NEWS
author immler
Tue Dec 17 11:12:10 2013 +0100 (2013-12-17)
changeset 54787 6d1670095414
parent 54745 46e441e61ff5
child 54850 980817309b78
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 
    20 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    21 
    22 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    23 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    24 
    25 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    26 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    27 
    28 
    29 *** HOL ***
    30 
    31 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
    32 INCOMPATBILITY.
    33 
    34 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
    35 operations on records.
    36 
    37 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    38 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    41     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    45     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    46     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    47 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    48 
    49 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    50   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    51   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    52   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    53     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    54   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
    55     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
    56   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    57 INCOMPATBILITY.
    58 
    59 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    60     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    61     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    62     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
    63     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
    64 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    65 
    66 * Fact name consolidation:
    67     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    68     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    69     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    70     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    71     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    72 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    73 
    74 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    75 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    76 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    77 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    78 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    79 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    80 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    81 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    82 
    83 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    84 
    85 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    86 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    87 
    88 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    89 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    90 
    91 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    92 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    93 or the brute way with
    94 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    95 
    96 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    97 
    98 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    99 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   100 
   101 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   102 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   103 
   104 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   105 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   106 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   107 INCOMPATIBILITY
   108 
   109 * Nitpick:
   110   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   111     infinite values.
   112 
   113 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   114   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   115   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   116     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   117     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   118     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   119     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   120     intervals.
   121 
   122 
   123 *** ML ***
   124 
   125 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   126 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   127 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   128 formal context.
   129 
   130 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   131 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   132 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   133 actually belongs to it).
   134 
   135 
   136 *** System ***
   137 
   138 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   139 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   140 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   141 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   142 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   143 
   144 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   145 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   146 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   147 
   148 
   149 
   150 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   151 -------------------------------------
   152 
   153 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   154 
   155 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   156 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   157 
   158 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   159 after edits surrounding the command location.
   160 
   161 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   162 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   163 e.g. out-of-memory).
   164 
   165 
   166 *** System ***
   167 
   168 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   169 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   170 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   171 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   172 
   173 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   174 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   175 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   176 
   177 
   178 
   179 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   180 -------------------------------------
   181 
   182 *** General ***
   183 
   184 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   185 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   186 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   189 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   192 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   193 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   194 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   195 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   196 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   197 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   198 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   199 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   200 syntax.
   201 
   202 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   203 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   206 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   207 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   209 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   210 
   211 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   215 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   216 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   217 
   218 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   219 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   220 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   221 
   222 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   223 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   224 
   225 
   226 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   227 
   228 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   229 Documentation panel.
   230 
   231 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   232 documentation.
   233 
   234 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   235 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   236 
   237 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   238 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   239 normal editing and checking process.
   240 
   241 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   242 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   243 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   244 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   245 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   246 
   247 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   248 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   249 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   250 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   251 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   252 
   253 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   254 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   255 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   256 
   257 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   258 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   259 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   260 to resolve conflict.
   261 
   262 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   263 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   264 
   265 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   266 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   267 such command executions while editing.
   268 
   269 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   270 document content.
   271 
   272 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   273 toplevel theorem statements.
   274 
   275 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   276 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   277 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   278 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   279 
   280 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   281 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   282 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   283 
   284 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   285 / Global Options / Appearance".
   286 
   287 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   288 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   289 
   290 
   291 *** Pure ***
   292 
   293 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   294 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   295 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   296 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   297 details.
   298 
   299 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   300 
   301 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   302 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   303 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   304 
   305 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307 
   308 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   309 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   310 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   311 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312 
   313 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   314 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   315 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316 
   317 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   318 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   319 
   320 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   321 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   322 situations.
   323 
   324 
   325 *** HOL ***
   326 
   327 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   328 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   332 
   333 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   334 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   335 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   336 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   337 
   338   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   339 
   340 * Code generator:
   341   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   342     'code_instance'.
   343   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   344     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   345 
   346 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   347 examples.
   348 
   349 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   350 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   351 to distinguish both when desired.
   352 
   353 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   354 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   355 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   356 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   357 
   358 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   359 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   360 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   361 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   362 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   363 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   364 
   365 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   366 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   367 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   368 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   369 
   370 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   371 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   372 
   373 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   374 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   375 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   376 
   377 * Lifting:
   378   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   379     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   380       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   381       transfer rules
   382     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   383       correspondence relation can be generated
   384     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   385       parametricity
   386     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   387   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   388   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   389     copies
   390   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   391     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   392     anonymous context)
   393   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   394     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   395   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   396     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   397   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   398     INCOMPATIBILITY
   399 
   400 * Transfer:
   401   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   402     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   403   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   404   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   405     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   406   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   407 
   408 * Reification and reflection:
   409   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   410     "Reification".
   411   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   412   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   416   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   417     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   418     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   419   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   420     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   421   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   422     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   423     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   424     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   425     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   426     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   427     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   428     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   429   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   430     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   431   - Fact renames:
   432       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   433       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   437 
   438 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   439 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   440 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   442 
   443 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   444 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   445 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   446 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   447 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   448 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   449 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   450 lemmas.
   451 
   452 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   453 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   454 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   457 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   458 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   459 
   460 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   461 top and bottom elements.
   462 
   463 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   464 
   465 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   466 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   467 
   468  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   469    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   470    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   471 
   472  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   473    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   474    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   475 
   476    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   477    arbitrary filter.
   478 
   479  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   480    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   481    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   482    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   483    on a compact set.
   484 
   485  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   486    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   487    linear_continuum_topology).
   488 
   489  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   490    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   491    on all sequences converging to x.
   492 
   493  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   494    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   495    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   496    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   497    left or right.
   498 
   499  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   500 
   501      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   502 
   503  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   504    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   505 
   506  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   507    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   508    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   509    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   510    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   511    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   512 
   513  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   514 
   515    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   516 
   517    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   518      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   519 
   520    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   521 
   522    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   523      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   524 
   525    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   526 
   527    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   528 
   529  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   530 
   531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Nitpick:
   534   - Added option "spy"
   535   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   536 
   537 * Sledgehammer:
   538   - Renamed option:
   539       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   540     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   541   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   542   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   543   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   544 
   545 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   546 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   547 
   548 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   549   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   550   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   551     generated code.
   552   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   553   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   554   - Fact renames:
   555     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   556     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   557     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   558 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   561 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   562 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   563 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   564 
   565 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   566 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   567 
   568 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   569 
   570 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   571 
   572     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   573     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   574 
   575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   576 
   577 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   578 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   579 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   580 
   581 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   582 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   583 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   584 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * HOL-BNF:
   587   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   588     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   589     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   590     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   591   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   592     coinduct).
   593   - Renamed keywords:
   594     data ~> datatype_new
   595     codata ~> codatatype
   596     bnf_def ~> bnf
   597   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   598     discs ~> disc
   599     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   600     map_id' ~> map_id
   601     sels ~> sel
   602     set_map' ~> set_map
   603     sets ~> set
   604 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 
   607 *** ML ***
   608 
   609 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   610 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   611 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   612 Examples.thy in particular.
   613 
   614 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   615 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   616 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   617 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   618 
   619 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   620 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   621 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   622 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   626 
   627     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   628     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   629 
   630 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   633 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   634 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   635 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   636 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   637 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   638 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   639 
   640 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   641 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   642 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   643 clasets separately from the context.
   644 
   645 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   646 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   647 
   648 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   649 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   650 
   651 
   652 *** System ***
   653 
   654 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   655 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   656 
   657 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   658 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   661 settings variable.
   662 
   663 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   664 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   665 always pdf.
   666 
   667 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   668 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   669 
   670 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   671 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   672 
   673 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   674 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   675 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   676 
   677 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   678 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   679 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   680 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   681 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   682 for HTML presentation of theories.
   683 
   684 
   685 
   686 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   687 -----------------------------------
   688 
   689 *** General ***
   690 
   691 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   692 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   693 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   694 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   695 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   696 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   697 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   698 
   699 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   700 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   701 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   702 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   703 
   704 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   705 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   706 
   707 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   708 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   709 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   710 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   711 dependencies properly.
   712 
   713 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   714 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   715 
   716 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   717 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   718 
   719 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   720 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   721 and "class ... context ...".
   722 
   723 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   724 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   725 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   726 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   727 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   728 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   729 
   730 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   731 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   732 
   733 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   734 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   735 
   736 
   737 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   738 
   739 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   740 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   741 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   742 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   743 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   744 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   745 
   746 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   747 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   748 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   749 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   750 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   751 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   752 
   753 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   754 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   755 browser on demand.
   756 
   757 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   758 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   759 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   760 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   761 
   762 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   763 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   764 
   765 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   766 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   767 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   768 potentially infinite message streams.
   769 
   770 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   771 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   772 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   773 schemes.
   774 
   775 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   776 symbols.
