NEWS
author blanchet
Thu May 28 10:18:46 2015 +0200 (2015-05-28)
changeset 60306 6b7c64ab8bd2
parent 60301 ff82ba1893c8
child 60310 932221b62e89
permissions -rw-r--r--
made Auto Sledgehammer behave more like the real thing
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 New in this Isabelle version
     7 ----------------------------
     8 
     9 *** HOL ***
    10 
    11 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Sledgehammer:
    14   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
    15     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
    16   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
    17 
    18 
    19 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
    20 ------------------------------
    21 
    22 *** General ***
    23 
    24 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
    25 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
    26 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
    27 
    28   context
    29   begin
    30 
    31   private definition ...
    32   private lemma ...
    33 
    34   qualified definition ...
    35   qualified lemma ...
    36 
    37   lemma ...
    38   theorem ...
    39 
    40   end
    41 
    42 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
    43 naming policy.
    44 
    45 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    46 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    47 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    48 
    49 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    50 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    51 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
    52 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    53 
    54 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    55 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    56 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    57 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    58 
    59 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    60 theory context.
    61 
    62 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    63 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    64 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    65 
    66 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
    67 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
    68 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
    69 sources.
    70 
    71 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    72 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    73 
    74 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
    75 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
    76 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
    77 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
    78 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
    79 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
    80 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
    81 
    82 
    83 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    84 
    85 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    86 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    87 
    88 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    89 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    90 in the buffer.
    91 
    92 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    93 marker, SideKick parser.
    94 
    95 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    96 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
    97 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
    98 
    99 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
   100 Options / Text Area).
   101 
   102 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
   103 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
   104 
   105 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
   106 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
   107 
   108 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
   109 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
   110 
   111 
   112 *** Document preparation ***
   113 
   114 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   115 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   116 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   117 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   118 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   119 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   120 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   121 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   124 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   125 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   126 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   127 
   128 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   129 style.
   130 
   131 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   132 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   133 
   134 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   135 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   136 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   137 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   138 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   139 
   140 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   141 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   142 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   143 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   144 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   145 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   146 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
   149 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
   150 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
   151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   152 
   153 
   154 *** Pure ***
   155 
   156 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   157 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   158 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   159 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   160 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   161 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   162 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   163 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   164 
   165 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   166 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   167 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   168 
   169 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   170 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   171 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   172 different index.
   173 
   174 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   175 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   176 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   177 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   178 
   179 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   180 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   181 token category instead.
   182 
   183 
   184 *** HOL ***
   185 
   186 * New (co)datatype package:
   187   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   188     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   189     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   190     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   191     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192   - Renamed theorems:
   193       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   194       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   195       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   196       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   197       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   198       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   199       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   200       sel_map ~> map_sel
   201       sel_set ~> set_sel
   202       sel_split ~> split_sel
   203       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   204       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   205       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   206     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   208     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   209     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   211     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   212     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   214     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   215     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   216     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   217     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   218     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   219     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220   - Renamed theories:
   221       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   222       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   223       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   224       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   225       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   226       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   227     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   229     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   230     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   231     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   232     rel_sum (using inductive).
   233     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   234     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   235     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   236     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   237   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
   238     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
   239     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
   240     rules.
   241 
   242 * Old datatype package:
   243   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   244     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   245     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   246     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   247     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248   - Renamed theorems:
   249       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   250     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251   - Renamed theory:
   252       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Nitpick:
   256   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   257     operations.
   258 
   259 * Sledgehammer:
   260   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   261     default.
   262   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   263     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   264   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   265     Removed sub-command:
   266       min
   267   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   268     dramatically improved.
   269   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   270 
   271 * Old and new SMT modules:
   272   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   273     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   274     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   275     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   276     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   277     point to it.
   278     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   280     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   281   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   282     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   283   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   284     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   285 
   286 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
   287 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
   288 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
   289 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
   290 
   291 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   292 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   293 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   294 
   295 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   296 
   297 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   298 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   299 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   300 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
   303 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307 
   308 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   309 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   310 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311 
   312 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
   313 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
   316 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
   317 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
   318 
   319 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
   320 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   321 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   322 needed.
   323 
   324 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   325 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   326 
   327 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   328 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   329 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   330 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   331 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   332 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   333 
   334 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   335 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   336 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   337 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   338 
   339 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   340 type class hierarchy:
   341   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   342   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   343   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   344   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   345 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   346 
   347 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   348   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   349   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   350 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   353 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   354 
   355 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   356   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   357   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   358   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   359 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360 
   361 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   362 and part of theory Main.
   363   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365 
   366 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   370 Fact rename:
   371     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   373 
   374 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   375 
   376 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
   377 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   378 
   379 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   380 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   381 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   382 
   383 * Library/Multiset:
   384   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   385   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   386     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   387   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   388       <# ~> #<#
   389       <=# ~> #<=#
   390       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   391       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   392     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
   394       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
   395       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
   396     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397   - Renamed
   398       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   399       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
   400       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
   401     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   403   - Added attributes:
   404       image_mset.id [simp]
   405       image_mset_id [simp]
   406       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   407       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   408       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   409       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   410       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   411       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   412     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   415 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   416 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   417 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
   420 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
   421 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
   422 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
   423 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   424 examples.
   425 
   426 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   427   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
   428   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   429   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   430     projection
   431 
   432 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   433 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   434 
   435 
   436 *** ML ***
   437 
   438 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   439 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   440 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   441 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   442 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   443 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   444 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   445 
   446 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
   447 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
   448 
   449 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   450 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   451 
   452 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   456 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   457 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   458 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   459 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   460 nested.
   461 
   462 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
   463 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   466 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   467 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   472 Thm.term_of etc.
   473 
   474 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   475 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   476 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   479 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   480 
   481 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   482 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   483 
   484 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   485 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   486 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   489 Input.source (with formal position information).
   490 
   491 
   492 *** System ***
   493 
   494 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   495 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   496 
   497 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
   498 
   499 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   500 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   501 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   502 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   506 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   507 
   508 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   509 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   510 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   511 
   512 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   513 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
   514 
   515 
   516 
   517 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   518 ---------------------------------
   519 
   520 *** General ***
   521 
   522 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   523 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   524 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   525 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   526 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   527 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   528 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   529 some examples.
   530 
   531 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   532 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   533 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   534 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   535 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   536 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   537 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   538 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   539 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   540 
   541 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   542 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   543 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   544 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   545 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   546 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   547 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   548 proof tools.
   549 
   550 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   551 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   552 supports input via ` (backquote).
   553 
   554 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   555 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   556 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   557 
   558 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   559 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   560 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   561 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   564 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   565 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   569 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   570 
   571 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   572 not check existence within the file-system.
   573 
   574 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   575 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   576 
   577 
   578 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   579 
   580 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   581 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   582 buffer.
   583 
   584 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   585 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   586 
   587 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   588 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   589 
   590 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   591 auxiliary ML files.
   592 
   593 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   594 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   595 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   596 
   597 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   598 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   599 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   600 
   601 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   602 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   603 
   604 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   605 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   606 caret".
   607 
   608 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   609 completion popup and context-menu.
   610 
   611 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   612 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   613 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   614 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   615 
   616 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   617 to highlight text via regular expression.
   618 
   619 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   620 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   621 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   622 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   623 
   624 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   625 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   626 
   627 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   628 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   629 
   630 * Improved monitor panel.
   631 
   632 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   633 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   634 
   635 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   636 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   637 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   638 
   639 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   640 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   641 within the context.
   642 
   643 
   644 *** Pure ***
   645 
   646 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   647 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   648 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   649 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   650 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   651 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   652 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   653 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   654 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   655 
   656 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   657 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   658 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   659 renaming needs to be applied:
   660 
   661   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   662   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   663   all            ~>  Pure.all
   664   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   665   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   666 
   667 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   668 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   669 old constants:
   670 
   671 setup {*
   672   fn thy => thy
   673     |> Sign.root_path
   674     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   675     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   676     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   677     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   678 *}
   679 
   680 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   681 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   682 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   683 
   684 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   685 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   686 instantiated theorem.
   687 
   688 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   689 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   690 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   691 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   692 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   693 
   694   attribute_setup standard =
   695     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   696 
   697 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   698 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   699 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   700 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   701 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   702 
   703 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   704 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   705 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   706 
   707 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   708 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   709 
   710 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   711 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   712 
   713 
   714 *** HOL ***
   715 
   716 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   717 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   724 
   725 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   726 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   727 
   728 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   730 
   731 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   732 with the given constants.
   733 
   734 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   735 operations on records.
   736 
   737 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   738 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741 
   742 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   743 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   744 
   745 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   748 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   749 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   750 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   751 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   754 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   757   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   758   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   759   part of theory "Main".
   760 
   761   Theory renamings:
   762     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   763     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   764     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   765     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   766     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   767     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   768     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   769     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   770     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   771     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   772     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   773     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   774     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   775     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   776     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   777     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   778     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   779     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   780     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   781     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   782     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   783     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   784 
   785   New theories:
   786     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   787     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   788     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   789     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   790     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   791 
   792   Discontinued theories:
   793     BNF/BNF.thy
   794     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   795 
   796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   797 
   798 * New (co)datatype package:
   799   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   800   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   801     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   802   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   803     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   804   - Renamed commands:
   805       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   806       primrec_new ~> primrec
   807       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   808     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   810     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   811     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   813     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   814     using "prim(co)rec".
