     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1330     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1331     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1332     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1333     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1334     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1335     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1336     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1337     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1338     integral_indicator          ~>
  1339          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1340     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1341     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1342     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1343 
  1344     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1345          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1346 
  1347     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1348          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1349 
  1350     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1351          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1352 
  1353     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1354          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1355          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1356 
  1357     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1358          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1359 
  1360     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1361          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1362 
  1363     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1364          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1365          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1366 
  1367     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1368          nn_integral_real_affine
  1369 
  1370     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1371          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1372 
  1373     The following theorems where removed:
  1374 
  1375     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1376     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1377     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1378     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1379     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1380     integral_cmul_indicator
  1381     integral_real
  1382 
  1383   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1384     distributed random variables.
  1385 
  1386 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1387 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1389 
  1390 
  1391 *** Scala ***
  1392 
  1393 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1394 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1395 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1396 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1397 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1398 
  1399 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1400 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1401 
  1402 
  1403 *** ML ***
  1404 
  1405 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1406 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1407 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1408 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1409 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1410 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1411 
  1412 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1413 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1414 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1415 actually belongs to it).
  1416 
  1417 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1418 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1419 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1420 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1421 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1422 of schematic variables.
  1423 
  1424 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1425 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1426 
  1427 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1428 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1429 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1433 
  1434 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1435 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1436 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1440 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1442 formal context.
  1443 
  1444 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1445 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1448 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1449 
  1450 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1451 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1452 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1453 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1454 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1455 
  1456 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1457 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1458 purposes.
  1459 
  1460 
  1461 *** System ***
  1462 
  1463 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1464 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1465 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1466 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1467 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1468 
  1469 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1470 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1471 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1472 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1473 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1474 settings variable.
  1475 
  1476 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1477 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1478 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1479 
  1480 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1481 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1482 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1483 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1484 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1485 
  1486 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1487 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1488 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1489 
  1490 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1491 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1492 
  1493 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1494 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1495 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1496 
  1497 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1498 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1499 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1500 processing is started.
  1501 
  1502 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1503 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1504 
  1505 
  1506 
  1507 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1508 -------------------------------------
  1509 
  1510 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1511 
  1512 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1513 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1514 
  1515 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1516 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1517 
  1518 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1519 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1520 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1521 
  1522 
  1523 *** System ***
  1524 
  1525 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1526 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1527 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1528 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1529 
  1530 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1531 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1532 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1533 
  1534 
  1535 
  1536 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1537 -------------------------------------
  1538 
  1539 *** General ***
  1540 
  1541 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1542 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1543 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1546 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1549 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1550 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1551 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1552 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1553 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1554 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1555 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1556 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1557 syntax.
  1558 
  1559 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1560 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1563 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1564 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1565 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1566 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1567 
  1568 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570 
  1571 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1572 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1573 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1574 
  1575 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1576 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1577 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1578 
  1579 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1580 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1581 
  1582 
  1583 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1584 
  1585 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1586 Documentation panel.
  1587 
  1588 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1589 documentation.
  1590 
  1591 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1592 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1593 
  1594 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1595 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1596 normal editing and checking process.
  1597 
  1598 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1599 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1600 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1601 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1602 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1603 
  1604 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1605 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1606 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1607 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1608 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1609 
  1610 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1611 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1612 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1613 
  1614 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1615 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1616 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1617 to resolve conflict.
  1618 
  1619 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1620 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1621 
  1622 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1623 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1624 such command executions while editing.
  1625 
  1626 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1627 document content.
  1628 
  1629 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1630 toplevel theorem statements.
  1631 
  1632 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1633 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1634 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1635 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1636 
  1637 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1638 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1639 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1640 
  1641 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1642 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1643 
  1644 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1645 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1646 
  1647 
  1648 *** Pure ***
  1649 
  1650 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1651 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1652 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1653 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1654 details.
  1655 
  1656 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1657 
  1658 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1659 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1660 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1661 
  1662 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1664 
  1665 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1666 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1667 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1668 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1669 
  1670 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1671 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1672 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1675 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1676 
  1677 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1678 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1679 situations.
  1680 
  1681 
  1682 *** HOL ***
  1683 
  1684 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1685 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1689 
  1690 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1691 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1692 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1693 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1694 
  1695   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1696 
  1697 * Code generator:
  1698   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1699     'code_instance'.
  1700   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1701     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1702 
  1703 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1704 examples.
  1705 
  1706 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1707 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1708 to distinguish both when desired.
  1709 
  1710 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1711 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1712 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1713 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1716 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1717 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1718 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1719 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1720 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1721 
  1722 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1723 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1724 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1725 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1726 
  1727 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1728 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1729 
  1730 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1731 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1732 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1733 
  1734 * Lifting:
  1735   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1736     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1737       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1738       transfer rules
  1739     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1740       correspondence relation can be generated
  1741     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1742       parametricity
  1743     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1744   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1745   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1746     copies
  1747   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1748     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1749     anonymous context)
  1750   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1751     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1752   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1753     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1754   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1755     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1756 
  1757 * Transfer:
  1758   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1759     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1760   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1761   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1762     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1763   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1764 
  1765 * Reification and reflection:
  1766   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1767     "Reification".
  1768   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1769   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1771 
  1772 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1773   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1774     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1775     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1776   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1777     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1778   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1779     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1780     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1781     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1782     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1783     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1784     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1785     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1786   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1787     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1788   - Fact renames:
  1789       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1790       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1794 
  1795 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1796 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1797 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1801 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1802 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1803 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1804 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1805 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1806 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1807 lemmas.
  1808 
  1809 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1810 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1811 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812 
  1813 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1814 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1815 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1816 
  1817 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1818 top and bottom elements.
  1819 
  1820 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1821 
  1822 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1823 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1824 
  1825  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1826    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1827    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1828 
  1829  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1830    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1831    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1832 
  1833    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1834    arbitrary filter.
  1835 
  1836  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1837    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1838    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1839    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1840    on a compact set.
  1841 
  1842  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1843    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1844    linear_continuum_topology).
  1845 
  1846  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1847    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1848    on all sequences converging to x.
  1849 
  1850  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1851    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1852    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1853    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1854    left or right.
  1855 
  1856  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1857 
  1858      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1859 
  1860  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1861    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1862 
  1863  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1864    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1865    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1866    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1867    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1868    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1869 
  1870  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1871 
  1872    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1873 
  1874    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1875      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1876 
  1877    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1878 
  1879    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1880      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1881 
  1882    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1883 
  1884    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1885 
  1886  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1887 
  1888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889 
  1890 * Nitpick:
  1891   - Added option "spy".
  1892   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1893 
  1894 * Sledgehammer:
  1895   - Renamed option:
  1896       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1897     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1898   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1899   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1900   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1901 
  1902 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1903 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1904 
  1905 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1906   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1907   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1908     generated code.
  1909   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1910   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1911   - Fact renames:
  1912     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1913     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1914     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1915 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1916 
  1917 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1918 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1919 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1920 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1921 
  1922 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1923 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1924 
  1925 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1928 
  1929     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1930     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1931 
  1932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1933 
  1934 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1935 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1936 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1937 
  1938 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1939 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1940 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1941 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1942 
  1943 * HOL-BNF:
  1944   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1945     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1946     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1947     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1948   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1949     coinduct).
