NEWS
author blanchet
Mon Mar 03 22:33:22 2014 +0100 (2014-03-03)
changeset 55889 6bfbec3dff62
parent 55875 6478b12b7297
child 55931 62156e694f3d
child 55963 a8ebafaa56d4
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned code
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    44 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    45 
    46 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    47 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    48 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    49 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    50 
    51 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    52 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    53 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    54 
    55 
    56 *** Pure ***
    57 
    58 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    59 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    60 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    61 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    62 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    63 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    64 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    65 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    66 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    67 
    68 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    69 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    70 instantiated theorem.
    71 
    72 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    73 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    74 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    75 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    76 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    77 
    78   attribute_setup standard =
    79     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    80 
    81 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    82 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    83 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    84 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    85 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    86 
    87 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    88 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    89 differently).
    90 
    91 
    92 *** HOL ***
    93 
    94 * HOL-Word:
    95   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
    96   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
    97   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
    98   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
    99   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   100 
   101 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   105 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   108 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   111 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   114   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   115   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   116   Theory renamings:
   117     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   118     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   119     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   120     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   121     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   122     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   123     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   124     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   125     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   126     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   127     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   128     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   129     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   130     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   131     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   132     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   133     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   134     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   135     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   136     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   137     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   138     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   139   New theories:
   140     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   141     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   142     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   143     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   144     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   145   Discontinued theories:
   146     BNF/BNF.thy
   147     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   148   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * New datatype package:
   151   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   152   * Renamed commands:
   153       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   154       primrec_new ~> primrec
   155       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   156     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   158     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   159     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   161     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   162     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Old datatype package:
   165   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   166     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   167     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   169     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   170     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   173   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   174   datatype package.
   175   Renamed constants:
   176     Option.set ~> set_option
   177     Option.map ~> map_option
   178     option_rel ~> rel_option
   179     option_rec ~> case_option
   180   Renamed theorems:
   181     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   182     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   183     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   184     option.recs ~> option.case
   185     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   186     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   187     map.simps ~> list.map
   188     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   189     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   190     the.simps ~> option.sel
   191   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * New theory:
   194     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   195 
   196 * Theory reorganizations:
   197   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   198 
   199 * Sledgehammer:
   200   - New option:
   201       smt_proofs
   202   - Renamed options:
   203       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   204       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   205     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Metis:
   208   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   209     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   212 
   213 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   216 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   217 
   218 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   219 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   220 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   221 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   222 
   223 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   227 with the given constants.
   228 
   229 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   230 
   231 Fact consolidations:
   232     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   233     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   234     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   235     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   236     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   237     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   238     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   239     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   240     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   241     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   242     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   243     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   244     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   245     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   246     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   247     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   248     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   249     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   250     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   251     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   252     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   253     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   254     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   255     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   256     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   257     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   258     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   259     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   260     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   261     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   262     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   263     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   264     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   265     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   266     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   267     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   268     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   269     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   270     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   271     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   272 
   273 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   274 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   275 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   276 
   277 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   278 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   279 
   280 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   281 
   282 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   283 
   284 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286 
   287 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   289 
   290 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   291 operations on records.
   292 
   293 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295 
   296 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   297     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   301     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   302     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   306   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   307   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   308   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   309     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   310   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   311     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   312   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   313 INCOMPATBILITY.
   314 
   315 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   316     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   317     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   318     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   319     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   321 
   322 * Fact name consolidation:
   323     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   324     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   325     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   326     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   327     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   331 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   332 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   333 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   334 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   335 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   336 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   337 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   340 
   341 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   342 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   343 
   344 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   345 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   346 
   347 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   348 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   349 or the brute way with
   350 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   351 
   352 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   353 
   354 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   355 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   358 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   359 
   360 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   361 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   362 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   363 INCOMPATIBILITY
   364 
   365 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   366 
   367 * Nitpick:
   368   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   369     infinite values.
   370   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   371     "Rep_Integ".
   372   - Removed "std" option.
   373   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   374     "hide_types".
   375 
   376 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   377   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   378   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   379     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   380     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   381     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   382     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   383     intervals.
   384 
   385 
   386 *** Scala ***
   387 
   388 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   389 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   390 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   391 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   392 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 
   395 *** ML ***
   396 
   397 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   398 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   399 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   400 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   401 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   402 of schematic variables.
   403 
   404 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   405 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   407 formal context.
   408 
   409 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   410 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   411 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   412 actually belongs to it).
   413 
   414 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   415 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   416 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   417 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   418 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   419 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   420 
   421 
   422 *** System ***
   423 
   424 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   425 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   426 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   427 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   428 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   429 
   430 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   431 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   432 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   433 
   434 
   435 
   436 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   437 -------------------------------------
   438 
   439 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   440 
   441 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   442 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   443 
   444 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   445 after edits surrounding the command location.
   446 
   447 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   448 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   449 e.g. out-of-memory).
   450 
   451 
   452 *** System ***
   453 
   454 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   455 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   456 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   457 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   458 
   459 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   460 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   461 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   462 
   463 
   464 
   465 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   466 -------------------------------------
   467 
   468 *** General ***
   469 
   470 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   471 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   472 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   473 
   474 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   475 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   476 
   477 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   478 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   479 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   480 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   481 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   482 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   483 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   484 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   485 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   486 syntax.
   487 
   488 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   489 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   492 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   493 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   494 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   495 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   496 
   497 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   501 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   502 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   503 
   504 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   505 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   506 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   507 
   508 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   509 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   510 
   511 
   512 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   513 
   514 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   515 Documentation panel.
   516 
   517 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   518 documentation.
   519 
   520 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   521 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   522 
   523 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   524 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   525 normal editing and checking process.
   526 
   527 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   528 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   529 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   530 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   531 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   532 
   533 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   534 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   535 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   536 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   537 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   538 
   539 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   540 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   541 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   542 
   543 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   544 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   545 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   546 to resolve conflict.
   547 
   548 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   549 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   550 
   551 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   552 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   553 such command executions while editing.
   554 
   555 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   556 document content.
   557 
   558 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   559 toplevel theorem statements.
   560 
   561 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   562 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   563 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   564 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   565 
   566 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   567 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   568 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   569 
   570 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   571 / Global Options / Appearance".
   572 
   573 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   574 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   575 
   576 
   577 *** Pure ***
   578 
   579 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   580 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   581 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   582 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   583 details.
   584 
   585 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   586 
   587 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   588 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   589 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   590 
   591 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   595 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   596 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   597 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598 
   599 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   600 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   601 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   604 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   605 
   606 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   607 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   608 situations.
   609 
   610 
   611 *** HOL ***
   612 
   613 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   614 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   618 
   619 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   620 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   621 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   622 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   623 
   624   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   625 
   626 * Code generator:
   627   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   628     'code_instance'.
   629   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   630     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   631 
   632 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   633 examples.
   634 
   635 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   636 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   637 to distinguish both when desired.
   638 
   639 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   640 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   641 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   642 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   645 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   646 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   647 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   648 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   649 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   652 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   653 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   654 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   655 
   656 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   657 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   658 
   659 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   660 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   661 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   662 
   663 * Lifting:
   664   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   665     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   666       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   667       transfer rules
   668     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   669       correspondence relation can be generated
   670     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   671       parametricity
   672     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   673   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   674   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   675     copies
   676   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   677     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   678     anonymous context)
   679   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   680     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   681   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   682     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   683   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   684     INCOMPATIBILITY
   685 
   686 * Transfer:
   687   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   688     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   689   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   690   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   691     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   692   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   693 
   694 * Reification and reflection:
   695   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   696     "Reification".
   697   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   698   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   700 
   701 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   702   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   703     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   704     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   705   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   706     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   707   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   708     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   709     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   710     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   711     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   712     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   713     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   714     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   715   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   716     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   717   - Fact renames:
   718       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   719       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   723 
   724 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   725 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   726 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   730 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   731 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   732 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   733 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   734 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   735 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   736 lemmas.
   737 
   738 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   739 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   740 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741 
   742 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   743 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   744 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   745 
   746 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   747 top and bottom elements.
   748 
   749 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   750 
   751 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   752 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   753 
   754  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   755    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   756    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   757 
   758  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   759    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   760    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   761 
   762    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   763    arbitrary filter.
   764 
   765  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   766    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   767    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   768    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   769    on a compact set.
   770 
   771  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   772    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   773    linear_continuum_topology).
   774 
   775  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   776    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   777    on all sequences converging to x.
   778 
   779  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   780    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   781    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   782    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   783    left or right.
   784 
   785  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   786 
   787      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   788 
   789  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   790    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   791 
   792  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   793    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   794    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   795    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   796    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   797    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   798 
   799  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   800 
   801    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   802 
   803    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   804      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   805 
   806    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   807 
   808    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   809      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   810 
   811    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   812 
   813    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   814 
   815  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   816 
   817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * Nitpick:
   820   - Added option "spy".