   815     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   816   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   817     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   818     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   820     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   821     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   822     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   823 
   824 * Old datatype package:
   825   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   826     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   827     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   828   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   829     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   830     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   833   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   834   BNF-based datatype package.
   835 
   836   Renamed constants:
   837     Option.set ~> set_option
   838     Option.map ~> map_option
   839     option_rel ~> rel_option
   840 
   841   Renamed theorems:
   842     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   843     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   844     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   845     option.recs ~> option.rec
   846     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   847     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   848     map.simps ~> list.map
   849     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   850     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   851     the.simps ~> option.sel
   852 
   853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   856     sum_map ~> map_sum
   857     map_pair ~> map_prod
   858     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   859     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   860     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   861     set_rel ~> rel_set
   862     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   863     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   864     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   865     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   866 
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * Lifting and Transfer:
   870   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   871   - stronger reflexivity prover
   872   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   873   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   874     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   875     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   876       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   877       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   878       automatically
   879     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   880     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   881       automatically for datatypes
   882   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   883     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   884       more
   885       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   886     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   887       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   888       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   890       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   891       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892   - registration of code equations is more robust
   893     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   895     form
   896     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   898     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   899   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   900     Code_Numeral.natural
   901     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   903     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   906 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   907 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   908 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   909 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   910 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   911 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   912 
   913 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   914 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   915 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   916 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   917 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   918 
   919 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   920 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   921 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   922 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   923 
   924 * Sledgehammer:
   925   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   926   - MaSh overhaul:
   927     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   928       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   929     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   930       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   931       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   932       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   933   - New option:
   934       smt_proofs
   935   - Renamed options:
   936       isar_compress ~> compress
   937       isar_try0 ~> try0
   938 
   939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   940 
   941 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   942 
   943 * Nitpick:
   944   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   945     take infinite values.
   946   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   947     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   948   - Removed "std" option.
   949   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   950     "hide_types".
   951 
   952 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   953 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   956 
   957 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   958   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   959   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   960     SUP instead uniformly.
   961   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   962     or SUP and Sup.
   963   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   964   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   965   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   966     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   967     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   968 
   969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   972 
   973 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   974 
   975   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   976   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   977   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   978   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   979 
   980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   981 
   982 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   983 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   984 
   985 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   986 
   987     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   988     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   989     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   990     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   991     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   992     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   993     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   994     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   995     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   996     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   997     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   998     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   999     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  1000     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  1001     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1002     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1003     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  1004     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  1005     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  1006     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  1007     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  1008     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  1009     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  1010     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  1011     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  1012     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  1013     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  1014     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  1015     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  1016     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  1017     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  1018     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  1019     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  1020     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  1021     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  1022     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  1023     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  1024     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  1025     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  1026     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1027     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1028     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1029     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1030     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1031     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1032     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1033     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1034     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1035     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1036     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1037     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1038     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1039     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1040     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1041     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1042     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1043     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1044     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1045     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1046 
  1047   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1048   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1049   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1050     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1051 
  1052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053 
  1054 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1055 
  1056   Fact consolidations:
  1057     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1058     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1059     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1060     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1061     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1062     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1063     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1064     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1065     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1066     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1067     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1068     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1069     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1070     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1071     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1072     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1073     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1074     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1075     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1076     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1077     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1078     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1079     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1080     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1081     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1082     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1083     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1084     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1085     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1086     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1087     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1088     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1089     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1090     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1091     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1092     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1093     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1094     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1095     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1096     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1097 
  1098 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1099 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1100 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1101 
  1102 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1103 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1104 
  1105 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1106 
  1107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1110 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1116     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1117 
  1118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1121   consolidation:
  1122     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1123     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1124 
  1125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1128   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1129   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1130   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1131     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1132   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1133     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1134   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1135 
  1136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1137 
  1138 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1139 
  1140     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1141     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1142     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1143     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1144     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1145     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1146     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1147     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1148     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1149     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1150     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1151     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1152     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1153 
  1154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155 
  1156 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1157 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1158 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1159 
  1160 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1161     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1162     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1163     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1164     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1165 
  1166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1167 
  1168 * Fact name consolidation:
  1169     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1170     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1171     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1172     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1173     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1174 
  1175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1176 
  1177 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1178 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1179 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1180 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1181 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1182 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1183 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1187 
  1188 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1189 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1190 
  1191 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1192 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1193 
  1194 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1195 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1196 or the brute way with
  1197 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1198 
  1199 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1200 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1201 stating boundedness of sets.
  1202 
  1203 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1204 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1205 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1206 
  1207 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1208   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1209   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1210   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1211   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1212   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1213   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1214   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1215   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1216   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1217   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1218   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1219 
  1220   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1221 
  1222   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1223 
  1224     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1225     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1226     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1227     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1228     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1229 
  1230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1233   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1234 
  1235   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1236 
  1237   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1238 
  1239   - removed constant isDiff
  1240 
  1241   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1242     input syntax.
  1243 
  1244   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1245 
  1246   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1247 
  1248   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1249 
  1250   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1251 
  1252   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1253     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1254     has_vector_derivative.
  1255 
  1256   - Other renamings:
  1257     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1258     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1259     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1260     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1261     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1262     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1263     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1264 
  1265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1268 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1269 in continuous_intros.
  1270 
  1271 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1272 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1273 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1274 
  1275 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1276 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1277 especially removes
  1278 
  1279     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1280 
  1281 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1282     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1283 
  1284 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1285 
  1286   Renamings:
  1287     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1288     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1289     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1290     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1291     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1292     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1293     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1294     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1295     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1296     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1297     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1298     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1299 
  1300     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1301     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1302     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1303 
  1304   Removed theorems:
  1305     complex_zero_def
  1306     complex_add_def
  1307     complex_minus_def
  1308     complex_diff_def
  1309     complex_one_def
  1310     complex_mult_def
  1311     complex_inverse_def
  1312     complex_scaleR_def
  1313 
  1314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1315 
  1316 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1317 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1318 
  1319 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1320 
  1321 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1322 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1323 
  1324 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1325 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1326 
  1327 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1328 
  1329 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 * HOL-Word:
  1333   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1334     of "word_arith_wis".
  1335   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1336     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1337     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1338 
  1339 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1340   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1341   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1342   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1343     (except the AFP)
  1344 
  1345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1346 
  1347 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1348   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1349   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1350     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1351   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1352     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1353     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1354     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1355     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1356     intervals.
  1357   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1358     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1359     - renamed theorems:
  1360         interval ~> box
  1361         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1362         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1363         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1364         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1365         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1366         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1367         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1368         open_interval ~> open_box
  1369         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1370         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1371         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1372         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1373         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1374         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1375         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1376         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1377         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1378         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1379         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1380         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1381         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1382         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1383         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1384         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1385         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1386         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1387         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1388         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1389         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1390         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1391         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1392         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1393 
  1394     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1395         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1396         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1397         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1398         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1399         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1400         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1401         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1402         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1403         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1404         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1405         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1406         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1407         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1408         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1409         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1410         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1411         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1412 
  1413   - renamed theorems:
  1414     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1415     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1416     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1417 
  1418 * HOL-Probability:
  1419   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1420 
  1421     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1422       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1423 
  1424     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1425 
  1426   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1427     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1428 
  1429     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1430     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1431     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1432     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1433     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1434     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1435     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1436     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1437     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1438     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1439     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1440     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1441     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1442     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1443     integral_indicator          ~>
  1444          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1445     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1446     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1447     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1448 
  1449     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1450          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1451 
  1452     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1453          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1454 
  1455     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1456          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1457 
  1458     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1459          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1460          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1461 
  1462     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1463          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1464 
  1465     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1466          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1467 
  1468     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1469          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1470          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1471 
  1472     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1473          nn_integral_real_affine
  1474 
  1475     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1476          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1477 
  1478     The following theorems where removed:
  1479 
  1480     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1481     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1482     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1483     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1484     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1485     integral_cmul_indicator
  1486     integral_real
  1487 
  1488   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1489     distributed random variables.
  1490 
  1491 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1492 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 
  1496 *** Scala ***
  1497 
  1498 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1499 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1500 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1501 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1502 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503 
  1504 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1505 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 
  1508 *** ML ***
  1509 
  1510 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1511 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1512 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1513 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1514 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1515 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1516 
  1517 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1518 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1519 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1520 actually belongs to it).
  1521 
  1522 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1523 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1524 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1525 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1526 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1527 of schematic variables.
  1528 
  1529 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1530 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1533 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1534 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1540 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1541 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1545 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1547 formal context.
  1548 
  1549 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1550 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1551 
  1552 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1553 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1554 
  1555 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1556 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1557 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1558 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1559 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1560 
  1561 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1562 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1563 purposes.
  1564 
  1565 
  1566 *** System ***
  1567 
  1568 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1569 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1570 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1571 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1572 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1573 
  1574 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1575 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1576 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1577 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1578 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1579 settings variable.