   777 
   778 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   779 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   780 
   781 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   782 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   783 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   784 
   785 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   786 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   787 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   788 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   789 
   790 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   791 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   792 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   793 
   794 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   795 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   796 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   797 Isabelle distribution.
   798 
   799 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   800 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   801 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   802 
   803 
   804 *** Pure ***
   805 
   806 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   807 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   808 
   809 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   810 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   811 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   814 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   815 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   816 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   817 with some care where this is really required.
   818 
   819 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   820 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   821 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   822 
   823   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   824 
   825 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   826 a Hasse diagram.
   827 
   828 
   829 *** HOL ***
   830 
   831 * Sledgehammer:
   832 
   833   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   834     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   835   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   836   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   837   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   838   - Renamed options:
   839       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   840       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   841       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   842       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   843 
   844 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   845 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   846 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   847 
   848 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850 
   851 * Lifting:
   852   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   853   - quot_del attribute
   854   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   855 
   856 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   857 expressions.
   858 
   859 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   860 pointfree expressions.
   861 
   862 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   863 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   864 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   865 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   869 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   870 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   871 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   872 accordingly.
   873 
   874 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   875 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   878 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   883 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   884 
   885 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   886 
   887 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   888 
   889   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   890   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   891 
   892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   895 
   896   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   897   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   898 
   899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   900 
   901 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   902 
   903   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   904     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   905     output f x converges to G.
   906 
   907   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   908     infinity (at_bot).
   909 
   910   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   911     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   912 
   913   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   914     at_top".
   915 
   916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   919 lattice type classes.
   920 
   921 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   922 
   923     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   924     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   925 
   926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   929 changes as follows.
   930 
   931   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   932 
   933       prefix ~> prefixeq
   934       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   935 
   936   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   937     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   938     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   939     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   940 
   941   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   942     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   943     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   944 
   945   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   946     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   947     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   948     Library/Prefix_Order.
   949 
   950   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   951     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   952 
   953       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   954       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   955       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   956       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   957       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   958       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   959       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   960       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   961       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   962       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   963       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   964       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   965       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   966       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   967       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   968       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   969 
   970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   973 
   974 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   975 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   976 
   977 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   978 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   979 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   980 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   981 
   982   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   983   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   984   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   985   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   986   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   987   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   988   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   989   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   990   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   991   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   992 
   993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   994 
   995 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   996 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   997 Data").
   998 
   999 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1000 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1001 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1002 code.
  1003 
  1004 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1005 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1006 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1008 
  1009 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1010 
  1011 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1012 
  1013 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1014 
  1015   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1016   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1017 
  1018 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1019 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1020 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1021 
  1022   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1023 
  1024     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1025     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1026     cart_base i  removed
  1027     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1028 
  1029   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1030 
  1031   Renamed lemmas:
  1032 
  1033     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1034     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1035     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1036     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1037     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1038     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1039     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1040     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1041     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1042     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1043 
  1044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045 
  1046 * HOL/Probability:
  1047 
  1048   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1049 
  1050   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1051     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1052     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1053 
  1054   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1055     projective family).
  1056 
  1057 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1058 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1059 
  1060 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1061 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1062 datatypes.
  1063 
  1064 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1065 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1066 
  1067 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1068 trees for the code generator.
  1069 
  1070 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1071 Lifting/Transfer.
  1072 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1076 
  1077 
  1078 *** Document preparation ***
  1079 
  1080 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1081 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1082 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1083 
  1084 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1085 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1086 
  1087 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1088 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1089 document/root.tex.
  1090 
  1091 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1092 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 
  1095 *** ML ***
  1096 
  1097 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1098 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1099 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1100 
  1101 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1102 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1103 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1104 
  1105 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1106 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1107 necessarily printing visible text.
  1108 
  1109 
  1110 *** System ***
  1111 
  1112 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1113 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1114 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1115 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1116 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1117 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1118 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1119 
  1120 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1121 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1122 
  1123   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1124 
  1125 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1126 
  1127 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1128 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1129 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1130 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1131 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1132 
  1133 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1134 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1135 
  1136 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1137 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1138 
  1139 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141 
  1142 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1143 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1144 version of Isabelle.
  1145 
  1146 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1147 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1148 
  1149 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1150 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1151 for home-made settings.
  1152 
  1153 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1154 
  1155 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1156 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1157 configuration.
  1158 
  1159 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1160 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1161 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1162 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1163 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1164 
  1165 
  1166 
  1167 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1168 ------------------------------
  1169 
  1170 *** General ***
  1171 
  1172 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1173 
  1174   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1175     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1176   - markup for bound variables
  1177   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1178   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1179   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1180     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1181 
  1182 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1183 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1184 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1185 
  1186 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1187 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1188 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1189 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1190 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1191 
  1192   context
  1193     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1194     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1195   begin
  1196 
  1197   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1198 
  1199   end
  1200 
  1201   thm my_trans
  1202 
  1203 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1204 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1205 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1206 
  1207 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1208 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1209 
  1210 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1211 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1212 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1213 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1214 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1215 
  1216 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1217 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1218 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1219 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1220 indices of schematic variables.
  1221 
  1222 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1223 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1224 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1225 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1226 etc. was exploited.
  1227 
  1228 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1229 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1230 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1231 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1232 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1233 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1234 
  1235 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1236 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1237 manual.
  1238 
  1239 
  1240 *** Pure ***
  1241 
  1242 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1243 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1244 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1245 
  1246 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1247 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1248 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1249 undocumented feature.)
  1250 
  1251 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1252 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1253 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1254 
  1255   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1256 
  1257   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1258     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1259 
  1260 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1261 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1262 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1263 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1264 
  1265 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1266 
  1267     num ~> num_token
  1268     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1269     xstr ~> str_token
  1270 
  1271 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1272 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1273 position information via constraints).
  1274 
  1275 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1276 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1277 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1278 
  1279 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1280 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1281 
  1282 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1283 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1284 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1287 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1290 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1291 
  1292   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1293 
  1294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1295 
  1296 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1297 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1298 
  1299 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1300 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1301 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1302 
  1303 
  1304 *** HOL ***
  1305 
  1306 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1307 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1308 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1309 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1310 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1311 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1312 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1313 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1314 possible.
  1315 
  1316 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1317 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1318 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1319 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1320 
  1321 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1322 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1323 
  1324 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1325 
  1326 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1327 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1328 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1329 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1330 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1331 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1332 
  1333   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1334     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1335 
  1336   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1337     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1338     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1339 
  1340   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1341     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1342 
  1343   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1344     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1345     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1346 
  1347   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1348     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1349 
  1350 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1351 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1352 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1353 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1354 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1355 
  1356   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1357     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1358     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1359     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1360     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1361 
  1362     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1363     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1364 
  1365   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1366     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1367     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1368     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1369     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1370     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1371     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1372     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1373 
  1374   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1375     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1376     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1377     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1378 
  1379   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1380     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1381     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1382     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1383 
  1384   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1385     from type nat to type int.
  1386 
  1387 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1388 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1389 
  1390   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1391     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1392     type.  Example syntax:
  1393 
  1394     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1395       is List.insert
  1396 
  1397     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1398     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1399     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1400     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1401     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1402     by the package.
  1403 
  1404   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1405     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1406     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1407     code generation for each constant.
  1408 
  1409   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1410     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1411     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1412     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1413     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1414 
  1415   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1416     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1417     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1418 
  1419 * Quotient package:
  1420 
  1421   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1422     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1423 
  1424   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1425     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1426 
  1427   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1428     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1429     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1432     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1433 
  1434 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1435 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1436 
  1437 * Quickcheck:
  1438 
  1439   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1440     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1441     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1442     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1443     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1444 
  1445     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1446     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1447     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1448 
  1449     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1450     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1451 
  1452     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1453     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1454     show genuine counterexamples.
  1455 
  1456   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1457     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1458 
  1459     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1460     constructors of that type.
  1461 
  1462   - Support for multisets.
  1463 
  1464   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1465 
  1466   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1467     conjectures in a locale context.
  1468 
  1469 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1470 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1471 
  1472 * Sledgehammer:
  1473   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1474     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1475   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1476   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1477     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1478   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1479   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1480   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1481   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1482 
  1483 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1484 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1485 
  1486 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1487 
  1488 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1491 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1492 
  1493   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1494 
  1495 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1496 a list and a nat.
  1497 
  1498 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1499 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1500 
  1501 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1502 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1503 default.
  1504 
  1505 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1506 
  1507   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1508 
  1509 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1510 
  1511 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1512 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1513 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1514 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1515 one_case.
  1516 
  1517 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1518 the result of the fact expression.