   821   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   822 
   823 * Sledgehammer:
   824   - Renamed option:
   825       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   826     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   828   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   829   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   830 
   831 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   832 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   833 
   834 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   835   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   836   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   837     generated code.
   838   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   839   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   840   - Fact renames:
   841     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   842     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   843     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   844 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   847 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   848 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   849 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   850 
   851 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   852 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   853 
   854 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   857 
   858     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   859     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   860 
   861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   864 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   865 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   866 
   867 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   868 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   869 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   870 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   871 
   872 * HOL-BNF:
   873   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   874     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   875     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   876     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   877   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   878     coinduct).
   879   - Renamed keywords:
   880     data ~> datatype_new
   881     codata ~> codatatype
   882     bnf_def ~> bnf
   883   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   884     discs ~> disc
   885     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   886     map_id' ~> map_id
   887     sels ~> sel
   888     set_map' ~> set_map
   889     sets ~> set
   890 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 
   893 *** ML ***
   894 
   895 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   896 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   897 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   898 Examples.thy in particular.
   899 
   900 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   901 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   902 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   903 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   904 
   905 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   906 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   907 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   908 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   912 
   913     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   914     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   915 
   916 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   919 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   920 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   921 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   922 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   923 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   924 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   925 
   926 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   927 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   928 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   929 clasets separately from the context.
   930 
   931 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   932 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   933 
   934 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   935 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   936 
   937 
   938 *** System ***
   939 
   940 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   941 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   942 
   943 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   944 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   947 settings variable.
   948 
   949 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   950 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   951 always pdf.
   952 
   953 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   954 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   955 
   956 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   957 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   958 
   959 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   960 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   961 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   962 
   963 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   964 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   965 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   966 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   967 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   968 for HTML presentation of theories.
   969 
   970 
   971 
   972 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   973 -----------------------------------
   974 
   975 *** General ***
   976 
   977 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   978 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   979 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   980 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   981 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   982 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   983 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   984 
   985 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   986 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   987 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   988 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   989 
   990 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   991 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   992 
   993 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   994 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   995 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   996 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   997 dependencies properly.
   998 
   999 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1000 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1001 
  1002 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1003 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1004 
  1005 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1006 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1007 and "class ... context ...".
  1008 
  1009 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1010 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1011 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1012 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1013 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1014 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1015 
  1016 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1017 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1018 
  1019 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1020 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1021 
  1022 
  1023 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1024 
  1025 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1026 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1027 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1028 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1029 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1030 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1031 
  1032 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1033 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1034 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1035 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1036 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1037 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1038 
  1039 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1040 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1041 browser on demand.
  1042 
  1043 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1044 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1045 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1046 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1047 
  1048 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1049 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1050 
  1051 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1052 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1053 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1054 potentially infinite message streams.
  1055 
  1056 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1057 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1058 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1059 schemes.
  1060 
  1061 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1062 symbols.
  1063 
  1064 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1065 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1066 
  1067 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1068 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1069 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1070 
  1071 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1072 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1073 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1074 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1075 
  1076 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1077 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1078 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1079 
  1080 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1081 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1082 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1083 Isabelle distribution.
  1084 
  1085 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1086 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1087 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1088 
  1089 
  1090 *** Pure ***
  1091 
  1092 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1093 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1094 
  1095 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1096 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1097 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1100 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1101 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1102 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1103 with some care where this is really required.
  1104 
  1105 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1106 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1107 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1108 
  1109   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1110 
  1111 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1112 a Hasse diagram.
  1113 
  1114 
  1115 *** HOL ***
  1116 
  1117 * Sledgehammer:
  1118 
  1119   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1120     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1121   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1122   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1123   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1124   - Renamed options:
  1125       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1126       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1127       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1128       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1129 
  1130 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1131 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1132 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1133 
  1134 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Lifting:
  1138   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1139   - quot_del attribute
  1140   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1141 
  1142 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1143 expressions.
  1144 
  1145 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1146 pointfree expressions.
  1147 
  1148 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1149 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1150 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1151 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1155 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1156 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1157 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1158 accordingly.
  1159 
  1160 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1161 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1164 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1167 
  1168 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1169 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1170 
  1171 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1172 
  1173 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1174 
  1175   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1176   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1177 
  1178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1179 
  1180 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1181 
  1182   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1183   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1184 
  1185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1188 
  1189   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1190     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1191     output f x converges to G.
  1192 
  1193   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1194     infinity (at_bot).
  1195 
  1196   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1197     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1198 
  1199   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1200     at_top".
  1201 
  1202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1205 lattice type classes.
  1206 
  1207 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1208 
  1209     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1210     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1211 
  1212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1213 
  1214 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1215 changes as follows.
  1216 
  1217   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1218 
  1219       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1220       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1221 
  1222   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1223     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1224     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1225     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1226 
  1227   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1228     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1229     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1230 
  1231   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1232     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1233     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1234     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1235 
  1236   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1237     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1238 
  1239       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1240       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1241       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1242       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1243       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1244       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1245       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1246       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1247       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1248       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1249       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1250       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1251       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1252       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1253       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1254       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1255 
  1256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1257 
  1258 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1259 
  1260 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1261 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1262 
  1263 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1264 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1265 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1266 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1267 
  1268   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1269   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1270   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1271   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1272   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1273   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1274   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1275   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1276   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1277   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1278 
  1279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1280 
  1281 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1282 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1283 Data").
  1284 
  1285 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1286 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1287 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1288 code.
  1289 
  1290 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1291 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1292 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1296 
  1297 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1298 
  1299 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1300 
  1301   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1302   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1303 
  1304 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1305 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1306 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1307 
  1308   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1309 
  1310     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1311     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1312     cart_base i  removed
  1313     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1314 
  1315   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1316 
  1317   Renamed lemmas:
  1318 
  1319     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1320     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1321     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1322     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1323     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1324     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1325     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1326     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1327     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1328     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1329 
  1330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 * HOL/Probability:
  1333 
  1334   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1335 
  1336   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1337     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1338     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1339 
  1340   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1341     projective family).
  1342 
  1343 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1344 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1345 
  1346 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1347 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1348 datatypes.
  1349 
  1350 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1351 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1352 
  1353 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1354 trees for the code generator.
  1355 
  1356 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1357 Lifting/Transfer.
  1358 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1359 
  1360 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 
  1364 *** Document preparation ***
  1365 
  1366 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1367 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1368 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1369 
  1370 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1371 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1372 
  1373 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1374 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1375 document/root.tex.
  1376 
  1377 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1378 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1379 
  1380 
  1381 *** ML ***
  1382 
  1383 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1384 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1385 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1386 
  1387 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1388 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1389 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1390 
  1391 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1392 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1393 necessarily printing visible text.
  1394 
  1395 
  1396 *** System ***
  1397 
  1398 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1399 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1400 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1401 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1402 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1403 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1404 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1405 
  1406 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1407 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1408 
  1409   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1410 
  1411 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1412 
  1413 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1414 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1415 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1416 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1417 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1418 
  1419 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1420 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1421 
  1422 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1423 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1424 
  1425 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1427 
  1428 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1429 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1430 version of Isabelle.
  1431 
  1432 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1433 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1434 
  1435 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1436 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1437 for home-made settings.
  1438 
  1439 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1440 
  1441 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1442 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1443 configuration.
  1444 
  1445 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1446 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1447 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1448 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1449 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1450 
  1451 
  1452 
  1453 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1454 ------------------------------
  1455 
  1456 *** General ***
  1457 
  1458 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1459 
  1460   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1461     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1462   - markup for bound variables
  1463   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1464   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1465   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1466     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1467 
  1468 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1469 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1470 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1471 
  1472 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1473 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1474 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1475 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1476 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1477 
  1478   context
  1479     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1480     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1481   begin
  1482 
  1483   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1484 
  1485   end
  1486 
  1487   thm my_trans
  1488 
  1489 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1490 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1491 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1492 
  1493 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1494 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1495 
  1496 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1497 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1498 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1499 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1500 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1501 
  1502 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1503 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1504 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1505 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1506 indices of schematic variables.
  1507 
  1508 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1509 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1510 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1511 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1512 etc. was exploited.
  1513 
  1514 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1515 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1516 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1517 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1518 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1519 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1520 
  1521 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1522 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1523 manual.
  1524 
  1525 
  1526 *** Pure ***
  1527 
  1528 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1529 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1530 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1531 
  1532 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1533 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1534 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1535 undocumented feature.)
  1536 
  1537 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1538 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1539 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1540 
  1541   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1542 
  1543   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1544     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1545 
  1546 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1547 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1548 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1549 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1550 
  1551 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1552 
  1553     num ~> num_token
  1554     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1555     xstr ~> str_token
  1556 
  1557 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1558 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1559 position information via constraints).
  1560 
  1561 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1562 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1563 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1566 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1567 
  1568 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1569 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1570 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1573 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1576 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1577 
  1578   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1579 
  1580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1581 
  1582 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1583 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1586 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1587 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1588 
  1589 
  1590 *** HOL ***
  1591 
  1592 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1593 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1594 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1595 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1596 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1597 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1598 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1599 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1600 possible.