  1580 
  1581 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1582 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1583 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1584 
  1585 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1586 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1587 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1588 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1589 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1590 
  1591 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1592 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1593 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1594 
  1595 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1596 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1597 
  1598 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1599 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1600 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1601 
  1602 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1603 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1604 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1605 processing is started.
  1606 
  1607 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1608 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1609 
  1610 
  1611 
  1612 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1613 -------------------------------------
  1614 
  1615 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1616 
  1617 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1618 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1619 
  1620 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1621 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1622 
  1623 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1624 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1625 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1626 
  1627 
  1628 *** System ***
  1629 
  1630 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1631 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1632 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1633 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1634 
  1635 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1636 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1637 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1638 
  1639 
  1640 
  1641 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1642 -------------------------------------
  1643 
  1644 *** General ***
  1645 
  1646 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1647 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1648 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1649 
  1650 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1651 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1654 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1655 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1656 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1657 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1658 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1659 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1660 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1661 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1662 syntax.
  1663 
  1664 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1665 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1668 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1669 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1670 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1671 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1672 
  1673 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1675 
  1676 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1677 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1678 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1679 
  1680 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1681 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1682 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1683 
  1684 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1685 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1686 
  1687 
  1688 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1689 
  1690 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1691 Documentation panel.
  1692 
  1693 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1694 documentation.
  1695 
  1696 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1697 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1698 
  1699 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1700 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1701 normal editing and checking process.
  1702 
  1703 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1704 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1705 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1706 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1707 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1708 
  1709 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1710 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1711 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1712 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1713 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1714 
  1715 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1716 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1717 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1718 
  1719 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1720 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1721 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1722 to resolve conflict.
  1723 
  1724 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1725 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1726 
  1727 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1728 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1729 such command executions while editing.
  1730 
  1731 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1732 document content.
  1733 
  1734 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1735 toplevel theorem statements.
  1736 
  1737 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1738 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1739 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1740 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1741 
  1742 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1743 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1744 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1745 
  1746 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1747 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1748 
  1749 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1750 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1751 
  1752 
  1753 *** Pure ***
  1754 
  1755 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1756 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1757 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1758 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1759 details.
  1760 
  1761 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1762 
  1763 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1764 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1765 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1766 
  1767 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1769 
  1770 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1771 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1772 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1773 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1776 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1777 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1780 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1781 
  1782 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1783 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1784 situations.
  1785 
  1786 
  1787 *** HOL ***
  1788 
  1789 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1790 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1794 
  1795 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1796 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1797 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1798 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1799 
  1800   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1801 
  1802 * Code generator:
  1803   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1804     'code_instance'.
  1805   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1806     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1807 
  1808 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1809 examples.
  1810 
  1811 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1812 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1813 to distinguish both when desired.
  1814 
  1815 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1816 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1817 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1818 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1819 
  1820 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1821 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1822 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1823 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1824 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1825 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1826 
  1827 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1828 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1829 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1830 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1831 
  1832 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1833 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1834 
  1835 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1836 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1837 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1838 
  1839 * Lifting:
  1840   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1841     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1842       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1843       transfer rules
  1844     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1845       correspondence relation can be generated
  1846     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1847       parametricity
  1848     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1849   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1850   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1851     copies
  1852   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1853     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1854     anonymous context)
  1855   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1856     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1857   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1858     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1859   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1860     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1861 
  1862 * Transfer:
  1863   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1864     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1865   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1866   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1867     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1868   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1869 
  1870 * Reification and reflection:
  1871   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1872     "Reification".
  1873   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1874   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876 
  1877 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1878   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1879     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1880     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1881   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1882     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1883   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1884     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1885     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1886     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1887     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1888     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1889     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1890     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1891   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1892     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1893   - Fact renames:
  1894       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1895       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1897 
  1898 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1899 
  1900 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1901 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1902 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1906 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1907 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1908 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1909 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1910 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1911 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1912 lemmas.
  1913 
  1914 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1915 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1916 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1919 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1920 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1921 
  1922 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1923 top and bottom elements.
  1924 
  1925 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1926 
  1927 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1928 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1929 
  1930  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1931    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1932    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1933 
  1934  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1935    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1936    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1937 
  1938    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1939    arbitrary filter.
  1940 
  1941  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1942    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1943    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1944    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1945    on a compact set.
  1946 
  1947  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1948    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1949    linear_continuum_topology).
  1950 
  1951  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1952    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1953    on all sequences converging to x.
  1954 
  1955  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1956    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1957    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1958    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1959    left or right.
  1960 
  1961  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1962 
  1963      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1964 
  1965  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1966    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1967 
  1968  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1969    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1970    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1971    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1972    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1973    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1974 
  1975  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1976 
  1977    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1978 
  1979    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1980      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1981 
  1982    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1983 
  1984    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1985      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1986 
  1987    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1988 
  1989    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1990 
  1991  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1992 
  1993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995 * Nitpick:
  1996   - Added option "spy".
  1997   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1998 
  1999 * Sledgehammer:
  2000   - Renamed option:
  2001       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  2002     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  2004   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  2005   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  2006 
  2007 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  2008 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  2009 
  2010 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  2011   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  2012   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  2013     generated code.
  2014   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  2015   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  2016   - Fact renames:
  2017     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  2018     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  2019     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  2020 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  2023 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  2024 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  2025 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  2026 
  2027 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2028 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2029 
  2030 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2033 
  2034     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2035     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2036 
  2037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2038 
  2039 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2040 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2041 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2042 
  2043 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2044 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2045 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2046 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048 * HOL-BNF:
  2049   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2050     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2051     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2052     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2053   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2054     coinduct).
  2055   - Renamed keywords:
  2056     data ~> datatype_new
  2057     codata ~> codatatype
  2058     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2059   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2060     discs ~> disc
  2061     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2062     map_id' ~> map_id
  2063     sels ~> sel
  2064     set_map' ~> set_map
  2065     sets ~> set
  2066 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2067 
  2068 
  2069 *** ML ***
  2070 
  2071 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2072 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2073 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2074 Examples.thy in particular.
  2075 
  2076 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2077 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2078 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2079 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2080 
  2081 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2082 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2083 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2084 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2086 
  2087 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2088 
  2089     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2090     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2091 
  2092 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2093 
  2094 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2095 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2096 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2097 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2098 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2099 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2100 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2101 
  2102 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2103 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2104 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2105 clasets separately from the context.
  2106 
  2107 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2108 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2109 
  2110 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2111 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2112 
  2113 
  2114 *** System ***
  2115 
  2116 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2117 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2118 
  2119 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2120 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2123 settings variable.
  2124 
  2125 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2126 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2127 always pdf.
  2128 
  2129 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2130 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2131 
  2132 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2133 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2134 
  2135 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2136 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2137 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2138 
  2139 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2140 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2141 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2142 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2143 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2144 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2145 
  2146 
  2147 
  2148 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2149 -----------------------------------
  2150 
  2151 *** General ***
  2152 
  2153 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2154 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2155 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2156 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2157 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2158 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2159 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2160 
  2161 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2162 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2163 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2164 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2165 
  2166 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2167 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2168 
  2169 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2170 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2171 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2172 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2173 dependencies properly.
  2174 
  2175 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2176 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2177 
  2178 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2179 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2180 
  2181 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2182 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2183 and "class ... context ...".
  2184 
  2185 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2186 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2187 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2188 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2189 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2190 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2191 
  2192 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2193 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2194 
  2195 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2196 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2197 
  2198 
  2199 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2200 
  2201 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2202 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2203 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2204 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2205 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2206 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2207 
  2208 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2209 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2210 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2211 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2212 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2213 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2214 
  2215 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2216 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2217 browser on demand.
  2218 
  2219 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2220 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2221 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2222 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2223 
  2224 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2225 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2226 
  2227 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2228 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2229 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2230 potentially infinite message streams.
  2231 
  2232 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2233 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2234 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2235 schemes.
  2236 
  2237 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2238 symbols.
  2239 
  2240 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2241 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2242 
  2243 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2244 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2245 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2246 
  2247 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2248 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2249 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2250 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2251 
  2252 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2253 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2254 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2255 
  2256 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2257 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2258 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2259 Isabelle distribution.
  2260 
  2261 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2262 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2263 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2264 
  2265 
  2266 *** Pure ***
  2267 
  2268 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2269 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2270 
  2271 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2272 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2273 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2276 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2277 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2278 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2279 with some care where this is really required.
  2280 
  2281 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2282 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2283 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2284 
  2285   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2286 
  2287 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2288 a Hasse diagram.
  2289 
  2290 
  2291 *** HOL ***
  2292 
  2293 * Sledgehammer:
  2294 
  2295   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2296     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2297   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2298   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2299   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2300   - Renamed options:
  2301       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2302       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2303       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2304       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2305 
  2306 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2307 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2308 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2309 
  2310 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312 
  2313 * Lifting:
  2314   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2315   - quot_del attribute
  2316   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2317 
  2318 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2319 expressions.
  2320 
  2321 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2322 pointfree expressions.