  1950   - Renamed keywords:
  1951     data ~> datatype_new
  1952     codata ~> codatatype
  1953     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1954   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1955     discs ~> disc
  1956     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1957     map_id' ~> map_id
  1958     sels ~> sel
  1959     set_map' ~> set_map
  1960     sets ~> set
  1961 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1962 
  1963 
  1964 *** ML ***
  1965 
  1966 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1967 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1968 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1969 Examples.thy in particular.
  1970 
  1971 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1972 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1973 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1974 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1975 
  1976 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1977 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1978 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1979 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1981 
  1982 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1983 
  1984     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1985     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1986 
  1987 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1988 
  1989 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1990 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1991 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1992 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1993 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1994 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1995 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1996 
  1997 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1998 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1999 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2000 clasets separately from the context.
  2001 
  2002 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2003 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2004 
  2005 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2006 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2007 
  2008 
  2009 *** System ***
  2010 
  2011 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2012 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2015 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2016 
  2017 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2018 settings variable.
  2019 
  2020 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2021 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2022 always pdf.
  2023 
  2024 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2025 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2026 
  2027 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2028 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2029 
  2030 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2031 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2032 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2033 
  2034 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2035 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2036 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2037 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2038 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2039 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2040 
  2041 
  2042 
  2043 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2044 -----------------------------------
  2045 
  2046 *** General ***
  2047 
  2048 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2049 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2050 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2051 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2052 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2053 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2054 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2055 
  2056 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2057 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2058 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2059 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2060 
  2061 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2062 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2063 
  2064 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2065 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2066 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2067 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2068 dependencies properly.
  2069 
  2070 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2071 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2072 
  2073 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2074 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2075 
  2076 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2077 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2078 and "class ... context ...".
  2079 
  2080 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2081 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2082 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2083 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2084 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2085 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2086 
  2087 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2088 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2089 
  2090 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2091 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2092 
  2093 
  2094 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2095 
  2096 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2097 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2098 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2099 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2100 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2101 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2102 
  2103 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2104 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2105 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2106 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2107 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2108 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2109 
  2110 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2111 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2112 browser on demand.
  2113 
  2114 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2115 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2116 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2117 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2118 
  2119 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2120 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2121 
  2122 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2123 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2124 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2125 potentially infinite message streams.
  2126 
  2127 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2128 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2129 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2130 schemes.
  2131 
  2132 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2133 symbols.
  2134 
  2135 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2136 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2137 
  2138 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2139 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2140 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2141 
  2142 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2143 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2144 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2145 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2146 
  2147 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2148 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2149 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2150 
  2151 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2152 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2153 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2154 Isabelle distribution.
  2155 
  2156 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2157 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2158 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2159 
  2160 
  2161 *** Pure ***
  2162 
  2163 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2164 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2165 
  2166 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2167 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2168 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2171 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2172 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2173 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2174 with some care where this is really required.
  2175 
  2176 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2177 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2178 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2179 
  2180   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2181 
  2182 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2183 a Hasse diagram.
  2184 
  2185 
  2186 *** HOL ***
  2187 
  2188 * Sledgehammer:
  2189 
  2190   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2191     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2192   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2193   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2194   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2195   - Renamed options:
  2196       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2197       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2198       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2199       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2200 
  2201 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2202 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2203 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2204 
  2205 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * Lifting:
  2209   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2210   - quot_del attribute
  2211   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2212 
  2213 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2214 expressions.
  2215 
  2216 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2217 pointfree expressions.
  2218 
  2219 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2220 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2221 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2222 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224 
  2225 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2226 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2227 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2228 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2229 accordingly.
  2230 
  2231 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2232 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2233 
  2234 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2235 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2240 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2241 
  2242 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2243 
  2244 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2245 
  2246   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2247   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2248 
  2249 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250 
  2251 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2252 
  2253   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2254   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2255 
  2256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2257 
  2258 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2259 
  2260   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2261     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2262     output f x converges to G.
  2263 
  2264   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2265     infinity (at_bot).
  2266 
  2267   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2268     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2269 
  2270   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2271     at_top".
  2272 
  2273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2276 lattice type classes.
  2277 
  2278 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2279 
  2280     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2281     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2282 
  2283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2286 changes as follows.
  2287 
  2288   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2289 
  2290       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2291       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2292 
  2293   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2294     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2295     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2296     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2297 
  2298   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2299     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2300     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2301 
  2302   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2303     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2304     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2305     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2306 
  2307   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2308     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2309 
  2310       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2311       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2312       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2313       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2314       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2315       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2316       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2317       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2318       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2319       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2320       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2321       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2322       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2323       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2324       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2325       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2326 
  2327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2328 
  2329 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2330 
  2331 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2332 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2333 
  2334 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2335 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2336 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2337 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2338 
  2339   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2340   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2341   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2342   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2343   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2344   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2345   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2346   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2347   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2348   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2349 
  2350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2351 
  2352 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2353 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2354 Data").
  2355 
  2356 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2357 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2358 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2359 code.
  2360 
  2361 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2362 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2363 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2367 
  2368 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2369 
  2370 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2371 
  2372   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2373   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2374 
  2375 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2376 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2377 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2378 
  2379   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2380 
  2381     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2382     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2383     cart_base i  removed
  2384     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2385 
  2386   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2387 
  2388   Renamed lemmas:
  2389 
  2390     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2391     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2392     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2393     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2394     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2395     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2396     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2397     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2398     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2399     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2400 
  2401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * HOL/Probability:
  2404 
  2405   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2406 
  2407   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2408     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2409     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2410 
  2411   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2412     projective family).
  2413 
  2414 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2415 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2416 
  2417 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2418 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2419 datatypes.
  2420 
  2421 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2422 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2423 
  2424 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2425 trees for the code generator.
  2426 
  2427 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2428 Lifting/Transfer.
  2429 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434 
  2435 *** Document preparation ***
  2436 
  2437 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2438 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2439 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2440 
  2441 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2442 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2443 
  2444 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2445 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2446 document/root.tex.
  2447 
  2448 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2449 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2450 
  2451 
  2452 *** ML ***
  2453 
  2454 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2455 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2456 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2457 
  2458 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2459 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2460 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2461 
  2462 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2463 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2464 necessarily printing visible text.
  2465 
  2466 
  2467 *** System ***
  2468 
  2469 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2470 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2471 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2472 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2473 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2474 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2475 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2476 
  2477 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2478 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2479 
  2480   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2481 
  2482 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2483 
  2484 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2485 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2486 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2487 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2488 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2489 
  2490 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2491 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2492 
  2493 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2494 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2495 
  2496 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2500 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2501 version of Isabelle.
  2502 
  2503 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2504 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2505 
  2506 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2507 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2508 for home-made settings.
  2509 
  2510 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2511 
  2512 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2513 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2514 configuration.