  1601 
  1602 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1603 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1604 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1605 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1606 
  1607 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1608 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1609 
  1610 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1611 
  1612 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1613 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1614 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1615 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1616 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1617 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1618 
  1619   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1620     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1621 
  1622   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1623     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1624     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1625 
  1626   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1627     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1628 
  1629   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1630     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1631     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1632 
  1633   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1634     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1635 
  1636 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1637 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1638 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1639 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1640 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1641 
  1642   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1643     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1644     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1645     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1646     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1647 
  1648     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1649     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1650 
  1651   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1652     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1653     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1654     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1655     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1656     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1657     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1658     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1659 
  1660   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1661     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1662     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1663     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1664 
  1665   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1666     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1667     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1668     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1669 
  1670   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1671     from type nat to type int.
  1672 
  1673 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1674 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1675 
  1676   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1677     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1678     type.  Example syntax:
  1679 
  1680     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1681       is List.insert
  1682 
  1683     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1684     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1685     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1686     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1687     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1688     by the package.
  1689 
  1690   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1691     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1692     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1693     code generation for each constant.
  1694 
  1695   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1696     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1697     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1698     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1699     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1700 
  1701   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1702     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1703     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1704 
  1705 * Quotient package:
  1706 
  1707   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1708     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1709 
  1710   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1711     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1712 
  1713   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1714     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1715     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1716 
  1717   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1718     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1721 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1722 
  1723 * Quickcheck:
  1724 
  1725   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1726     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1727     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1728     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1729     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1730 
  1731     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1732     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1733     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1734 
  1735     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1736     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1737 
  1738     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1739     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1740     show genuine counterexamples.
  1741 
  1742   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1743     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1744 
  1745     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1746     constructors of that type.
  1747 
  1748   - Support for multisets.
  1749 
  1750   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1751 
  1752   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1753     conjectures in a locale context.
  1754 
  1755 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1756 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1757 
  1758 * Sledgehammer:
  1759   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1760     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1761   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1762   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1763     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1764   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1765   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1766   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1767   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1768 
  1769 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1770 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1771 
  1772 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1773 
  1774 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1777 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1778 
  1779   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1780 
  1781 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1782 a list and a nat.
  1783 
  1784 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1785 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1786 
  1787 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1788 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1789 default.
  1790 
  1791 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1792 
  1793   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1794 
  1795 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1796 
  1797 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1798 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1799 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1800 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1801 one_case.
  1802 
  1803 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1804 the result of the fact expression.
  1805 
  1806 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1807 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1808 of some relation theorems:
  1809 
  1810   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1811   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1812   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1813   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1814   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1815   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1816 
  1817 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1818 
  1819 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1820 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1821 
  1822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1823 
  1824 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1825 to match the constant's name:
  1826 
  1827   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1828   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1829   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1830   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1831   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1832   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1833   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1834   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1835   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1836   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1837   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1838   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1839   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1840   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1841   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1842   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1843   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1844   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1845   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1846   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1847   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1848   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1849   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1850   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1851 
  1852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1853 
  1854 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1855 and corresponding theorem names:
  1856 
  1857   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1858 
  1859   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1860 
  1861   - Renamed theorems:
  1862 
  1863     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1864     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1865     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1866     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1867     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1868     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1869     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1870     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1871     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1872     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1873     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1874     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1875     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1876     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1877     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1878     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1879     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1880     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1881     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1882     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1883     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1884     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1885     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1886 
  1887     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1888 
  1889     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1890 
  1891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1892 
  1893 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1894 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1895 
  1896   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1897   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1898   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1899   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1900   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1901   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1902   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1903   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1904   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1905   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1906   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1907   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1908   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1909   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1910   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1911   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1912   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1913   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1914   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1915   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1916   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1917 
  1918 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1919 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920 
  1921 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1922 
  1923 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1924 
  1925   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1926   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1927   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1928   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1929   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1930   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1931   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1932   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1933   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1934   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1935   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1936   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1937   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1938   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1939   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1940   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1941   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1942   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1943 
  1944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1947 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1948 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1949 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1950 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1951 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1952 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1953 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1954 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1955 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1956 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1957 
  1958 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1959 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1960 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1961 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1962 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1963 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1964 
  1965 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1966 through option types.
  1967 
  1968 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1969 relations.
  1970 
  1971 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1972 
  1973 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1974 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1975 
  1976   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1977   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1978   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1979   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1980   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1981   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1982   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1983   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1984   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1985   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1986   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1987   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1988   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1989   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1990   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1991   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1992   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1993   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1994   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1995   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1996   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1997   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1998   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1999   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2000   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2001   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2002   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2003   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2004   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2005   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2006   zless_le ~> less_le
  2007   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2008   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2009   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2010 
  2011 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2012 
  2013   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2014 
  2015 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2016 
  2017 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2018 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2019 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2020 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2024 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2025 
  2026 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2027 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2028 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2029 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2030 follows:
  2031 
  2032   Operations:
  2033   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2034   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2035   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2036   del -> rbt_del
  2037   delete -> rbt_delete
  2038   ins -> rbt_ins
  2039   insert -> rbt_insert
  2040   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2041   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2042   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2043   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2044   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2045   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2046   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2047   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2048   union -> rbt_union
  2049   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2050   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2051 
  2052   Lemmas:
  2053   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2054   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2055   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2056   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2057   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2058   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2059   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2060   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2061   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2062   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2063   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2064   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2065   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2066   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2067   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2068   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2069   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2070   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2071   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2072   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2073   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2074   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2075   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2076   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2077   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2078   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2079   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2080   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2081   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2082   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2083   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2084   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2085   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2086   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2087   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2088   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2089   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2090   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2091   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2092   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2093   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2094   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2095   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2096   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2097   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2098   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2099   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2100   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2101   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2102   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2103   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2104   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2105   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2106   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2107   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2108   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2109   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2110   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2111   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2112   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2113   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2114   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2115   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2116   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2117   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2118   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2119   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2120   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2121   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2122   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2123   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2124   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2125   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2126   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2127   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2128   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2129   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2130   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2131   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2132   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2133   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2134   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2135   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2136 
  2137 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2138 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2139 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141   Changed Operations:
  2142   float_abs -> abs
  2143   float_nprt -> nprt
  2144   float_pprt -> pprt
  2145   pow2 -> use powr
  2146   round_down -> float_round_down
  2147   round_up -> float_round_up
  2148   scale -> exponent
  2149 
  2150   Removed Operations:
  2151   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2152 
  2153   Renamed Lemmas:
  2154   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2155   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2156   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2157   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2158   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2159   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2160   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2161   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2162   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2163   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2164   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2165   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2166   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2167   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2168   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2169   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2170   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2171   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2172   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2173   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2174   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2175   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2176   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2177   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2178   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2179   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2180   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2181   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2182   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2183   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2184   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2185   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2186   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2187   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2188   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2189   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2190 
  2191   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2192   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2193   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2194   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2195   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2196   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2197   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2198   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2199   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2200   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2201 
  2202 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2203 association lists with distinct keys.
  2204 
  2205 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2206 annotated commands.
  2207 
  2208 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2209 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2210 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2211 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2214 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2215 instead.
  2216 
  2217   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2218   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2219   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2220   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2221   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2222   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2223   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2224   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2225   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2226   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2227   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2228   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2229   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2230   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2231   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2232   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2233   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2234   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2235   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2236   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2237   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2238   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2239   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2240   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2241   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2242   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2243   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2244   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2245   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2246   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2247   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2248   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2249   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2250   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2251   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2252   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2253   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2254   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2255   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2256   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2257   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2258 
  2259 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2260 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2261 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2262 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2263 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2264 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2265 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2266 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2267 
  2268 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2269 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2270 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2271 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2272 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2273 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2274 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2275 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2276 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2277 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2278 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2279 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281   Renamed constants:
  2282   measure -> emeasure
  2283   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2284   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2285   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2286   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2287 
  2288   Removed locales:
  2289   completeable_measure_space
  2290   finite_measure_space
  2291   finite_prob_space
  2292   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2293   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2294   finite_sigma_algebra
  2295   measure_space
  2296   pair_finite_prob_space
  2297   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2298   pair_finite_space
  2299   pair_sigma_algebra
  2300   product_sigma_algebra
  2301 
  2302   Removed constants:
  2303   conditional_space
  2304   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2305   image_space
  2306   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2307   pair_measure_generator
  2308   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2309   subvimage
  2310 
  2311   Replacement theorems:
  2312   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2313   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2314   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2315   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2316   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2317   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2318   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2319   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2320   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2321   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2322   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2323   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2324   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2325   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2326   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2327   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2328   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2329   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2330   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2331   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2332   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2333   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2334   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2335   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2336   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2337   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2338   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2339   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2340   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2341   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2342   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2343   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2344   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2345   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2346   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2347   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2348   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2349   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2350   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2351   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2352   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2353   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2354   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2355   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2356   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2357   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2358   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2359   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2360   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2361   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2362   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2363   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2364   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2365   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2366   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2367   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2368   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2369   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2370   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2371   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2372   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2373   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2374   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2375   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2376   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2377   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2378   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2379   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2380   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2381   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2382   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2383   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2384   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2385   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2386   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2387   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2388   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2389   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2390   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2391   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2392   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2393   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2394   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2395   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2396   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2397   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2398   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2399   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2400   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2401   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2402   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2403   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2404   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2405   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2406   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2407   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2408   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2409   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2410   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2411   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2412   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2413   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2414   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2415   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2416   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2417   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2418   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2419   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2420   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2421   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2422   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2423   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2424   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2425   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2426   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2427   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2428   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2429   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2430   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2431   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2432   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2433   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2434   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2435   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2436   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2437   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2438   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2439   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2440 
  2441 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2442 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2443 
  2444 
  2445 *** FOL ***
  2446 
  2447 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2448 
  2449 
  2450 *** ZF ***
  2451 
  2452 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2453 analysis.
