src/ZF/Finite.thy
author wenzelm
Sat Oct 17 14:43:18 2009 +0200 (2009-10-17)
changeset 32960 69916a850301
parent 26056 6a0801279f4c
child 45602 2a858377c3d2
permissions -rw-r--r--
eliminated hard tabulators, guessing at each author's individual tab-width;
tuned headers;
     1 (*  Title:      ZF/Finite.thy
     2     Author:     Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
     3     Copyright   1994  University of Cambridge
     4 
     5 prove:  b: Fin(A) ==> inj(b,b) <= surj(b,b)
     6 *)
     7 
     8 header{*Finite Powerset Operator and Finite Function Space*}
     9 
    10 theory Finite imports Inductive_ZF Epsilon Nat_ZF begin
    11 
    12 (*The natural numbers as a datatype*)
    13 rep_datatype
    14   elimination    natE
    15   induction      nat_induct
    16   case_eqns      nat_case_0 nat_case_succ
    17   recursor_eqns  recursor_0 recursor_succ
    18 
    19 
    20 consts
    21   Fin       :: "i=>i"
    22   FiniteFun :: "[i,i]=>i"         ("(_ -||>/ _)" [61, 60] 60)
    23 
    24 inductive
    25   domains   "Fin(A)" <= "Pow(A)"
    26   intros
    27     emptyI:  "0 : Fin(A)"
    28     consI:   "[| a: A;  b: Fin(A) |] ==> cons(a,b) : Fin(A)"
    29   type_intros  empty_subsetI cons_subsetI PowI
    30   type_elims   PowD [THEN revcut_rl]
    31 
    32 inductive
    33   domains   "FiniteFun(A,B)" <= "Fin(A*B)"
    34   intros
    35     emptyI:  "0 : A -||> B"
    36     consI:   "[| a: A;  b: B;  h: A -||> B;  a ~: domain(h) |]
    37               ==> cons(<a,b>,h) : A -||> B"
    38   type_intros Fin.intros
    39 
    40 
    41 subsection {* Finite Powerset Operator *}
    42 
    43 lemma Fin_mono: "A<=B ==> Fin(A) <= Fin(B)"
    44 apply (unfold Fin.defs)
    45 apply (rule lfp_mono)
    46 apply (rule Fin.bnd_mono)+
    47 apply blast
    48 done
    49 
    50 (* A : Fin(B) ==> A <= B *)
    51 lemmas FinD = Fin.dom_subset [THEN subsetD, THEN PowD, standard]
    52 
    53 (** Induction on finite sets **)
    54 
    55 (*Discharging x~:y entails extra work*)
    56 lemma Fin_induct [case_names 0 cons, induct set: Fin]:
    57     "[| b: Fin(A);
    58         P(0);
    59         !!x y. [| x: A;  y: Fin(A);  x~:y;  P(y) |] ==> P(cons(x,y))
    60      |] ==> P(b)"
    61 apply (erule Fin.induct, simp)
    62 apply (case_tac "a:b")
    63  apply (erule cons_absorb [THEN ssubst], assumption) (*backtracking!*)
    64 apply simp
    65 done
    66 
    67 
    68 (** Simplification for Fin **)
    69 declare Fin.intros [simp]
    70 
    71 lemma Fin_0: "Fin(0) = {0}"
    72 by (blast intro: Fin.emptyI dest: FinD)
    73 
    74 (*The union of two finite sets is finite.*)
    75 lemma Fin_UnI [simp]: "[| b: Fin(A);  c: Fin(A) |] ==> b Un c : Fin(A)"
    76 apply (erule Fin_induct)
    77 apply (simp_all add: Un_cons)
    78 done
    79 
    80 
    81 (*The union of a set of finite sets is finite.*)
    82 lemma Fin_UnionI: "C : Fin(Fin(A)) ==> Union(C) : Fin(A)"
    83 by (erule Fin_induct, simp_all)
    84 
    85 (*Every subset of a finite set is finite.*)
    86 lemma Fin_subset_lemma [rule_format]: "b: Fin(A) ==> \<forall>z. z<=b --> z: Fin(A)"
    87 apply (erule Fin_induct)
    88 apply (simp add: subset_empty_iff)
    89 apply (simp add: subset_cons_iff distrib_simps, safe)
    90 apply (erule_tac b = z in cons_Diff [THEN subst], simp)
    91 done
    92 
    93 lemma Fin_subset: "[| c<=b;  b: Fin(A) |] ==> c: Fin(A)"
    94 by (blast intro: Fin_subset_lemma)
    95 
    96 lemma Fin_IntI1 [intro,simp]: "b: Fin(A) ==> b Int c : Fin(A)"
    97 by (blast intro: Fin_subset)
    98 
    99 lemma Fin_IntI2 [intro,simp]: "c: Fin(A) ==> b Int c : Fin(A)"
   100 by (blast intro: Fin_subset)
   101 
   102 lemma Fin_0_induct_lemma [rule_format]:
   103     "[| c: Fin(A);  b: Fin(A); P(b);
   104         !!x y. [| x: A;  y: Fin(A);  x:y;  P(y) |] ==> P(y-{x})
   105      |] ==> c<=b --> P(b-c)"
   106 apply (erule Fin_induct, simp)
   107 apply (subst Diff_cons)
   108 apply (simp add: cons_subset_iff Diff_subset [THEN Fin_subset])
   109 done
   110 
   111 lemma Fin_0_induct:
   112     "[| b: Fin(A);
   113         P(b);
   114         !!x y. [| x: A;  y: Fin(A);  x:y;  P(y) |] ==> P(y-{x})
   115      |] ==> P(0)"
   116 apply (rule Diff_cancel [THEN subst])
   117 apply (blast intro: Fin_0_induct_lemma) 
   118 done
   119 
   120 (*Functions from a finite ordinal*)
   121 lemma nat_fun_subset_Fin: "n: nat ==> n->A <= Fin(nat*A)"
   122 apply (induct_tac "n")
   123 apply (simp add: subset_iff)
   124 apply (simp add: succ_def mem_not_refl [THEN cons_fun_eq])
   125 apply (fast intro!: Fin.consI)
   126 done
   127 
   128 
   129 subsection{*Finite Function Space*}
   130 
   131 lemma FiniteFun_mono:
   132     "[| A<=C;  B<=D |] ==> A -||> B  <=  C -||> D"
   133 apply (unfold FiniteFun.defs)
   134 apply (rule lfp_mono)
   135 apply (rule FiniteFun.bnd_mono)+
   136 apply (intro Fin_mono Sigma_mono basic_monos, assumption+)
   137 done
   138 
   139 lemma FiniteFun_mono1: "A<=B ==> A -||> A  <=  B -||> B"
   140 by (blast dest: FiniteFun_mono)
   141 
   142 lemma FiniteFun_is_fun: "h: A -||>B ==> h: domain(h) -> B"
   143 apply (erule FiniteFun.induct, simp)
   144 apply (simp add: fun_extend3)
   145 done
   146 
   147 lemma FiniteFun_domain_Fin: "h: A -||>B ==> domain(h) : Fin(A)"
   148 by (erule FiniteFun.induct, simp, simp)
   149 
   150 lemmas FiniteFun_apply_type = FiniteFun_is_fun [THEN apply_type, standard]
   151 
   152 (*Every subset of a finite function is a finite function.*)
   153 lemma FiniteFun_subset_lemma [rule_format]:
   154      "b: A-||>B ==> ALL z. z<=b --> z: A-||>B"
   155 apply (erule FiniteFun.induct)
   156 apply (simp add: subset_empty_iff FiniteFun.intros)
   157 apply (simp add: subset_cons_iff distrib_simps, safe)
   158 apply (erule_tac b = z in cons_Diff [THEN subst])
   159 apply (drule spec [THEN mp], assumption)
   160 apply (fast intro!: FiniteFun.intros)
   161 done
   162 
   163 lemma FiniteFun_subset: "[| c<=b;  b: A-||>B |] ==> c: A-||>B"
   164 by (blast intro: FiniteFun_subset_lemma)
   165 
   166 (** Some further results by Sidi O. Ehmety **)
   167 
   168 lemma fun_FiniteFunI [rule_format]: "A:Fin(X) ==> ALL f. f:A->B --> f:A-||>B"
   169 apply (erule Fin.induct)
   170  apply (simp add: FiniteFun.intros, clarify)
   171 apply (case_tac "a:b")
   172  apply (simp add: cons_absorb)
   173 apply (subgoal_tac "restrict (f,b) : b -||> B")
   174  prefer 2 apply (blast intro: restrict_type2)
   175 apply (subst fun_cons_restrict_eq, assumption)
   176 apply (simp add: restrict_def lam_def)
   177 apply (blast intro: apply_funtype FiniteFun.intros 
   178                     FiniteFun_mono [THEN [2] rev_subsetD])
   179 done
   180 
   181 lemma lam_FiniteFun: "A: Fin(X) ==> (lam x:A. b(x)) : A -||> {b(x). x:A}"
   182 by (blast intro: fun_FiniteFunI lam_funtype)
   183 
   184 lemma FiniteFun_Collect_iff:
   185      "f : FiniteFun(A, {y:B. P(y)})
   186       <-> f : FiniteFun(A,B) & (ALL x:domain(f). P(f`x))"
   187 apply auto
   188 apply (blast intro: FiniteFun_mono [THEN [2] rev_subsetD])
   189 apply (blast dest: Pair_mem_PiD FiniteFun_is_fun)
   190 apply (rule_tac A1="domain(f)" in 
   191        subset_refl [THEN [2] FiniteFun_mono, THEN subsetD])
   192  apply (fast dest: FiniteFun_domain_Fin Fin.dom_subset [THEN subsetD])
   193 apply (rule fun_FiniteFunI)
   194 apply (erule FiniteFun_domain_Fin)
   195 apply (rule_tac B = "range (f) " in fun_weaken_type)
   196  apply (blast dest: FiniteFun_is_fun range_of_fun range_type apply_equality)+
   197 done
   198 
   199 
   200 subsection{*The Contents of a Singleton Set*}
   201 
   202 definition
   203   contents :: "i=>i"  where
   204    "contents(X) == THE x. X = {x}"
   205 
   206 lemma contents_eq [simp]: "contents ({x}) = x"
   207 by (simp add: contents_def)
   208 
   209 end