  2323 
  2324 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2325 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2326 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2327 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2331 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2332 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2333 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2334 accordingly.
  2335 
  2336 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2337 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2340 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2345 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2346 
  2347 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2348 
  2349 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2350 
  2351   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2352   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2353 
  2354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355 
  2356 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2357 
  2358   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2359   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2360 
  2361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2364 
  2365   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2366     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2367     output f x converges to G.
  2368 
  2369   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2370     infinity (at_bot).
  2371 
  2372   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2373     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2374 
  2375   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2376     at_top".
  2377 
  2378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2381 lattice type classes.
  2382 
  2383 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2384 
  2385     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2386     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2387 
  2388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2391 changes as follows.
  2392 
  2393   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2394 
  2395       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2396       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2397 
  2398   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2399     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2400     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2401     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2402 
  2403   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2404     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2405     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2406 
  2407   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2408     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2409     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2410     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2411 
  2412   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2413     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2414 
  2415       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2416       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2417       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2418       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2419       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2420       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2421       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2422       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2423       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2424       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2425       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2426       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2427       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2428       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2429       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2430       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2431 
  2432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2435 
  2436 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2437 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2438 
  2439 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2440 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2441 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2442 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2443 
  2444   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2445   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2446   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2447   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2448   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2449   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2450   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2451   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2452   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2453   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2454 
  2455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2458 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2459 Data").
  2460 
  2461 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2462 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2463 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2464 code.
  2465 
  2466 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2467 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2468 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2472 
  2473 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2474 
  2475 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2476 
  2477   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2478   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2479 
  2480 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2481 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2482 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2483 
  2484   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2485 
  2486     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2487     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2488     cart_base i  removed
  2489     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2490 
  2491   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2492 
  2493   Renamed lemmas:
  2494 
  2495     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2496     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2497     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2498     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2499     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2500     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2501     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2502     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2503     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2504     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2505 
  2506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * HOL/Probability:
  2509 
  2510   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2511 
  2512   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2513     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2514     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2515 
  2516   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2517     projective family).
  2518 
  2519 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2520 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2521 
  2522 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2523 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2524 datatypes.
  2525 
  2526 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2527 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2528 
  2529 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2530 trees for the code generator.
  2531 
  2532 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2533 Lifting/Transfer.
  2534 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 
  2540 *** Document preparation ***
  2541 
  2542 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2543 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2544 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2545 
  2546 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2547 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2548 
  2549 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2550 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2551 document/root.tex.
  2552 
  2553 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2554 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 
  2557 *** ML ***
  2558 
  2559 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2560 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2561 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2562 
  2563 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2564 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2565 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2566 
  2567 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2568 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2569 necessarily printing visible text.
  2570 
  2571 
  2572 *** System ***
  2573 
  2574 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2575 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2576 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2577 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2578 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2579 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2580 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2581 
  2582 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2583 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2584 
  2585   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2586 
  2587 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2588 
  2589 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2590 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2591 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2592 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2593 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2594 
  2595 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2596 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2597 
  2598 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2599 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2600 
  2601 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2605 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2606 version of Isabelle.
  2607 
  2608 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2609 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2610 
  2611 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2612 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2613 for home-made settings.
  2614 
  2615 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2616 
  2617 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2618 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2619 configuration.
  2620 
  2621 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2622 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2623 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2624 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2625 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2626 
  2627 
  2628 
  2629 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2630 ------------------------------
  2631 
  2632 *** General ***
  2633 
  2634 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2635 
  2636   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2637     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2638   - markup for bound variables
  2639   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2640   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2641   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2642     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2643 
  2644 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2645 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2646 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2647 
  2648 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2649 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2650 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2651 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2652 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2653 
  2654   context
  2655     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2656     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2657   begin
  2658 
  2659   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2660 
  2661   end
  2662 
  2663   thm my_trans
  2664 
  2665 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2666 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2667 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2668 
  2669 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2670 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2671 
  2672 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2673 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2674 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2675 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2676 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2677 
  2678 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2679 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2680 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2681 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2682 indices of schematic variables.
  2683 
  2684 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2685 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2686 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2687 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2688 etc. was exploited.
  2689 
  2690 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2691 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2692 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2693 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2694 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2695 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2696 
  2697 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2698 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2699 manual.
  2700 
  2701 
  2702 *** Pure ***
  2703 
  2704 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2705 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2706 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2707 
  2708 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2709 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2710 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2711 undocumented feature.)
  2712 
  2713 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2714 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2715 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2716 
  2717   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2718 
  2719   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2720     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2721 
  2722 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2723 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2724 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2725 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2726 
  2727 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2728 
  2729     num ~> num_token
  2730     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2731     xstr ~> str_token
  2732 
  2733 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2734 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2735 position information via constraints).
  2736 
  2737 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2738 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2739 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2742 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2743 
  2744 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2745 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2746 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2749 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2752 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2753 
  2754   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2755 
  2756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2759 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2762 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2763 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2764 
  2765 
  2766 *** HOL ***
  2767 
  2768 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2769 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2770 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2771 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2772 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2773 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2774 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2775 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2776 possible.
  2777 
  2778 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2779 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2780 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2781 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2782 
  2783 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2784 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2787 
  2788 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2789 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2790 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2791 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2792 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2793 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2794 
  2795   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2796     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2797 
  2798   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2799     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2800     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2801 
  2802   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2803     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2804 
  2805   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2806     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2807     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2808 
  2809   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2810     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2811 
  2812 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2813 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2814 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2815 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2816 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2817 
  2818   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2819     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2820     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2821     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2822     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2823 
  2824     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2825     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2826 
  2827   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2828     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2829     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2830     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2831     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2832     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2833     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2834     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2835 
  2836   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2837     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2838     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2839     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2840 
  2841   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2842     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2843     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2844     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2845 
  2846   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2847     from type nat to type int.
  2848 
  2849 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2850 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2851 
  2852   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2853     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2854     type.  Example syntax:
  2855 
  2856     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2857       is List.insert
  2858 
  2859     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2860     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2861     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2862     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2863     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2864     by the package.
  2865 
  2866   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2867     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2868     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2869     code generation for each constant.
  2870 
  2871   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2872     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2873     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2874     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2875     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2876 
  2877   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2878     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2879     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2880 
  2881 * Quotient package:
  2882 
  2883   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2884     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2885 
  2886   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2887     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2888 
  2889   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2890     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2891     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2892 
  2893   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2894     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2897 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2898 
  2899 * Quickcheck:
  2900 
  2901   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2902     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2903     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2904     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2905     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2906 
  2907     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2908     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2909     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2910 
  2911     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2912     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2913 
  2914     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2915     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2916     show genuine counterexamples.
  2917 
  2918   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2919     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2920 
  2921     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2922     constructors of that type.
  2923 
  2924   - Support for multisets.
  2925 
  2926   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2927 
  2928   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2929     conjectures in a locale context.
  2930 
  2931 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2932 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2933 
  2934 * Sledgehammer:
  2935   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2936     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2937   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2938   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2939     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2940   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2941   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2942   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2943   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2944 
  2945 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2946 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2947 
  2948 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2949 
  2950 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2951 
  2952 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2953 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2954 
  2955   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2956 
  2957 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2958 a list and a nat.
  2959 
  2960 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2961 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2962 
  2963 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2964 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2965 default.
  2966 
  2967 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2968 
  2969   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2970 
  2971 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2972 
  2973 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2974 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2975 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2976 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2977 one_case.
  2978 
  2979 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2980 the result of the fact expression.
  2981 
  2982 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2983 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2984 of some relation theorems:
  2985 
  2986   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2987   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2988   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2989   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2990   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2991   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2992 
  2993 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2994 
  2995 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2996 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2997 
  2998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  3001 to match the constant's name:
  3002 
  3003   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  3004   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  3005   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  3006   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  3007   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  3008   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  3009   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  3010   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  3011   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  3012   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  3013   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  3014   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  3015   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  3016   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  3017   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  3018   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  3019   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  3020   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  3021   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  3022   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  3023   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  3024   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3025   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3026   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3027 
  3028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3029 
  3030 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3031 and corresponding theorem names:
  3032 
  3033   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3034 
  3035   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3036 
  3037   - Renamed theorems:
  3038 
  3039     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3040     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3041     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3042     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3043     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3044     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3045     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3046     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3047     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3048     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3049     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3050     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3051     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3052     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3053     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3054     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3055     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3056     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3057     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3058     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3059     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3060     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3061     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3062 
  3063     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3064 
  3065     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3066 
  3067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3068 
  3069 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3070 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3071 
  3072   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3073   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3074   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3075   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3076   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3077   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3078   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3079   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3080   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3081   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3082   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3083   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3084   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3085   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3086   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3087   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3088   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3089   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3090   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3091   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3092   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3093 
  3094 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3095 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3100 
  3101   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3102   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3103   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3104   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3105   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3106   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3107   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3108   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3109   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3110   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3111   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3112   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3113   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3114   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3115   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3116   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3117   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3118   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3119 
  3120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3123 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3124 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3125 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3126 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3127 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3128 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3129 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3130 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3131 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3132 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3133 
  3134 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3135 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3136 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3137 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3138 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3139 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3140 
  3141 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3142 through option types.