  2454 
  2455 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2456 
  2457 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2458 
  2459 
  2460 *** ML ***
  2461 
  2462 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2463 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2464 
  2465 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2466 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2467 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2468 
  2469 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2470 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2471 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2472 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2473 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2474 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2475 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2476 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2477 
  2478 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2479 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2480 
  2481 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2482 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2483 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2484 
  2485 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2486 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2489 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2490 context as well.
  2491 
  2492 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2493 
  2494   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2495   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2496   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2497   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2498   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2499   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2500   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2501   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2502   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2503   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2504   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2505   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2506 
  2507 
  2508 *** System ***
  2509 
  2510 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2511 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2512 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2513 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2514 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2515 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2516 the generic user home was intended.
  2517 
  2518 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2519 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2520 
  2521 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2522 (not just JRE).
  2523 
  2524 
  2525 
  2526 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2527 ------------------------------------
  2528 
  2529 *** General ***
  2530 
  2531 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2532 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2533 
  2534   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2535     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2536     files for checking).
  2537 
  2538   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2539     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2540     positions.
  2541 
  2542   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2543     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2544     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2545 
  2546   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2547     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2548     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2549 
  2550   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2551     cores.
  2552 
  2553   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2554     versions (garbage collection).
  2555 
  2556 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2557 including some remaining limitations.
  2558 
  2559 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2560 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2561 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2562 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2563 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2567 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2568 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2569 
  2570 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2571 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2572 usedir option -Q.
  2573 
  2574 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2575 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2576 
  2577   long_names   ~> names_long
  2578   short_names  ~> names_short
  2579   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2580 
  2581 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2582 
  2583   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2584 
  2585 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2586 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2587 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2588 
  2589 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2590 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2591 
  2592 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2593   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2594   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2595   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2596     "Classical Reasoner".
  2597 
  2598 
  2599 *** HOL ***
  2600 
  2601 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2602 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2605 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2606 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2607 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2608 class complete_linorder.
  2609 
  2610 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2611 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2612 
  2613 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2614 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2615 
  2616   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2617   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2618   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2619   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2620   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2621   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2622   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2623   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2624   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2625   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2626   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2627 
  2628 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2629 
  2630   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2631   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2632   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2633   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2634   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2635   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2636   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2637   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2638   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2639   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2640   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2641   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2642   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2643   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2644   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2645   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2646 
  2647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648 
  2649 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2651 
  2652 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2653 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2654 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2655 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2658 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2659 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2663 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2664 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2665 
  2666 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2667 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2668 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2669 
  2670 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2671 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2672 
  2673 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2674 
  2675     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2676     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2677 
  2678 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2679 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2682 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2685 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2686 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2687 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2688 
  2689   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2690   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2691   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2692   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2693   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2694   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2695   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2696 
  2697 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2698 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699 
  2700   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2701   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2702   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2703   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2704   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2705   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2706   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2707   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2708   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2709   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2710   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2711   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2712   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2713   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2714   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2715   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2716   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2717   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2718   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2719   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2720   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2721   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2722   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2723   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2724   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2725   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2726   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2727   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2728   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2729   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2730   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2731   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2732   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2733   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2734   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2735   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2736   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2737   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2738   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2739   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2740   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2741   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2742   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2743   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2744   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2745   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2746   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2747   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2748   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2749   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2750   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2751   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2752   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2753   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2754   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2755   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2756   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2757   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2758   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2759   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2760   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2761   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2762   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2763   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2764   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2765   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2766   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2767   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2768   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2769   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2770   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2771   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2772   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2773   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2774   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2775   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2776   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2777   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2778   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2779   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2780   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2781   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2782 
  2783 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2784 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2785 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2786 
  2787 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2788 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2789 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2790 
  2791 * Code generation:
  2792 
  2793   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2794     characters in the target language.
  2795 
  2796   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2797     instead.
  2798 
  2799   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2800 
  2801   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2802     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2803 
  2804       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2805 
  2806 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2809 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2810 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2811 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2812 syntax.
  2813 
  2814 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2815 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2816 
  2817 * Nitpick:
  2818   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2819   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2820   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2821     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2822 
  2823 * Sledgehammer:
  2824   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2825   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2826     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2827   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2828     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2829   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2830     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2832     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2833   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2834     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2835 
  2836 * Metis:
  2837   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2839     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * Command 'try':
  2842   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2843     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2845     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2846 
  2847 * Quickcheck:
  2848   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2849     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2850   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2851     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2852   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2853     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2854     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2855     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2856   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2857     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2858 
  2859 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2860 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2861 
  2862 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2863 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2864 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2865 
  2866 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2867 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2869 
  2870 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2871 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2872 
  2873 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2874 arithmetic.
  2875 
  2876 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2877 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2878 and lattice type classes.
  2879 
  2880 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2881 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2882 
  2883 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2884 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2885 
  2886 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2887 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2888 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2889 
  2890   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2891   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2892   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2893   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2894 
  2895 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2896 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2897 constants:
  2898 
  2899   type inat   ~> type enat
  2900   Fin         ~> enat
  2901   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2902   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2903   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2904 
  2905 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2906 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2907 
  2908 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2909 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2910 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2911 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2912 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2913 
  2914 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2915 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2916 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2917 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2918 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2919 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2920 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2921 
  2922   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2923   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2924   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2925   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2926 
  2927 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2928 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2929 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930 
  2931   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2932   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2933   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2934   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2935   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2936   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2937   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2938   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2939   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2940   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2941   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2942   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2943   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2944   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2945   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2946   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2947   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2948   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2949   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2950   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2951   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2952   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2953   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2954   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2955   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2956   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2957   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2958   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2959   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2960   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2961   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2962   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2963   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2964   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2965   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2966   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2967   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2968   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2969   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2970   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2971   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2972   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2973   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2974   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2975   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2976   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2977   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2978   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2979   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2980   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2981   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2982 
  2983 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2984   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2985   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2986   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2987   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2988     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991 
  2992   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2993   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2994   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2995   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2996   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2997   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2998   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2999   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3000   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3001   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3002   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3003   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3004   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3005   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3006   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3007   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3008   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3009   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3010   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3011   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3012   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3013   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3014   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3015   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3016   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3017 
  3018 
  3019 *** Document preparation ***
  3020 
  3021 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3022 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3023 same.
  3024 
  3025 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3026 result.
  3027 
  3028 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3029 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3030 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3031 
  3032 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3033 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3034 
  3035 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3036 like this:
  3037 
  3038   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3039   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3040 
  3041 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3042 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3043 layouts.
  3044 
  3045 
  3046 *** ML ***
  3047 
  3048 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3049 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3050 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3051 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3052 under external program control.
  3053 
  3054 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3055 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3056 
  3057 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3058 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3059 (better known as Proof General).
  3060 
  3061 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3062 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3063 
  3064 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3065 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3066 
  3067 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3068 (including quotes etc.).
  3069 
  3070 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3071 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3072 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3073 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3074 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3075 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3076 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3077 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3078 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3079 
  3080 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3081 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3082 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3083 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3084 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3085 
  3086 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3087 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3088 
  3089 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3090 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3091 
  3092 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3093 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3094 
  3095 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3096 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3097 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3098 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3099 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3100 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3101 proper Proof.context.