  1519 
  1520 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1521 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1522 of some relation theorems:
  1523 
  1524   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1525   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1526   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1527   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1528   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1529   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1530 
  1531 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1532 
  1533 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1534 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1535 
  1536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1537 
  1538 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1539 to match the constant's name:
  1540 
  1541   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1542   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1543   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1544   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1545   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1546   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1547   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1548   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1549   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1550   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1551   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1552   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1553   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1554   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1555   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1556   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1557   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1558   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1559   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1560   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1561   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1562   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1563   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1564   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1565 
  1566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1567 
  1568 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1569 and corresponding theorem names:
  1570 
  1571   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1572 
  1573   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1574 
  1575   - Renamed theorems:
  1576 
  1577     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1578     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1579     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1580     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1581     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1582     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1583     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1584     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1585     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1586     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1587     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1588     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1589     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1590     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1591     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1592     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1593     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1594     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1595     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1596     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1597     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1598     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1599     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1600 
  1601     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1602 
  1603     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1604 
  1605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606 
  1607 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1608 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1609 
  1610   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1611   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1612   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1613   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1614   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1615   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1616   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1617   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1618   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1619   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1620   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1621   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1622   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1623   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1624   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1625   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1626   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1627   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1628   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1629   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1630   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1631 
  1632 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1633 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1638 
  1639   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1640   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1641   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1642   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1643   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1644   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1645   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1646   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1647   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1648   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1649   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1650   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1651   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1652   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1653   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1654   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1655   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1656   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1657 
  1658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659 
  1660 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1661 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1662 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1663 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1664 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1665 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1666 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1667 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1668 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1669 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1670 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1671 
  1672 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1673 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1674 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1675 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1676 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1677 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1678 
  1679 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1680 through option types.
  1681 
  1682 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1683 relations.
  1684 
  1685 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1686 
  1687 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1688 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1689 
  1690   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1691   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1692   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1693   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1694   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1695   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1696   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1697   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1698   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1699   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1700   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1701   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1702   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1703   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1704   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1705   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1706   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1707   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1708   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1709   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1710   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1711   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1712   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1713   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1714   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1715   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1716   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1717   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1718   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1719   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1720   zless_le ~> less_le
  1721   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1722   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1723   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1724 
  1725 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1726 
  1727   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1728 
  1729 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1730 
  1731 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1732 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1733 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1734 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1736 
  1737 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1738 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1739 
  1740 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1741 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1742 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1743 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1744 follows:
  1745 
  1746   Operations:
  1747   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1748   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1749   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1750   del -> rbt_del
  1751   delete -> rbt_delete
  1752   ins -> rbt_ins
  1753   insert -> rbt_insert
  1754   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1755   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1756   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1757   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1758   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1759   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1760   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1761   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1762   union -> rbt_union
  1763   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1764   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1765 
  1766   Lemmas:
  1767   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1768   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1769   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1770   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1771   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1772   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1773   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1774   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1775   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1776   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1777   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1778   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1779   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1780   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1781   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1782   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1783   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1784   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1785   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1786   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1787   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1788   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1789   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1790   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1791   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1792   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1793   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1794   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1795   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1796   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1797   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1798   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1799   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1800   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1801   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1802   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1803   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1804   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1805   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1806   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1807   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1808   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1809   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1810   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1811   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1812   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1813   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1814   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1815   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1816   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1817   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1818   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1819   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1820   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1821   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1822   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1823   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1824   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1825   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1826   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1827   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1828   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1829   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1830   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1831   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1832   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1833   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1834   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1835   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1836   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1837   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1838   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1839   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1840   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1841   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1842   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1843   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1844   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1845   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1846   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1847   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1848   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1849   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1850 
  1851 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1852 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1853 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1854 
  1855   Changed Operations:
  1856   float_abs -> abs
  1857   float_nprt -> nprt
  1858   float_pprt -> pprt
  1859   pow2 -> use powr
  1860   round_down -> float_round_down
  1861   round_up -> float_round_up
  1862   scale -> exponent
  1863 
  1864   Removed Operations:
  1865   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1866 
  1867   Renamed Lemmas:
  1868   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1869   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1870   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1871   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1872   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1873   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1874   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1875   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1876   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1877   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1878   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1879   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1880   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1881   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1882   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1883   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1884   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1885   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1886   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1887   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1888   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1889   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1890   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1891   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1892   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1893   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1894   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1895   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1896   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1897   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1898   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1899   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1900   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1901   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1902   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1903   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1904 
  1905   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1906   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1907   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1908   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1909   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1910   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1911   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1912   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1913   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1914   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1915 
  1916 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1917 association lists with distinct keys.
  1918 
  1919 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1920 annotated commands.
  1921 
  1922 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1923 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1924 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1925 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1928 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1929 instead.
  1930 
  1931   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1932   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1933   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1934   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1935   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1936   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1937   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1938   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1939   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1940   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1941   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1942   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1943   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1944   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1945   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1946   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1947   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1948   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1949   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1950   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1951   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1952   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1953   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1954   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1955   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1956   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1957   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1958   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1959   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1960   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1961   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1962   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1963   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1964   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1965   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1966   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1967   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1968   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1969   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1970   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1971   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1972 
  1973 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1974 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1975 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1976 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1977 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1978 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1979 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1980 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1981 
  1982 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1983 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1984 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1985 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1986 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1987 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1988 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1989 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1990 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1991 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1992 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1993 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995   Renamed constants:
  1996   measure -> emeasure
  1997   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1998   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1999   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2000   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2001 
  2002   Removed locales:
  2003   completeable_measure_space
  2004   finite_measure_space
  2005   finite_prob_space
  2006   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2007   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2008   finite_sigma_algebra
  2009   measure_space
  2010   pair_finite_prob_space
  2011   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2012   pair_finite_space
  2013   pair_sigma_algebra
  2014   product_sigma_algebra
  2015 
  2016   Removed constants:
  2017   conditional_space
  2018   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2019   image_space
  2020   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2021   pair_measure_generator
  2022   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2023   subvimage
  2024 
  2025   Replacement theorems:
  2026   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2027   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2028   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2029   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2030   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2031   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2032   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2033   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2034   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2035   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2036   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2037   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2038   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2039   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2040   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2041   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2042   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2043   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2044   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2045   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2046   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2047   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2048   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2049   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2050   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2051   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2052   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2053   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2054   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2055   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2056   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2057   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2058   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2059   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2060   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2061   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2062   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2063   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2064   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2065   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2066   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2067   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2068   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2069   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2070   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2071   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2072   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2073   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2074   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2075   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2076   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2077   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2078   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2079   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2080   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2081   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2082   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2083   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2084   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2085   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2086   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2087   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2088   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2089   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2090   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2091   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2092   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2093   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2094   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2095   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2096   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2097   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2098   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2099   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2100   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2101   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2102   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2103   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2104   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2105   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2106   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2107   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2108   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2109   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2110   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2111   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2112   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2113   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2114   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2115   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2116   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2117   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2118   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2119   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2120   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2121   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2122   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2123   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2124   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2125   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2126   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2127   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2128   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2129   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2130   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2131   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2132   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2133   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2134   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2135   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2136   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2137   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2138   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2139   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2140   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2141   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2142   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2143   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2144   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2145   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2146   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2147   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2148   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2149   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2150   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2151   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2152   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2153   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2154 
  2155 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2156 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2157 
  2158 
  2159 *** FOL ***
  2160 
  2161 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2162 
  2163 
  2164 *** ZF ***
  2165 
  2166 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2167 analysis.
  2168 
  2169 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2170 
  2171 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 
  2174 *** ML ***
  2175 
  2176 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2177 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2178 
  2179 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2180 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2181 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2182 
  2183 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2184 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2185 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2186 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2187 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2188 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2189 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2190 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2191 
  2192 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2193 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2194 
  2195 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2196 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2197 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2198 
  2199 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2200 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2201 
  2202 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2203 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2204 context as well.
  2205 
  2206 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2207 
  2208   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2209   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2210   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2211   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2212   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2213   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2214   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2215   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2216   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2217   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2218   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2219   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2220 
  2221 
  2222 *** System ***
  2223 
  2224 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2225 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2226 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2227 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2228 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2229 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2230 the generic user home was intended.
  2231 
  2232 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2233 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2234 
  2235 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2236 (not just JRE).
  2237 
  2238 
  2239 
  2240 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2241 ------------------------------------
  2242 
  2243 *** General ***
  2244 
  2245 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2246 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2247 
  2248   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2249     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2250     files for checking).
  2251 
  2252   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2253     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2254     positions.
  2255 
  2256   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2257     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2258     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2259 
  2260   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2261     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2262     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2263 
  2264   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2265     cores.
  2266 
  2267   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2268     versions (garbage collection).
  2269 
  2270 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2271 including some remaining limitations.
  2272 
  2273 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2274 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2275 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2276 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2277 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2279 
  2280 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2281 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2282 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2283 
  2284 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2285 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2286 usedir option -Q.
  2287 
  2288 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2289 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2290 
  2291   long_names   ~> names_long
  2292   short_names  ~> names_short
  2293   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2294 
  2295 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2296 
  2297   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2298 
  2299 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2300 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2301 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2302 
  2303 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2304 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2305 
  2306 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2307   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2308   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2309   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2310     "Classical Reasoner".