  2515 
  2516 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2517 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2518 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2519 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2520 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2521 
  2522 
  2523 
  2524 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2525 ------------------------------
  2526 
  2527 *** General ***
  2528 
  2529 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2530 
  2531   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2532     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2533   - markup for bound variables
  2534   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2535   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2536   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2537     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2538 
  2539 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2540 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2541 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2542 
  2543 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2544 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2545 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2546 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2547 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2548 
  2549   context
  2550     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2551     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2552   begin
  2553 
  2554   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2555 
  2556   end
  2557 
  2558   thm my_trans
  2559 
  2560 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2561 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2562 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2563 
  2564 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2565 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2566 
  2567 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2568 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2569 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2570 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2571 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2572 
  2573 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2574 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2575 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2576 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2577 indices of schematic variables.
  2578 
  2579 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2580 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2581 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2582 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2583 etc. was exploited.
  2584 
  2585 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2586 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2587 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2588 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2589 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2590 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2591 
  2592 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2593 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2594 manual.
  2595 
  2596 
  2597 *** Pure ***
  2598 
  2599 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2600 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2601 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2602 
  2603 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2604 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2605 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2606 undocumented feature.)
  2607 
  2608 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2609 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2610 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2611 
  2612   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2613 
  2614   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2615     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2616 
  2617 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2618 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2619 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2620 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2621 
  2622 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2623 
  2624     num ~> num_token
  2625     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2626     xstr ~> str_token
  2627 
  2628 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2629 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2630 position information via constraints).
  2631 
  2632 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2633 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2634 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2637 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2638 
  2639 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2640 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2641 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2644 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2647 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2648 
  2649   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2650 
  2651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2652 
  2653 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2654 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2657 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2658 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2659 
  2660 
  2661 *** HOL ***
  2662 
  2663 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2664 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2665 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2666 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2667 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2668 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2669 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2670 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2671 possible.
  2672 
  2673 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2674 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2675 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2676 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2677 
  2678 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2679 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2682 
  2683 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2684 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2685 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2686 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2687 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2688 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2689 
  2690   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2691     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2692 
  2693   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2694     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2695     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2696 
  2697   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2698     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2699 
  2700   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2701     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2702     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2703 
  2704   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2705     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2706 
  2707 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2708 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2709 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2710 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2711 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2712 
  2713   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2714     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2715     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2716     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2717     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2718 
  2719     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2720     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2721 
  2722   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2723     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2724     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2725     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2726     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2727     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2728     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2729     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2730 
  2731   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2732     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2733     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2734     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2735 
  2736   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2737     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2738     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2739     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2740 
  2741   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2742     from type nat to type int.
  2743 
  2744 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2745 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2746 
  2747   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2748     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2749     type.  Example syntax:
  2750 
  2751     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2752       is List.insert
  2753 
  2754     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2755     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2756     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2757     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2758     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2759     by the package.
  2760 
  2761   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2762     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2763     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2764     code generation for each constant.
  2765 
  2766   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2767     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2768     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2769     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2770     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2771 
  2772   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2773     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2774     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2775 
  2776 * Quotient package:
  2777 
  2778   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2779     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2780 
  2781   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2782     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2783 
  2784   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2785     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2786     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2787 
  2788   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2789     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2792 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2793 
  2794 * Quickcheck:
  2795 
  2796   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2797     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2798     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2799     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2800     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2801 
  2802     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2803     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2804     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2805 
  2806     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2807     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2808 
  2809     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2810     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2811     show genuine counterexamples.
  2812 
  2813   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2814     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2815 
  2816     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2817     constructors of that type.
  2818 
  2819   - Support for multisets.
  2820 
  2821   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2822 
  2823   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2824     conjectures in a locale context.
  2825 
  2826 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2827 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2828 
  2829 * Sledgehammer:
  2830   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2831     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2832   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2833   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2834     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2835   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2836   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2837   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2838   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2839 
  2840 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2841 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2842 
  2843 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2844 
  2845 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2848 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2849 
  2850   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2851 
  2852 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2853 a list and a nat.
  2854 
  2855 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2856 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2857 
  2858 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2859 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2860 default.
  2861 
  2862 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2863 
  2864   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2865 
  2866 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2867 
  2868 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2869 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2870 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2871 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2872 one_case.
  2873 
  2874 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2875 the result of the fact expression.
  2876 
  2877 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2878 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2879 of some relation theorems:
  2880 
  2881   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2882   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2883   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2884   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2885   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2886   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2887 
  2888 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2889 
  2890 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2891 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2892 
  2893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894 
  2895 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2896 to match the constant's name:
  2897 
  2898   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2899   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2900   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2901   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2902   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2903   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2904   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2905   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2906   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2907   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2908   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2909   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2910   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2911   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2912   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2913   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2914   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2915   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2916   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2917   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2918   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2919   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2920   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2921   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2922 
  2923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2926 and corresponding theorem names:
  2927 
  2928   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2929 
  2930   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2931 
  2932   - Renamed theorems:
  2933 
  2934     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2935     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2936     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2937     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2938     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2939     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2940     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2941     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2942     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2943     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2944     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2945     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2946     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2947     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2948     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2949     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2950     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2951     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2952     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2953     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2954     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2955     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2956     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2957 
  2958     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2959 
  2960     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2961 
  2962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2965 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2966 
  2967   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2968   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2969   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2970   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2971   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2972   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2973   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2974   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2975   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2976   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2977   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2978   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2979   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2980   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2981   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2982   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2983   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2984   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2985   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2986   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2987   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2988 
  2989 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2990 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991 
  2992 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2993 
  2994 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2995 
  2996   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2997   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2998   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2999   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3000   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3001   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3002   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3003   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3004   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3005   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3006   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3007   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3008   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3009   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3010   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3011   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3012   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3013   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3014 
  3015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3018 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3019 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3020 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3021 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3022 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3023 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3024 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3025 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3026 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3027 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3028 
  3029 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3030 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3031 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3032 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3033 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3034 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3035 
  3036 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3037 through option types.
  3038 
  3039 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3040 relations.
  3041 
  3042 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3045 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3046 
  3047   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3048   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3049   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3050   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3051   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3052   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3053   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3054   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3055   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3056   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3057   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3058   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3059   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3060   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3061   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3062   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3063   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3064   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3065   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3066   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3067   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3068   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3069   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3070   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3071   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3072   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3073   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3074   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3075   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3076   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3077   zless_le ~> less_le
  3078   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3079   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3080   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3081 
  3082 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3083 
  3084   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3085 
  3086 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3087 
  3088 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3089 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3090 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3091 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3095 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3096 
  3097 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3098 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3099 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3100 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3101 follows:
  3102 
  3103   Operations:
  3104   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3105   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3106   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3107   del -> rbt_del
  3108   delete -> rbt_delete
  3109   ins -> rbt_ins
  3110   insert -> rbt_insert
  3111   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3112   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3113   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3114   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3115   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3116   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3117   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3118   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3119   union -> rbt_union
  3120   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3121   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3122 
  3123   Lemmas:
  3124   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3125   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3126   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3127   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3128   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3129   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3130   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3131   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3132   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3133   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3134   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3135   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3136   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3137   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3138   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3139   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3140   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3141   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3142   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3143   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3144   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3145   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3146   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3147   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3148   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3149   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3150   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3151   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3152   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3153   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3154   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3155   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3156   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3157   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3158   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3159   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3160   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3161   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3162   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3163   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3164   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3165   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3166   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3167   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3168   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3169   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3170   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3171   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3172   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3173   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3174   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3175   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3176   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3177   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3178   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3179   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3180   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3181   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3182   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3183   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3184   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3185   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3186   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3187   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3188   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3189   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3190   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3191   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3192   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3193   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3194   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3195   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3196   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3197   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3198   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3199   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3200   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3201   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3202   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3203   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3204   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3205   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3206   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3207 
  3208 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3209 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3210 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212   Changed Operations:
  3213   float_abs -> abs
  3214   float_nprt -> nprt
  3215   float_pprt -> pprt
  3216   pow2 -> use powr
  3217   round_down -> float_round_down
  3218   round_up -> float_round_up
  3219   scale -> exponent
  3220 
  3221   Removed Operations:
  3222   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3223 
  3224   Renamed Lemmas:
  3225   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3226   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3227   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3228   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3229   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3230   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3231   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3232   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3233   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3234   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3235   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3236   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3237   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3238   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3239   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3240   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3241   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3242   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3243   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3244   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3245   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3246   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3247   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3248   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3249   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3250   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3251   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3252   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3253   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3254   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3255   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3256   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3257   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3258   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3259   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3260   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3261 
  3262   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3263   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3264   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3265   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3266   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3267   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3268   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3269   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3270   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3271   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3272 
  3273 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3274 association lists with distinct keys.