  3102 
  3103 
  3104 *** System ***
  3105 
  3106 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3107 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3108 
  3109 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3110 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3111 
  3112 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3113 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3114 
  3115   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3116   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3117   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3118   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3119   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3120 
  3121 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3122 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3125 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3126 example:
  3127 
  3128   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3129 
  3130 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3131 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3132 
  3133 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3134 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3135 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3136 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3137 
  3138 
  3139 
  3140 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3141 ----------------------------------
  3142 
  3143 *** General ***
  3144 
  3145 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3146 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3147 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3148 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3149 like this:
  3150 
  3151   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3152 
  3153 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3154 
  3155 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3156 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3157 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3158 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3159 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3160 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3161 
  3162 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3163 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3164 the following package declarations:
  3165 
  3166   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3167   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3168 
  3169 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3170 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3171 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3172 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3173 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3174 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3175 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3176 
  3177 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3178 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3179 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3180 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3181 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3182 
  3183 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3184 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3185 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3186 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3187 
  3188 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3189 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3190 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3191 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3192 
  3193   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3194 
  3195   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3196   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3197   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3198   show_types                    show_types
  3199   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3200   show_consts                   show_consts
  3201   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3202 
  3203   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3204   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3205   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3206 
  3207   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3208   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3209 
  3210   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3211 
  3212   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3213   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3214   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3215   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3216   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3217 
  3218 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3219 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3220 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3221 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3222 
  3223 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3227   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3228 
  3229 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3230 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3231 float_token.
  3232 
  3233 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3234 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3238 DejaVu Sans.
  3239 
  3240 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3241 
  3242 
  3243 *** Pure ***
  3244 
  3245 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3246 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3247 time.
  3248 
  3249 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3250 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3253 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3256 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3257 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3258 command already provided this functionality.
  3259 
  3260 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3261 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3262 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3263 without interpretations.
  3264 
  3265 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3266 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3267 
  3268 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3269 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3270 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3271 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3272 
  3273 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3274 'definition' instead.
  3275 
  3276 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3277 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3278 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3279 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3280 
  3281 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3282 constructors.
  3283 
  3284 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3285 the local file system.
  3286 
  3287 
  3288 *** HOL ***
  3289 
  3290 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3291 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3292 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3293 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3294 
  3295   declare [[coercion f]]
  3296 
  3297 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3298 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3299 
  3300   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3301 
  3302 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3303 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3304 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3305 other theories like this:
  3306 
  3307   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3308 
  3309 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3310 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3311 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3312 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3313 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3314 for examples.
  3315 
  3316 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3317 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3320 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3321 
  3322 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3323 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3324 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3325 
  3326 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3327 functorial structure of types.
  3328 
  3329 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3330 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3331 
  3332 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3333 languages.
  3334 
  3335 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3336 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3340 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3343 combinators any longer.
  3344 
  3345 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3346 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3347 
  3348 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3349 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3350 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3351 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3352 
  3353   record 'a foo = ...
  3354   ...
  3355   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3356 
  3357 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3358 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3362 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3363 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3364 
  3365 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3366 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3367 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3368 
  3369 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3370 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3373 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3374 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3375 independently.
  3376 
  3377 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3378 counter example search.
  3379 
  3380 * Sledgehammer:
  3381   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3382     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3383     sledgehammer").
  3384   - Renamed commands:
  3385     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3386     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3387     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389   - Renamed options:
  3390     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3391     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3392     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3393     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3394     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Nitpick:
  3397   - Renamed options:
  3398     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3399     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3400     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3402   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3403   - Added "whack" option.
  3404   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3405   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3406   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3407   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3408     higher cardinalities.
  3409   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3410 
  3411 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3412 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3413 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3414 
  3415     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3416 
  3417 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3418 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3419 
  3420 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3421 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3422 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3423 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3424 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3425 "smt_solver".
  3426 
  3427 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3428 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3429 
  3430 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3431 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3432 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3433 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3436   - Renamed:
  3437     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3438     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3439     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440   - Added:
  3441     smt_verbose
  3442     smt_random_seed
  3443     smt_datatypes
  3444     smt_infer_triggers
  3445     smt_monomorph_limit
  3446     cvc3_options
  3447     remote_cvc3_options
  3448     remote_z3_options
  3449     yices_options
  3450 
  3451 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3452 header.
  3453 
  3454 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3455 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3456 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3457 
  3458   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3459 
  3460 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3463 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466 
  3467 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3468 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3469 
  3470 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3471 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3472 
  3473 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3474 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3477 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3478 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3486 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3489 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3490 for congruent(2)).
  3491 
  3492 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3493 
  3494   types
  3495     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3496     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3497 
  3498   constants
  3499     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3500     True ~> HOL.True
  3501     False ~> HOL.False
  3502     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3503     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3504     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3505     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3506     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3507     The ~> HOL.The
  3508     All ~> HOL.All
  3509     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3510     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3511     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3512     If ~> HOL.If
  3513     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3514     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3515     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3516     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3517     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3518     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3519     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3520     op : ~> Set.member
  3521     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3522 
  3523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3526 
  3527     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3528     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3529     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3530     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3531     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3532     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3533     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3534     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3535 
  3536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * More stylized fact names:
  3539 
  3540   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3541   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3542   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3543   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3544 
  3545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3548 
  3549   constants
  3550     null ~> List.null
  3551 
  3552   facts
  3553     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3554     null_empty ~> null_def
  3555 
  3556 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3557 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3558 generation.
  3559 
  3560 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3561 Haskell code.
  3562 
  3563 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3564 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3565 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3568 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3571 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3572 
  3573 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3574 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3575 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3578 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3584 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3585 referred to by its qualified name.
  3586 
  3587   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3588   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3589   product ~>  Enum.product
  3590 
  3591 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3592 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3596 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3597 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3601 sort_key.
  3602 
  3603 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3607 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3608 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3609 
  3610   types
  3611     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3612               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3613               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3614         (depends on your needs)
  3615 
  3616   constants
  3617      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3618      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3619      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3620 
  3621 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3622 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3623 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3624 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3625 
  3626 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3627 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3628 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3629 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3630 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3636 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3637 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3638 
  3639 
  3640 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3641 
  3642 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3643 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3644 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3645 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3646 compatibility.
  3647 
  3648 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3649 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3650 
  3651 
  3652 *** HOLCF ***
  3653 
  3654 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3655 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3656 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3658 
  3659 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3660 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3661 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3664   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3665   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3666 
  3667 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3668 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3669 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3670 
  3671 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3672 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3673 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3674 domain definition now works:
  3675 
  3676   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3677 
  3678 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3679 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3680 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3681 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3682 
  3683   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3684     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3685 
  3686   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3687 
  3688 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3689 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3690 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3693 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3696 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3697 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3698 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3699 
  3700 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3701 
  3702 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3708 
  3709 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3710 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3711 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3712 
  3713 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3714 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3715 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3716 
  3717 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3718 still supported as an input translation.
  3719 
  3720 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3721 
  3722   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3723   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3724   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3725   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3726   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3727   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3728   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3729 
  3730 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3731 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3734   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3735   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3736   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3737   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3738   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3739 
  3740 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3741 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3744 
  3745   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3746   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3747   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3748   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3749 
  3750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3753 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3756 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3759   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3760   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3761   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3762   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3763   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3764   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3765   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3766   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3767   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3768   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3769   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3770   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3771   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3772   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3773   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3774   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3775   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3776   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3777   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3778 
  3779 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3782   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3783   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3784   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3785   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3786   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3787   box_less             ~> box_below
  3788   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3789   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3790   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3791   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3792   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3793   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3794   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3795   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3796   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3797   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3798   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3799   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3800   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3801   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3802   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3803   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3804   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3805   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3806   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3807   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3808   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3809   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3810   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3811   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3812   up_less              ~> up_below
  3813   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3814   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3815   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3816   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3817   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3818   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3819   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3820   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3821   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3822   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3823   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3824   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3825   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3826 
  3827 
  3828 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3829 
  3830 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3831 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 
  3834 *** ML ***
  3835 
  3836 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3837 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3838 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3839 
  3840 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3841 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3842 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3843 
  3844 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3845 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3846 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3847 
  3848 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3849 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3850 
  3851 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3852 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3853 
  3854 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3855 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3856 
  3857 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3858 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3859 
  3860 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3861 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3862 almost all situations.
  3863 
  3864 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3865 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3866 Isabelle/ML.
  3867 
  3868 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3869 meaning.
  3870 
  3871 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3872 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3873 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3874 
  3875 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3876 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3877 
  3878 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3879 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3880 
  3881 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3882 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3883 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3884 
  3885 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3886 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3887 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3888 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3889 configuration options.
  3890 
  3891 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3892 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3893 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3894 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3895 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3896 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3897 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3898 
  3899 
  3900 
  3901 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3902 ---------------------------------
  3903 
  3904 *** General ***
  3905 
  3906 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3907 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3908 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3909 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3910 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3911 their full internal name.
  3912 
  3913 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3914 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3915 Some hints on upgrading:
  3916 
  3917   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3918     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3919     which are independent of this issue.
  3920 
  3921   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3922     provides the following special forms:
  3923 
  3924       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3925       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3926       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3927 
  3928     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3929     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3930     extra variables".
  3931 
  3932     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3933     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3934     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3935     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3936     "logic".
  3937 
  3938   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3939     antiquotations:
  3940 
  3941       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3942       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3943       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3944       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3945 
  3946   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3947     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3948     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3949     antiquotations.