  2311 
  2312 
  2313 *** HOL ***
  2314 
  2315 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2316 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317 
  2318 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2319 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2320 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2321 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2322 class complete_linorder.
  2323 
  2324 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2325 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2326 
  2327 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2328 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2329 
  2330   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2331   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2332   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2333   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2334   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2335   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2336   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2337   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2338   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2339   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2340   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2341 
  2342 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2343 
  2344   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2345   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2346   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2347   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2348   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2349   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2350   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2351   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2352   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2353   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2354   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2355   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2356   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2357   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2358   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2359   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2360 
  2361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2367 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2368 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2369 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2372 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2373 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2377 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2378 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2379 
  2380 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2381 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2382 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2385 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2386 
  2387 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2388 
  2389     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2390     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2391 
  2392 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2393 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2396 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2399 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2400 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2401 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2404   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2405   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2406   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2407   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2408   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2409   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2410 
  2411 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2412 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2413 
  2414   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2415   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2416   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2417   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2418   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2419   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2420   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2421   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2422   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2423   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2424   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2425   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2426   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2427   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2428   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2429   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2430   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2431   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2432   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2433   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2434   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2435   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2436   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2437   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2438   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2439   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2440   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2441   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2442   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2443   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2444   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2445   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2446   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2447   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2448   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2449   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2450   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2451   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2452   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2453   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2454   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2455   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2456   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2457   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2458   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2459   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2460   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2461   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2462   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2463   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2464   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2465   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2466   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2467   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2468   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2469   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2470   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2471   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2472   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2473   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2474   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2475   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2476   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2477   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2478   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2479   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2480   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2481   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2482   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2483   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2484   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2485   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2486   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2487   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2488   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2489   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2490   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2491   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2492   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2493   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2494   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2495   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2496 
  2497 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2498 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2499 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2500 
  2501 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2502 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2503 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2504 
  2505 * Code generation:
  2506 
  2507   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2508     characters in the target language.
  2509 
  2510   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2511     instead.
  2512 
  2513   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2514 
  2515   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2516     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2517 
  2518       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2519 
  2520 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2523 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2524 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2525 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2526 syntax.
  2527 
  2528 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2529 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2530 
  2531 * Nitpick:
  2532   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2533   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2534   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2535     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2536 
  2537 * Sledgehammer:
  2538   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2539   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2540     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2541   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2542     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2543   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2544     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2545   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2546     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2547   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2548     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * Metis:
  2551   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2553     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2554 
  2555 * Command 'try':
  2556   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2557     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2559     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2560 
  2561 * Quickcheck:
  2562   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2563     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2564   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2565     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2566   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2567     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2568     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2569     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2570   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2571     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2572 
  2573 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2574 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2575 
  2576 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2577 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2578 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2579 
  2580 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2581 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2585 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2588 arithmetic.
  2589 
  2590 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2591 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2592 and lattice type classes.
  2593 
  2594 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2595 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2596 
  2597 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2598 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2599 
  2600 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2601 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2602 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2605   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2606   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2607   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2608 
  2609 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2610 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2611 constants:
  2612 
  2613   type inat   ~> type enat
  2614   Fin         ~> enat
  2615   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2616   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2617   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2618 
  2619 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2620 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2623 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2624 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2625 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2626 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2627 
  2628 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2629 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2630 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2631 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2632 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2633 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2634 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2635 
  2636   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2637   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2638   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2639   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2640 
  2641 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2642 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2643 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2646   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2647   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2648   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2649   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2650   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2651   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2652   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2653   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2654   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2655   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2656   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2657   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2658   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2659   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2660   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2661   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2662   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2663   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2664   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2665   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2666   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2667   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2668   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2669   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2670   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2671   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2672   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2673   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2674   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2675   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2676   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2677   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2678   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2679   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2680   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2681   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2682   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2683   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2684   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2685   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2686   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2687   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2688   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2689   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2690   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2691   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2692   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2693   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2694   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2695   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2696 
  2697 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2698   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2699   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2700   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2701   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2702     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2707   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2708   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2709   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2710   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2711   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2712   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2713   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2714   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2715   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2716   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2717   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2718   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2719   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2720   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2721   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2722   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2723   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2724   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2725   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2726   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2727   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2728   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2729   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2730   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2731 
  2732 
  2733 *** Document preparation ***
  2734 
  2735 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2736 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2737 same.
  2738 
  2739 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2740 result.
  2741 
  2742 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2743 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2744 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2745 
  2746 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2747 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2748 
  2749 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2750 like this:
  2751 
  2752   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2753   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2754 
  2755 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2756 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2757 layouts.
  2758 
  2759 
  2760 *** ML ***
  2761 
  2762 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2763 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2764 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2765 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2766 under external program control.
  2767 
  2768 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2769 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2770 
  2771 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2772 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2773 (better known as Proof General).
  2774 
  2775 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2776 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2777 
  2778 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2779 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2780 
  2781 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2782 (including quotes etc.).
  2783 
  2784 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2785 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2786 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2787 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2788 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2789 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2790 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2791 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2792 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2793 
  2794 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2795 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2796 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2797 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2798 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2799 
  2800 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2801 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2802 
  2803 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2804 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2805 
  2806 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2807 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2808 
  2809 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2810 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2811 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2812 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2813 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2814 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2815 proper Proof.context.
  2816 
  2817 
  2818 *** System ***
  2819 
  2820 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2821 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2822 
  2823 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2824 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2825 
  2826 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2827 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2828 
  2829   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2830   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2831   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2832   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2833   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2834 
  2835 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2836 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2839 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2840 example:
  2841 
  2842   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2843 
  2844 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2845 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2846 
  2847 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2848 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2849 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2850 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2851 
  2852 
  2853 
  2854 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2855 ----------------------------------
  2856 
  2857 *** General ***
  2858 
  2859 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2860 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2861 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2862 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2863 like this:
  2864 
  2865   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2866 
  2867 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2868 
  2869 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2870 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2871 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2872 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2873 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2874 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2875 
  2876 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2877 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2878 the following package declarations:
  2879 
  2880   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2881   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2882 
  2883 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2884 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2885 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2886 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2887 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2888 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2889 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2890 
  2891 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2892 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2893 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2894 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2895 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2896 
  2897 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2898 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2899 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2900 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2901 
  2902 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2903 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2904 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2905 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2906 
  2907   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2908 
  2909   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2910   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2911   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2912   show_types                    show_types
  2913   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2914   show_consts                   show_consts
  2915   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2916 
  2917   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2918   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2919   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2920 
  2921   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2922   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2923 
  2924   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2925 
  2926   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2927   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2928   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2929   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2930   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2931 
  2932 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2933 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2934 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2935 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2936 
  2937 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2941   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2942 
  2943 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2944 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2945 float_token.
  2946 
  2947 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2948 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2952 DejaVu Sans.
  2953 
  2954 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2955 
  2956 
  2957 *** Pure ***
  2958 
  2959 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2960 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2961 time.
  2962 
  2963 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2964 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965 
  2966 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2967 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2968 
  2969 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2970 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2971 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2972 command already provided this functionality.
  2973 
  2974 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2975 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2976 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2977 without interpretations.
  2978 
  2979 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2980 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2981 
  2982 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2983 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2984 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2985 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2986 
  2987 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2988 'definition' instead.
  2989 
  2990 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2991 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2992 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2993 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2994 
  2995 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2996 constructors.
  2997 
  2998 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2999 the local file system.
  3000 
  3001 
  3002 *** HOL ***
  3003 
  3004 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3005 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3006 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3007 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3008 
  3009   declare [[coercion f]]
  3010 
  3011 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3012 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3013 
  3014   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3015 
  3016 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3017 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3018 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3019 other theories like this:
  3020 
  3021   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3022 
  3023 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3024 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3025 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3026 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3027 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3028 for examples.
  3029 
  3030 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3031 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3034 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3035 
  3036 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3037 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3038 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3039 
  3040 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3041 functorial structure of types.
  3042 
  3043 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3044 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3045 
  3046 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3047 languages.
  3048 
  3049 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3050 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3054 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3057 combinators any longer.
  3058 
  3059 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3060 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3061 
  3062 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3063 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3064 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3065 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3066 
  3067   record 'a foo = ...
  3068   ...
  3069   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3070 
  3071 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3072 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3076 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3077 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3078 
  3079 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3080 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3081 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3082 
  3083 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3084 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3087 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3088 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3089 independently.
  3090 
  3091 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3092 counter example search.
  3093 
  3094 * Sledgehammer:
  3095   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3096     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3097     sledgehammer").
  3098   - Renamed commands:
  3099     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3100     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3101     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3102     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103   - Renamed options:
  3104     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3105     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3106     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3107     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3108     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110 * Nitpick:
  3111   - Renamed options:
  3112     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3113     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3114     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3116   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3117   - Added "whack" option.
  3118   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3119   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3120   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3121   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3122     higher cardinalities.