  3275 
  3276 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3277 annotated commands.
  3278 
  3279 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3280 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3281 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3282 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3285 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3286 instead.
  3287 
  3288   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3289   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3290   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3291   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3292   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3293   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3294   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3295   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3296   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3297   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3298   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3299   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3300   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3301   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3302   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3303   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3304   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3305   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3306   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3307   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3308   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3309   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3310   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3311   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3312   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3313   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3314   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3315   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3316   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3317   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3318   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3319   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3320   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3321   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3322   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3323   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3324   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3325   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3326   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3327   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3328   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3329 
  3330 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3331 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3332 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3333 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3334 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3335 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3336 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3337 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3338 
  3339 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3340 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3341 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3342 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3343 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3344 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3345 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3346 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3347 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3348 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3349 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3350 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352   Renamed constants:
  3353   measure -> emeasure
  3354   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3355   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3356   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3357   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3358 
  3359   Removed locales:
  3360   completeable_measure_space
  3361   finite_measure_space
  3362   finite_prob_space
  3363   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3364   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3365   finite_sigma_algebra
  3366   measure_space
  3367   pair_finite_prob_space
  3368   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3369   pair_finite_space
  3370   pair_sigma_algebra
  3371   product_sigma_algebra
  3372 
  3373   Removed constants:
  3374   conditional_space
  3375   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3376   image_space
  3377   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3378   pair_measure_generator
  3379   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3380   subvimage
  3381 
  3382   Replacement theorems:
  3383   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3384   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3385   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3386   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3387   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3388   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3389   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3390   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3391   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3392   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3393   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3394   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3395   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3396   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3397   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3398   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3399   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3400   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3401   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3402   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3403   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3404   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3405   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3406   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3407   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3408   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3409   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3410   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3411   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3412   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3413   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3414   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3415   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3416   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3417   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3418   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3419   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3420   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3421   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3422   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3423   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3424   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3425   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3426   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3427   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3428   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3429   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3430   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3431   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3432   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3433   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3434   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3435   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3436   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3437   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3438   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3439   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3440   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3441   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3442   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3443   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3444   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3445   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3446   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3447   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3448   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3449   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3450   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3451   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3452   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3453   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3454   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3455   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3456   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3457   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3458   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3459   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3460   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3461   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3462   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3463   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3464   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3465   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3466   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3467   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3468   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3469   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3470   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3471   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3472   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3473   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3474   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3475   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3476   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3477   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3478   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3479   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3480   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3481   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3482   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3483   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3484   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3485   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3486   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3487   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3488   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3489   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3490   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3491   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3492   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3493   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3494   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3495   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3496   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3497   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3498   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3499   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3500   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3501   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3502   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3503   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3504   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3505   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3506   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3507   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3508   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3509   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3510   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3511 
  3512 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3513 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3514 
  3515 
  3516 *** FOL ***
  3517 
  3518 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3519 
  3520 
  3521 *** ZF ***
  3522 
  3523 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3524 analysis.
  3525 
  3526 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3527 
  3528 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 
  3531 *** ML ***
  3532 
  3533 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3534 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3535 
  3536 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3537 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3538 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3539 
  3540 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3541 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3542 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3543 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3544 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3545 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3546 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3547 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3548 
  3549 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3550 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3551 
  3552 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3553 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3554 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3555 
  3556 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3557 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3560 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3561 context as well.
  3562 
  3563 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3564 
  3565   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3566   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3567   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3568   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3569   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3570   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3571   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3572   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3573   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3574   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3575   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3576   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3577 
  3578 
  3579 *** System ***
  3580 
  3581 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3582 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3583 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3584 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3585 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3586 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3587 the generic user home was intended.
  3588 
  3589 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3590 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3591 
  3592 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3593 (not just JRE).
  3594 
  3595 
  3596 
  3597 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3598 ------------------------------------
  3599 
  3600 *** General ***
  3601 
  3602 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3603 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3604 
  3605   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3606     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3607     files for checking).
  3608 
  3609   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3610     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3611     positions.
  3612 
  3613   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3614     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3615     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3616 
  3617   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3618     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3619     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3620 
  3621   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3622     cores.
  3623 
  3624   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3625     versions (garbage collection).
  3626 
  3627 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3628 including some remaining limitations.
  3629 
  3630 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3631 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3632 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3633 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3634 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3638 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3639 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3640 
  3641 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3642 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3643 usedir option -Q.
  3644 
  3645 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3646 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3647 
  3648   long_names   ~> names_long
  3649   short_names  ~> names_short
  3650   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3651 
  3652 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3653 
  3654   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3655 
  3656 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3657 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3658 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3659 
  3660 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3661 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3662 
  3663 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3664   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3665   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3666   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3667     "Classical Reasoner".
  3668 
  3669 
  3670 *** HOL ***
  3671 
  3672 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3673 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3674 
  3675 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3676 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3677 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3678 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3679 class complete_linorder.
  3680 
  3681 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3682 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3683 
  3684 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3685 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3686 
  3687   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3688   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3689   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3690   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3691   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3692   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3693   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3694   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3695   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3696   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3697   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3698 
  3699 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3700 
  3701   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3702   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3703   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3704   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3705   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3706   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3707   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3708   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3709   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3710   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3711   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3712   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3713   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3714   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3715   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3716   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3717 
  3718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3724 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3725 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3726 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3729 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3730 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3734 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3735 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3736 
  3737 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3738 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3739 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3740 
  3741 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3742 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3743 
  3744 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3745 
  3746     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3747     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3748 
  3749 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3750 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3753 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3756 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3757 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3758 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3761   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3762   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3763   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3764   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3765   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3766   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3767 
  3768 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3769 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3772   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3773   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3774   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3775   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3776   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3777   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3778   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3779   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3780   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3781   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3782   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3783   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3784   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3785   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3786   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3787   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3788   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3789   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3790   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3791   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3792   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3793   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3794   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3795   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3796   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3797   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3798   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3799   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3800   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3801   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3802   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3803   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3804   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3805   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3806   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3807   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3808   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3809   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3810   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3811   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3812   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3813   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3814   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3815   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3816   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3817   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3818   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3819   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3820   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3821   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3822   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3823   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3824   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3825   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3826   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3827   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3828   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3829   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3830   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3831   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3832   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3833   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3834   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3835   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3836   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3837   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3838   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3839   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3840   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3841   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3842   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3843   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3844   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3845   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3846   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3847   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3848   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3849   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3850   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3851   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3852   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3853 
  3854 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3855 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3856 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3857 
  3858 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3859 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3860 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3861 
  3862 * Code generation:
  3863 
  3864   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3865     characters in the target language.