  3143 
  3144 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3145 relations.
  3146 
  3147 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3150 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3151 
  3152   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3153   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3154   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3155   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3156   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3157   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3158   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3159   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3160   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3161   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3162   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3163   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3164   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3165   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3166   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3167   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3168   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3169   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3170   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3171   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3172   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3173   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3174   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3175   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3176   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3177   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3178   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3179   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3180   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3181   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3182   zless_le ~> less_le
  3183   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3184   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3185   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3186 
  3187 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3188 
  3189   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3190 
  3191 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3192 
  3193 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3194 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3195 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3196 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3200 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3201 
  3202 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3203 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3204 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3205 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3206 follows:
  3207 
  3208   Operations:
  3209   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3210   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3211   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3212   del -> rbt_del
  3213   delete -> rbt_delete
  3214   ins -> rbt_ins
  3215   insert -> rbt_insert
  3216   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3217   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3218   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3219   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3220   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3221   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3222   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3223   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3224   union -> rbt_union
  3225   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3226   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3227 
  3228   Lemmas:
  3229   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3230   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3231   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3232   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3233   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3234   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3235   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3236   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3237   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3238   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3239   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3240   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3241   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3242   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3243   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3244   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3245   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3246   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3247   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3248   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3249   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3250   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3251   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3252   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3253   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3254   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3255   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3256   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3257   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3258   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3259   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3260   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3261   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3262   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3263   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3264   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3265   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3266   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3267   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3268   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3269   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3270   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3271   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3272   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3273   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3274   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3275   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3276   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3277   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3278   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3279   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3280   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3281   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3282   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3283   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3284   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3285   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3286   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3287   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3288   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3289   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3290   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3291   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3292   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3293   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3294   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3295   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3296   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3297   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3298   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3299   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3300   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3301   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3302   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3303   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3304   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3305   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3306   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3307   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3308   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3309   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3310   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3311   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3312 
  3313 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3314 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3315 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317   Changed Operations:
  3318   float_abs -> abs
  3319   float_nprt -> nprt
  3320   float_pprt -> pprt
  3321   pow2 -> use powr
  3322   round_down -> float_round_down
  3323   round_up -> float_round_up
  3324   scale -> exponent
  3325 
  3326   Removed Operations:
  3327   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3328 
  3329   Renamed Lemmas:
  3330   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3331   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3332   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3333   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3334   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3335   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3336   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3337   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3338   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3339   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3340   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3341   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3342   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3343   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3344   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3345   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3346   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3347   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3348   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3349   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3350   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3351   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3352   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3353   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3354   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3355   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3356   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3357   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3358   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3359   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3360   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3361   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3362   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3363   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3364   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3365   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3366 
  3367   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3368   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3369   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3370   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3371   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3372   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3373   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3374   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3375   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3376   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3377 
  3378 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3379 association lists with distinct keys.
  3380 
  3381 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3382 annotated commands.
  3383 
  3384 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3385 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3386 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3387 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3390 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3391 instead.
  3392 
  3393   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3394   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3395   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3396   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3397   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3398   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3399   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3400   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3401   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3402   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3403   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3404   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3405   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3406   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3407   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3408   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3409   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3410   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3411   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3412   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3413   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3414   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3415   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3416   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3417   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3418   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3419   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3420   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3421   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3422   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3423   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3424   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3425   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3426   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3427   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3428   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3429   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3430   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3431   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3432   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3433   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3434 
  3435 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3436 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3437 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3438 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3439 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3440 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3441 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3442 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3443 
  3444 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3445 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3446 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3447 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3448 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3449 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3450 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3451 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3452 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3453 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3454 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3455 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457   Renamed constants:
  3458   measure -> emeasure
  3459   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3460   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3461   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3462   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3463 
  3464   Removed locales:
  3465   completeable_measure_space
  3466   finite_measure_space
  3467   finite_prob_space
  3468   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3469   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3470   finite_sigma_algebra
  3471   measure_space
  3472   pair_finite_prob_space
  3473   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3474   pair_finite_space
  3475   pair_sigma_algebra
  3476   product_sigma_algebra
  3477 
  3478   Removed constants:
  3479   conditional_space
  3480   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3481   image_space
  3482   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3483   pair_measure_generator
  3484   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3485   subvimage
  3486 
  3487   Replacement theorems:
  3488   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3489   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3490   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3491   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3492   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3493   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3494   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3495   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3496   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3497   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3498   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3499   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3500   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3501   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3502   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3503   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3504   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3505   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3506   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3507   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3508   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3509   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3510   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3511   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3512   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3513   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3514   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3515   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3516   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3517   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3518   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3519   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3520   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3521   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3522   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3523   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3524   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3525   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3526   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3527   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3528   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3529   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3530   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3531   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3532   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3533   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3534   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3535   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3536   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3537   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3538   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3539   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3540   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3541   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3542   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3543   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3544   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3545   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3546   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3547   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3548   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3549   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3550   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3551   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3552   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3553   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3554   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3555   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3556   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3557   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3558   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3559   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3560   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3561   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3562   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3563   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3564   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3565   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3566   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3567   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3568   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3569   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3570   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3571   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3572   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3573   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3574   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3575   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3576   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3577   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3578   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3579   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3580   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3581   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3582   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3583   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3584   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3585   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3586   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3587   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3588   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3589   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3590   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3591   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3592   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3593   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3594   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3595   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3596   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3597   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3598   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3599   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3600   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3601   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3602   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3603   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3604   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3605   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3606   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3607   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3608   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3609   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3610   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3611   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3612   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3613   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3614   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3615   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3616 
  3617 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3618 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3619 
  3620 
  3621 *** FOL ***
  3622 
  3623 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3624 
  3625 
  3626 *** ZF ***
  3627 
  3628 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3629 analysis.
  3630 
  3631 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3632 
  3633 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 
  3636 *** ML ***
  3637 
  3638 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3639 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3640 
  3641 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3642 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3643 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3644 
  3645 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3646 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3647 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3648 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3649 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3650 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3651 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3652 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3653 
  3654 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3655 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3656 
  3657 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3658 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3659 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3660 
  3661 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3662 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3665 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3666 context as well.
  3667 
  3668 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3669 
  3670   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3671   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3672   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3673   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3674   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3675   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3676   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3677   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3678   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3679   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3680   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3681   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3682 
  3683 
  3684 *** System ***
  3685 
  3686 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3687 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3688 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3689 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3690 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3691 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3692 the generic user home was intended.
  3693 
  3694 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3695 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3696 
  3697 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3698 (not just JRE).
  3699 
  3700 
  3701 
  3702 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3703 ------------------------------------
  3704 
  3705 *** General ***
  3706 
  3707 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3708 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3709 
  3710   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3711     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3712     files for checking).
  3713 
  3714   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3715     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3716     positions.
  3717 
  3718   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3719     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3720     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3721 
  3722   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3723     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3724     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3725 
  3726   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3727     cores.
  3728 
  3729   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3730     versions (garbage collection).
  3731 
  3732 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3733 including some remaining limitations.
  3734 
  3735 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3736 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3737 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3738 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3739 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3743 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3744 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3745 
  3746 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3747 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3748 usedir option -Q.
  3749 
  3750 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3751 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3752 
  3753   long_names   ~> names_long
  3754   short_names  ~> names_short
  3755   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3756 
  3757 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3758 
  3759   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3760 
  3761 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3762 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3763 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3764 
  3765 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3766 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3767 
  3768 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3769   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3770   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3771   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3772     "Classical Reasoner".
  3773 
  3774 
  3775 *** HOL ***
  3776 
  3777 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3778 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3781 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3782 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3783 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3784 class complete_linorder.
  3785 
  3786 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3787 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3788 
  3789 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3790 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3791 
  3792   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3793   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3794   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3795   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3796   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3797   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3798   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3799   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3800   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3801   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3802   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3803 
  3804 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3805 
  3806   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3807   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3808   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3809   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3810   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3811   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3812   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3813   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3814   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3815   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3816   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3817   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3818   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3819   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3820   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3821   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3822 
  3823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3829 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3830 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3831 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3834 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3835 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3837 
  3838 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3839 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3840 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3841 
  3842 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3843 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3844 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3845 
  3846 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3847 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3848 
  3849 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3850 
  3851     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3852     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3853 
  3854 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3855 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3858 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3861 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3862 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3863 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3866   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3867   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3868   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3869   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3870   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3871   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3872 
  3873 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3874 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3877   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3878   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3879   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3880   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3881   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3882   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3883   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3884   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3885   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3886   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3887   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3888   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3889   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3890   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3891   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3892   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3893   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3894   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3895   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3896   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3897   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3898   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3899   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3900   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3901   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3902   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3903   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3904   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3905   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3906   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3907   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3908   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3909   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3910   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3911   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3912   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3913   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3914   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3915   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3916   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3917   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3918   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3919   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3920   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3921   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3922   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3923   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3924   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3925   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3926   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3927   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3928   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3929   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3930   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3931   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3932   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3933   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3934   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3935   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3936   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3937   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3938   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3939   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3940   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3941   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3942   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3943   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3944   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3945   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3946   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3947   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3948   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3949   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3950   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3951   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3952   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3953   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3954   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3955   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3956   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3957   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3958 
  3959 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3960 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3961 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3962 
  3963 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3964 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3965 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3966 
  3967 * Code generation:
  3968 
  3969   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3970     characters in the target language.