  3123   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3124 
  3125 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3126 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3127 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3128 
  3129     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3130 
  3131 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3132 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3133 
  3134 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3135 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3136 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3137 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3138 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3139 "smt_solver".
  3140 
  3141 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3142 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3143 
  3144 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3145 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3146 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3147 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3150   - Renamed:
  3151     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3152     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3153     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154   - Added:
  3155     smt_verbose
  3156     smt_random_seed
  3157     smt_datatypes
  3158     smt_infer_triggers
  3159     smt_monomorph_limit
  3160     cvc3_options
  3161     remote_cvc3_options
  3162     remote_z3_options
  3163     yices_options
  3164 
  3165 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3166 header.
  3167 
  3168 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3169 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3170 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3171 
  3172   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3173 
  3174 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3177 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3182 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3185 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3186 
  3187 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3188 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3191 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3192 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195 
  3196 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3200 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3203 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3204 for congruent(2)).
  3205 
  3206 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3207 
  3208   types
  3209     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3210     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3211 
  3212   constants
  3213     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3214     True ~> HOL.True
  3215     False ~> HOL.False
  3216     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3217     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3218     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3219     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3220     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3221     The ~> HOL.The
  3222     All ~> HOL.All
  3223     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3224     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3225     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3226     If ~> HOL.If
  3227     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3228     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3229     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3230     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3231     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3232     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3233     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3234     op : ~> Set.member
  3235     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3236 
  3237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238 
  3239 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3240 
  3241     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3242     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3243     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3244     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3245     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3246     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3247     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3248     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3249 
  3250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * More stylized fact names:
  3253 
  3254   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3255   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3256   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3257   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3258 
  3259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3262 
  3263   constants
  3264     null ~> List.null
  3265 
  3266   facts
  3267     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3268     null_empty ~> null_def
  3269 
  3270 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3271 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3272 generation.
  3273 
  3274 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3275 Haskell code.
  3276 
  3277 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3278 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3279 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3282 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3285 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3286 
  3287 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3288 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3289 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3292 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3298 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3299 referred to by its qualified name.
  3300 
  3301   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3302   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3303   product ~>  Enum.product
  3304 
  3305 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3306 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3310 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3311 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3313 
  3314 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3315 sort_key.
  3316 
  3317 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3319 
  3320 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3321 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3322 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3323 
  3324   types
  3325     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3326               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3327               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3328         (depends on your needs)
  3329 
  3330   constants
  3331      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3332      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3333      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3334 
  3335 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3336 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3337 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3338 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3341 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3342 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3343 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3344 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3350 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3351 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3352 
  3353 
  3354 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3355 
  3356 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3357 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3358 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3359 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3360 compatibility.
  3361 
  3362 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3363 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3364 
  3365 
  3366 *** HOLCF ***
  3367 
  3368 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3369 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3370 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372 
  3373 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3374 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3375 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3378   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3379   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3380 
  3381 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3382 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3383 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3386 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3387 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3388 domain definition now works:
  3389 
  3390   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3391 
  3392 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3393 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3394 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3395 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3396 
  3397   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3398     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3399 
  3400   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3401 
  3402 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3403 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3404 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3407 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3410 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3411 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3412 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3413 
  3414 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3415 
  3416 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3424 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3425 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3426 
  3427 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3428 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3429 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3432 still supported as an input translation.
  3433 
  3434 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3435 
  3436   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3437   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3438   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3439   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3440   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3441   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3442   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3443 
  3444 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3445 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3448   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3449   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3450   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3451   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3452   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3453 
  3454 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3455 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3458 
  3459   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3460   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3461   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3462   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3463 
  3464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3467 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3468 
  3469 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3470 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3473   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3474   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3475   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3476   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3477   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3478   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3479   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3480   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3481   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3482   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3483   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3484   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3485   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3486   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3487   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3488   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3489   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3490   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3491   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3492 
  3493 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3494 
  3495   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3496   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3497   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3498   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3499   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3500   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3501   box_less             ~> box_below
  3502   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3503   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3504   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3505   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3506   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3507   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3508   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3509   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3510   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3511   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3512   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3513   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3514   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3515   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3516   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3517   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3518   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3519   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3520   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3521   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3522   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3523   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3524   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3525   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3526   up_less              ~> up_below
  3527   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3528   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3529   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3530   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3531   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3532   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3533   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3534   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3535   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3536   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3537   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3538   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3539   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3540 
  3541 
  3542 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3543 
  3544 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3545 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 
  3548 *** ML ***
  3549 
  3550 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3551 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3552 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3553 
  3554 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3555 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3556 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3557 
  3558 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3559 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3560 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3561 
  3562 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3563 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3564 
  3565 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3566 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3567 
  3568 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3569 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3570 
  3571 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3572 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3573 
  3574 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3575 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3576 almost all situations.
  3577 
  3578 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3579 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3580 Isabelle/ML.
  3581 
  3582 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3583 meaning.
  3584 
  3585 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3586 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3587 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3588 
  3589 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3590 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3591 
  3592 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3593 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3594 
  3595 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3596 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3597 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3598 
  3599 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3600 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3601 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3602 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3603 configuration options.
  3604 
  3605 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3606 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3607 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3608 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3609 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3610 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3611 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3612 
  3613 
  3614 
  3615 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3616 ---------------------------------
  3617 
  3618 *** General ***
  3619 
  3620 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3621 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3622 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3623 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3624 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3625 their full internal name.
  3626 
  3627 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3628 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3629 Some hints on upgrading:
  3630 
  3631   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3632     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3633     which are independent of this issue.
  3634 
  3635   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3636     provides the following special forms:
  3637 
  3638       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3639       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3640       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3641 
  3642     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3643     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3644     extra variables".
  3645 
  3646     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3647     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3648     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3649     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3650     "logic".
  3651 
  3652   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3653     antiquotations:
  3654 
  3655       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3656       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3657       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3658       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3659 
  3660   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3661     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3662     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3663     antiquotations.
  3664 
  3665 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3666 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3667 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3668 diagnose syntax problems.
  3669 
  3670 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3671 
  3672 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3673 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3674 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3675 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3676 
  3677 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3678 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3679 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3680 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3683 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3684 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3685 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3686 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3689 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3690 
  3691 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3692 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3693 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3694 
  3695   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3696 
  3697 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3698 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3699 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3700 
  3701 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3702 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3706 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3707 
  3708 
  3709 *** Pure ***
  3710 
  3711 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3712 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3713 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3714 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3715 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3716 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3717 inspect proof terms.
  3718 
  3719 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3720 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3721 are added internally.  For example:
  3722 
  3723   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3724 
  3725 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3726 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3729 
  3730 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3731 'class' instead.
  3732 
  3733 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3734 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3738 invariants.
  3739 
  3740 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3741 user space functionality any longer.
  3742 
  3743 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3744 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3748 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3749 
  3750 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3751 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3752 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3753 
  3754 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3755 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3756 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3757 
  3758 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3759 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760 
  3761 
  3762 *** HOL ***
  3763 
  3764 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3765 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3766 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3767 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3768 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3769 
  3770 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3771 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3772 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3773 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3774 
  3775   fun
  3776     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3777   where
  3778     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3779 
  3780   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3781     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3782 
  3783   quotient_definition
  3784     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3785 
  3786 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3787 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3788 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3789 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3790 
  3791 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3792 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3793 
  3794 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3795 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3796 
  3797 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3801 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3802 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3803 
  3804 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3805 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3814 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3817 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3818 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3821   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3822   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3823   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3824   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3825   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3826   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3827   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3828   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3829   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3830   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3831   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3832   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3833   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3834   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3835   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3836   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3837   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3838   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3839   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3840   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3841   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3842   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3843   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3844   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3845   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3846   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3847   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3848   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3849   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3850 
  3851 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3852 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3853 
  3854 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3855 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3856 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3857 
  3858 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3859 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3860 
  3861 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3862 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3865 
  3866 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3867 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3870 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3875 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3876 
  3877 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3878 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3879 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3880 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3883   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3884   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3885   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3889 lattices):
  3890 
  3891     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3892     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3893 
  3894     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3895 
  3896     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3897     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3898     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3899     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3900     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3901     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3902     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3903     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3904     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3905     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3906     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3907     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3908     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3909 
  3910     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3911     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3912     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3913     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3914     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3915     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3916     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3917     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3918     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3919     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3920     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3921     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3922     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3923     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3924     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3925     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3926     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3927     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3928 
  3929   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3930   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3931 
  3932     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3933     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3934     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3935     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3936     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3937 
  3938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3939 
  3940 * Refined field classes:
  3941   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3942     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3943     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3944   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3948   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3949   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3950   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3951     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3952   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3953     equal_neg_zero.
  3954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3957 sets to lattices:
  3958 
  3959   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3960   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3961   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3962   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3963   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3964   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3965   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3966   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3967   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3968   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3969 
  3970 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3971 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3972 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3973 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3974 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3975 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3978 multiset order:
  3979 
  3980   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3981     <= and <;
  3982   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3983     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3984     multiset_order;
  3985   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3986     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3987     generation;
  3988   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3989     if needed.