  3866 
  3867   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3868     instead.
  3869 
  3870   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3871 
  3872   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3873     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3874 
  3875       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3876 
  3877 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3880 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3881 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3882 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3883 syntax.
  3884 
  3885 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3886 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3887 
  3888 * Nitpick:
  3889   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3890   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3891   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3892     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Sledgehammer:
  3895   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3896   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3897     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3898   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3899     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3900   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3901     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3903     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3904   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3905     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Metis:
  3908   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3910     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Command 'try':
  3913   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3914     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3915   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3916     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3917 
  3918 * Quickcheck:
  3919   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3920     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3921   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3922     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3923   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3924     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3925     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3926     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3927   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3928     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3929 
  3930 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3931 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3932 
  3933 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3934 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3935 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3936 
  3937 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3938 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3942 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3945 arithmetic.
  3946 
  3947 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3948 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3949 and lattice type classes.
  3950 
  3951 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3952 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3953 
  3954 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3955 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3956 
  3957 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3958 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3959 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3962   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3963   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3964   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3965 
  3966 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3967 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3968 constants:
  3969 
  3970   type inat   ~> type enat
  3971   Fin         ~> enat
  3972   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3973   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3974   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3975 
  3976 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3977 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978 
  3979 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3980 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3981 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3982 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3983 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3984 
  3985 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3986 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3987 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3988 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3989 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3990 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3991 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3992 
  3993   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3994   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3995   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3996   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3997 
  3998 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3999 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4000 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4003   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4004   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4005   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4006   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4007   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4008   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4009   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4010   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4011   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4012   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4013   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4014   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4015   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4016   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4017   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4018   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4019   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4020   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4021   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4022   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4023   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4024   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4025   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4026   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4027   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4028   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4029   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4030   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4031   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4032   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4033   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4034   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4035   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4036   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4037   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4038   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4039   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4040   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4041   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4042   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4043   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4044   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4045   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4046   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4047   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4048   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4049   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4050   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4051   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4052   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4053 
  4054 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4055   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4056   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4057   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4058   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4059     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060 
  4061 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4064   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4065   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4066   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4067   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4068   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4069   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4070   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4071   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4072   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4073   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4074   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4075   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4076   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4077   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4078   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4079   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4080   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4081   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4082   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4083   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4084   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4085   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4086   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4087   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4088 
  4089 
  4090 *** Document preparation ***
  4091 
  4092 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4093 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4094 same.
  4095 
  4096 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4097 result.
  4098 
  4099 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4100 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4101 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4102 
  4103 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4104 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4105 
  4106 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4107 like this:
  4108 
  4109   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4110   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4111 
  4112 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4113 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4114 layouts.
  4115 
  4116 
  4117 *** ML ***
  4118 
  4119 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4120 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4121 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4122 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4123 under external program control.
  4124 
  4125 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4126 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4127 
  4128 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4129 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4130 (better known as Proof General).
  4131 
  4132 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4133 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4134 
  4135 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4136 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4137 
  4138 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4139 (including quotes etc.).
  4140 
  4141 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4142 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4143 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4144 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4145 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4146 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4147 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4148 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4149 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4150 
  4151 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4152 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4153 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4154 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4155 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4156 
  4157 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4158 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4159 
  4160 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4161 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4162 
  4163 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4164 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4165 
  4166 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4167 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4168 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4169 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4170 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4171 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4172 proper Proof.context.
  4173 
  4174 
  4175 *** System ***
  4176 
  4177 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4178 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4179 
  4180 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4181 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4182 
  4183 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4184 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4185 
  4186   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4187   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4188   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4189   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4190   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4191 
  4192 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4193 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4196 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4197 example:
  4198 
  4199   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4200 
  4201 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4202 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4203 
  4204 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4205 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4206 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4207 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4208 
  4209 
  4210 
  4211 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4212 ----------------------------------
  4213 
  4214 *** General ***
  4215 
  4216 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4217 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4218 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4219 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4220 like this:
  4221 
  4222   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4223 
  4224 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4225 
  4226 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4227 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4228 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4229 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4230 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4231 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4232 
  4233 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4234 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4235 the following package declarations:
  4236 
  4237   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4238   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4239 
  4240 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4241 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4242 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4243 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4244 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4245 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4246 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4247 
  4248 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4249 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4250 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4251 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4252 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4253 
  4254 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4255 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4256 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4257 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4260 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4261 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4262 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4263 
  4264   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4265 
  4266   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4267   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4268   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4269   show_types                    show_types
  4270   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4271   show_consts                   show_consts
  4272   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4273 
  4274   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4275   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4276   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4277 
  4278   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4279   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4280 
  4281   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4282 
  4283   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4284   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4285   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4286   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4287   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4288 
  4289 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4290 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4291 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4292 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4293 
  4294 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4296 
  4297   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4298   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4299 
  4300 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4301 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4302 float_token.
  4303 
  4304 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4305 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4309 DejaVu Sans.
  4310 
  4311 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4312 
  4313 
  4314 *** Pure ***
  4315 
  4316 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4317 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4318 time.
  4319 
  4320 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4321 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4322 
  4323 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4324 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4325 
  4326 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4327 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4328 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4329 command already provided this functionality.
  4330 
  4331 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4332 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4333 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4334 without interpretations.
  4335 
  4336 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4337 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4338 
  4339 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4340 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4341 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4342 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4343 
  4344 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4345 'definition' instead.
  4346 
  4347 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4348 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4349 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4350 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4351 
  4352 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4353 constructors.
  4354 
  4355 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4356 the local file system.
  4357 
  4358 
  4359 *** HOL ***
  4360 
  4361 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4362 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4363 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4364 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4365 
  4366   declare [[coercion f]]
  4367 
  4368 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4369 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4370 
  4371   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4372 
  4373 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4374 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4375 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4376 other theories like this:
  4377 
  4378   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4379 
  4380 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4381 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4382 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4383 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4384 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4385 for examples.
  4386 
  4387 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4388 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4391 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4392 
  4393 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4394 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4395 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4396 
  4397 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4398 functorial structure of types.
  4399 
  4400 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4401 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4402 
  4403 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4404 languages.
  4405 
  4406 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4407 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4411 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4414 combinators any longer.
  4415 
  4416 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4417 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4418 
  4419 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4420 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4421 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4422 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4423 
  4424   record 'a foo = ...
  4425   ...
  4426   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4427 
  4428 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4429 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431 
  4432 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4433 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4434 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4435 
  4436 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4437 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4438 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4439 
  4440 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4441 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4442 
  4443 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4444 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4445 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4446 independently.