  3950 
  3951 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3952 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3953 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3954 diagnose syntax problems.
  3955 
  3956 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3957 
  3958 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3959 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3960 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3961 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3962 
  3963 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3964 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3965 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3966 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3969 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3970 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3971 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3972 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3975 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3976 
  3977 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3978 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3979 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3980 
  3981   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3982 
  3983 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3984 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3985 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3986 
  3987 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3988 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3992 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3993 
  3994 
  3995 *** Pure ***
  3996 
  3997 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3998 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3999 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4000 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4001 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4002 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4003 inspect proof terms.
  4004 
  4005 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4006 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4007 are added internally.  For example:
  4008 
  4009   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4010 
  4011 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4012 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 
  4014 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4017 'class' instead.
  4018 
  4019 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4020 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4024 invariants.
  4025 
  4026 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4027 user space functionality any longer.
  4028 
  4029 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4030 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4034 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4035 
  4036 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4037 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4038 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4039 
  4040 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4041 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4042 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4043 
  4044 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4045 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4046 
  4047 
  4048 *** HOL ***
  4049 
  4050 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4051 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4052 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4053 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4054 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4055 
  4056 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4057 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4058 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4059 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4060 
  4061   fun
  4062     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4063   where
  4064     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4065 
  4066   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4067     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4068 
  4069   quotient_definition
  4070     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4071 
  4072 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4073 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4074 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4075 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4076 
  4077 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4078 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4079 
  4080 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4081 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4082 
  4083 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085 
  4086 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4087 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4088 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4089 
  4090 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4091 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4100 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4101 
  4102 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4103 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4104 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4107   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4108   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4109   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4110   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4111   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4112   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4113   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4114   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4115   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4116   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4117   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4118   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4119   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4120   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4121   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4122   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4123   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4124   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4125   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4126   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4127   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4128   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4129   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4130   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4131   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4132   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4133   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4134   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4135   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4136 
  4137 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4138 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4139 
  4140 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4141 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4142 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4143 
  4144 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4145 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4146 
  4147 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4148 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4149 
  4150 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4151 
  4152 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4153 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4154 
  4155 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4156 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4157 
  4158 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4159 
  4160 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4161 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4162 
  4163 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4164 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4165 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4166 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4169   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4170   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4171   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4173 
  4174 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4175 lattices):
  4176 
  4177     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4178     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4179 
  4180     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4181 
  4182     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4183     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4184     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4185     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4186     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4187     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4188     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4189     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4190     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4191     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4192     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4193     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4194     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4195 
  4196     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4197     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4198     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4199     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4200     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4201     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4202     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4203     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4204     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4205     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4206     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4207     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4208     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4209     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4210     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4211     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4212     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4213     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4214 
  4215   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4216   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4217 
  4218     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4219     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4220     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4221     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4222     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4223 
  4224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * Refined field classes:
  4227   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4228     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4229     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4230   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4232 
  4233 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4234   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4235   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4236   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4237     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4238   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4239     equal_neg_zero.
  4240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4243 sets to lattices:
  4244 
  4245   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4246   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4247   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4248   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4249   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4250   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4251   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4252   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4253   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4254   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4255 
  4256 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4257 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4258 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4259 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4260 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4261 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4262 
  4263 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4264 multiset order:
  4265 
  4266   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4267     <= and <;
  4268   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4269     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4270     multiset_order;
  4271   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4272     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4273     generation;
  4274   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4275     if needed.
  4276 
  4277 Renamed:
  4278 
  4279   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4280   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4281   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4282 
  4283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4286 
  4287 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4288 
  4289 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4290 
  4291 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4292 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4293 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295   Constants:
  4296   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4297   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4298   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4299   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4300   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4301   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4302   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4303   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4304   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4305   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4306   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4307   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4308   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4309 
  4310   Lemmas:
  4311   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4312   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4313   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4314   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4315   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4316   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4317   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4318   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4319   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4320   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4321   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4322   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4323   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4324 
  4325 * Sledgehammer:
  4326   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4327     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4328     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4329     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4330     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4331     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4332     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4333   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4334   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4335     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4336   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4337     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4338     is still experimental.)
  4339   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4340     full-typed mode.
  4341   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4342 
  4343 * Nitpick:
  4344   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4345   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4346   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4347     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4348   - Added support for quotient types.
  4349   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4350     constructs.
  4351   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4352     "termination" proofs).
  4353   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4354   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4355   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4356   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4357     record getters.
  4358   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4359   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4360   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4361   - Added "atoms" option.
  4362   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4363     problems.
  4364   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4365     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4366     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4368     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4372   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4373   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4374   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4375   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4376   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4377   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4378   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4379   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4380   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 
  4383 *** HOLCF ***
  4384 
  4385 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4386 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4387 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4388 
  4389 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4390 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4391 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4392 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4393 
  4394 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4395 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4396 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4397 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4398 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4399 
  4400 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4401 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4402 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4405 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4408   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4409 
  4410 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4411 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4414   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4415   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4416   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4417   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4418 
  4419 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4420 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4423   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4424   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4425 
  4426 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4427 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429 
  4430 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4431 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4436 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4437 
  4438 
  4439 *** ML ***
  4440 
  4441 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4442 
  4443     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4444     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4445 
  4446     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4447     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4448     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4449     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4450 
  4451     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4452     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4453     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4454 
  4455 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4456 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4457 
  4458 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4459 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4460 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4461 
  4462 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4463 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4464 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4465 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4466 
  4467 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4468 the context or even global references.
  4469 
  4470 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4471 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4472 
  4473 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4474 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4475 
  4476   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4477   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4478   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4479   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4480   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4481   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4482   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4483   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4484   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4485   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4486 
  4487 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4488 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4489 
  4490 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4491 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4492 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4493 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4494 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4495 
  4496 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4497 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4498 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4499 Theory_Data version.
  4500 
  4501 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4502 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4503 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4504 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4505 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4506 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4507 explicitly in rare situations.
  4508 
  4509 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4510 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4512 
  4513 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4514 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4515 
  4516 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4517 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4518 quite rare).
  4519 
  4520 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4521 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4524 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4525 terms.
  4526 
  4527 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4528 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4529 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4530 
  4531 
  4532 *** System ***
  4533 
  4534 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4535 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4536 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4537 
  4538 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4539 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4540 respectively.
  4541 
  4542 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4543 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4544 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4545 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4546 
  4547   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4548 
  4549 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4550 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4551 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4552 component.
  4553 
  4554 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4555 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4556 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4557 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4558 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4559 the user for manual installation.
  4560 
  4561 
  4562 
  4563 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4564 -------------------------------------
  4565 
  4566 *** General ***
  4567 
  4568 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4569 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4570 
  4571 
  4572 *** Pure ***
  4573 
  4574 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4575 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4576 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4577 
  4578 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4579 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4580 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4581 
  4582 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4583 interpretation.
  4584 
  4585 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4586 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 
  4589 *** Document preparation ***
  4590 
  4591 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4592 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4593 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4594 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4595 
  4596 
  4597 *** HOL ***
  4598 
  4599 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4600 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4601 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4602 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4603 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4604 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4605 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4606 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4607 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4608 
  4609 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4610 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4611 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4612 
  4613 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4614 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4615 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4616 
  4617 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4618 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4619 
  4620 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4621 
  4622 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4623 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4624 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4625 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4626 
  4627 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4628 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4629 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4630 "mirabelle" utility.
  4631 
  4632 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4633 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4634 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4635 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4636 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4637 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4638 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4639 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4640 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4641 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4642 
  4643 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4644 procedure only.
  4645 
  4646 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4647 
  4648 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4649 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4650 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4651 that fail later.
  4652 
  4653 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4654 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4655 
  4656 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4657 the same method as the approximation method.
  4658 
  4659 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4660 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4661 series expansion.
  4662 
  4663 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4664 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4665 
  4666 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4667 reals.
  4668 
  4669 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4670 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4671 
  4672 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4673 fixpoint theorem.
  4674 
  4675 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4676   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4677     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4678   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4679     accordingly
  4680   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4681     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4682   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4683     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4684 
  4685 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4686 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4687 lattice.
  4688 
  4689 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4690 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4691 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4692 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4693 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4694 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4698   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4699     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4700   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4701     le_inf_iff
  4702   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4703     sup_aci)
  4704   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4705   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4706   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4707     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4708     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4709     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4710     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4711     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4712     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4713     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4714     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4715     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4716     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4717   - authentic syntax for
  4718     Set.Pow
  4719     Set.image
  4720   - mere abbreviations:
  4721     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4722     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4723     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4724     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4725     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4726     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4727     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4728     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4729   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4730 
  4731 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4732 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4733 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4734 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4735 
  4736 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4737 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4738 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4739 
  4740 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4741 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4742 
  4743 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4744 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4745 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4746 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4747 
  4748 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4749 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4750 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4751 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4752 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4753 
  4754 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4755 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4759 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4760 
  4761 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4762 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4763 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4764 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4765 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4766 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4767 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4769 
  4770 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4771     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4772     code_post       replaces    code post
  4773     etc.