  3971 
  3972   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3973     instead.
  3974 
  3975   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3976 
  3977   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3978     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3979 
  3980       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3981 
  3982 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3985 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3986 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3987 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3988 syntax.
  3989 
  3990 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3991 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3992 
  3993 * Nitpick:
  3994   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3995   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3996   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3997     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998 
  3999 * Sledgehammer:
  4000   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  4001   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  4002     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  4003   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  4004     this can be done within reasonable time.
  4005   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  4006     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  4008     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  4009   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  4010     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * Metis:
  4013   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  4015     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Command 'try':
  4018   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  4019     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  4021     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  4022 
  4023 * Quickcheck:
  4024   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  4025     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4026   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4027     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4028   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4029     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4030     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4031     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4032   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4033     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4034 
  4035 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4036 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4037 
  4038 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4039 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4040 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4041 
  4042 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4043 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4047 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4050 arithmetic.
  4051 
  4052 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4053 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4054 and lattice type classes.
  4055 
  4056 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4057 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4058 
  4059 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4060 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4061 
  4062 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4063 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4064 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4065 
  4066   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4067   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4068   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4069   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4070 
  4071 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4072 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4073 constants:
  4074 
  4075   type inat   ~> type enat
  4076   Fin         ~> enat
  4077   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4078   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4079   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4080 
  4081 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4082 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4085 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4086 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4087 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4088 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4089 
  4090 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4091 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4092 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4093 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4094 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4095 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4096 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4097 
  4098   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4099   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4100   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4101   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4102 
  4103 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4104 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4105 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4106 
  4107   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4108   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4109   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4110   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4111   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4112   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4113   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4114   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4115   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4116   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4117   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4118   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4119   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4120   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4121   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4122   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4123   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4124   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4125   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4126   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4127   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4128   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4129   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4130   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4131   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4132   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4133   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4134   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4135   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4136   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4137   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4138   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4139   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4140   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4141   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4142   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4143   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4144   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4145   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4146   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4147   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4148   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4149   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4150   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4151   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4152   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4153   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4154   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4155   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4156   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4157   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4158 
  4159 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4160   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4161   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4162   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4163   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4164     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4169   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4170   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4171   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4172   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4173   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4174   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4175   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4176   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4177   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4178   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4179   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4180   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4181   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4182   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4183   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4184   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4185   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4186   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4187   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4188   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4189   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4190   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4191   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4192   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4193 
  4194 
  4195 *** Document preparation ***
  4196 
  4197 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4198 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4199 same.
  4200 
  4201 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4202 result.
  4203 
  4204 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4205 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4206 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4207 
  4208 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4209 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4210 
  4211 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4212 like this:
  4213 
  4214   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4215   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4216 
  4217 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4218 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4219 layouts.
  4220 
  4221 
  4222 *** ML ***
  4223 
  4224 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4225 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4226 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4227 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4228 under external program control.
  4229 
  4230 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4231 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4232 
  4233 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4234 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4235 (better known as Proof General).
  4236 
  4237 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4238 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4239 
  4240 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4241 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4242 
  4243 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4244 (including quotes etc.).
  4245 
  4246 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4247 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4248 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4249 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4250 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4251 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4252 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4253 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4254 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4255 
  4256 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4257 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4258 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4259 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4260 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4261 
  4262 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4263 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4264 
  4265 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4266 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4267 
  4268 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4269 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4270 
  4271 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4272 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4273 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4274 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4275 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4276 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4277 proper Proof.context.
  4278 
  4279 
  4280 *** System ***
  4281 
  4282 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4283 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4284 
  4285 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4286 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4287 
  4288 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4289 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4290 
  4291   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4292   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4293   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4294   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4295   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4296 
  4297 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4298 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4299 
  4300 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4301 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4302 example:
  4303 
  4304   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4305 
  4306 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4307 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4308 
  4309 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4310 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4311 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4312 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4313 
  4314 
  4315 
  4316 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4317 ----------------------------------
  4318 
  4319 *** General ***
  4320 
  4321 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4322 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4323 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4324 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4325 like this:
  4326 
  4327   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4328 
  4329 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4330 
  4331 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4332 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4333 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4334 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4335 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4336 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4337 
  4338 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4339 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4340 the following package declarations:
  4341 
  4342   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4343   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4344 
  4345 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4346 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4347 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4348 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4349 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4350 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4351 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4352 
  4353 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4354 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4355 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4356 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4357 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4358 
  4359 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4360 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4361 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4362 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4363 
  4364 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4365 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4366 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4367 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4368 
  4369   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4370 
  4371   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4372   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4373   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4374   show_types                    show_types
  4375   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4376   show_consts                   show_consts
  4377   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4378 
  4379   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4380   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4381   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4382 
  4383   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4384   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4385 
  4386   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4387 
  4388   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4389   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4390   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4391   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4392   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4393 
  4394 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4395 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4396 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4397 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4398 
  4399 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4403   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4404 
  4405 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4406 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4407 float_token.
  4408 
  4409 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4410 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4414 DejaVu Sans.
  4415 
  4416 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4417 
  4418 
  4419 *** Pure ***
  4420 
  4421 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4422 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4423 time.
  4424 
  4425 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4426 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4429 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4432 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4433 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4434 command already provided this functionality.
  4435 
  4436 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4437 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4438 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4439 without interpretations.
  4440 
  4441 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4442 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4443 
  4444 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4445 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4446 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4447 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4448 
  4449 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4450 'definition' instead.
  4451 
  4452 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4453 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4454 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4455 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4456 
  4457 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4458 constructors.
  4459 
  4460 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4461 the local file system.
  4462 
  4463 
  4464 *** HOL ***
  4465 
  4466 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4467 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4468 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4469 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4470 
  4471   declare [[coercion f]]
  4472 
  4473 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4474 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4475 
  4476   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4477 
  4478 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4479 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4480 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4481 other theories like this:
  4482 
  4483   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4484 
  4485 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4486 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4487 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4488 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4489 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4490 for examples.
  4491 
  4492 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4493 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4494 
  4495 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4496 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4497 
  4498 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4499 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4500 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4501 
  4502 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4503 functorial structure of types.
  4504 
  4505 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4506 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4507 
  4508 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4509 languages.
  4510 
  4511 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4512 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4516 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4519 combinators any longer.
  4520 
  4521 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4522 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4523 
  4524 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4525 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4526 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4527 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4528 
  4529   record 'a foo = ...
  4530   ...
  4531   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4532 
  4533 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4534 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4536 
  4537 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4538 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4539 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4540 
  4541 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4542 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4543 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4544 
  4545 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4546 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4549 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4550 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4551 independently.
  4552 
  4553 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4554 counter example search.
  4555 
  4556 * Sledgehammer:
  4557   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4558     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4559     sledgehammer").
  4560   - Renamed commands:
  4561     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4562     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4563     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4564     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565   - Renamed options:
  4566     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4567     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4568     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4569     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4570     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571 
  4572 * Nitpick:
  4573   - Renamed options:
  4574     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4575     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4576     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4578   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4579   - Added "whack" option.
  4580   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4581   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4582   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4583   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4584     higher cardinalities.
  4585   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4586 
  4587 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4588 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4589 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4590 
  4591     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4592 
  4593 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4594 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4595 
  4596 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4597 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4598 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4599 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4600 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4601 "smt_solver".
  4602 
  4603 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4604 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4605 
  4606 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4607 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4608 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4609 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 
  4611 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4612   - Renamed:
  4613     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4614     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4615     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616   - Added:
  4617     smt_verbose
  4618     smt_random_seed
  4619     smt_datatypes
  4620     smt_infer_triggers
  4621     smt_monomorph_limit
  4622     cvc3_options
  4623     remote_cvc3_options
  4624     remote_z3_options
  4625     yices_options
  4626 
  4627 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4628 header.
  4629 
  4630 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4631 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4632 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4633 
  4634   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4635 
  4636 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4639 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4644 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4645 
  4646 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4647 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4648 
  4649 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4650 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4653 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4654 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4657 
  4658 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4662 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4663 
  4664 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4665 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4666 for congruent(2)).
  4667 
  4668 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4669 
  4670   types
  4671     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4672     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4673 
  4674   constants
  4675     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4676     True ~> HOL.True
  4677     False ~> HOL.False
  4678     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4679     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4680     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4681     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4682     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4683     The ~> HOL.The
  4684     All ~> HOL.All
  4685     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4686     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4687     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4688     If ~> HOL.If
  4689     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4690     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4691     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4692     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4693     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4694     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4695     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4696     op : ~> Set.member
  4697     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4698 
  4699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4702 
  4703     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4704     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4705     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4706     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4707     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4708     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4709     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4710     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4711 
  4712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * More stylized fact names:
  4715 
  4716   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4717   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4718   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4719   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4720 
  4721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4724 
  4725   constants
  4726     null ~> List.null
  4727 
  4728   facts
  4729     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4730     null_empty ~> null_def
  4731 
  4732 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4733 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4734 generation.