  4447 
  4448 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4449 counter example search.
  4450 
  4451 * Sledgehammer:
  4452   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4453     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4454     sledgehammer").
  4455   - Renamed commands:
  4456     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4457     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4458     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4459     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4460   - Renamed options:
  4461     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4462     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4463     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4464     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4465     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4466 
  4467 * Nitpick:
  4468   - Renamed options:
  4469     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4470     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4471     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4472   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4473   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4474   - Added "whack" option.
  4475   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4476   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4477   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4478   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4479     higher cardinalities.
  4480   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4481 
  4482 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4483 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4484 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4485 
  4486     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4487 
  4488 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4489 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4490 
  4491 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4492 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4493 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4494 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4495 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4496 "smt_solver".
  4497 
  4498 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4499 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4500 
  4501 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4502 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4503 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4504 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4505 
  4506 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4507   - Renamed:
  4508     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4509     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4510     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511   - Added:
  4512     smt_verbose
  4513     smt_random_seed
  4514     smt_datatypes
  4515     smt_infer_triggers
  4516     smt_monomorph_limit
  4517     cvc3_options
  4518     remote_cvc3_options
  4519     remote_z3_options
  4520     yices_options
  4521 
  4522 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4523 header.
  4524 
  4525 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4526 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4527 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4528 
  4529   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4530 
  4531 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4532 
  4533 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4534 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4535 
  4536 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4537 
  4538 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4539 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4540 
  4541 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4542 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4543 
  4544 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4545 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4546 
  4547 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4548 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4549 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 
  4553 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4555 
  4556 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4557 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4558 
  4559 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4560 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4561 for congruent(2)).
  4562 
  4563 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4564 
  4565   types
  4566     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4567     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4568 
  4569   constants
  4570     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4571     True ~> HOL.True
  4572     False ~> HOL.False
  4573     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4574     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4575     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4576     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4577     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4578     The ~> HOL.The
  4579     All ~> HOL.All
  4580     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4581     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4582     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4583     If ~> HOL.If
  4584     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4585     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4586     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4587     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4588     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4589     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4590     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4591     op : ~> Set.member
  4592     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4593 
  4594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4597 
  4598     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4599     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4600     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4601     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4602     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4603     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4604     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4605     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4606 
  4607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608 
  4609 * More stylized fact names:
  4610 
  4611   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4612   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4613   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4614   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4615 
  4616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4617 
  4618 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4619 
  4620   constants
  4621     null ~> List.null
  4622 
  4623   facts
  4624     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4625     null_empty ~> null_def
  4626 
  4627 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4628 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4629 generation.
  4630 
  4631 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4632 Haskell code.
  4633 
  4634 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4635 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4636 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4639 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4642 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4643 
  4644 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4645 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4646 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4647 
  4648 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4649 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 
  4651 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4655 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4656 referred to by its qualified name.
  4657 
  4658   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4659   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4660   product ~>  Enum.product
  4661 
  4662 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4663 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4667 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4668 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4672 sort_key.
  4673 
  4674 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4678 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4679 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4680 
  4681   types
  4682     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4683               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4684               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4685         (depends on your needs)
  4686 
  4687   constants
  4688      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4689      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4690      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4691 
  4692 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4693 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4694 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4695 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4698 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4699 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4700 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4701 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4702 
  4703 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4705 
  4706 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4707 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4708 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4709 
  4710 
  4711 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4712 
  4713 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4714 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4715 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4716 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4717 compatibility.
  4718 
  4719 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4720 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4721 
  4722 
  4723 *** HOLCF ***
  4724 
  4725 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4726 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4727 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4731 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4732 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4735   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4736   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4737 
  4738 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4739 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4740 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741 
  4742 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4743 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4744 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4745 domain definition now works:
  4746 
  4747   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4748 
  4749 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4750 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4751 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4752 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4753 
  4754   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4755     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4756 
  4757   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4758 
  4759 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4760 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4761 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4762 
  4763 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4764 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4767 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4768 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4769 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4770 
  4771 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4772 
  4773 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774 
  4775 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4779 
  4780 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4781 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4782 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4783 
  4784 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4785 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4786 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4789 still supported as an input translation.
  4790 
  4791 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4792 
  4793   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4794   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4795   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4796   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4797   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4798   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4799   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4800 
  4801 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4802 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4803 
  4804   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4805   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4806   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4807   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4808   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4809   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4810 
  4811 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4812 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4815 
  4816   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4817   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4818   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4819   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4820 
  4821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4824 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4825 
  4826 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4827 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4828 
  4829   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4830   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4831   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4832   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4833   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4834   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4835   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4836   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4837   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4838   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4839   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4840   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4841   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4842   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4843   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4844   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4845   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4846   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4847   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4848   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4849 
  4850 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4853   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4854   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4855   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4856   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4857   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4858   box_less             ~> box_below
  4859   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4860   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4861   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4862   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4863   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4864   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4865   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4866   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4867   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4868   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4869   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4870   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4871   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4872   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4873   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4874   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4875   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4876   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4877   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4878   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4879   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4880   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4881   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4882   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4883   up_less              ~> up_below
  4884   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4885   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4886   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4887   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4888   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4889   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4890   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4891   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4892   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4893   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4894   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4895   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4896   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4897 
  4898 
  4899 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4900 
  4901 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4902 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 
  4905 *** ML ***
  4906 
  4907 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4908 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4909 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4910 
  4911 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4912 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4913 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4914 
  4915 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4916 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4917 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4918 
  4919 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4920 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4921 
  4922 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4923 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4924 
  4925 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4926 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4927 
  4928 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4929 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4930 
  4931 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4932 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4933 almost all situations.
  4934 
  4935 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4936 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4937 Isabelle/ML.
  4938 
  4939 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4940 meaning.
  4941 
  4942 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4943 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4944 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4945 
  4946 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4947 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4948 
  4949 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4950 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4951 
  4952 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4953 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4954 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4955 
  4956 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4957 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4958 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4959 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4960 configuration options.
  4961 
  4962 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4963 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4964 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4965 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4966 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4967 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4968 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4969 
  4970 
  4971 
  4972 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4973 ---------------------------------
  4974 
  4975 *** General ***
  4976 
  4977 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4978 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4979 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4980 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4981 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4982 their full internal name.
  4983 
  4984 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4985 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4986 Some hints on upgrading:
  4987 
  4988   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4989     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4990     which are independent of this issue.
  4991 
  4992   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4993     provides the following special forms:
  4994 
  4995       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4996       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4997       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4998 
  4999     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5000     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5001     extra variables".
  5002 
  5003     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5004     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5005     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5006     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5007     "logic".
  5008 
  5009   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5010     antiquotations:
  5011 
  5012       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5013       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5014       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5015       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5016 
  5017   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5018     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5019     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5020     antiquotations.
  5021 
  5022 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5023 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5024 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5025 diagnose syntax problems.
  5026 
  5027 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5028 
  5029 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5030 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5031 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5032 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5033 
  5034 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5035 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5036 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5037 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5040 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5041 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5042 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5043 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5046 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5047 
  5048 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5049 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5050 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5051 
  5052   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5053 
  5054 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5055 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5056 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5057 
  5058 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5059 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5063 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5064 
  5065 
  5066 *** Pure ***
  5067 
  5068 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5069 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5070 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5071 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5072 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5073 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5074 inspect proof terms.