  4774   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * Renamed methods:
  4777     sizechange -> size_change
  4778     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4779   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4782 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4783 
  4784 * Renamed theorems:
  4785     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4786     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4787     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4788     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4789     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4790   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4791 
  4792 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4797 
  4798 
  4799 *** HOLCF ***
  4800 
  4801 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4802 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4803 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4804 
  4805 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4806 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4807 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4808 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4809 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4810 
  4811 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4812 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4813 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4814 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4815 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4816 
  4817 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4818 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4819 constructor are pre-configured.
  4820 
  4821 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4822 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4823 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4824 
  4825 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4826 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4827 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4828 as well.)
  4829 
  4830 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4831 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4832 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4833 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4834 examples.
  4835 
  4836 
  4837 *** ML ***
  4838 
  4839 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4840 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4841 
  4842 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4843 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4844 position, logical grouping etc.
  4845 
  4846 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4847 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4848 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4849 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4850 
  4851 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4852 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4853 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4854 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4855 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4856 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4857 
  4858 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4859 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4860 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4861 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4862 experiments with references.
  4863 
  4864 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4865 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4866 
  4867 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4868 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4869 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4870 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4871 
  4872 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4873 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4874 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4875 
  4876 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4877 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4878 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4879 
  4880 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4881 
  4882 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4886 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4887 
  4888 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4889 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4890 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4891 
  4892 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4893 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4894 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4895 
  4896 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4897 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4898 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4902 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4903 instead of global theory.
  4904 
  4905 
  4906 *** System ***
  4907 
  4908 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4909 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4910 usedir option -q.
  4911 
  4912 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4913 also the system manual.
  4914 
  4915 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4916 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4917 
  4918 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4919 this is always enabled.
  4920 
  4921 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4922 
  4923 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4924 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4925 currently supported on Linux only.
  4926 
  4927 
  4928 
  4929 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4930 --------------------------------
  4931 
  4932 *** General ***
  4933 
  4934 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4935 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4936 
  4937   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4938     "isatool."
  4939 
  4940   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4941     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4942 
  4943   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4944     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4945 
  4946 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4947 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4948 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4949 
  4950 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4951 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4952 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4953 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4954 via "isabelle emacs".
  4955 
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4957 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4958 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4959 
  4960 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4961 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4962 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4963 
  4964 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4965 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4966 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4967 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4968 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4969 
  4970 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4971 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4972 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4973 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4974 
  4975 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4976 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4977 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4978 
  4979 
  4980 *** Pure ***
  4981 
  4982 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4983 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4984 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4985 
  4986 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4987 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4988 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4989 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4990 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4991 
  4992 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4993 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4994 useful in locale declarations.
  4995 
  4996 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4997 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4998 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4999 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5000 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5001 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5002 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5003 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5004 no longer generated.
  5005 
  5006 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5007 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5008 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5009 
  5010 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5011 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5012 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5013 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5014 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5015 
  5016 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5017 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5018 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5019 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5020 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5021 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5022 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5023 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5024 
  5025 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5026 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5027 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5028 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5029 
  5030 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5031 
  5032 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5033 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5034 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5035 
  5036 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5037 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5040 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5041 in HOL, write
  5042 
  5043     class foo = ...
  5044 
  5045 instead of
  5046 
  5047     class foo = type + ...
  5048 
  5049 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5050 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5051 
  5052 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5053 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5054 
  5055 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5056 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5057 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5058 
  5059 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5060 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5061 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5062 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5063 directly in regular applications.
  5064 
  5065 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5066 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5067 
  5068 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5069 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5070 
  5071 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5072 theory context.
  5073 
  5074 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5075 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5076 
  5077 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5078 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5079 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5080 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5081 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5082 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5083 
  5084   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5085 
  5086 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5087 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5088 normalization.
  5089 
  5090 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5091 addressing etc.
  5092 
  5093 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5094 
  5095   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5096   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5097 
  5098 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5099 
  5100   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5101      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5102      parts of the code generator framework).
  5103 
  5104   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5105      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5106      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5107 
  5108 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5109 
  5110 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5111 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5114 patterns, e.g.
  5115 
  5116     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5117 
  5118 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5119 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5120 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5121 hyphen:
  5122 
  5123     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5124 
  5125 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5126 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5127 
  5128 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5129 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5130 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5131 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5132 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5133 higher-order unification.
  5134 
  5135 
  5136 *** Document preparation ***
  5137 
  5138 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5139 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5140 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5141 
  5142 
  5143 *** HOL ***
  5144 
  5145 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5146 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5147 
  5148 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5149 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5150 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5151 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5152 Main, as before.
  5153 
  5154 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5155 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5156 
  5157 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5158 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5159 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5160 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5161 
  5162 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5163 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5164 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5165 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5166 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5167 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5168 
  5169 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5170 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5171 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5172 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5173 
  5174 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5175 menu.
  5176 
  5177 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5178 (contains the empty clause).
  5179 
  5180 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5181 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5182 
  5183 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5184 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5185 
  5186 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5187 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5188 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5189 
  5190 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5191 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5192 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5193 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5194 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5195 
  5196 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5197 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5198 
  5199 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5200 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5201 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5202 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5203 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5204 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5205 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5206 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5207 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5208 
  5209 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5210 
  5211 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5212 
  5213 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5214 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5215 
  5216 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5217 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5218 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5219 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5220 
  5221 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5222 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5223 
  5224     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5225     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5226     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5227     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5228     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5229     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5230     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5231     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5232 
  5233 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5234 theory Set.
  5235 
  5236 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5237 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5238 
  5239 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5240 
  5241 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5242 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5243 
  5244 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5245 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5246 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5247 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5248 allowed. For examples see
  5249 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5250 
  5251 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5252 
  5253 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5255 
  5256 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5257 structure:
  5258 
  5259     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5260     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5261     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5262     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5263     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5264     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5265     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5266     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5267     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5268     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5269     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5270     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5271     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5272     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5273     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5274     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5275     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5276     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5277     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5278     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5279     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5280     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5281     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5282     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5283     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5284     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5285     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5286     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5287     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5288     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5289     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5290     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5291     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5292 
  5293     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5294     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5295     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5296     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5297     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5298     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5299     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5300     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5301     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5302     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5303 
  5304     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5305     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5306     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5307     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5308     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5309     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5310 
  5311 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5312 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5313 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5314 
  5315 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5316 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5317 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5318 
  5319 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5320 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5321 
  5322 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5323 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5324 
  5325 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5326 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5327 proofs, e.g.
  5328 
  5329   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5330 
  5331 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5332 
  5333 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5334 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5335 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5336 
  5337 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5338 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5340 
  5341 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5342 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5343 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5345 
  5346 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5347 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5348 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5349 preorder_class.*.
  5350 
  5351 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5352 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5353 
  5354 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5355 
  5356   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5357 
  5358 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5359 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5360 fold_image.
  5361 
  5362 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5363 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5364 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5365 the former will disappear at some point.
  5366 
  5367 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5368 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5369 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5370 
  5371 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5372 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5373 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5374 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5375 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5376 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5377 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5378 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5379 
  5380 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5381 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5382 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5383 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5384 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5385 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5386 
  5387     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5388     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5389     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5390     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5391     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5392     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5393     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5394 
  5395 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5396 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5397 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5398 
  5399 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5400 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5401 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5402 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5403 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5404 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5405 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5406 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5407 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5408 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5409 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5410 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5411 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5412 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5413 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5414 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5415 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5416 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5417 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5418 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5419 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5420 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5421 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5422 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5423 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5424 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5425 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5426 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5427 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5428 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5429 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5430 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5431 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5432 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5433 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5434 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5435 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5436 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5437 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5438 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5439 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5440 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5441 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5442 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5443 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5444 
  5445 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5446 
  5447 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5448 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5449 
  5450 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5451 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5452 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5453 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5454 
  5455 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5456 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5457 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5458 theory RealVector.
  5459 
  5460 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5461 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5462 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5463 and inner products are included.
  5464 
  5465 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5466 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5467 supported.
  5468 
  5469 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5470 first diagonalization argument.
  5471 
  5472 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5473 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5474 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5475 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5476 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5477 
  5478     hide (open) const gcd
  5479     abbreviation gcd where
  5480       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5481     notation (output)
  5482       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5483 
  5484 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5485 
  5486 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5487 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5488 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489 
  5490 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5491 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5492 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5493 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5494 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5495 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5496 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5497 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5498 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5499 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5500 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5501 cases.
  5502 
  5503 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5504 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5505 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5506 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5507 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5508 
  5509     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5510     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5511     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5512     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5513     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5514 
  5515 
  5516 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5517 
  5518 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5519 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5520 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5521 
  5522 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5523 
  5524 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5525 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5526 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5527 
  5528 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5529 
  5530 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5531 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5532 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5533 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5534 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5535 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5536 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5537 
  5538 
  5539 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5540 
  5541 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5542 
  5543 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5544 theory targets.