  3990 
  3991 Renamed:
  3992 
  3993   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3994   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3995   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3996 
  3997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998 
  3999 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4000 
  4001 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4002 
  4003 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4004 
  4005 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4006 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4007 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4008 
  4009   Constants:
  4010   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4011   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4012   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4013   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4014   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4015   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4016   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4017   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4018   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4019   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4020   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4021   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4022   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4023 
  4024   Lemmas:
  4025   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4026   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4027   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4028   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4029   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4030   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4031   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4032   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4033   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4034   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4035   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4036   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4037   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4038 
  4039 * Sledgehammer:
  4040   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4041     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4042     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4043     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4044     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4045     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4046     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4048   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4049     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4050   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4051     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4052     is still experimental.)
  4053   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4054     full-typed mode.
  4055   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4056 
  4057 * Nitpick:
  4058   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4059   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4060   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4061     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4062   - Added support for quotient types.
  4063   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4064     constructs.
  4065   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4066     "termination" proofs).
  4067   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4068   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4069   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4070   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4071     record getters.
  4072   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4073   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4074   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4075   - Added "atoms" option.
  4076   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4077     problems.
  4078   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4079     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4080     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4082     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4086   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4087   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4088   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4089   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4090   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4091   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4092   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4093   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4094   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 
  4097 *** HOLCF ***
  4098 
  4099 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4100 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4101 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4104 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4105 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4106 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4109 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4110 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4111 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4112 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4115 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4116 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4119 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4122   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4123 
  4124 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4125 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4126 
  4127   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4128   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4129   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4130   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4131   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4132 
  4133 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4134 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4135 
  4136   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4137   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4138   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4139 
  4140 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4141 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4143 
  4144 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4145 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4148 
  4149 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4150 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4151 
  4152 
  4153 *** ML ***
  4154 
  4155 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4156 
  4157     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4158     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4159 
  4160     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4161     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4162     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4163     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4164 
  4165     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4166     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4167     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4168 
  4169 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4170 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4171 
  4172 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4173 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4174 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4175 
  4176 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4177 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4178 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4179 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4180 
  4181 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4182 the context or even global references.
  4183 
  4184 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4185 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4186 
  4187 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4188 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4189 
  4190   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4191   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4192   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4193   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4194   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4195   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4196   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4197   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4198   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4199   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4200 
  4201 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4202 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4203 
  4204 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4205 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4206 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4207 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4208 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4209 
  4210 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4211 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4212 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4213 Theory_Data version.
  4214 
  4215 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4216 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4217 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4218 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4219 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4220 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4221 explicitly in rare situations.
  4222 
  4223 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4224 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4228 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4231 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4232 quite rare).
  4233 
  4234 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4235 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4238 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4239 terms.
  4240 
  4241 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4242 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4243 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4244 
  4245 
  4246 *** System ***
  4247 
  4248 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4249 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4250 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4251 
  4252 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4253 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4254 respectively.
  4255 
  4256 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4257 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4258 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4259 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4260 
  4261   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4262 
  4263 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4264 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4265 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4266 component.
  4267 
  4268 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4269 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4270 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4271 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4272 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4273 the user for manual installation.
  4274 
  4275 
  4276 
  4277 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4278 -------------------------------------
  4279 
  4280 *** General ***
  4281 
  4282 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4283 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4284 
  4285 
  4286 *** Pure ***
  4287 
  4288 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4289 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4290 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4291 
  4292 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4293 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4294 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4295 
  4296 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4297 interpretation.
  4298 
  4299 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4300 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 
  4303 *** Document preparation ***
  4304 
  4305 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4306 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4307 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4308 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4309 
  4310 
  4311 *** HOL ***
  4312 
  4313 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4314 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4315 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4316 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4317 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4318 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4319 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4320 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4321 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4322 
  4323 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4324 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4325 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4326 
  4327 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4328 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4329 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4330 
  4331 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4332 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4333 
  4334 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4335 
  4336 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4337 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4338 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4339 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4340 
  4341 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4342 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4343 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4344 "mirabelle" utility.
  4345 
  4346 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4347 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4348 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4349 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4350 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4351 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4352 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4353 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4354 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4355 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4356 
  4357 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4358 procedure only.
  4359 
  4360 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4361 
  4362 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4363 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4364 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4365 that fail later.
  4366 
  4367 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4368 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4369 
  4370 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4371 the same method as the approximation method.
  4372 
  4373 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4374 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4375 series expansion.
  4376 
  4377 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4378 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4379 
  4380 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4381 reals.
  4382 
  4383 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4384 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4385 
  4386 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4387 fixpoint theorem.
  4388 
  4389 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4390   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4391     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4392   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4393     accordingly
  4394   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4395     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4396   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4397     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4398 
  4399 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4400 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4401 lattice.
  4402 
  4403 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4404 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4405 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4406 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4407 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4408 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4412   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4413     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4414   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4415     le_inf_iff
  4416   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4417     sup_aci)
  4418   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4419   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4420   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4421     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4422     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4423     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4424     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4425     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4426     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4427     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4428     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4429     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4430     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4431   - authentic syntax for
  4432     Set.Pow
  4433     Set.image
  4434   - mere abbreviations:
  4435     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4436     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4437     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4438     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4439     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4440     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4441     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4442     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4443   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4444 
  4445 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4446 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4447 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4448 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4449 
  4450 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4451 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4452 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4455 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4458 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4459 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4460 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4461 
  4462 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4463 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4464 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4465 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4466 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4467 
  4468 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4469 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4471 
  4472 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4473 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4474 
  4475 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4476 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4477 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4478 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4479 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4480 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4481 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4483 
  4484 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4485     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4486     code_post       replaces    code post
  4487     etc.
  4488   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4489 
  4490 * Renamed methods:
  4491     sizechange -> size_change
  4492     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4493   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4494 
  4495 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4496 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4497 
  4498 * Renamed theorems:
  4499     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4500     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4501     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4502     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4503     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4504   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4505 
  4506 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4508 
  4509 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511 
  4512 
  4513 *** HOLCF ***
  4514 
  4515 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4516 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4517 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4518 
  4519 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4520 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4521 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4522 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4523 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4524 
  4525 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4526 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4527 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4528 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4529 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4530 
  4531 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4532 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4533 constructor are pre-configured.
  4534 
  4535 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4536 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4537 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4538 
  4539 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4540 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4541 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4542 as well.)
  4543 
  4544 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4545 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4546 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4547 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4548 examples.
  4549 
  4550 
  4551 *** ML ***
  4552 
  4553 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4554 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4555 
  4556 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4557 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4558 position, logical grouping etc.
  4559 
  4560 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4561 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4562 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4563 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4564 
  4565 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4566 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4567 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4568 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4569 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4570 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4571 
  4572 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4573 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4574 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4575 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4576 experiments with references.
  4577 
  4578 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4579 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4580 
  4581 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4582 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4583 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4584 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4585 
  4586 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4587 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4588 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4589 
  4590 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4591 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4592 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4600 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4601 
  4602 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4603 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4604 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4605 
  4606 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4607 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4608 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4609 
  4610 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4611 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4612 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4616 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4617 instead of global theory.
  4618 
  4619 
  4620 *** System ***
  4621 
  4622 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4623 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4624 usedir option -q.
  4625 
  4626 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4627 also the system manual.
  4628 
  4629 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4630 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4631 
  4632 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4633 this is always enabled.
  4634 
  4635 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4636 
  4637 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4638 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4639 currently supported on Linux only.
  4640 
  4641 
  4642 
  4643 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4644 --------------------------------
  4645 
  4646 *** General ***
  4647 
  4648 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4649 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4650 
  4651   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4652     "isatool."
  4653 
  4654   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4655     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4656 
  4657   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4658     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4659 
  4660 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4661 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4662 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4663 
  4664 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4665 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4666 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4667 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4668 via "isabelle emacs".
  4669 
  4670 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4671 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4672 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4673 
  4674 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4675 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4676 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4677 
  4678 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4679 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4680 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4681 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4682 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4683 
  4684 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4685 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4686 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4687 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4688 
  4689 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4690 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4691 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4692 
  4693 
  4694 *** Pure ***
  4695 
  4696 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4697 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4698 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4699 
  4700 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4701 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4702 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4703 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4704 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4705 
  4706 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4707 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4708 useful in locale declarations.
  4709 
  4710 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4711 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4712 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4713 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4714 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4715 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4716 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4717 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4718 no longer generated.
  4719 
  4720 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4721 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4722 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4723 
  4724 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4725 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4726 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4727 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4728 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4729 
  4730 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4732 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4733 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4734 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4735 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4736 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4737 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4738 
  4739 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4740 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4741 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4742 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4743 
  4744 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4747 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4748 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4749 
  4750 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4751 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4752 
  4753 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4754 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4755 in HOL, write
  4756 
  4757     class foo = ...