  5075 
  5076 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5077 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5078 are added internally.  For example:
  5079 
  5080   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5081 
  5082 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5083 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5084 
  5085 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5086 
  5087 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5088 'class' instead.
  5089 
  5090 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5091 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5093 
  5094 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5095 invariants.
  5096 
  5097 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5098 user space functionality any longer.
  5099 
  5100 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5101 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5103 
  5104 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5105 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5106 
  5107 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5108 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5109 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5110 
  5111 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5112 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5113 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5114 
  5115 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5116 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5117 
  5118 
  5119 *** HOL ***
  5120 
  5121 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5122 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5123 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5124 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5125 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5126 
  5127 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5128 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5129 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5130 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5131 
  5132   fun
  5133     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5134   where
  5135     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5136 
  5137   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5138     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5139 
  5140   quotient_definition
  5141     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5142 
  5143 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5144 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5145 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5146 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5147 
  5148 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5149 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5150 
  5151 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5152 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5153 
  5154 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5158 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5159 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5160 
  5161 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5162 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5163 
  5164 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5166 
  5167 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5169 
  5170 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5171 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5174 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5175 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5176 
  5177   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5178   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5179   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5180   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5181   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5182   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5183   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5184   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5185   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5186   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5187   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5188   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5189   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5190   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5191   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5192   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5193   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5194   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5195   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5196   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5197   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5198   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5199   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5200   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5201   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5202   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5203   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5204   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5205   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5206   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5207 
  5208 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5209 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5210 
  5211 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5212 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5213 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5214 
  5215 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5216 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5217 
  5218 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5219 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5220 
  5221 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5222 
  5223 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5224 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5225 
  5226 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5227 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5228 
  5229 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5230 
  5231 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5232 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5233 
  5234 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5235 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5236 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5237 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5238 
  5239 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5240   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5241   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5242   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5244 
  5245 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5246 lattices):
  5247 
  5248     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5249     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5250 
  5251     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5252 
  5253     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5254     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5255     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5256     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5257     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5258     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5259     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5260     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5261     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5262     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5263     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5264     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5265     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5266 
  5267     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5268     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5269     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5270     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5271     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5272     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5273     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5274     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5275     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5276     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5277     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5278     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5279     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5280     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5281     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5282     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5283     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5284     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5285 
  5286   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5287   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5288 
  5289     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5290     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5291     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5292     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5293     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5294 
  5295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5296 
  5297 * Refined field classes:
  5298   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5299     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5300     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5301   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5303 
  5304 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5305   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5306   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5307   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5308     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5309   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5310     equal_neg_zero.
  5311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5312 
  5313 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5314 sets to lattices:
  5315 
  5316   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5317   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5318   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5319   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5320   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5321   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5322   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5323   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5324   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5325   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5326 
  5327 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5328 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5329 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5330 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5331 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5332 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5333 
  5334 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5335 multiset order:
  5336 
  5337   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5338     <= and <;
  5339   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5340     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5341     multiset_order;
  5342   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5343     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5344     generation;
  5345   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5346     if needed.
  5347 
  5348 Renamed:
  5349 
  5350   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5351   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5352   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5353 
  5354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5355 
  5356 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5357 
  5358 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5359 
  5360 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5361 
  5362 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5363 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5364 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5365 
  5366   Constants:
  5367   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5368   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5369   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5370   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5371   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5372   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5373   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5374   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5375   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5376   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5377   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5378   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5379   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5380 
  5381   Lemmas:
  5382   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5383   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5384   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5385   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5386   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5387   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5388   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5389   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5390   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5391   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5392   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5393   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5394   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5395 
  5396 * Sledgehammer:
  5397   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5398     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5399     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5400     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5401     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5402     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5405   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5406     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5407   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5408     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5409     is still experimental.)
  5410   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5411     full-typed mode.
  5412   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5413 
  5414 * Nitpick:
  5415   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5416   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5417   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5418     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5419   - Added support for quotient types.
  5420   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5421     constructs.
  5422   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5423     "termination" proofs).
  5424   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5425   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5426   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5427   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5428     record getters.
  5429   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5430   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5431   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5432   - Added "atoms" option.
  5433   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5434     problems.
  5435   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5436     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5437     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5438   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5439     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5440   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5441 
  5442 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5443   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5444   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5445   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5446   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5447   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5448   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5449   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5450   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5451   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5452 
  5453 
  5454 *** HOLCF ***
  5455 
  5456 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5457 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5458 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5459 
  5460 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5461 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5462 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5463 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5464 
  5465 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5466 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5467 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5468 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5469 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5470 
  5471 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5472 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5473 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5474 
  5475 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5476 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5479   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5480 
  5481 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5482 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5483 
  5484   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5485   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5486   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5487   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5488   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5489 
  5490 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5491 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5492 
  5493   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5494   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5495   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5496 
  5497 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5498 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5502 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5503 
  5504 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5507 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 
  5510 *** ML ***
  5511 
  5512 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5513 
  5514     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5515     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5516 
  5517     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5518     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5519     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5520     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5521 
  5522     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5523     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5524     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5525 
  5526 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5527 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5528 
  5529 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5530 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5531 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5532 
  5533 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5534 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5535 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5536 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5537 
  5538 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5539 the context or even global references.
  5540 
  5541 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5542 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5543 
  5544 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5545 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5546 
  5547   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5548   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5549   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5550   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5551   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5552   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5553   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5554   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5555   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5556   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5557 
  5558 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5559 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5560 
  5561 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5562 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5563 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5564 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5565 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5566 
  5567 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5568 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5569 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5570 Theory_Data version.
  5571 
  5572 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5573 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5574 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5575 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5576 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5577 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5578 explicitly in rare situations.
  5579 
  5580 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5581 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5585 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5586 
  5587 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5588 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5589 quite rare).
  5590 
  5591 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5592 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5593 
  5594 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5595 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5596 terms.
  5597 
  5598 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5599 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5600 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5601 
  5602 
  5603 *** System ***
  5604 
  5605 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5606 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5607 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5608 
  5609 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5610 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5611 respectively.
  5612 
  5613 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5614 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5615 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5616 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5617 
  5618   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5619 
  5620 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5621 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5622 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5623 component.
  5624 
  5625 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5626 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5627 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5628 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5629 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5630 the user for manual installation.
  5631 
  5632 
  5633 
  5634 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5635 -------------------------------------
  5636 
  5637 *** General ***
  5638 
  5639 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5640 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5641 
  5642 
  5643 *** Pure ***
  5644 
  5645 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5646 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5647 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5648 
  5649 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5650 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5651 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5652 
  5653 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5654 interpretation.
  5655 
  5656 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5657 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 
  5660 *** Document preparation ***
  5661 
  5662 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5663 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5664 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5665 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5666 
  5667 
  5668 *** HOL ***
  5669 
  5670 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5671 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5672 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5673 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5674 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5675 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5676 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5677 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5678 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5679 
  5680 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5681 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5682 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5683 
  5684 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5685 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5686 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5687 
  5688 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5689 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5690 
  5691 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5692 
  5693 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5694 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5695 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5696 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5697 
  5698 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5699 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5700 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5701 "mirabelle" utility.