  5545 
  5546 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5547 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5548 'inductive' etc.
  5549 
  5550 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5551 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5552 
  5553 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5554 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5555 
  5556 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5557 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5558 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5559 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5560 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5561 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5562 the algorithm W:
  5563 
  5564  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5565  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5566          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5567 
  5568 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5569 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5570 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5571 
  5572 
  5573 *** HOLCF ***
  5574 
  5575 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5576 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5577 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5578 
  5579 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5580 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5581 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5582 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5583 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5586 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5587 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 
  5590 *** ZF ***
  5591 
  5592 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5593 
  5594 
  5595 *** ML ***
  5596 
  5597 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5598 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5599 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5600 5.2.1!
  5601 
  5602 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5603 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5604 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5605 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5606 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5607 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5608 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5609 
  5610 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5611 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5612 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5613 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5614 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5615 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5616 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5617 
  5618 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5619 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5620 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5621 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5622 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5623 
  5624 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5625 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5626 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5627 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5628 Method.add_method.
  5629 
  5630 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5631 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5632 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5633 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5634 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5635 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5636 
  5637 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5638 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5639 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5640 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5641 examples.
  5642 
  5643 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5644 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5645 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5646 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5647 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5648 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5649 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5650 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5651 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5652 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5653 
  5654 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5655 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5656 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5657 
  5658 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5659 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5660 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5661 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5662 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5663 resort for legacy applications.
  5664 
  5665 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5666 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5667 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5668 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5669 explicit runtime argument.
  5670 
  5671 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5672 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5673 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5674 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5675 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5676 
  5677 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5678 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5679 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5680 theory state.
  5681 
  5682 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5683 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5684 
  5685   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5686   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5687   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5688   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5689   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5690   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5691   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5692   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5693   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5694   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5695 
  5696 
  5697 *** System ***
  5698 
  5699 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5700 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5701 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5702 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5703 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5704 
  5705 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5706 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5707 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5708 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5709 
  5710 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5711 
  5712 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5713 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5714 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5715 prover operations.
  5716 
  5717 
  5718 
  5719 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5720 -------------------------------
  5721 
  5722 *** General ***
  5723 
  5724 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5725 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5726 
  5727 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5728 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5729 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5730 provides a proper context already.
  5731 
  5732 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5733 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5734 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5735 
  5736 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5737 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5738 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5739 swap theory imports.
  5740 
  5741 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5742 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5743 
  5744 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5745 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5746 white space without escapes.
  5747 
  5748 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5749 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5750 "foo_bar".
  5751 
  5752 
  5753 *** Pure ***
  5754 
  5755 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5756 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5757 
  5758 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5759 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5760 
  5761 (1) unused_thms
  5762      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5763 
  5764 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5765      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5766      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5767 
  5768 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5769      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5770      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5771      their ancestors.
  5772 
  5773 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5774 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5775 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5776 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5777 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5778 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5779 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5780 
  5781 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5782 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5783 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5784 
  5785 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5786 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5787 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5788 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5789 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5790 
  5791 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5792 
  5793 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5794 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5795 update of theories within ML code.
  5796 
  5797 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5798 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5799 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5800 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5801 
  5802 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5803 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5804 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5806 
  5807 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5808 
  5809 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5810 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5811 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5812 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5813 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5814 
  5815 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5816 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5817 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5818 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5819 situations.
  5820 
  5821 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5822 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5823 proof text.
  5824 
  5825 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5826 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5827 
  5828 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5829 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5830 predicates.
  5831 
  5832 
  5833 *** Document preparation ***
  5834 
  5835 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5836 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5837 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5838 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5839 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5840 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5841 
  5842 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5843 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5844 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5845 
  5846 
  5847 *** HOL ***
  5848 
  5849 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5850 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5851 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5852 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5853 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5854 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5855 
  5856 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5857 with multithreading.
  5858 
  5859 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5860 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5861 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5862 
  5863 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5864 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5865 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5866 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5867 
  5868 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5869 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5870 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5871 and makes them available separately.  See
  5872 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5873 
  5874 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5875 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5876 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5877 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5878 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5879 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5880 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5881 the declared rules.
  5882 
  5883 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5884 
  5885   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5886 
  5887 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5888 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5889 
  5890 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5891 
  5892   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5893 
  5894   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5895     definitions on => and bool.
  5896 
  5897   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5898     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5899     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5900 
  5901       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5902       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5903       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5904       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5905       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5906       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5907       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5908       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5909 
  5910   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5911     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5912     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5913 
  5914   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5915     The proof pattern
  5916 
  5917       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5918       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5919 
  5920     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5921     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5922 
  5923       have "EX S. P S"
  5924       proof
  5925         show "P S" <...>
  5926       qed
  5927 
  5928   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5929     The proof pattern
  5930 
  5931       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5932       also have "S = T" <...>
  5933       finally have "P T" .
  5934 
  5935     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5936     must be replaced by something like
  5937 
  5938       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5939       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5940       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5941 
  5942   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5943     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5944 
  5945       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5946 
  5947     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5948     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5949     type of the form
  5950 
  5951       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5952 
  5953     rather than
  5954 
  5955       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5956 
  5957 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5958 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5959 
  5960 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5961 
  5962 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5963 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5965 
  5966 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5967 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5968 
  5969 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5970 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5971 
  5972 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5973 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5974 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5975 
  5976 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5977 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5978 
  5979   less_trans
  5980   less_linear
  5981   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5982   le_less_trans
  5983   less_le_trans
  5984   less_not_sym
  5985   less_asym
  5986 
  5987 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5988 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5989 and different variable names.
  5990 
  5991 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5992 
  5993 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5994 finite maps.
  5995 
  5996 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5997 
  5998 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5999 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6000 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6001 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6002 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6003 accordingly.
  6004 
  6005 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6006 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6007 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6008 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6009 
  6010 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6011 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6012 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6013 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6014 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 
  6017 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6018 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6019 
  6020 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6021 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6022 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6023 
  6024 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6026 
  6027 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6028 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6029 
  6030 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6031 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6032 
  6033 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6034 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6035 
  6036 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6037 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6039 
  6040 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6041 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6042 
  6043 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6044 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6045 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6046 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6047 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6048 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6049 
  6050 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6051 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6052 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6053 
  6054 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6055 
  6056 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6057 
  6058 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6059 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6060 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6061 
  6062 
  6063 *** ZF ***
  6064 
  6065 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6066 same session:
  6067 
  6068   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6069   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6070   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6071   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6072   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6073   List      -> List_ZF
  6074   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6075 
  6076 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6077 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6078 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6079 
  6080 
  6081 *** ML ***
  6082 
  6083 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6084 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6085 
  6086 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6087 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6088 
  6089 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6090 
  6091 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6092 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6093 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6094 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6095 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6096 
  6097 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6098 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6099 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6100 
  6101 
  6102 *** System ***
  6103 
  6104 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6105 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6106 
  6107 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6108 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6109 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6110 
  6111 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6112 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6113 
  6114 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6115 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6116 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6117 
  6118 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6119 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6120 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6121 
  6122 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6123 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6124 
  6125 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6126 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6127 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6128 script.
  6129 
  6130 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6131 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6132 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6133 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6134 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6135 
  6136 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6137 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6138 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6139 
  6140 
  6141 
  6142 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6143 -----------------------------------
  6144 
  6145 *** General ***
  6146 
  6147 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6148 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6149 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6150 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6151 
  6152 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6153 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6154 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6155 
  6156 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6157 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6158 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6159 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6162 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6163 quotes.
  6164 
  6165 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6166 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6167 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6168 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6169 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6170 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6171 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6172 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6173 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6174 
  6175 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6176 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6177 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6178 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6179 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6180 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6181 
  6182 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6183 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6184 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6185 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6186 
  6187 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6188 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6189 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6190 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6191 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6192 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6193 
  6194 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6195 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6196 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6197 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6198 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6199 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6200 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6201 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6202 
  6203 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6204 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6205 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6206 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6207 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6208 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6209 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6210 
  6211 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6212 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6213 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6214 
  6215 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6216 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6217 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6218 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6219 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6220 limit is imposed.
  6221 
  6222 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6223 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6224 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6225 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6226 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6227 and scalability.
  6228 
  6229 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6230 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6231 
  6232 
  6233 *** Document preparation ***
  6234 
  6235 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6236 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6237 current context.
  6238 
  6239 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6240 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6241 
  6242 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6243 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6244 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6245 
  6246 
  6247 *** Pure ***
  6248 
  6249 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6250 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6251 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6252 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6253 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6254 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6255 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6256 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6257 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6258 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6259 
  6260 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6261 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6262 sketch:
  6263 
  6264     internal compilation:
  6265         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6266     writing SML code to a file:
  6267         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>