  4758 
  4759 instead of
  4760 
  4761     class foo = type + ...
  4762 
  4763 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4764 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4767 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4768 
  4769 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4770 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4771 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4772 
  4773 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4774 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4775 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4776 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4777 directly in regular applications.
  4778 
  4779 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4780 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4781 
  4782 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4783 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4784 
  4785 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4786 theory context.
  4787 
  4788 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4789 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4792 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4793 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4794 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4795 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4796 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4797 
  4798   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4799 
  4800 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4801 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4802 normalization.
  4803 
  4804 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4805 addressing etc.
  4806 
  4807 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4808 
  4809   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4810   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4811 
  4812 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4813 
  4814   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4815      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4816      parts of the code generator framework).
  4817 
  4818   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4819      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4820      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4821 
  4822 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4825 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4828 patterns, e.g.
  4829 
  4830     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4831 
  4832 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4833 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4834 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4835 hyphen:
  4836 
  4837     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4838 
  4839 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4840 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4841 
  4842 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4843 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4844 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4845 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4846 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4847 higher-order unification.
  4848 
  4849 
  4850 *** Document preparation ***
  4851 
  4852 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4853 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4854 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4855 
  4856 
  4857 *** HOL ***
  4858 
  4859 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4860 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4861 
  4862 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4863 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4864 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4865 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4866 Main, as before.
  4867 
  4868 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4869 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4870 
  4871 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4872 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4873 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4874 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4875 
  4876 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4877 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4878 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4879 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4880 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4881 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4882 
  4883 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4884 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4885 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4886 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4887 
  4888 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4889 menu.
  4890 
  4891 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4892 (contains the empty clause).
  4893 
  4894 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4895 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4896 
  4897 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4898 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4899 
  4900 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4901 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4902 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4903 
  4904 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4905 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4906 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4907 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4908 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4909 
  4910 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4911 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4912 
  4913 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4914 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4915 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4916 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4917 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4918 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4919 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4920 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4921 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4922 
  4923 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4924 
  4925 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4926 
  4927 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4928 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4931 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4932 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4933 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4934 
  4935 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4936 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4937 
  4938     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4939     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4940     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4941     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4942     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4943     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4944     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4945     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4946 
  4947 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4948 theory Set.
  4949 
  4950 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4951 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4952 
  4953 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4954 
  4955 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4956 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4957 
  4958 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4959 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4960 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4961 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4962 allowed. For examples see
  4963 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4964 
  4965 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4966 
  4967 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4969 
  4970 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4971 structure:
  4972 
  4973     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4974     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4975     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4976     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4977     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4978     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4979     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4980     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4981     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4982     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4983     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4984     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4985     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4986     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4987     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4988     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4989     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4990     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4991     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4992     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4993     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4994     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4995     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4996     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4997     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4998     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4999     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5000     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5001     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5002     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5003     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5004     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5005     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5006 
  5007     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5008     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5009     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5010     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5011     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5012     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5013     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5014     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5015     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5016     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5017 
  5018     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5019     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5020     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5021     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5022     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5023     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5024 
  5025 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5026 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5027 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5028 
  5029 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5030 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5031 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5032 
  5033 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5034 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5037 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5038 
  5039 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5040 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5041 proofs, e.g.
  5042 
  5043   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5044 
  5045 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5046 
  5047 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5048 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5049 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5052 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5054 
  5055 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5056 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5057 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 
  5060 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5061 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5062 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5063 preorder_class.*.
  5064 
  5065 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5066 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5067 
  5068 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5069 
  5070   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5071 
  5072 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5073 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5074 fold_image.
  5075 
  5076 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5077 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5078 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5079 the former will disappear at some point.
  5080 
  5081 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5082 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5083 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5084 
  5085 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5086 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5087 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5088 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5089 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5090 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5091 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5092 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5093 
  5094 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5095 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5096 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5097 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5098 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5099 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5100 
  5101     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5102     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5103     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5104     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5105     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5106     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5107     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5108 
  5109 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5110 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5111 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5112 
  5113 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5114 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5115 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5116 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5117 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5118 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5119 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5120 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5121 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5122 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5123 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5124 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5125 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5126 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5127 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5128 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5129 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5130 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5131 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5132 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5133 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5134 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5135 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5136 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5137 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5138 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5139 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5140 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5141 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5142 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5143 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5144 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5145 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5146 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5147 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5148 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5149 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5150 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5151 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5152 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5153 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5154 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5155 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5156 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5157 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5158 
  5159 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5160 
  5161 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5162 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5163 
  5164 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5165 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5166 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5167 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5168 
  5169 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5170 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5171 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5172 theory RealVector.
  5173 
  5174 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5175 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5176 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5177 and inner products are included.
  5178 
  5179 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5180 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5181 supported.
  5182 
  5183 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5184 first diagonalization argument.
  5185 
  5186 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5187 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5188 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5189 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5190 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5191 
  5192     hide (open) const gcd
  5193     abbreviation gcd where
  5194       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5195     notation (output)
  5196       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5197 
  5198 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5199 
  5200 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5201 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5202 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5205 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5206 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5207 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5208 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5209 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5210 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5211 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5212 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5213 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5214 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5215 cases.
  5216 
  5217 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5218 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5219 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5220 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5221 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5222 
  5223     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5224     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5225     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5226     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5227     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5228 
  5229 
  5230 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5231 
  5232 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5233 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5234 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5235 
  5236 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5237 
  5238 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5239 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5240 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5241 
  5242 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5243 
  5244 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5245 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5246 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5247 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5248 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5249 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5250 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5251 
  5252 
  5253 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5254 
  5255 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5256 
  5257 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5258 theory targets.
  5259 
  5260 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5261 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5262 'inductive' etc.
  5263 
  5264 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5265 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5266 
  5267 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5268 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5269 
  5270 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5271 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5272 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5273 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5274 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5275 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5276 the algorithm W:
  5277 
  5278  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5279  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5280          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5281 
  5282 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5283 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5284 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5285 
  5286 
  5287 *** HOLCF ***
  5288 
  5289 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5290 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5291 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5292 
  5293 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5294 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5295 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5296 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5297 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5300 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5301 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5302 
  5303 
  5304 *** ZF ***
  5305 
  5306 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5307 
  5308 
  5309 *** ML ***
  5310 
  5311 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5312 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5313 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5314 5.2.1!
  5315 
  5316 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5317 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5318 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5319 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5320 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5321 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5322 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5323 
  5324 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5325 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5326 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5327 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5328 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5329 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5330 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5331 
  5332 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5333 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5334 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5335 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5336 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5337 
  5338 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5339 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5340 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5341 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5342 Method.add_method.
  5343 
  5344 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5345 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5346 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5347 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5348 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5349 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5350 
  5351 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5352 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5353 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5354 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5355 examples.
  5356 
  5357 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5358 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5359 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5360 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5361 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5362 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5363 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5364 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5365 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5366 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5367 
  5368 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5369 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5370 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5371 
  5372 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5373 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5374 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5375 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5376 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5377 resort for legacy applications.
  5378 
  5379 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5380 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5381 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5382 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5383 explicit runtime argument.
  5384 
  5385 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5386 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5387 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5388 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5389 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5392 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5393 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5394 theory state.
  5395 
  5396 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5397 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5398 
  5399   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5400   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5401   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5402   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5403   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5404   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5405   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5406   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5407   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5408   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5409 
  5410 
  5411 *** System ***
  5412 
  5413 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5414 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5415 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5416 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5417 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5418 
  5419 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5420 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5421 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5422 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5423 
  5424 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5425 
  5426 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5427 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5428 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5429 prover operations.
  5430 
  5431 
  5432 
  5433 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5434 -------------------------------
  5435 
  5436 *** General ***
  5437 
  5438 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5439 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5440 
  5441 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5442 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5443 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5444 provides a proper context already.
  5445 
  5446 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5447 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5448 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5449 
  5450 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5451 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5452 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5453 swap theory imports.
  5454 
  5455 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5456 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5457 
  5458 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5459 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5460 white space without escapes.
  5461 
  5462 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5463 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5464 "foo_bar".
  5465 
  5466 
  5467 *** Pure ***
  5468 
  5469 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5470 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5471 
  5472 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5473 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5474 
  5475 (1) unused_thms
  5476      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5477 
  5478 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5479      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5480      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5481 
  5482 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5483      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5484      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5485      their ancestors.
  5486 
  5487 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5488 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5489 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5490 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5491 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5492 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5493 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5494 
  5495 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5496 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5497 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5498 
  5499 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5500 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5501 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5502 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5503 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5504 
  5505 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5506 
  5507 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5508 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5509 update of theories within ML code.
  5510 
  5511 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5512 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5513 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5514 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5515 
  5516 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5517 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5518 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5520 
  5521 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5522 
  5523 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5524 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5525 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5526 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5527 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5528 
  5529 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5530 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5531 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5532 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5533 situations.