  5702 
  5703 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5704 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5705 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5706 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5707 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5708 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5709 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5710 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5711 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5712 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5713 
  5714 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5715 procedure only.
  5716 
  5717 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5718 
  5719 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5720 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5721 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5722 that fail later.
  5723 
  5724 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5725 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5726 
  5727 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5728 the same method as the approximation method.
  5729 
  5730 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5731 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5732 series expansion.
  5733 
  5734 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5735 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5736 
  5737 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5738 reals.
  5739 
  5740 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5741 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5742 
  5743 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5744 fixpoint theorem.
  5745 
  5746 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5747   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5748     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5749   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5750     accordingly
  5751   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5752     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5753   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5754     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5755 
  5756 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5757 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5758 lattice.
  5759 
  5760 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5761 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5762 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5763 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5764 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5765 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5767 
  5768 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5769   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5770     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5771   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5772     le_inf_iff
  5773   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5774     sup_aci)
  5775   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5776   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5777   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5778     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5779     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5780     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5781     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5782     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5783     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5784     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5785     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5786     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5787     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5788   - authentic syntax for
  5789     Set.Pow
  5790     Set.image
  5791   - mere abbreviations:
  5792     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5793     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5794     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5795     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5796     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5797     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5798     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5799     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5800   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5801 
  5802 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5803 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5804 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5805 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5806 
  5807 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5808 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5809 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5812 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5815 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5816 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5817 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5818 
  5819 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5820 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5821 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5822 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5823 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5824 
  5825 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5826 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5828 
  5829 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5830 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5831 
  5832 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5833 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5834 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5835 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5836 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5837 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5838 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5842     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5843     code_post       replaces    code post
  5844     etc.
  5845   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5846 
  5847 * Renamed methods:
  5848     sizechange -> size_change
  5849     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5850   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5851 
  5852 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5853 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5854 
  5855 * Renamed theorems:
  5856     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5857     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5858     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5859     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5860     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5861   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5862 
  5863 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5865 
  5866 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5868 
  5869 
  5870 *** HOLCF ***
  5871 
  5872 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5873 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5874 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5875 
  5876 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5877 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5878 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5879 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5880 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5881 
  5882 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5883 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5884 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5885 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5886 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5887 
  5888 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5889 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5890 constructor are pre-configured.
  5891 
  5892 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5893 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5894 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5895 
  5896 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5897 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5898 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5899 as well.)
  5900 
  5901 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5902 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5903 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5904 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5905 examples.
  5906 
  5907 
  5908 *** ML ***
  5909 
  5910 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5911 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5912 
  5913 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5914 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5915 position, logical grouping etc.
  5916 
  5917 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5918 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5919 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5920 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5921 
  5922 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5923 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5924 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5925 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5926 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5927 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5928 
  5929 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5930 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5931 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5932 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5933 experiments with references.
  5934 
  5935 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5936 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5937 
  5938 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5939 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5940 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5941 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5942 
  5943 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5944 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5945 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5946 
  5947 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5948 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5949 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5950 
  5951 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5952 
  5953 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5957 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5958 
  5959 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5960 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5961 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5962 
  5963 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5964 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5965 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5966 
  5967 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5968 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5969 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5971 
  5972 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5973 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5974 instead of global theory.
  5975 
  5976 
  5977 *** System ***
  5978 
  5979 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5980 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5981 usedir option -q.
  5982 
  5983 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5984 also the system manual.
  5985 
  5986 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5987 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5988 
  5989 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5990 this is always enabled.
  5991 
  5992 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5993 
  5994 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5995 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5996 currently supported on Linux only.
  5997 
  5998 
  5999 
  6000 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6001 --------------------------------
  6002 
  6003 *** General ***
  6004 
  6005 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6006 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6007 
  6008   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6009     "isatool."
  6010 
  6011   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6012     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6013 
  6014   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6015     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6016 
  6017 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6018 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6019 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6020 
  6021 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6022 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6023 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6024 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6025 via "isabelle emacs".
  6026 
  6027 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6028 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6029 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6030 
  6031 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6032 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6033 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6034 
  6035 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6036 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6037 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6038 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6039 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6040 
  6041 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6042 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6043 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6044 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6045 
  6046 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6047 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6048 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6049 
  6050 
  6051 *** Pure ***
  6052 
  6053 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6054 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6055 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6056 
  6057 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6058 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6059 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6060 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6061 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6062 
  6063 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6064 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6065 useful in locale declarations.
  6066 
  6067 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6068 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6069 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6070 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6071 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6072 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6073 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6074 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6075 no longer generated.
  6076 
  6077 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6078 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6079 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6080 
  6081 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6082 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6083 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6084 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6085 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6086 
  6087 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6088 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6089 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6090 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6091 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6092 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6093 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6094 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6095 
  6096 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6097 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6098 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6099 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6100 
  6101 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6102 
  6103 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6104 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6105 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6106 
  6107 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6108 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6109 
  6110 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6111 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6112 in HOL, write
  6113 
  6114     class foo = ...
  6115 
  6116 instead of
  6117 
  6118     class foo = type + ...
  6119 
  6120 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6121 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6122 
  6123 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6124 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6125 
  6126 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6127 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6128 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6129 
  6130 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6131 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6132 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6133 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6134 directly in regular applications.
  6135 
  6136 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6137 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6138 
  6139 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6140 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6141 
  6142 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6143 theory context.
  6144 
  6145 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6146 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6147 
  6148 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6149 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6150 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6151 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6152 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6153 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6154 
  6155   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6156 
  6157 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6158 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6159 normalization.
  6160 
  6161 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  6162 addressing etc.
  6163 
  6164 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  6165 
  6166   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  6167   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  6168 
  6169 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6170 
  6171   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  6172      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  6173      parts of the code generator framework).
  6174 
  6175   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  6176      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  6177      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  6178 
  6179 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6180 
  6181 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  6182 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6183 
  6184 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  6185 patterns, e.g.
  6186 
  6187     find_consts "_ => bool"
  6188 
  6189 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  6190 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  6191 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  6192 hyphen:
  6193 
  6194     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  6195 
  6196 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  6197 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  6198 
  6199 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  6200 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  6201 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  6202 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  6203 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  6204 higher-order unification.
  6205 
  6206 
  6207 *** Document preparation ***
  6208 
  6209 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  6210 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  6211 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  6212 
  6213 
  6214 *** HOL ***
  6215 
  6216 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  6217 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  6218 
  6219 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  6220 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  6221 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  6222 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  6223 Main, as before.
  6224 
  6225 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  6226 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  6227 
  6228 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  6229 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  6230 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  6231 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  6232 
  6233 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  6234 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  6235 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  6236 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  6237 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  6238 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  6239 
  6240 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  6241 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  6242 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  6243 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  6244 
  6245 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  6246 menu.
  6247 
  6248 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  6249 (contains the empty clause).
  6250 
  6251 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  6252 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  6253 
  6254 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  6255 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  6256 
  6257 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  6258 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  6259 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6260 
  6261 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  6262 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  6263 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  6264 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  6265 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  6266 
  6267 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  6268 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  6269 
  6270 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the