  4735 
  4736 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4737 Haskell code.
  4738 
  4739 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4740 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4741 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4742 
  4743 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4744 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4747 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4748 
  4749 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4750 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4751 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4752 
  4753 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4754 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4755 
  4756 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758 
  4759 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4760 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4761 referred to by its qualified name.
  4762 
  4763   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4764   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4765   product ~>  Enum.product
  4766 
  4767 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4768 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4772 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4773 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4777 sort_key.
  4778 
  4779 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4781 
  4782 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4783 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4784 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4785 
  4786   types
  4787     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4788               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4789               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4790         (depends on your needs)
  4791 
  4792   constants
  4793      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4794      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4795      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4796 
  4797 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4798 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4799 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4800 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4801 
  4802 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4803 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4804 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4805 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4806 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4807 
  4808 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4812 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4813 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4814 
  4815 
  4816 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4817 
  4818 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4819 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4820 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4821 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4822 compatibility.
  4823 
  4824 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4825 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4826 
  4827 
  4828 *** HOLCF ***
  4829 
  4830 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4831 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4832 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4836 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4837 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4840   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4841   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4842 
  4843 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4844 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4845 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4848 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4849 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4850 domain definition now works:
  4851 
  4852   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4853 
  4854 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4855 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4856 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4857 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4858 
  4859   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4860     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4861 
  4862   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4863 
  4864 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4865 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4866 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4867 
  4868 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4869 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4872 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4873 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4874 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4875 
  4876 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4877 
  4878 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4879 
  4880 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4881 
  4882 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4886 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4887 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4888 
  4889 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4890 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4891 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4892 
  4893 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4894 still supported as an input translation.
  4895 
  4896 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4897 
  4898   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4899   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4900   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4901   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4902   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4903   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4904   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4905 
  4906 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4907 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4908 
  4909   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4910   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4911   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4912   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4913   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4914   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4915 
  4916 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4917 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4918 
  4919 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4920 
  4921   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4922   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4923   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4924   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4925 
  4926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927 
  4928 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4929 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4930 
  4931 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4932 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4933 
  4934   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4935   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4936   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4937   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4938   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4939   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4940   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4941   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4942   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4943   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4944   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4945   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4946   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4947   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4948   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4949   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4950   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4951   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4952   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4953   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4954 
  4955 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4956 
  4957   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4958   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4959   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4960   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4961   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4962   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4963   box_less             ~> box_below
  4964   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4965   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4966   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4967   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4968   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4969   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4970   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4971   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4972   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4973   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4974   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4975   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4976   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4977   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4978   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4979   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4980   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4981   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4982   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4983   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4984   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4985   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4986   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4987   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4988   up_less              ~> up_below
  4989   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4990   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4991   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4992   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4993   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4994   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4995   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4996   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4997   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4998   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4999   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  5000   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  5001   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  5002 
  5003 
  5004 *** FOL and ZF ***
  5005 
  5006 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  5007 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5008 
  5009 
  5010 *** ML ***
  5011 
  5012 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  5013 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  5014 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  5015 
  5016 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  5017 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  5018 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  5019 
  5020 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  5021 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  5022 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  5023 
  5024 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  5025 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  5026 
  5027 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5028 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5029 
  5030 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5031 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5032 
  5033 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5034 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5035 
  5036 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5037 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5038 almost all situations.
  5039 
  5040 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5041 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5042 Isabelle/ML.
  5043 
  5044 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5045 meaning.
  5046 
  5047 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5048 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5049 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5050 
  5051 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5052 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5053 
  5054 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5055 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5056 
  5057 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5058 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5059 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5060 
  5061 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5062 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5063 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5064 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5065 configuration options.
  5066 
  5067 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5068 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5069 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5070 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5071 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5072 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5073 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5074 
  5075 
  5076 
  5077 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5078 ---------------------------------
  5079 
  5080 *** General ***
  5081 
  5082 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5083 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5084 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5085 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5086 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5087 their full internal name.
  5088 
  5089 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5090 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5091 Some hints on upgrading:
  5092 
  5093   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5094     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5095     which are independent of this issue.
  5096 
  5097   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5098     provides the following special forms:
  5099 
  5100       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5101       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5102       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5103 
  5104     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5105     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5106     extra variables".
  5107 
  5108     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5109     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5110     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5111     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5112     "logic".
  5113 
  5114   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5115     antiquotations:
  5116 
  5117       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5118       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5119       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5120       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5121 
  5122   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5123     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5124     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5125     antiquotations.
  5126 
  5127 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5128 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5129 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5130 diagnose syntax problems.
  5131 
  5132 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5133 
  5134 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5135 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5136 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5137 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5138 
  5139 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5140 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5141 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5142 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5143 
  5144 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5145 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5146 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5147 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5148 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5149 
  5150 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5151 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5152 
  5153 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5154 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5155 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5156 
  5157   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5158 
  5159 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5160 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5161 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5162 
  5163 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5164 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5166 
  5167 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5168 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5169 
  5170 
  5171 *** Pure ***
  5172 
  5173 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5174 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5175 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5176 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5177 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5178 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5179 inspect proof terms.
  5180 
  5181 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5182 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5183 are added internally.  For example:
  5184 
  5185   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5186 
  5187 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5188 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5189 
  5190 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5191 
  5192 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5193 'class' instead.
  5194 
  5195 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5196 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5198 
  5199 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5200 invariants.
  5201 
  5202 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5203 user space functionality any longer.
  5204 
  5205 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5206 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5208 
  5209 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5210 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5211 
  5212 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5213 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5214 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5215 
  5216 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5217 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5218 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5219 
  5220 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5221 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5222 
  5223 
  5224 *** HOL ***
  5225 
  5226 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5227 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5228 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5229 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5230 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5231 
  5232 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5233 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5234 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5235 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5236 
  5237   fun
  5238     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5239   where
  5240     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5241 
  5242   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5243     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5244 
  5245   quotient_definition
  5246     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5247 
  5248 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5249 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5250 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5251 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5252 
  5253 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5254 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5255 
  5256 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5257 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5258 
  5259 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5261 
  5262 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5263 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5264 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5265 
  5266 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5267 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5268 
  5269 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5271 
  5272 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5274 
  5275 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5276 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5277 
  5278 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5279 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5280 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5281 
  5282   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5283   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5284   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5285   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5286   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5287   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5288   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5289   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5290   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5291   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5292   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5293   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5294   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5295   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5296   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5297   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5298   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5299   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5300   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5301   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5302   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5303   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5304   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5305   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5306   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5307   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5308   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5309   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5310   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5311   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5312 
  5313 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5314 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5315 
  5316 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5317 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5318 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5319 
  5320 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5321 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5322 
  5323 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5324 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5325 
  5326 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5327 
  5328 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5329 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5330 
  5331 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5332 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5333 
  5334 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5335 
  5336 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5337 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5338 
  5339 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5340 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5341 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5342 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5343 
  5344 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5345   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5346   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5347   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5349 
  5350 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5351 lattices):
  5352 
  5353     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5354     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5355 
  5356     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5357 
  5358     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5359     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5360     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5361     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5362     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5363     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5364     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5365     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5366     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5367     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5368     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5369     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5370     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5371 
  5372     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5373     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5374     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5375     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5376     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5377     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5378     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5379     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5380     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5381     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5382     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5383     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5384     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5385     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5386     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5387     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5388     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5389     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5390 
  5391   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5392   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5393 
  5394     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5395     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5396     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5397     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5398     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5399 
  5400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5401 
  5402 * Refined field classes:
  5403   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5404     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5405     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5406   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5408 
  5409 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5410   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5411   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5412   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5413     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5414   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5415     equal_neg_zero.
  5416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5417 
  5418 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5419 sets to lattices:
  5420 
  5421   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5422   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5423   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5424   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5425   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5426   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5427   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5428   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5429   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5430   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5431 
  5432 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5433 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5434 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5435 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5436 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5437 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5438 
  5439 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5440 multiset order:
  5441 
  5442   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5443     <= and <;
  5444   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5445     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5446     multiset_order;
  5447   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5448     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5449     generation;
  5450   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5451     if needed.
  5452 
  5453 Renamed:
  5454 
  5455   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5456   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5457   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5458 
  5459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5460 
  5461 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5462 
  5463 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5464 
  5465 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5466 
  5467 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5468 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5469 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5470 
  5471   Constants:
  5472   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5473   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5474   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5475   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5476   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5477   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5478   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5479   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5480   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5481   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5482   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5483   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5484   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5485 
  5486   Lemmas:
  5487   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5488   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5489   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5490   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5491   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5492   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5493   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5494   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5495   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5496   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5497   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5498   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5499   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5500 
  5501 * Sledgehammer:
  5502   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5503     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5504     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5505     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5506     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5507     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5508     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5509   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5510   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5511     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5512   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5513     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5514     is still experimental.)
  5515   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5516     full-typed mode.