  5534 
  5535 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5536 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5537 proof text.
  5538 
  5539 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5540 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5541 
  5542 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5543 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5544 predicates.
  5545 
  5546 
  5547 *** Document preparation ***
  5548 
  5549 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5550 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5551 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5552 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5553 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5554 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5555 
  5556 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5557 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5558 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5559 
  5560 
  5561 *** HOL ***
  5562 
  5563 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5564 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5565 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5566 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5567 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5568 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5569 
  5570 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5571 with multithreading.
  5572 
  5573 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5574 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5575 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5576 
  5577 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5578 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5579 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5580 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5583 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5584 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5585 and makes them available separately.  See
  5586 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5587 
  5588 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5589 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5590 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5591 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5592 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5593 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5594 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5595 the declared rules.
  5596 
  5597 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5598 
  5599   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5600 
  5601 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5602 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5603 
  5604 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5605 
  5606   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5607 
  5608   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5609     definitions on => and bool.
  5610 
  5611   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5612     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5613     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5614 
  5615       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5616       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5617       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5618       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5619       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5620       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5621       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5622       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5623 
  5624   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5625     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5626     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5627 
  5628   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5629     The proof pattern
  5630 
  5631       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5632       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5633 
  5634     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5635     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5636 
  5637       have "EX S. P S"
  5638       proof
  5639         show "P S" <...>
  5640       qed
  5641 
  5642   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5643     The proof pattern
  5644 
  5645       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5646       also have "S = T" <...>
  5647       finally have "P T" .
  5648 
  5649     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5650     must be replaced by something like
  5651 
  5652       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5653       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5654       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5655 
  5656   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5657     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5658 
  5659       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5660 
  5661     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5662     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5663     type of the form
  5664 
  5665       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5666 
  5667     rather than
  5668 
  5669       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5670 
  5671 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5672 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5673 
  5674 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5675 
  5676 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5677 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5679 
  5680 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5681 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5682 
  5683 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5684 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5687 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5688 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5689 
  5690 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5691 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5692 
  5693   less_trans
  5694   less_linear
  5695   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5696   le_less_trans
  5697   less_le_trans
  5698   less_not_sym
  5699   less_asym
  5700 
  5701 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5702 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5703 and different variable names.
  5704 
  5705 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5706 
  5707 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5708 finite maps.
  5709 
  5710 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5711 
  5712 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5713 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5714 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5715 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5716 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5717 accordingly.
  5718 
  5719 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5720 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5721 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5722 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5723 
  5724 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5725 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5726 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5727 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5728 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5732 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5733 
  5734 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5735 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5736 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5737 
  5738 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5740 
  5741 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5742 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5743 
  5744 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5745 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5746 
  5747 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5748 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5749 
  5750 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5751 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5753 
  5754 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5755 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5756 
  5757 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5758 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5759 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5760 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5761 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5762 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5763 
  5764 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5765 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5766 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5767 
  5768 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5769 
  5770 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5771 
  5772 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5773 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5774 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5775 
  5776 
  5777 *** ZF ***
  5778 
  5779 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5780 same session:
  5781 
  5782   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5783   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5784   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5785   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5786   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5787   List      -> List_ZF
  5788   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5789 
  5790 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5791 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5792 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5793 
  5794 
  5795 *** ML ***
  5796 
  5797 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5798 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5799 
  5800 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5801 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5802 
  5803 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5804 
  5805 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5806 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5807 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5808 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5809 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5812 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5813 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5814 
  5815 
  5816 *** System ***
  5817 
  5818 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5819 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5820 
  5821 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5822 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5823 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5824 
  5825 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5826 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5827 
  5828 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5829 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5830 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5831 
  5832 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5833 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5834 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5835 
  5836 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5837 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5838 
  5839 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5840 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5841 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5842 script.
  5843 
  5844 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5845 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5846 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5847 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5848 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5849 
  5850 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5851 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5852 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5853 
  5854 
  5855 
  5856 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5857 -----------------------------------
  5858 
  5859 *** General ***
  5860 
  5861 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5862 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5863 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5864 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5865 
  5866 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5867 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5868 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5869 
  5870 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5871 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5872 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5873 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5876 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5877 quotes.
  5878 
  5879 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5880 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5881 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5882 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5883 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5884 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5885 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5886 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5887 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5888 
  5889 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5890 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5891 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5892 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5893 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5894 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5895 
  5896 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5897 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5898 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5899 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5900 
  5901 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5902 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5903 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5904 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5905 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5906 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5907 
  5908 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5909 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5910 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5911 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5912 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5913 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5914 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5915 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5916 
  5917 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5918 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5919 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5920 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5921 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5922 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5923 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5924 
  5925 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5926 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5927 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5928 
  5929 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5930 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5931 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5932 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5933 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5934 limit is imposed.
  5935 
  5936 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5937 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5938 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5939 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5940 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5941 and scalability.
  5942 
  5943 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5944 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5945 
  5946 
  5947 *** Document preparation ***
  5948 
  5949 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5950 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5951 current context.
  5952 
  5953 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5954 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5955 
  5956 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5957 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5958 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5959 
  5960 
  5961 *** Pure ***
  5962 
  5963 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5964 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5965 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5966 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5967 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5968 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5969 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5970 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5971 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5972 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5973 
  5974 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5975 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5976 sketch:
  5977 
  5978     internal compilation:
  5979         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5980     writing SML code to a file:
  5981         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5982     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5983         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5984     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5985         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5986 
  5987     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5988         method ``eval''
  5989 
  5990 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5991 
  5992 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5993 
  5994     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5995     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5996     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5997     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5998 
  5999 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6000 
  6001     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6002       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6003 
  6004     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6005       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6006 
  6007     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6008       {(target)}+
  6009         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6010 
  6011     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6012       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6013         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6014 
  6015 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6016 
  6017 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6018 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6019 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6020 codegen".
  6021 
  6022 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6023 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6024 annotations).
  6025 
  6026 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6027 syntax.
  6028 
  6029 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6030 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6031 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6032 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6033 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6034 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6035 
  6036 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6037 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6038 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6039 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6040 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6041 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6042 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6043 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6044 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6045 equations, see section "definitions".
  6046 
  6047 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6048 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6049 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6050 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6051 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6052 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6053 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6054 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6055 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6056 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6057 
  6058 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6059 configuration options:
  6060 
  6061   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6062   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6063   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6064   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6065   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6066   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6067   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6068   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6069   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6070 
  6071 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6072 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6073 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6074 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6075 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6076 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6077 order.
  6078 
  6079 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6080 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6081 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6082 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6083 context encountered later on.
  6084 
  6085 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6086 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6087 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6088 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6089 
  6090 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6091 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6092 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6093 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6094 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6095 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6096 
  6097 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6098 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6099 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6100 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6101 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6102 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6103 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6104 more permissive.
  6105 
  6106 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6107 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6108 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6109 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6110 maintainability of proof texts.
  6111 
  6112 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6113 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6114 
  6115   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6116   then guess x and y by clarify
  6117 
  6118 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6119 proof tools being involved here.
  6120 
  6121 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6122 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6123 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6124 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6125 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6126 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6127 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6128 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6129 
  6130 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6131 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6132 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6133 
  6134   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6135   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6136   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6137   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6138 
  6139 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6140 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6141 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6142 
  6143 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6144 both named and unnamed ones.
  6145 
  6146 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6147 
  6148   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6149 
  6150 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6151 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6152 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6153 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6154 
  6155 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6156 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6157 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6158 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6159 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6160 
  6161 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6162 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6163 
  6164 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6165 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6166 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6167 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6168 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6169 originally first one.
  6170 
  6171 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6172 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6173 expected.
  6174 
  6175 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6176 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6177 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6178 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6179 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6180 
  6181   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6182     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6183     obtains x where "P x"
  6184 
  6185   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6186     assumes "A & B"
  6187     obtains A and B
  6188 
  6189   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6190     assumes "A | B"
  6191     obtains
  6192       A
  6193     | B
  6194 
  6195 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6196 explicitly:
  6197 
  6198   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6199     obtains "~ thesis"
  6200 
  6201   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6202     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6203 
  6204 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6205 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6206 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6207 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6208 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6209 case_names).
  6210 
  6211 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6212 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6213 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6214 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6215 
  6216 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6217 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6218 top-level lemma.
  6219 
  6220 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6221 introduction rule (default "that").
  6222 
  6223 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6224 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6225 to occur.
  6226 
  6227 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6228 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6229 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6230 representations independently of name spaces.
  6231 
  6232 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6233 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6234 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 
  6236 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6237 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6238 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6239 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6240 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6241 current context.
  6242 
  6243 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6244 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6245 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6246 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6247 
  6248   axiomatization
  6249     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6250     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6251 
  6252   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6253   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6254 
  6255   abbreviation
  6256     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6257     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6258 
  6259 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6260 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6261 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6262 abbrevia