  5517   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5518 
  5519 * Nitpick:
  5520   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5521   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5522   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5523     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5524   - Added support for quotient types.
  5525   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5526     constructs.
  5527   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5528     "termination" proofs).
  5529   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5530   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5531   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5532   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5533     record getters.
  5534   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5535   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5536   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5537   - Added "atoms" option.
  5538   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5539     problems.
  5540   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5541     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5542     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5544     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5545   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5546 
  5547 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5548   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5549   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5550   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5551   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5552   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5553   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5554   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5555   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5556   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 
  5559 *** HOLCF ***
  5560 
  5561 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5562 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5563 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5564 
  5565 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5566 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5567 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5568 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5569 
  5570 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5571 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5572 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5573 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5574 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5575 
  5576 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5577 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5578 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5579 
  5580 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5581 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5582 
  5583   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5584   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5585 
  5586 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5587 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5590   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5591   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5592   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5593   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5594 
  5595 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5596 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5597 
  5598   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5599   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5600   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5601 
  5602 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5603 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5605 
  5606 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5607 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5608 
  5609 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5612 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5613 
  5614 
  5615 *** ML ***
  5616 
  5617 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5618 
  5619     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5620     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5621 
  5622     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5623     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5624     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5625     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5626 
  5627     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5628     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5629     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5630 
  5631 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5632 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5633 
  5634 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5635 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5636 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5637 
  5638 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5639 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5640 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5641 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5642 
  5643 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5644 the context or even global references.
  5645 
  5646 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5647 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5648 
  5649 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5650 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5651 
  5652   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5653   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5654   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5655   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5656   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5657   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5658   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5659   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5660   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5661   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5662 
  5663 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5664 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5665 
  5666 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5667 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5668 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5669 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5670 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5671 
  5672 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5673 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5674 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5675 Theory_Data version.
  5676 
  5677 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5678 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5679 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5680 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5681 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5682 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5683 explicitly in rare situations.
  5684 
  5685 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5686 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5688 
  5689 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5690 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5691 
  5692 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5693 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5694 quite rare).
  5695 
  5696 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5697 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5698 
  5699 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5700 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5701 terms.
  5702 
  5703 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5704 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5705 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5706 
  5707 
  5708 *** System ***
  5709 
  5710 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5711 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5712 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5713 
  5714 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5715 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5716 respectively.
  5717 
  5718 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5719 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5720 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5721 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5722 
  5723   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5724 
  5725 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5726 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5727 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5728 component.
  5729 
  5730 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5731 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5732 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5733 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5734 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5735 the user for manual installation.
  5736 
  5737 
  5738 
  5739 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5740 -------------------------------------
  5741 
  5742 *** General ***
  5743 
  5744 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5745 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5746 
  5747 
  5748 *** Pure ***
  5749 
  5750 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5751 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5752 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5753 
  5754 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5755 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5756 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5757 
  5758 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5759 interpretation.
  5760 
  5761 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5762 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5763 
  5764 
  5765 *** Document preparation ***
  5766 
  5767 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5768 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5769 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5770 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5771 
  5772 
  5773 *** HOL ***
  5774 
  5775 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5776 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5777 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5778 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5779 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5780 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5781 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5782 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5783 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5784 
  5785 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5786 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5787 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5788 
  5789 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5790 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5791 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5792 
  5793 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5794 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5795 
  5796 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5797 
  5798 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5799 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5800 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5801 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5802 
  5803 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5804 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5805 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5806 "mirabelle" utility.
  5807 
  5808 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5809 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5810 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5811 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5812 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5813 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5814 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5815 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5816 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5817 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5818 
  5819 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5820 procedure only.
  5821 
  5822 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5823 
  5824 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5825 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5826 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5827 that fail later.
  5828 
  5829 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5830 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5831 
  5832 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5833 the same method as the approximation method.
  5834 
  5835 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5836 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5837 series expansion.
  5838 
  5839 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5840 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5841 
  5842 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5843 reals.
  5844 
  5845 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5846 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5847 
  5848 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5849 fixpoint theorem.
  5850 
  5851 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5852   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5853     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5854   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5855     accordingly
  5856   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5857     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5858   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5859     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5860 
  5861 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5862 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5863 lattice.
  5864 
  5865 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5866 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5867 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5868 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5869 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5870 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5872 
  5873 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5874   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5875     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5876   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5877     le_inf_iff
  5878   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5879     sup_aci)
  5880   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5881   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5882   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5883     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5884     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5885     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5886     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5887     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5888     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5889     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5890     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5891     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5892     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5893   - authentic syntax for
  5894     Set.Pow
  5895     Set.image
  5896   - mere abbreviations:
  5897     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5898     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5899     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5900     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5901     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5902     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5903     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5904     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5905   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5906 
  5907 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5908 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5909 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5910 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5911 
  5912 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5913 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5914 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5915 
  5916 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5917 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5918 
  5919 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5920 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5921 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5922 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5923 
  5924 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5925 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5926 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5927 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5928 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5929 
  5930 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5931 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5933 
  5934 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5935 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5938 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5939 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5940 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5941 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5942 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5943 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5945 
  5946 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5947     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5948     code_post       replaces    code post
  5949     etc.
  5950   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Renamed methods:
  5953     sizechange -> size_change
  5954     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5955   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5956 
  5957 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5958 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5959 
  5960 * Renamed theorems:
  5961     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5962     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5963     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5964     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5965     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5966   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5967 
  5968 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5970 
  5971 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5973 
  5974 
  5975 *** HOLCF ***
  5976 
  5977 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5978 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5979 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5980 
  5981 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5982 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5983 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5984 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5985 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5986 
  5987 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5988 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5989 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5990 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5991 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5992 
  5993 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5994 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5995 constructor are pre-configured.
  5996 
  5997 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5998 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5999 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  6000 
  6001 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  6002 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  6003 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  6004 as well.)
  6005 
  6006 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  6007 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  6008 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  6009 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6010 examples.
  6011 
  6012 
  6013 *** ML ***
  6014 
  6015 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  6016 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  6017 
  6018 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  6019 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  6020 position, logical grouping etc.
  6021 
  6022 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  6023 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  6024 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  6025 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  6026 
  6027 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  6028 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  6029 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  6030 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  6031 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  6032 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  6033 
  6034 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  6035 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  6036 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  6037 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  6038 experiments with references.
  6039 
  6040 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  6041 parallel tactical reasoning.
  6042 
  6043 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  6044 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  6045 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  6046 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  6047 
  6048 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  6049 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  6050 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  6051 
  6052 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  6053 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  6054 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6055 
  6056 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6057 
  6058 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  6059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6060 
  6061 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6062 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6063 
  6064 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6065 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6066 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6067 
  6068 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6069 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6070 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6071 
  6072 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6073 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6074 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6076 
  6077 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6078 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6079 instead of global theory.
  6080 
  6081 
  6082 *** System ***
  6083 
  6084 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6085 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6086 usedir option -q.
  6087 
  6088 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6089 also the system manual.
  6090 
  6091 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6092 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6093 
  6094 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6095 this is always enabled.
  6096 
  6097 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6098 
  6099 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6100 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6101 currently supported on Linux only.
  6102 
  6103 
  6104 
  6105 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6106 --------------------------------
  6107 
  6108 *** General ***
  6109 
  6110 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6111 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6112 
  6113   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6114     "isatool."
  6115 
  6116   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6117     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6118 
  6119   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6120     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6121 
  6122 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6123 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6124 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6125 
  6126 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6127 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6128 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6129 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6130 via "isabelle emacs".
  6131 
  6132 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6133 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6134 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6135 
  6136 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6137 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6138 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6139 
  6140 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6141 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6142 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6143 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6144 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6145 
  6146 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6147 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6148 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6149 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6150 
  6151 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6152 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6153 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6154 
  6155 
  6156 *** Pure ***
  6157 
  6158 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6159 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6160 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6161 
  6162 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6163 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6164 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6165 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6166 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6167 
  6168 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6169 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6170 useful in locale declarations.
  6171 
  6172 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6173 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6174 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6175 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6176 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6177 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6178 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6179 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6180 no longer generated.
  6181 
  6182 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6183 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6184 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6185 
  6186 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6187 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6188 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6189 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6190 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6191 
  6192 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6193 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6194 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6195 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6196 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6197 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6198 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6199 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6200 
  6201 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6202 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6203 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6204 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6205 
  6206 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6207 
  6208 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6209 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6210 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6211 
  6212 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6213 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6214 
  6215 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6216 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6217 in HOL, write
  6218 
  6219     class foo = ...
  6220 
  6221 instead of
  6222 
  6223     class foo = type + ...
  6224 
  6225 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6226 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6227 
  6228 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6229 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6230 
  6231 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6232 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6233 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6234 
  6235 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6236 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6237 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6238 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6239 directly in regular applications.
  6240 
  6241 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6242 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6243 
  6244 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6245 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6246 
  6247 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6248 theory context.
  6249 
  6250 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6251 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6252 
  6253 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6254 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6255 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6256 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6257 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6258 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6259 
  6260   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6261 
  6262 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6263 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6264 normalization.
  6265 
  6266 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  6267 addressing etc.
  6268 
  6269 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options: